Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 103

THE BULLDOG.

A MONOGRAPH
THIRD EDITION.

BY

EDGAR FARMAN,
Honorary Member of the Bulldog Club (Incorporated), &c.

THE " KKNNKL GAZETTE," 7,' GRAFTON


1903.

LONDO N: STREET, BOND STREET, W,

Visit VivyLand on the web for English Bulldog greeting cards, gifts, and information http://www.vivyland.com

The Bulldog, devoted solely to the most barbarous and infamous purposes, the real blackguard of his species, has no claim upon utility, humanity, or common sense, and the total extinction of the breed is a desirable consummation. "BRITISH FIELD SPORTS," 1818.

TO MY FRIEND

JOHN WILLIAM ROSS. ESQUIRE.

PALL MALL. LONDON,

DEDICATE

THIS

BOOK

AS A

MARK

OF MY

ESTEEM,

TO

THE F I R S T

EDITION.

ENCOURAGED by the reception that my previous literary efforts on behalf of the National breed have received, I have undertaken the production of the present work, in the hope that its pages will be found useful for reference as an historical and practical volume upon the English Bulldog. It has been my endeavor to deal with the subject in such a way that this single volume may embrace information until now scattered in many quarters. This equally applies to the history of the Bulldog Club Incorporated, which, until the articles written by me during my Honorary Editorship of the Kennel Gazette appeared in that journal, had never been published. Since these articles appeared, I have been able to augment the information they contained in several important particulars, and especially by the inclusion of the first report of the proceedings of the Club, which will be of great interest to past as well as to present members, and will supply a gap in its history, which has existed for a quarter of a century. The illustrations have been selected with the view of including portraits of the more typical Bulldogs of the century, from the days when bull-baiting was a flourishing form of sport down to this, its closing year. I have in the chapter dealing with the illustrations given further particulars supplementary to the information given at the foot of each.

Preface.
In dealing with the Bulldogs themselves, I have traced their history from the Bull-baiting and dog-fighting era down to the commencement of the dog showing period, and from those days until now, in a way that I hope may prove interesting to the general reader. I have added such details, both with regard to strains and pedigrees, and to notable owners as will make the book helpful for future reference. As a work upon Bulldogs without reference to Toy Bulldogs and their recent introduction to the show bench would be incomplete, I have added a chapter concerning these diminutive representatives of the breed. The production of the volume has necessarily entailed considerable labour and research, but the labour has been expended upon a breed I have been devoted to for many years, and if the perusal of the book proves interesting to the reader I shall consider myself amply repaid for any trouble expended in its preparation. In order to facilitate ready reference, separate indices have been supplied of all the persons and dogs mentioned in the volume, in addition to the general index and the chapter dealing with the illustrations, which latter contains references to the page where each illustration can be found. I desire to express my sincere thanks to all those who have in any way assisted by supplying me with or affording me the opportunity of obtaining information, and especially I wish to acknowledge the aid thus given by Mr. James "W. Berrie, Mr. Frank W. Crowther, Mr. Cyril F. W, Jackson, Mr. Sam Woodiwiss, Mr. G. W. Richards, and Mr. Alfred George. I have also to thank all those who have kindly lent me photographs for reproduction. EDGAR FARMAN. The Kennel Club, November, 1899.

PREFACE
TO THE SECOND EDITION.

THE demand for copies of this work resulting second edition early in

in the need to

for a the

the year is naturally gratifying

Author, as evidencing that the contents of these pages have proved of use to those interested in the national breed.

The chapters requiring additions have been brought up to date, and I am able to publish some interesting additions to the chapter comprising the historical sketch of the Bulldog. I take this opportunity of sincerely thanking many friends and unknown to me, and also the many

other readers, personally organs

of the Press who have in kindly labours.

terms

expressed

appreciation

of my

EDGAR

FARMAN.

KENNEL CLUB DECEMBER, 1900.

PREFACE
TO THE THIRD EDITION.

IN publishing- the third edition of this work I have taken the opportunity of presenting it in a modified form, confining its chapters to the dog, and omitting the history of the Bulldog Club, which has already appeared in the two previous editions. I have, however, added a chapter on the " French Bulldog," with illustrations, a breed, which has, since the second edition was published, become established in this country through the formation of a Club to foster its interests. I again thank all those who have expressed their approval of my endeavors to present a work both of use and interest to all who regard the national breed as one which should be perpetuated, and who do not agree with the writer in British Field Sports a century ago who declared that " the total extinction of the breed is a desirable consummation." EDGAR FARMAN.

THE KENNEL CLUB, OCTOBER, 1903.

CONTENTS.
PART I.
PAGE

THE BULLDOG

CHAPTER I. Historical Sketch of the BulldogBull and Bear Baiting CHAPTER II. The Bulldog as Dog Fighter CHAPTER III. Old Fanciers, and Old Dogs CHAPTER IV. Early Dog ShowsBulldog Classification CHAPTER V. Modern BulldogsThe Principal Strains CHAPTER VI. Description of a Bulldog and Scale of Points CHAPTER VII. Toy Bulldogs CHAPTER VIII. The French Bulldog CHAPTER IX. Hints to NovicesHow to choose a Bull-pup CHAPTER X. The Illustrations 66 61 57 51 44 33 30 25 20 1

PART II.
APPENDICES. Bulldog Clubs and Societies General Index Index to the Names of Persons Index to the Names of Dogs 83 89 87 93

THE BULLDOG.
CHAPTER I.
HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE BULLDOGBULL AND BEAR BAITING.

