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Session13 EXWiringMethods

EXInstallationMethods ConduitorCableGlands...

DirectEntryviaEExdgland

IndirectEntryviaEExe gland&enclosure gland & enclosure

DirectEntryviaEExd conduit

TypicalWiringMethods

RigidConduit

Unarmored Cable bl

Armored Cable

IECCableTypesandConstruction
UnarmoredCablesimilartoUSTCtypecablesbutwithfullyextrudedfillers.ArmoredCablesimilarin concepttoIEEE45TypePmarineshipboardcableandcontinuouscorrugatedaluminumarmorcable.

TypeSWA SteelWireArmor

TypeSTA SteelTapeArmor l

TypeSWB SteelWireBraid

Cable/ConductorRequirementsinZone applications
ThefollowingmainrequirementsarelistedintheEN60079standardforcablesandconductors: useonlyinsulatedcablesandconductors(testvoltage500VAC), inspecialcasesearththerequiredscreeningonlyonceattheendofthenonexplosiveenvironment, protect intrinsically safe circuits against external electrical or magnetic fields through the maintenance of protectintrinsicallysafecircuitsagainstexternalelectricalormagneticfieldsthroughthemaintenanceof adequatedistances,screeningand/orcoretwisting,isolateintrinsicallysafecablesandconductorsfromnon intrinsicallysafecablesandconductorsor,protectagainstmechanicaldamageor,protectthroughmetal housing,orscreeningofthecablesandconductorsdonotcombineconductorsofintrinsicallysafeandnon intrinsically safecircuits preventthefrayingoffinewiredconductorsthroughtheuseofcablesleeves,forexample: keeptominimumdiameterof0.1mm, isolateintrinsicallysafeandnonintrinsicallysafecircuitsincablebundlesorductsviainsulationspaceroran earthedmetalspacer(notrequiredwithscreeningorsheathing), earthed metal spacer (not required with screening or sheathing) identify(i.e.lightblue)thecablesandconductorsofintrinsicallysafecircuits(notrequiredwithshieldingor metalsheathing)

Cable/ConductorRequirementsinZone applications
Whenselectingcablesandconductors,onlyusethosewhichcanwithstandtheexpected mechanical,chemicalandthermalinfluences.Cablesandconductorswiththermoplasticsheath, duroplasticsheath,elastomersheathormineralinsulationwithmetalsheathmaybeusedforfixed routing.Cablebranchlinesmustcomplywiththerequirementsforhazardousareas. i C bl b h li l ih h i f h d Thecablesandconductorsmustbeconnectedtotheelectricalequipmentinlinewiththedirectives fortheassociatedtypeofprotection.Unusedopeningsondevicesandequipmentmustbeclosed. Whencablesandconductorsareinstalledthroughopeningsintononhazardousareas,caremustbe g p g , takentoprovideanadequatesealattheopenings(e.g.sandfilling,mortar)topreventcarryingover ofthezone.Atparticularly hazardouspoints,cablesandconductorsmustbeprotectedagainstthermal,mechanicalorchemical stressby,forexample,conduits,tubingorcovers.Theflameretardanceofcablesandconductorsfor fixedroutingmustbeproveninaccordancewithIEC603321. fixed routing must be proven in accordance with IEC 60332 1

IECCableTypesandConstruction
Ingeneral,SWAcablehasbeenthecableofchoiceintheUKfor onshoreinstallations.Itissomewhatflexible,readilyavailable andhasgoodbendingcapabilities. SWBcablehasbecomethechoiceforinstallationsoffshorewith variousarmormaterialsincludingtinnedcopper,bronzeand othermaterials.Veryflexibleyetdurableunderverydemanding conditions.Manydifferentjackettypesavailable. STAismoreofanonshoretypecableandiswidelyusedin onshoreapplicationsincontinentalEurope,especiallyforpower applications.ClientshavestartedtoshyawayfromSTAasitis ge e a y ega ded as s g y o e d cu o e generallyregardedasslightlymoredifficulttoterminatethan ae a eitherSWAorSWB. Onevariationcommonlyusedfordirectburyapplicationsisa Leadsheathedarmorcable.Leadprovidesaverygood insulationduetocorrosiveelementsandisparticularlyresistant i l ti d t i l t di ti l l it t torodentsandants.Cableglandsforleadsheathedcable typicallyneedanadditionalcomponenttoseattheleadportion ofthecable. DesignationsonglandsistomarkaXZforbraidandtape,witha Wforwirearmorforfieldinstallation.

