Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 1

Air car

Air car

(Compressed air technology)

VASAVI C OLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

AUTHORS:

JINAL .R. GADA G.ANUSHA

B.TEC H( ¾) B.TEC H( ¾)

PRODUC TION ENGINEERING PRODUC TION ENGINEERING

e:mail:jinal_gada_15@yahoo.co.in e:mail:anushareddy_626@yahoo.co.in

phone:9866823584 phone:9866099905

Abstract

Have you been to the gas station this week? Considering that we live in a very mobile society, it's
probably safe to assume that you have. While pumping gas, you've undoubtedly noticed how much
the price of gas has soared in recent years. Gasoline, which has been the main source of fuel for
the history of cars, is becoming more and more expensive and impractical (especially from an
environmental standpoint). These factors are leading car manufacturers to develop cars fueled by
alternative energies. Two hybrid cars took to the road in 2000 and four years later fuel-cell-
powered cars rolled onto the world's highways.

But its not enough! we have to use such engines which emit less or zero COx and NOx particles,
for that one of the solutions is hybrid electrical vehicle, but again they emit some COx and NOx so
this is not a complete solution for this problem. The best feasible solution is Zero Emission
vehicles that are Compressed Air Technology (CAT) which does not require any type of fossil
fuel. The gasoline powered engine requires 4rs/mile whereas for air powered engines it is 75%
less that is 1rp/mile with no emission of COx and NOx pollutants. The cost of the hybrid electric
vehicle is approximately 50999 $ which requires a charging period of 5 to 6 hours where as the
cost of air powered vehicle is 14000$ that is less than half which requires only 3 to 4 minutes for
recharging.

Introduction:

In this modern era we want more comfortable life! And to achieve this, there are many inventions
and researches going on in the field of engineering. Some achievements may lead to problems in
future and one of these achievements is fossil fuel engines, which were a good achievements for
us before 30 to 40 years but now they are one of the sources of contributor of global warming and
pollution with fossil crises.

The air engine , and its concept to use air as an energy carrier is not new. It was used in old
times (19th century) to power mine locomotives. After this, it was used (and is still being used) in
car racing to give the first power to the car's main power plant, the internal combustion engine
(IC E).

Air car, compressed air automobiles ….. A pneumatic vehicle is a car like the one you and I
drive except that its power plant is an expansion engine that runs on the internal energy
(dissipated solar heat) in compressed air, rather than a combustion engine that runs on the
explosive destruction of fuel. When enough people learn that compressed air is solar energy, we
will all be driving air cars. Leave the petroleum in the ground, study this paper, and join us to
work for the day that our energy consumption habits will be compatible with the planet we live on.

Engine Design:

There are at least two ongoing projects that are developing a new type of car that will run on
compressed air. In this article, you will learn about the technology behind two types of
compressed-air cars being developed and how they may replace your gas guzzler by the end of
the decade!

1. Engine air motor by Mr. Angelo Di Pietro ( Australia )…


2. Air car by Moteur development international ( France )….

Let us start with…….

The Di Pietro Motor (Rotary Air Engine)

The Di Pietro motor concept is based on a rotary piston. Different from existing rotary engines, the
Di Pietro motor uses a simple cylindrical rotary piston (shaft driver) which rolls, without any
friction, inside the cylindrical stator. The space between stator and rotor is divided in 6 expansion
chambers by pivoting dividers. These dividers follow the motion of the shaft driver as it rolls
around the stator wall. The motor shown is effectively a 6 cylinder expansion motor.

Di Pietro Rotary engine

The cylindrical shaft driver, forced by the air pressure on its outer wall, moves eccentrically,
thereby driving the motor shaft by means of two rolling elements mounted on bearings on the
shaft. The rolling motion of the shaft driver inside the stator is cushioned by a thin air film. Timing
and duration of the air inlet and exhaust is governed by a slotted timer which is mounted on the
output shaft and rotates with the same speed as the motor.

Variation of performance parameters of the motor is easily achieved by varying the time during
which the air is allowed to enter the chamber: A longer air inlet period allows more air to flow into
the chamber and therefore results in more torque. A shorter inlet period will limit the air supply
and allows the air in the chamber to perform expansion work at a much higher efficiency. In this
way compressed air (energy) consumption can be exchanged for higher torque and power output
depending on the requirements of the application.

Cross section of Di Pertro engine

Motor speed and torque are simply controlled by throttling the amount or pressure of air into the
motor. The Di Pietro motor gives instant torque at zero RPM and can be precisely controlled to
give soft start and acceleration control.

The concept has the capability to change the method we use for transportation, apart from the
benefits of energy saving in stationary applications.

l It has outstanding efficiency


l It has constant high torque
l It has low parts count
l It has low number of moving parts
l It is compact and light
l It has virtually no friction
l It has virtually no vibration
l It has smooth speed control characteristics
l Only 1 PSI of pressure is needed to overcame the friction

Engine and axle

The Di Pietro motor, developed by Engineair in Brooklyn , Victoria , offers an outstanding


reduction in air consumption compared to conventional air motors, and together with its high
torque capability makes a mobile application such as the market burden carrier technically and
economically feasible.
The carriers are powered by the energy stored in compressed air.
The compressed air is held in tanks mounted under the loading floor.
Engineair will develop a new burden carrier, driven by compressed air for use at the Wholesale
Fruit & Vegetable Market. The air drives the air motor without any combustion or exhaust gases,
which makes this a zero-pollution mobility concept ideal for enclosed areas such as the market or
factories and warehouses.

Burden carrier

" Engineair Takes Air Technology to a


Higher Level "
After this we have a completely different design….