THE origin of the Bulldog, as is the case with most of the ancient breeds of dogs, has given rise to much speculation ; authorities differ entirely upon the question, so much so that the very definition of the name itself is in dispute, some writers suggesting that the breed derives its name, not from its use in bull-baiting, but from the bulllike shape of the head.* The Bulldog is first mentioned in literature, in the year 1500, the oldest spelling of the word is Bonddogge** and Bolddogge*** ; while Dr Caius (1576) uses the term Bandogge, " so called, " says William Harrison, in his "Description of England" (Ed. 1586), "because many of them are tied up in chains and strong bonds in the day time for doing hurt abroad, which is an huge dog, stubborn, ugly, eager, burthenouse of bodie (and therefore of little swiftness), terrible and fearful to behold, and oftentimes more fierce and fell than any Archadiart or Corsican cur. Our * New English Dictionary; article, Bulldog. ** W. Wulcher (1500), Hic molossusa Bonddogge. *** Cocke Sorrelles (1500), " Than come one with two Bolddogges at his tayle." Dr Caius's " Treatise on the Dog." graves."

Englishmen, to the intent that these dogs may be more cruel and fierce, assist nature with some art, use, and customs. For although this kind of dog be capable of courage, violent, valiant, stout, and bold, yet will they increase these their stomachs by teaching them to bait the bear, the bull, the lion, and other such like cruell and bloudie beasts (either brought over or kept up at home for the same purpose), without any collar to defend their throats, and oftentimes thereto they train them up in fighting and wrestling with a man (having for the safeguard of his life, either a pike, staff, club, sword, or privie coat), whereby they become more fierce and cruel to strangers.' Dr Caius in his description, amongst other characteristics, states that the Mastive or Banddogge is "serviceable against the fox and the badger, to drive wild and tame swine out of meadows, pastures, glebelandes, and places planted with fruit, to bite and take the bull by the ears, when occasion so requireth." The Bandog is only once mentioned by Shakespeare, the instance occurring in the second part of King Henry VI., act 1, scene 4: " The time when screech-owles cry and bandogs howie, And spirits walk, and ghosts break up their

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. the " Allan of Chaucer," a dog highly extolled by that poet, as of great size, strength and courage, and used in the chase of " the lion and the bear." * The name of this longextinct breed was variously written Alan Alande, Alant, Alaune, Alaunus, Alaunt, and Allan. Cotgrave, in his French-English Dictionary, published in 1632, mentions the Allan de boucherie as being " like our Mastive, and serves butchers to bring in fierce oxen, and to keep their stalls." Edmond de Langley, Duke of York, and fourth of the seven sons of Edward III. was master of the game and of the hawks to Henry IV., and wrote a highly valuable treatise entitled the "Mayster of Game." The manuscript gives most interesting descriptions of dogs, wild animals of the chase and hunting. In this work Langley subdivides the Alaunt into three classes, as follows: " Alaunt is a maner and natre of hounds, and the good Alauntz ben the which men clepyn Alauntz gentil. Other there byn that men clepyn Alauntz ventreres. Others byn Alauntz of the bocherie, they that be gentile shuld be made and shape as a greyhounde, evyn of alle thinges, sauf of the heved, the whiche should be greet and short." Of the second class, he says : " That other nature of Alauntz is clepid ventreres, almost thei bene shapon as a greyhounde of full shap, thei hav grete hedes, and greet lipes, and greet eers. And with such, men helpeth him at the baityng of a boole, and at huntynge of a wild boor. Thei holde faste of here nature." Lastly:"The Alauntz of the bocherie, such as ye may alle daie see in good tounes, that byn called greet bochers houndes. Thie * Chaucer's "Knight's Tale."

The first mention of the Bulldog, with an approach to its modern spelling is found, as far as can be traced, in a letter quoted by Jesse, contained in the Record Office, dated 1631, or 1632, and written from St. Sebastian by Brest wick Eaton, to George Willingham, of St. Swithin's Lane, London. The letter is a familiar one, asking that several things may be forwarded to him, amongst those enumerated being " a good Mastive dogge," his case of bottles " replenished with the best lickour," and "pray," said he, " procure me two good Bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first ship." In another letter Eaton thanks his correspondent for another "dog, " and asks that a couple more may be sent. " Let them," he writes, " be good at the bull and cost what they will, but let them be fair and good curs; they are not for myself but for friends, that, I must rely upon if occasion should offer ;" for his part he has other employments; " therefore, good brother, procure them at the bear-garden they are better esteemed, and go farther than a greater present." These letters are specially interesting from several points of view, notably, that at this comparatively early date, the Mastiff is mentioned in the same letter as if the breed was distinct from the Bulldog ; and further, that the British Bulldog was appreciated by the bull-fighting dons of Spain. The antiquity of the Bulldog has long been a matter of keen controversy between the rival partisans of the Mastiff and the National breed. In 1871 a correspondence was originated by E. W. R. (Mr E. Rockstro), an ardent admirer of the Mastiff, in the columns of The Field, which led to a warm discussion, but without producing the slightest definite result. It is now generally admitted that both breeds had a common origin, in the " Alaunt" of the old writers,