IECCableTypesandConstruction

BFOU&RFOUinstrumentationcablesaremanufacturedwitheitheroverallorindividualscreens,the BFOU & RFOU instrumentation cables are manufactured with either overall or individual screens the coresareeitherlaidupaspairsortriples.Idealforsignalandinstrumentationcircuitswherethefire performanceandLowSmokeZeroHalogenpropertiesareincreasinglybeingrequiredwithinpublic buildingsandpowerstations,aswellastraditionalPetro/Chemindustries.Thecableisdesignedto carryonworkingforaperiodof3hourswhenexposedtofire,accordingtoIEC60331testprocedure. BFOUalsooffersgoodscreeningproperties,reducingElectroMagneticInterference(EMI). l ff d d l f ( ) Construction Tinnedstrandedcopperconductor,MICAtape,EPRinsulation,overallscreenofCopperbacked pp , p , , pp Polyestertapewithastrandedcopperdrainwire0.75mm,innersheathofHalogenFreeThermoset Elastomer,tinnedcopperwirebraidandanoutersheathofHalogenFreeThermosetElastomer.The individuallyscreenedversionhasaCopperbackedPolyestertapewithastrandedcopperdrainwire 0.75mm aroundeachpairortriple. Corecolors Pairs - Light blue, black Triples - Light blue, black and brown Each pair or triple is identified by a numbered tape.

IECCableTypesandConstruction
CableTypes ThemostcommonsheathmaterialfordatacablinginuseintheUKisPVC.Formanyenvironments, PVCistheidealmaterial,havingsuperiormechanicalcharacteristicsandhighreliability.However,in afire,PVCemitsheavyblacksmokemixedwith hydrochloricacid,thusreducingvision,immediatelyimpairingbreathing,andadditionallyinitiating hydrochloric acid thus reducing vision immediately impairing breathing and additionally initiating corrosionofallequipmentexposedtothefumes.Forimprovedfireperformance,itiscommonfor LSZHLowSmokeZeroHalogen(usuallymeetingIEC61034,IEC607542andIEC603323)cable sheathstobeusedwithinEurope.

FirePerformanceStandards Fire Performance Standards ThemajorStandardsincommonuseare showninthetable.

CablesmeetingIEC603323havebetterfireperformancecharacteristicsthanthosemeeting IEC603321:Theyuseeitherathickercablesheathoramoreexpensivesheathmaterialand thereforethecableismorecostly.

IECCableTestsforFireApplications

TypicalIECCableTests
FireResistantTest IEC6033121Underlongfire exposure,thecablemustmaintainthepower supplyforvitalsafetyequipment(emergency lighting,alarm,systems&firepumps,etc.) g g, , y p p, )

SmokeDensityTest IEC610341/2The smokedensitytestevaluatesthesmoke emissionsofthecableandthejacket construction.

Testunderfirecondition IEC603323 Flameretardanttestsimulatingcables installedinbunchonaverticalladder underfireconditions.

IEC6033212Singlewireorcable

A test on a single length of cable 600mm long held between 2 clamps. The flame is applied for a predetermined amount of time based on the weight of the cable. To pass the test there should not be any visible damage or charring within 50mm of the lower edge of the top clamp (E l (Equal t 425 l to 425mm hi h th higher than the flame source) once all combustion has stopped. This test replaces IEC60332 1 BS4066 IEC603321, pt 1 & BS EN 5026521.