. The Air Engine

The US Patent shows how to convert a V-8 gas automobile engine using compressed air! We
have been told that a company in Europe is getting about 124 miles on one full tank of air? The
gas tank is removed and thrown away! The carburetor is not needed. The engine is easily
converted to run on compressed air using air hoses and solenoid switches that fit directly into the
spark plug holes. Each piston is then timed by using the existing timing system of the engine,
using 8 small electrical on/off solenoids. This engine is just as powerful as a V-8 gas engine and
has a better take off speed and is very high efficient! It is simpler than it looks; you do not have to
ad all the extras as seen in the US Patent. Any size hp motor can be converted. It is best to start
with a small lawn mower engine. The result is Clean Air with No Deadly Exhaust Fumes!

Now the design which has been appreciated even by the critics…

Air car by Moteur development international ( France )….

After twelve years of reserch and development, Guy Negre has developed an engine that could
become one of the biggest technological advances of this century. Its application to C AT vehicles
gives them significant economical and environmental advantages. With the incorporation of bi-
energy (compressed air + fuel) the C AT Vehicles have increased their driving range to close to
2000 km with zero pollution in cities and considerably reduced pollution outside urban areas.

The MDI engine incorporates various innovative and unpublished systems, i.e. in its very
conception ( C ompressed air for fuel), in the materials it uses (Plastic parts, vegetable oil in the
engine) and in its technical design. The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to be held at Top
Dead C entre for 70º of the cycle.

Conventional piston Con rod

This way, enough time is given to create the pressure in the cylinder. The torque is also better so
the force exerted on the crankshaft is less substantial than in a classic system.

Con rod specifications:

Time vs Degrees

The MDI con-rod system allows the piston to "pause" at top dead centre during approximately 70
degrees of the rotation of the crankshaft. This gives enough time to establish the required
pressure in the cylinder, including while the RPM is increased.

Pressure vs Torque

The torque obtained by this system is equal to that of a classic system. It only changes the
distribution of force in the cycle. This produces a torque curve (in one rotation of the engine) with
a maximum value only slightly below that of a classic system, at equal pressures. The surfaces at
the bottom of the curves are identical, but the system which allows the piston "pause" at top dead
centre, among other advantages, diminishes acyclic effects produced by top dead centre in a
conventional engine.

Rpm vs Torque

Moreover, the torque curve being flatter in one rotation, the dimensions of the intermediary con-
rods and the crankshaft are reduced. A marginal lubrication of alternate movements (Mounted with
sockets) and rotation movements (Mounted with bearings), easily absorb the increased vibrations
due to the added parts.

Using a classic con-rod crankshaft system (C ity cat's prototype: Green Taxi), the torque curve
falls when the RPM is increased. In our case, due to the piston pause at the TDC and having
sufficient time to establish the correct pressure gives us a high torque at high RPM.
Not having to prepare an air/ petrol mix allows us to obtain a curve whose maximum value is
already present at low RPM.

Air Tanks:

The tanks in C ATs vehicles are composed of an interior thermoplastic container which ensures it is
airtight. This is held in a coiled and crossed carbon fibre shell. This technique is the result of many
studies into factors such as: mechanical specifications, density of material, choice of fibres etc.
These studies led to the development of a bottle which conforms to standard EN ISO 11439. The
conditions of use are maximum effective pressure (300 bar) and the temperature of use: from –
40°C à 60°C . Special machines make the tubular shell. The tanks are submitted to numerous tests
to meet official approval, among which are:
Airtight testing
Pressure testing (1.5×300=405 b)
Rupture testing (2.35×300=705 b)
C ycles at ambient and extreme temperatures
Fire-resistance testing
Resistance to cuts
Shock and fall testing

During rupture testing, the tank cracks, but does not break up, producing no splinters or
fragments. In the event of a cracked tank, it is most likely to occur within the cylinder itself.

Air tank testing of air tank

Refilling the car:

Refilling the car will, once the market develops, take place at adapted petrol stations to administer
compressed air. In or 3 minutes, and at a cost of approximately 1.5 Euros, the car will be ready to
go another 200-300 kilometers. As a viable alternative, the car carries a small compressor which
can be connected to the mains (220V or 380V) and refill the tank in 3-4 hours.

Due to the absence of combustion and, consequently, of residues, changing the oil (1 liter of
vegetable oil) is necessary only every 50,000 Km .

The temperature of the clean air expelled by the exhaust pipe is between 0 - 15 degrees below
zero, which makes it suitable for use by the internal air conditioning system with no need for
gases or loss of power.

To facilitate easy use of our vehicles we have developed a number of ideas for refilling. Below is a
presentation of our different systems.

In the garage
at the service-station
Alternative sources

Conclusion:

The principle advantages for an air powered vehicle are: Fast recharge time ,Very low self-
discharge (most batteries will deplete their charge without external load at a rate determined by
the chemistry, design, and size, while compressed gas storage will have an extremely low leakage
rate) ,Long storage lifetime device (electric vehicle batteries have a limited useful number of
cycles, and sometimes a limited calendar lifetime, irrespective of use),Potentially lower initial cost
than battery electric vehicles when mass produced. .

C ompressed air technology allows for engines that are both non-polluting and economical. After
ten years of research and development, companies are prepared to introduce its clean vehicles
onto the market. Unlike electric or hydrogen powered vehicles, air engine vehicles are not
expensive and do not have a limited driving range. These cars are affordable and have a
performance rate that stands up to current standards. To sum it up, they are non-expensive cars
that do not pollute and are easy to get around cities in.
C ompressed air proved to be the best power medium for vehicles before fossil fuels were adopted
as the status quo. It is time for a new status quo in energy media. At this point in out development
as a civilization we can't afford anything but the best: pneumatic vehicles. Pneumatic options
teaches the facts about the safest, cleanest, most accessible and most economical energy medium
that exists anywhere on this planet

C reated by Department of C SE