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog.


byn good for the baytyng of the bulle and huntyng of the wild boore, wheder it be with greihoundes at the tryst or with rennyng houndes at abbay with inne the covcrte." He particularises the Alaunt as a breed " ye heud ye wiche should be great and short, and thouze ther Alauntes of all hewes, ye v'ray (true) hue of ye good Alauntz yat is most common, should be white with a blak spot a bout ye eerys, small eyne, and white slondying eres.................... Any beest yat he might come to he should hold with his sesurcs and nought leave it, for an Alaunt of his nature holdeth faster his biting yan should three gree houndes." It will be noted that in this description of the " Alaunt " are embraced three characteristics which distinguish the English Bulldog of the present day. lie had a large, short and thick head and short muzzle; he was remarkable for his high courage, and when he attacked an animal he hung on. It is also proved that he was used in bull-baiting. As I have said, it is a matter of pure speculation whether the Bulldog or the Mastiff, or either, can be considered as the indigenous dog of Britain; but that the probability, almost amounting to certainty, is that both breeds were derived from the Alaunt or Allan. Whatever room for doubt exists, however, on this much-disputed point, there can be no difference of opinion on two points. First as to the extreme antiquity of the Bulldog, and secondly as to its indisputable right to the honour of being considered the national dog, par excellence. It belongs purely to this country; when expatriated in the remote past it has deteriorated surely and rapidly, although this remark no longer applies; and it is looked upon by foreigners as emblematical of an English* Hume's Essays and Treatises, 1T77.

manin fact, John Bull is never considered completely represented anywhere, in either our own or foreign comic papers, without a Bulldog as his companion. It is quite one of the oldest known breeds, and with various species of dog the Bulldog has in bygone times been crossed to give them the necessary courage, tenacity, and determination. Towards the close of last century, Lord Orford, an ardent courser, bethought himself how ho could remedy the deficiency in courage which at that time had obtained among Greyhounds. He selected a Bulldog for the purpose of crossing with his greyhounds, believing this would have the desired effect. The plan was much ridiculed at the time, but he persevered, and his efforts were ultimately crowned with success. He commenced by selecting one of the smooth rat-tailed bulldogs of the time, crossing it with one of his Greyhound bitches. After six or seven generations all vestige of the Bulldog had disappeared, but the courage and indomitable perseverance remained, much to the benefit of the breed. It was about this period that Hume had remarked, " The courage of Bulldogs .... seems peculiar to England." * From the descriptions given by early writers, we gather then that the Bulldog possessed the characteristics of a short muzzle, a large and massive head, and a broad mouth. The necessity for these qualifications, having in mind the work he was called to perform, is obvious. The under jaw projects beyond the upper, to enable the dog when running directly to the front to grasp the bull, and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The lower jaw being very thick and strong gives to the mouth an appearance of curving

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. gentlemen, merchants, and humbler citizens, the apprentice, and the peasant. Unfortunately we have to rely almost entirely upon tradition and description, for very few drawings or engravings of the Bulldogs of the olden time have come down to us. One of the earliest, by Richard Pynson, of the date 1521, appears in Berjeau's " Book of Dogs," and represents the baiting of a bear. It is rather difficult to identify exactly the breed depicted, but several of the dogs are something like Bulldogs, both in form and in their method of attack, but there is one, as much like a Bulldog as any of them, shown as flying at the hindquarters of the bear, a lache, one would imagine, of which no true Bulldog could ever have been guilty. During the discussion in The Field to which reference has already been made, "F. A." (Mr F. Adcock) sent to the editor of that journal a copy of the picture from a painting by A. Honduis, made in 1635, which Mr Adcock described as "A wild boar attacked by two Bulldogs, one a red-smut and the other a brindle-pied." A reproduction was subsequently published in "The Dogs of the British Islands," by " Stonehenge," with the note, " The dogs in this picture arc certainly larger than the modern Bulldog, but there is no proof adduced of the strain to which they belonged, and they might be either pure Bulldog of that day or pure Mastiff, or a cross between the two. ' F. A.,' * who kindly lent the original for engraving, assumes that they were pure Bulldogs, but I certainly cannot * " F. A." wrote " Judging from the relative sizes of the boar and dogs in the picture, the latter must have been at least 80 to 1001b in weight each, and there can be no doubt that these are the kind of dogs described by Dr. Caius in 1576, under the name of Mastyne or Banddogge."

upwards across the middle of the face. The top of the nose inclines backwards, so as to allow free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst " holding " on to the bull. It is evident that did the mouth not project beyond the nose, and had both jaws and nose been level, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and the breathing would be stopped. "When modern Bulldogs, as is sometimes the case, have this defective formation, they are "frog faced" as it is termed. Another subject which has caused much discussion and division of opinion is the matter of size, one side placing its faith in a large and lumbering dog, the other advocating the claims of a large skulled dog, but of medium size, from forty to fifty pounds in weight, with the short head approved by the author of the " Mayster of Game." Here again the original purpose for which the Bulldog was bred should be borne in mind. In bull-baiting, not only could a smaller dog do the work as well, probably much better than a large one, but, as in attacking the dog usually approached the bull crawling upon his belly along the ground, the result would be that a large dog would be infinitely more likely to fall a victim to the bull's horns than would a smaller one. Of the " points " of the modern Bulldog it is unnecessary for me to speak here; they will be found fully dealt with in another portion of this work. It will have been already seen what were the chief points looked for in the breed in the " good old times," when the Bulldog was kept by all classes of society, and when bull and bear baiting were the "sports" of every grade, the delight and diversion of the king, and even hip loyal consort, princes, peers, country