IEC603323Theladdertest

The IEC603323 ranges of tests are conducted on bunches of cables and are much closer to a real life installation. 3.5m Lengths of cables are bunched g onto a cable ladder in a chimney simulating a building riser. The volume of cable on the ladder is determined in litres of combustible material to offer a balanced view of performance across a cable range. A flame is applied 500mm from the base of the ladder for a predetermined time. When the burner has extinguished a one hour afterburn period is allowed then the cables are checked for performance. To T pass th t t th cables should not b affected b the tests the bl h ld t be ff t d by the flame 2.5m above the flame source. BS EN 50266 is the BS standard for the same test procedure

IEC603323categories
Test 60332 3 22CatA 60332322 Cat A Qtyofmaterial 7.0litres 7 0 litres Flameapplication 40minutes 40 minutes Supersedes IEC60332 3A IEC603323A BS4066pt3A IEC603323B BS4066pt3B BS4066 pt 3B IEC603323C BS4066pt3C

60332323CatB

3.5litres

40minutes

IEC60332324CatC IEC60332325CatD IEC60332 3 25 Cat D 60332321CatAF/R

1.5litres 0.5litres 0 5 litres

20minutes 20minutes 20 minutes

UsedforlargeO.Dcablesinsteadof322CatA.Thecablesare mountedonthefrontandbackoftheladder

Allthesetestsaretobeconductedoncompletecables. CompoundsalonecannotbetestedtoIEC60332

FireResistantTesting

A cables ability to continue operating safely d bl bl f l during a f fire. Also referred to as circuit integrity. l f d Widely used in commercial/public buildings & MOG applications to control fire alarm/monitoring systems, emergency lighting, fire shutters and emergency evacuation equipment.

EuropeanFireStandards
Standard IEC60331 IEC6033121 IEC6033123 IEC6033125 IEC6033131 VDE0472 DIN4102 DIN4102 Ref. Performancerequirement Cables0.6/1kV. 3hoursat750C(1970edition) Cables0.6/1kV 90minutes@750C(unlessalt.statedinthecablespec) Datacables 90minutes@750C Opticalfibre 90minutes@750C Cables0.6/1kV 120minutes@830Cwithvibration FE180 E30 E90 q ( ) ThistestisequaltoIEC60331(1970edition) Completesystemintegrityfor30minutes Completesystemintegrityfor90minutes p y g y BS8434wasdevelopedandenhancedfromthisstandard. CurrentlyEN50200isinferiortoBS8434asitdoesnot includethewaterspraytest.

EN50200PH30,PH60,PH120

SmokeEmission&ToxicGas

Obscuration of vision and toxic gas are the main threat to people during a fire leading to disorientation and chocking from fumes Death is normally caused by . choking rather than flames Reducing smoke & fumes. flames. fume emissions is vital to enable safe evacuation. Equipment damage is caused by HCl gases mixing with moisture from the sprinkler systems and creates acid rain leading to long term component failure even if the equipment does not look damaged damaged. Notallmaterialsthatarelowsmokearehalogenfree,examples: LSPVC(LimitedSmokePVCtoUL1685) Fluorocarbons(PTFE,FEPetc.) Fluorocarbons (PTFE FEP etc ) TypeBCSPtoBS6883(1991)

EuropeanSmokeTesting
IEC 610342: A one meter sample of cable (or a bundle of cables depending on the outer diameter) is placed in a 3m cube and subjected to combustion by an alcohol produced flame for 20 minutes. The light transmission through the cube should not fall below 60% during the test (at peak or total) Measurement method : 100W halogen light source sensed by a photoelectric cell positioned on the opposite side of the smoke cube. IEC610342 is the most popular test used for cable in Europe. IEC610341 covers the apparatus required and test procedure.

ToxicGasEvolutionIEC60754

IEC607541 (BS EN 50267 pt1) measures the amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) evolved during burning. burning The result is normally expressed as a percentage of the sample weight There is no weight. pass/fail criteria. This method is not suitable for testing cables classed as Zero Halogen and compounds containing less than 5mg/g (5%) IEC607542 (BS EN 50267 pt2) measures the corrosiveness of the evolved gas in terms of acidity (pH) and conductivity. IEC 607542 recommended values are : pH > 4.3. & Conductivity of combustion gases < 10 mS/mm

PanelWiringtoIECrequirements
MostofEuropeabidesbyIEC(InternationalElectrotechnical Commission)wiringcolorcodesforAC branchcircuits.Theoldercolorcodesinthetablereflectthepreviousstylewhichdidnotaccountfor properphaserotation.Theprotectivegroundwire(listedasgreenyellow)isgreenwithyellowstripe. Function ProtectiveEarth Neutral Line,singlePhase Line,3phase Line 3 phase Line,3phase Line,3phase Label PE N L L1 L2 L3 CurrentColorIEC GreenYellow Blue Brown Brown Black Grey OldColorIEC GreenYellow Blue Brown orBlack Brown or Black orBlack BrownorBlack BrownorBlack

TheUnitedKingdomnowfollowstheIECACwiringcolorcodes.Thetablebelowliststhese The United Kingdom now follows the IEC AC wiring color codes The table below lists these alongwiththeobsoletedomesticcolorcodes. Function ProtectiveEarth o ec e a Neutral Line,singlePhase Line,3phase Line,3phase Line,3phase Li 3 h Label PE N L L1 L2 L3 CurrentColorUK G ee e o GreenYellow Blue Brown Brown Black Grey G OldColorUK G ee e o GreenYellow Black Red Red Yellow Blue Bl

ExampleofoldUKwiringcolors

Theuseofcolorcodedferrulesorsleevesistypicallyleftuptotheclient/userpreference. EitherpracticeisacceptabletorelevantIECstandards.

CableGlandSelectionCriteria
Cableglandsusedinenclosuresintendedforuseina hazardousareamustmeetwiththe samecriteriaastheenclosuretowhichtheyare y connected.Forexample,cableglandsusedon anEExeenclosuremustmeettherequirementsforthe enclosuresoftheEExe standardi.e.mustbecapableofwithstandinga7Nm impactandcapableofmaintainingan impact and capable of maintaining an ingressprotectionofatleastIP54. Ifaplasticornonmetalliccableglandisuseditmustbe capableofpassingthesetestsafter havingundergoneanacceleratedconditioningperiod. Mostreputablecableglandmanufacturershavetheir productsapprovedbyasuitablynotified bodyandwillcarrythecertificationmarkingsonthebody body and will carry the certification markings on the body ofthegland.Cableglandsareaveryimportantelementin theprotectionofelectricalequipmentandshouldnotbe underestimated.Thereareavastarrayofdifferentcables inusetodayanditisimportantthatadviceissoughtfrom acableglandmanufacturerregardingselection. bl l d f di l i

TestingProceduresforCable Glands

IP66Testing 100litersofwaterfor3minutesfrom 2.5to3meters

ContinuityTestingofArmor Glandisheatedandcooled Continuity Testing of Armor Gland is heated and cooled overtimeandresistivityshouldnotchangemorethan 10%

TorkTest Multiplespannerstoprescribedtension withnodamageondisassembly with no damage on disassembly

TestingProceduresforCable Glands
LoadTest Unarmoredcableglandwithmandrelto Load Test Unarmored cable gland with mandrel to notslipmorethan6mmover6hrs.

ImpactTest Ikgfallingfrom70cmor7joules.No damagetogland

PressureTest Minimumof450psiwithoutleakage forExd,2000psiforUL2225requirements

WiringMethods
WiringconceptsOffshorefollowtheestablished&prevailingMarinestandards, e.g.IEC60092352 Metallicparts(includingarmour)shallbeearthedeffectivelytopreventthem ll ( l d ) h ll b h d ff l h frombecominglive. CableArmour/Braidprovidesameansofgoodearthcontinuityaswellas mechanicalprotection. Normalpracticehasbeentouseexternalgroundingasthemostdirectrouteto earth. Thisiseasilyachievedwithmetalliccableglandsinnonmetallicenclosuresby theuseofanearthtag the use of an earth tag Shroudshavebeenfoundtobeanineffectivemeansofkeepingwateroutof enclosuresandglandsaretypicallynotusedforNorthSeaapplicationsany more

WiringMethods ShieldingEMI Protection


TwoformsofEMI/RFItoconsider ConductedEmissions(Generated&Susceptibility) RadiatedEmissions(Generated&Susceptibility)

AScreenedCableenteringshieldedenclosure AssistsinprotectionagainstRadiatedEmissions Metallicglandsareanessentialpartofthesystem designinrespectofElectromagnetprotection.