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. admit that point without some hesitation." * Looking at the engraving it is certainly most difficult to distinguish the breed absolutely. The dogs again appear to be cross-bred, as " Stonehenge " himself suggests. In those early days of canine portraiture, however, the artist was rarely, if ever, a cynophile, and had an eye rather to " artistic effect" than to accurate portrayal. Even in more modern times, and in such well-known pictures as "The Baited Bull broke loose" and the " Bull broke loose," it would tax the knowledge of many an up-to-date expert to express an absolute opinion as to the breed of some of the canines therein depicted. From everything connected with Bulldogdom, controversy seems almost inseparable. The Bulldog's origin is a subject of dispute, his weight and size have before now divided experts into rival camps, and authorities are not even united on the question of his temperament and mental powers. Some describe him as ferocious, others as stupidly amiable. One writer says :" He is uncertain, fastening without visible provocation on the master whom he has been fondling, until excited by a sudden noise or accidental blow ; " whilst another writer declares :" In temper the Bulldog will bear comparison with any breed of dog. To his master, especially, and those he knows he is amiable, loving, and obedient." Stonehenge* says:"Experience has shown us that these dogs are not capable of much attachment; that they are not safely to be trusted ; that they are very rarely, if ever, teachable ; but that, in a general way, they are gentle and quiet in their demeanour. A dog of this breed is not quarrelsome, he is a capital guard or watch dog, and certainly * Dogs of the British Islandn.

5 ought to be looked upon as an invaluable animal for instilling courage and endurance into any description of dog requiring such properties, by direct or partial crosses. He is pre-eminent amongst the canine race for the following qualities :He attacks silently ; he bears any amount of punishment without uttering a sound; he invariably goes at the head of his adversary ; and he will not ' let go ' until he is killed or made insensible by strangulation. For these properties, especially his forward attack and holding powers, he was selected to bait the bear, the bull, and occasionally the lion; for, although the halfbred dog might almost equal the genuine animal in courage, it was always doubtful whether a bull terrier would seize the head or the heel, and (as a celebrated old ' bullbaiter' impressed upon us some years ago) ' pinning is winning' when you loose a dog at a bull.' " In dealing with this question of temper, it must not be forgotten how large a place education and environment occupy in forming the character, not only of mankind, but of animals. As a recent writer has remarked : * " Like children, dogs have their mental characters formed by their training and associations, and, although different individuals have different dispositions or temperaments it is not to be imagined that they have different natures. It has been truly said ' the god of the dog is man ;' if therefore a dog is treated by man as though it were a fiend incarnate, to be ruled with the harshest measures, and used in the most cruel and dangerous occupations, to have all the good feelings of its nature crushed by its master, who takes a pride in its ferocity, is it to be * British Dogs, page 226.

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. lectual worthlessness. Writing in 1792, Osbaldeston * describes the Bulldog as: " One of the most fierce and strong of the canine race, having the nose short, and the under jaw larger than the upper. The breed is in a manner peculiar to England; but ever since the savage custom of bull-baiting has happily been on the decline it has suffered neglect. Such is the strength and ferocity of these animals, that four of them have been known to master a lion, and when they are turned loose on a bull, and have once properly seized him, nothing short of the loss of life or the giving way of the part can disengage them. While that barbarous amusement continued in vogue, various instances of savage fortitude have occured in the feats of this breed, which would scarcely be credited in countries where the diversions are more rational and elegant." Taplin, writing eleven years later, is not any more flattering to the subject of his pen. Incidentally he refers to the decline in the number of Bulldogs reared, a matter to which I shall have again to refer later. Ho writes f:" A Bulldog, though inoffensive and harmless when properly domesticated, forms to the eye of timidity a most terrific appearance; the doubtful and designing leer of the eye, the tiger-like shortness of the head, the underhung jaw, the wideness of the forehead, the width of the scull, the distension of the nostrils, and the almost constant sight of the teeth hold forth a very emphatic specimen of * " British Sportsman, or Nobleman, Gentleman, and Farmer's Dictionary," by William Augustus Osbaldeston, 1792. + " The Sporting Dictionary and Rural Repostory of General Information upon every subject, appertaining to The Sports of the Field." By William Taplin. 1803.