360o Cableshieldingprovidesoptimumperformance forEMCasopposedtopigtailtechniques. Nonmetallicglandscreatetheweaklinkinthe systembetweenshieldedcableandenclosure.

TypicalEExd&earmoredcablegland
ComponentsofTypicalEExe&dcablegland.

DelugeSeal FrontEnd ArmorCone ClampingRing BackEnd OuterSeal

InnerSeal

InstallationofEExedgland
Inner&OuterSeals Inner & Outer Seals Locknut

EExd&EExe RequirementforEExdcableglandsforequipment<2litres Requirement for EEx d cable glands for equipment < 2 litres Screwedentrythreadsmustmaintainflamepath Innersealmustbeexplosionproofandgastight TrendistousedualcertifiedExd&Exe RequirementsforEExecableglands Impactstrength 7NmMinimum MinimumI.P.rating IP54gas/vapour IP64dust Single(outer)sealasaminimum Trend is to use a double (inner/outer) seal Trendistouseadouble(inner/outer)seal NotunusualtousetheidenticalglandforbothEExdandEExeapplicationsforlessconfusionininstallation inthefield.

InstallationofEExdbarrier gland

FlamePath Flame Path Sealrequired towithstand apressureof 450PSI(31bar) 450 PSI (31 bar) for2minutes

Exhaust Routes

Pressure essu e Flame HotGases FlamePath EpoxyResin Compound

DirectEntryintoZone1,EExdenclosureover2litersvolume WithArcingSparkingDevices

SampleofCableTypes
WhichtypeissuitableforusewithFlameproofExdequipment Which type is suitable for use with Flameproof Ex d equipment usingaglandwithanELASTOMERIC seal?

CableA
IncorrectShape, CablesShould beRound b d

CableB

CableC

NoInnerSheath, ExtrudedBedding orSuitableFillers

CorrectCable, e.g.hasan extruded innerbedding inner bedding

CableD

CableE

WiringMethods TypicalNorwegian InstallationPractice

IEC6007915CableGlandSelectionChart

Ingeneral,about90%oftheapplicationforhazardouslocationcable glandscanbefulfilledwiththeuseofanonbarriercompoundgland

WiringMethods TypicalNorwegian InstallationPractice

DirectandIndirectEntryEExe&EExd Enclosures

DirectEntry,GlandTypeEEx dBarrierTypeifvolume>2 litres

IgnitionSource

IndirectEntry,GlandTypeEExe orDualCertifiedEExe/EExd gland

DirectEntryEExnREquipment

GlandTypeEExDBarrierType providinggastightBiDirectional seal

GlandTypeEExd/EExeincorporatinginternal sealthatprovidesBiDirectionalGastightseal. DiaphragmSealsorcompressionsealsnot recommended

Duetothis

WiringMethods CableGlandusageUK

UKOffshore HazardousAreas EExe95% EExd5% BraidArmor 98% Brass"Armored" EExd/EExe CableGland C bl Gl d 99% Brass"Armored" EExdCompound BarrierGland B i Gl d 1%

MarketSector Equipment

Cable

Unarmored 2% "Unarmored" PlasticEExe CableGland C bl Gl d 1%

Brass"Unarmored" EExd/EExe CableGland C bl Gl d 99%

CableGlands Cable Glands

ThreadInformationand Accessories
ThestandardizationofthreadtypeintheIECworldistypicallyaroundthe Metricstraightthread.However,otherthreadtypesdoexistintheIECworld andifnotMetricoravariationof,areaPG,BSPorBSTthreadtype. Accessoriesthatarecommonlyusedare: CableShrouds Becomingincreasinglylessusedastheyhaveatendencyto holdwaterinandcoveruppotentialcorrosionwithglands. EarthTags OtherwiseknownasBanjosorFryingPans.Usedtoprovide ameanstogroundthecableglandtypicallywhenusedinnonmetallic enclosures. Locknuts Typicallyusedtosecurethecableglandtotheenclosure. L k t T i ll dt th bl l d t th l

ThreadInformationand Accessories(Cont.)
Withthevariousthreadsused,threadadaptorsandreducers areacommonaccessorywidelyused.Onekeypointisthatitis notallowedtoreduceareducer ShakerWashers Typicallyusedbetweenthelocknutand insideofanenclosure,shakerwashersareusedtoprovidea meanstokeepvibrationsfromlooseningthecableglandtothe enclosure. IPwashers Asthenameimplies,IPwashershelpmaintainthe IPratingbetweenthecableglandandtheenclosure Ifyouhaveacableglandinaclearancehole,youhaveametal you a e a cab e g a d a c ea a ce o e, you a e a e a tometal(orplastic)surfacethatprovidesnobetterthanIP54 protection.IPwashersgobetweenthefaceoftheglandand theoutsideoftheenclosure. Drains EE d i th t ll D i EExedrainsthatallowcondensationtodrainfromthe d ti t d i f th insideofenclosuresduetomoisturebuildupduringthenormal heatingandcoolingprocessduringthedayandnight.

Cableglandspacingonenclosures
Cableglandsclearanceholesneedtobeconsideredwhendeterminingnumberandsizesofglandsinstalled inenclosures.Alwaysconfirmglandcrosscornerclearancewithmanufacturerandtemplatesizeof enclosuretoconfirmwhetherenoughspaceexistsforglandentries

Cableglandspacingonenclosures
TraditionaluseofcableglandsenteringintoanExeenclosureneedasignificant amountofexcessspacetoallowfortheuseofaspannerorwrenchtotightenthe gland.TheuseofcabinetsealscertifiedtoExecanreducethefootprintofthe enclosurerequiredbyasmuchas50%orallowadoublingofcablestoenterinthe samespaceastraditionalcableglands. same space as traditional cable glands

ExdSealsandConduitSystems
ConduitSealsarecommonlyusedwithconduitsystemsfor directentryintoEExdenclosures.Themaximumallowed distancefromenclosureis450mm.LiketheUS,installations alsorequiresealfittingsatboundaries. Conduitsystemshaveaslightlydifferentrequirementinthat countriestypicallymandatemax.fill.Inthecaseofmostof thesouthernEuropeancountries,amax.fillof60%is allowed.ThisdifferswithUSregulationsoftypically40% allowed This differs with US regulations of typically 40% maximumconduitfill.Conduitsystemsareusuallylimited to3000Vorless.Above3000V,cablesystemsarerequired

TypicalWiringPracticeswithConduit
Allswitchingmechanismsshouldbeomnipolarwheretheneutralwireisalwayscut MINIMUMallowedwiresizes: AuxiliaryCircuits(Controls)1.5mm/sq. Power Circuits2.5mm/sq. Cablesshouldbe3000Vmin.andflameretardanttype CablesMUSTprotectedagainstinsulationdamagegenerallydueto: Impactdamage Heatsourcesthatcoulddamagecablesinsulation Chemicalsubstancesthatcouldcauseinsulationcablescorrosion Chemical substances that could cause insulation cables corrosion Inordertocomplywithabovementionedrequirements,aproperchoiceofcablesand cableroutingisveryimportant. IfCablesPassfarawayfromanyplacewithriskofcorrosionoraccidentaldamage If C bl P f f l ith i k f i id t l d (i.e.cablesforceilingmountedlightingfixtures)astandardPVCinsulatedcablesin propercabletraysareallowed.Whencablescomedowntoworkingareas,orpass besidetovalvesorotherequipmentthatmightreleaseheatorcorrosivesubstances thatmightdamagecablesinsulation,itisrecommendedtopassrelevantcablesinside agalvanizedsteelpipes.Ifcablesgotovibratingmachines(example:electricalmotors) pipesshouldbeflexiblehoses,forthelast500mmapprox.connectedtospecialcable glandswithfemalethreadedheadwhichallowforflexiblehosesdirectconnectionto theglandnut,withoutleavinganypartofcablesuncovered. ThisisverysimilartoUSinstallationswherebytheuseofconduitactsasameansof mechanicalprotection.