wondered at that the poor beast, which survives the hardening process, should appear to merit the bad character assigned to it by those only who fear it." The Bulldog undoubtedly suffered considerably from its association with the lower classes of the community, especially from the time that bull-baiting ceased to be a fashionable pastime until the close of that still more degenerate period in the early years of the present century, when a lower depth of brutality than bull-baiting had been reached, and the bloodthristy " sport" of dog fighting was the entertainment provided for the lowest residuum of the canine fancy. As to the temperament of the Bulldog of the present day, he is quite a docile creature. At the close of the eighteenth and the early years of the nineteenth century the Bulldog was almost entirely in the hands of the roughest classes, for the sickening scenes of barbarous cruelty that were to be witnessed in the baiting dens and dog pits of that era rendered the " sport" utterly revolting to an age beginning to pride itself upon its refinement and humanity. A revulsion of taste had set in amongst the more refined, and the poor Bulldog, the humble minister to his owner's brutal instincts, reaped much of the obloquy that rightly should have fallen upon his master alone. He was marked out as "the blackguard of his species," and his entire extinction was desiderated as a " consummation devoutly to be wished." * Current opinion found expression in the literature of the day, and there is scarcely an account of the Bulldog written at that epoch which does not bear witness to the writer's estimate of the Bulldog's moral turpitude and intel* British Field Sports, by W. H. Scott, 1818.

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. the power they possess when that power is angrily brought into action. The breed is by no means so numerous as formerly, in consequence of the gradual decline of bullbaiting and the great number taken abroad, for many of which very great prices were obtained. The natural ferocity, strength, and thirst for blood in this animal rendered them a formidable nuisance in their unrestrained state, and they are now seldom seen at their full liberty, either in town or country ; the owners, from a proper fear of the law, finding it most prudent to keep them properly confined." A third writer of this period, in his remarks, on the Bulldog, refers to the decline in numbers, which must have been very marked at this time, as every writer upon the subject bears similar testimony. His estimate of the animal itself is not higher than that usually entertained by his contemporaries. His description is as follows * :" The Bulldog is remarkable for the undaunted and savage pertinacity with which he will provoke and continue a combat with other animals, and when once he has fixed his bite, it is not without extreme difficulty that he can be disengaged from his antagonist. He is oftentimes fierce and cruel, and seems to possess very little of the generosity and disposition so remarkable and so celebrated in dog species. He frequently makes his attack without giving the least previous warning, and often without that discrimination of persons or animals which we observe in most other dogs. The Bulldog, as well as the Mastiff, is almost peculiar to England, and the breed seems to have been chiefly encouraged for the baiting of bulls. This ferocious practice, thanks to * " Memoirs of British Quadrupeds," by the Rev. W. Bingley, A.M. 1809.

7 the increasing humanity and civilization of the people, is, however, now on the decline, and consequently Bulldogs are at present much less numerous than they were formerly." Idstone,* in his remarks on the Bulldog, states that in 1824 the breed was said to be degenerating, although in those days, and fifty years before, specimens of a coarse though courageous sort were in the hands of prizefighters and coachmen, ' Black Will," the noted Oxford whip, being amongst the most celebrated of the breeders. Many of these comparatively early specimens were disfigured by cropping, and it was not uncommon to find them with their ears cleanly shaved off their heads.* About the year 1840 very few thoroughbred examples existed. Occasionally they were to be obtained in London and Birminghamthe latter place and the "Black Country " generally having a kindly feeling towards such animals. Two or three instances may be cited which illustrate both the courage of the dogs and the fiendish cruelty practised by their owners at the beginning of the present century. At a bull-baiting in the north of England, a young man laid some trifling wager, that he would, at separate times, cut off all the four feet of his dog, and that after each mutilation it would attack the bull. The wager was accepted, and the experiment tried, and the dog continued to seize the bull as eagerly as it did before it had been subjected to this inhuman barbarity. A newspaper of the year 1310 records that a London butcher took a Bullbitch and her puppies to a bullbaiting, and said, "I will not say anything about the goodness of this breed ; you shall see." He then let the bitch at the bull, who * Idstone" The Dog."

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. could so quietly endure, rendering him the staunchest and most reliable companion, and one most capable of being taught. All the chief authorities testify to the good qualities and the good temper of the Bulldog, and as " Stonehenge " still remains one of the greatest of these, I may summarise what he had to say about the Bulldog in his day. If the brain of the Bulldog is weighed against the body of the dog, it will be found relatively above the average. His mental qualities may be highly cultivated, and in brute courage and unyielding tenacity of purpose he stands unrivalled amongst quadrupeds. From confinement in their kennels they frequently are deficient in intelligence; but when treated differently the Bulldog is a very different animal, the brutal nature which he often displays being mainly attributable to the savage human beings with whom he associates; yet this is not natural to him any more than is stupidity or want of affection, as may readily be proved by any one who will take the trouble to treat him in a proper manner. He has been described as stupidly ferocious, &c, and " Stonehenge " rightly asserts that this is untrue; but I cannot agree with his further statement that he is an excellent watch dog, and as a guard unequalled. He also urges with truth that he is far from quarrelsome. If once the pure breed is allowed to drop, the best means of infusing fresh courage into degenerate breeds will be finally lost, for every kind of dog possessed of very high courage owes it to a cross with the Bulldog, not only the most courageous dog, but the most courageous animal in the world. There is now no possibility that the purity of the breed will be lost; yet that disaster was an event of extreme probability about sixty years ago. Bulldogs were about that