TypicalWiringPracticeswithConduit
FlexibleConduitforvibrationand mechanicalprotection

Conduitformechanical protection

TypicalWiringPracticeswithConduit

IEC61386isthenewEuropeanstandardgoverningtheperformanceofflexible conduit(andrigid)systemsinelectricalinstallations. TensiletestforIEC61386. SupersedingthecurrentEuropeanflexibleconduitsystemsstandards,EN50086,IEC 61386coversperformancerequirementsforuseofsuchproductsinelectrical 61386 covers performance requirements for use of such products in electrical installationapplications.Theperformancerequirementscoveredincludefatiguelife, bendradius,operatingtemperature,nonflamepropagation,IPratings,impact resistanceandpulloffstrength.FullimplementationofIEC61386isbeingphasedin throughout2006,anditisexpectedthatthestandardwillfullyreplaceEN50086by 2007. 2007 Thosemanufacturersofflexibleconduitandtrunkingwhichcandemonstratefull compliancewiththenewstandard(forexample,intheUKviaBSIandtheKitemark scheme),especiallyifconfirmedbyindependentthirdpartycertification,willbeina ), p y y p p y , goodcompetitivesituationintermsofsales.Thisisbecausesuchmanufacturers' customerswillbeabletoconfidentlyspecifyflexibleconduitsystemscomplyingwith IEC61386forthecompleterangeofsuitableapplications,knowingthattheyhave beenapprovedtothenewscheme.Suchcustomersoftenfacestrictcontrolsontheir workingenvironments,andmaytypicallyincludefoodprocessing,healthcare, working environments and may typically include food processing healthcare hazardousarea,MODandotherspecialistmarkets.

TypicalWiringPracticeswithConduit
TeststobecarriedoutunderIEC61386: Tests to be carried out under IEC 61386: ThenewIEC61386standardrequiresanumberofteststobecarriedoutonspecimenconduitmaterials. Theseinclude: TheImpactStrengthTest Thisiscarriedoutonconduitsoverarangeofdifferenttemperatures.Thetestis madeoneachspecimenusinganimpactheadwithadefinedprofile.Conventionally,fracturebehavioris studied,butunderthistest,itisthedeformation(buckling)behaviorthatisalsodetermined.Thespecimen passesthetestifnofractureoccursafterimpact,andthereisalsonoexcessivepermanentdeformation. ThePeakLoadTest Undertherequirementsofthistest,carriedoutonconduitspecimensunderstandard ambientconditions(whichisspecifiedas23Cat50%relativehumidity),theconduitisdeformedbyadefined amountbetweentwoplates. TheReverseBendingTest(WithSwingingMovements) Thistestisbasedonacyclicreversedbendingof conduitsundervarioustemperatures.Undertherequirementsforthetest,conduitsaredynamicallyloaded andevaluatedoverthetemperaturelimits.Thenumberofbendingcyclestakentofracturetheconduit determinesitsstrength. TheSelfExtinguishingTest Undertherequirementsforthistest,theconduitisexposedtoaflame(froma standardburner).Thetimetoignition(ifany),theflamepropagation,andthetimetoselfextinguishingafter flameremovalareallparametersmeasured.

TypicalWiringPracticeswithCable
Atypicalmethodofmakingfinalterminationstoenclosuresistoleaveexcesscablein aloopconfigurationtorelieveanypotentialunduestrainonthecablegland,and alloweasiermodificationsifequipmentneedstobereplacedorrepaired..

TypicalWiringPracticeswithCable