pinned him, although she was very old, and had now scarcely a tooth in her head. He then cut her to pieces with a hedge-bill, and she never quitted her hold until dead. There was immediately a great demand for the whelps, which were all sold before he left the place at five guineas a-piece. Another man then cut off his dog's legs, declaring that it would still pin the bull. The dog at once did so, and his master then called him off, and as soon as he limped bleeding into his arms, cut off his head. Certainly the more merciful action of the two. When we recollect, therefore, the uses to which the Bulldog was put for so many generations, and subsequently the sort of people who owned him, it is not surprising that his temper suffered, and that his character was painted in the darkest colours by those ignorant persons who never owned, and scarcely ever saw a specimen of the breed. A well-informed writer observes that most " fanciers " of Bulldogs know more about other breeds than the authorities on other breeds know about Bulldogs, and have adopted that breed only after a long experience of the others. The fairest way of judging of a man is to speak of him as you find him, and who can know more about a dog than his keeper ? But it has been those who did not keep Bulldogs that took upon themselves to condemn the breed. Its chief virtues they misrepresented as unpardonable faults. The high courage and indifference to pain which enabled the Bulldog to limp with dismembered limbs to pin the bull at the command of his master, and like the hero in the ballad of Chevy Chase, " who, when his legs were smitten off, still fought upon the stumps," also enable the dog, now its cruel occupation is hopelessly abandoned, to suffer patiently trials which no other breed

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. time very rarely to be seen, as specimens of the breed were sparinglyjnreserved and only to be met with occasionally in a few large towns of England, such as Sheffield, and Birmingham, and the East end of London, among publicans and fanciers who, to a large extent, hailed from the working classes. And to these we really owe the preservation of our national dog in its purity and with its long genealogy. Our leading Bulldogs can trace their descent through very many generations, and many of the beau monde would be proud of such a long line of ancestry. But now, after the manner of all things animate and inanimate, the tide of fashion smiles on the once disfavoured Bulldog, there is a growing appreciation of his merits, and instead of the epithets of "hideous brute " being applied to him, one hears him called ' quaint," and "fine looking," and fair enthusiasts even venture to affirm that he is " beautiful." Beauty, however, is not the strong point of the Bulldog. As we leave human beauty to the fair sex, and are more than contented that the mere man shall be simply manly, so in the Bulldog we look for higher qualities than mere comeliness. Vero Shaw, in his excellent work, the " Book of the Dog," describes his walk as almost indescribable in its ungainliness. "We ourselves," he says, "though glorying in our admiration of the breed, cannot but admit that its paces are the incarnation of all that is clumsy. The short and immensely powerful body swings between the Bulldog's out-turned shoulders, his high hindlegs appear to be pushing his chest out between his forelegs, whilst the peculiar formation of his stifles and hocks scarcely permit him to raise his hind feet off the ground, and the result is an action which partakes of the elements of a

9 rush, a shuffle, and an amble, without fairly representing either." The general appearance of a Bulldog now-adays is that of a comparatively small animal, very heavy for his size, of immense power, and of great squareness of head, whether looked at from in front or in profile, with the body gracefully tapering off towards the stern, so that at first Bight one is impressed with the combination of strength and activity which the Bulldog possesses in a greater degree than does any other breed of dogs. The training of bulls, bears, horses, and other animals for the purpose of baiting them with dogs was certainly practised by the jugglers who were introduced into England by her Norman conquerors, and the bull especially owing to the peculiarity of its mode of combat, caused bull-baiting to become an attractive sport from a very early period, for which a distinct breed of dogs would be exclusively kept. A writer upon this point says : " The Bulldog exhibits that adaptation to the uses to which he is rendered subservient which we see in every race of dogs, and we have only to suppose the peculiar character of the animal called forth from generation to generation by selection, to be assured that a true breed would be formed. This has been so in a remarkable degre in the case of the Bulldog. After the wild oxen of the woods were destroyed, the practise was introduced as early as the reign of King John of baiting the domesticated bull and other animals, and thus the breed of dogs suited to this end was preserved, nay, cultivated, with increased care up to our own times, centuries after his larger and coarser brother, " Allan Vantre," kept only to bait the bear and wild boar, had become extinct owing to the cessation of its employment." Strutt, in hia 2

10

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. least as Edward III. (1327). There are several memoranda in the Black Book, whence it appears to have heen customary for every person, on becoming a member of the corporation to provide a breakfast for his brethren and ;i bull to be baited. In 1515, several persons were " elected to bayt the bull" on the Monday after the feast of St Martin's or pay a penalty of twenty shillings each.* Hullrunning and boll-baiting were followed as an annual custom at Tutbury, in Staffordshire, from 1371 until 177s. The Duke of Devonshire held the manor or priory lands by turning out a bull for baiting by the inhabitants. Dr Plot, in his " "Natural History of Stafford shire, " gives an account of the later usage concerning this tenure: On the appointed day," he says, " the people proceeded in a body to the church, and, the service over, dined. After dinner all the minstrels repair to the Priory gate in Tutbury, without any manner of weapons, attending the turning out of the bull, which the bailiff of the manor is obliged to provide, and is there to have the tips of his horns sawed off, his ears and tail cut off, his body smeared all over with soap, and his nose blown full of beaten pepper. Then the steward cause proclamation to be made, that all manner of persons, except minstrels, shall give way to the bull, and not come within forty foot of him at their own peril, nor hinder the minstrels in their pursuit of him, after which proclamation the Prior's bailiff turns out the bull among the minstrels, and if any of them can hold him so long as to cut off however small a portion of his hair before it can make its way across the river into Derbyshire, then he is the minstrels' bull, but if the bull gets into Derbyshire sound and uncut he * Brayley's History of Surrey.

" Sports and Pastimes," quotes a passage from Fitz-Stephen, who lived in the reign of Henry II., and whose "Description of the City of London," was written in 1171, which informs us that " in the forenoon of every holiday during the winter season, the young Londoners were amused with bears opposed to each other in battle, or with bulla and full grown bears baited by dogs." The accuracy of this statement has been disputed, but from other sources we learn that quite as early as Henry II.'s time (1154) the baiting of bulls and bears by dogs was a popular amusement. Norwich, in the time of Edward the Contessor (1050), made payment to the King and to the Earl for, among other things, " Ursum et VI canes ad nrsum," a bear and six bear dogs.* In the reign of John (1209) we find from the " Survey of Stamford " that the then Earl of Surrey, wbo was also Lord of Stamford, introduced bull-baiting into the latter town under the following circumstances. The Earl, standing upon the castle walls of Stamford, saw in an adjacent meadow two bulls fighting for the possession of a cow, till all the butchers' dogs of the town, great and small, pursued one of the bulls, who, being maddened with the noise and clamour of the multitude, ran clean through the town. The sight so pleased the Earl that he gave all the meadows where the duel between the bulls first began, afterwards known as the Castle Meadows, for a common to the butchers of the town, on condition that they found a mad bull the day six weeks before Christmas day for the continuance of that sport every year. Shows of bull-baiting were provided for the populace of Guildford, Surrey, under the sanction of the corporation as early at * Ellis's Introduction to Doomsday Book.

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. is the Lord Prior's (Duke of Devonshire) again. If the hull he taken and a piece of his hair cut off, he is brought to the bailiff's house in Tutbury and there collered and roped, and so brought to the bull ring in the high street, and there baited with dogs, the first in honour of the King, the second in honour of the town, and the third for the King of the minstrels. Afterwards the minstrels have him for their own, and may sell him or kill and divide him as they shall think good." At Wokingham, in Berkshire, in 1661, a townsman named Staverton, because he was once chased by a bull, in revenge left by will property to buy a bull for ever for the poor of the town to bait and eat, and the offal and hide to be sold to procure shoes and stockings for the poor children. Subsequently a second hull was provided for baiting, the charge being paid out of the poor rates. In 1802 the Rev. Dr. Barry, in a sermon preached on the OCCa sion, said, " Two useful animals, the bull who propagates our food and the faithful dog who protects our property, to be thus tormented, and for what purpose ? Does it tend, as some have said/ to keep alive the spirit of the English character? In answer to this we must remark that the barbarous sport, if sport it can he called, was unknown to the ancient bravery of our ancestors, was introduced into this country in the reign of a had king, and earnestly do I pray to Almighty God that, in the reign of a most pious and benevolent prince, it may be for ever set aside! Cowards, of all men the least unmoved, can both inflict and witness cruelties." His sermon appears to have been more effectual than such discourses frequently are, * Mr Windham in his speech in the House of Cotillions in favour of hull halting, 1801.

11 for bull-baiting ceased at Wokingham shortly after this date. A large open space in the oldest part of Birmingham, and under the very walls of its ancient parish church, hears the name of the Bull Ring, and one of its main thoroughfares is called Bull Street. Hutton, in his " History of Birmingham," states that John Cooper, in the reign of Henry VIII., about 15:><. for some service rendered to the lord of the manor, obtained, among'other privileges, the right of baiting a bull in the bull ring whenever he pleased and the right of burial in the porch of St. Martin's Church. Bull-baiting was one of the most popular sports of the inhabitants until 1773, in which year the practice was discontinued. At Banbury, in Oxfordshire, bull-baiting was carried on in what is said to have been once a Roman amphitheatre. In Canterbury the market place was known in Edward IV.'s reign as the Bulstake. Formerly, in some towns, a butcher who sold the flesh of a bull in the market without having produced the animal on the previous market day to he baited was liable to a penalty, for the flesh of a baited bull was universally considered to be much more tender and nutritious than that of animals slaughtered without being first submitted to the process. In 1801, at Bury St. Edmunds, a hull's hoofs were cut off, and the poor beast was forced to defend himself on his mangled and bleeding stumps against the dogs set upon him. In 1820 a bull was baited at Lincoln, and in the mining districts of South Staffordshire bulls, and sometimes even bears, were baited as late as 1886. It is unnecessary to mention further the names of more provincial towns at which the "sport" was practised, for probably at one time every town in England, and many

12

Historical Sketch of the bulldog. bear baiting by dogs, as it prevailed in the provinces. It is now time to give attention to the manner in which Londoners enjoyed the pastime. In the time of the Tudov sovereigns, the Bankside. Southwarkthe riverside district between where London and Blackfriars Bridges now standwas a thinly-inhabited district, the resort of the idle and dissipated, who repaired to the gardens, booths, and theatres which the locality contained, in search of amusement. Here, later, was built the celebrated "Globe" Theatre, Where most of Shakespeare's plays were originally performed ; and here it was that the first bull and bear-baiting and similar amusements were carried on. It will have been previously noticed that these sports generally took place in the open air. The provincial bull rings were generally not covered buildings, but, as the name implies, a particular spot, usually in the market place or other open space, where a ring was inserted, to which, when a baiting took place, the rope securing the bull was attached. So at the Bankside the baitings at first were held in the open air ; but in Aggas's " Plan of London," 1574, and in Braun's map of about the same date, two circular buildings for the accommodation of spectators are engraved, marked respectively "Bowlle Baytyng" and "Bear Baytyng." In both plans the buildings appear to be completely circular, and were evidently intended as imitations of the ancient Roman amphitheatres. They stood in two adjacent fields, separated only by a small strip of land. Stow describes these two buildings as "two bear gardens, the old and the new, places wherein were kept beares, bulls, and other beasts to be bayted, as also mastives in several kennels, now risked to

a country village, had its bull ring, for by the time of Henry VIII. bull and bear-baiting had become the diversion of every grade. The King had his own bull and beargardens, and the wardenship of the bears and dogs had become a lucrative and honourable office under the Crown. Richard III., in 1483 the first year of his reign, appointed a royal bear-ward named John Bronne, whom, " for his true and diligent service," he constituted " master, guider, and ruler of all the bears and apes belonging to the Crown." In the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles T. this office still continued ; one of the latest appointments being that of Sir Sander Duncombe, who, by letters patent of the latter King, in 1639. had a grant of the sole right of exhibiting the baiting of bulls and bears in England for fourteen years. During part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and James I.. Edward Alleyn, the actor, and founder of Dulwich College, kept the Bear Garden on the Bankside in Southwark, in conjunction with his father-in-law, Phillip Henslowe. The then Bear Garden was shut up under an order of Parliament in 1642, and in January, 1647, the land was sold for 1,781} 15s. After the restoration of Charles II. it was re-opened, but it was from this period that bull-baiting declined as a fashionable and courtly amusement, though it continued exceedingly popular with the middle and lower classes for nearly another hundred years. About the year 1686 the Bankside Bear Garden appears to have been finally disused as a royal appurtenance, and in the next year his "Majesty's Bear Garden" was removed to Hockley-in-the-Hole, the site of the present Middlesex Sessions House on Clerkenwell Green. Hitherto I have only spoken of bull and

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. bayt them." " These beares and other beasts," he adds, "are there kept in plots of ground scaffolded about for the beholders to stand safe." The dog kennels are clearly marked upon the plans previously mentioned, and the construction of the amphitheatres themselves may be tolerably well realised, notwithstanding the smallness of the scale upon which the plans -are drawn. They evidently consisted within of a lower tier of circular seats for the spectators, at the back of which a sort of screen ran all round, in part open, so as to admit a view from without, as is evident from Braun's plan, by the figures of men who arc looking through on the outside. The buildings are unroofed, and in both plans they are shown during the time of performance, indicated on Aggas's plan by the display of streamers at the lop. The dogs are tied up in slips near to each building ready for the sport, and in Braun's plan the combatants are actually engaged. I have said that the rage for these exhibitions prevailed amongst all classes. When Queen Mary visited her sister, the Princess Elizabeth, during her detention at Hatheld House. the next morning after mass a grand exhibition of bear-baiting was made for their amusement, with which, it is said, " their highnesses were right well content.'* After Elizabeth had ascended the throne, there are frequent notices of her attendance at such sports, for. as Strutt observes. " though a woman, she possessed a masculine mind, and preferred, or affected to prefer, the exercise of the chase and other recreations pursued by men rather than those usually appropriated to her sex." On the '20th May, 1599, soon after her accession to the throne, the Queen * Nicholls' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, Vol. I.

13 gave a splendid dinner to the French Ambassadors, who afterwards were entertained with the baiting of bulls and bears, " and the Queen herself stood with the Ambassadors looking at the pastime till six at night. The day following the same Ambassadors went by water from Paul's Wharf to Paris Gardens, on the opposite shore, where they saw another baiting of bulls and bears. Again, some twenty years afterwards, Elizabeth received the Danish Ambassador at Greenwich, who was treated with the sight of a bear and bull-baiting, " tempered " says llolinshed, '"with other merry disports, and for the diversion of the populace there was a horse with an ape upon his back which highly pleased them, so that they expressed their inward conceived joy and delight with shrill shouts and variety of gestures.' On Saturday the 9th July, 1575, Elizabeth paid her historical visit to Kenilworth. and a round of amusements and diversions were planned for her entertainment. On the Thursday following she was treated to a grand bear-baiting, an exhibition that was to have been followed on a succeeding day by a bull-baiting; but time did not allow, and the Queen had to leave Kenilworth without the satisfaction of participating in the sport upon that occasion. Laneham, speaking of abear-baiting exhibition before Elizabeth in this year, 1575, says : " It was a sport very pleasant to see the bear, with his pink eyes tearing after his enemy's approach, the nimbleness and nait of the dog j to take his advantage, and the force and experience of the bear again, to avoid his assaults. If he were bitten in one place, how he would pinch in another to get free ; that if he were taken once, then with what shift, with * Nicholls' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth.

14

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. in his " Histriornastix," gives the following account of the calamity, though probably exaggerated, for he was a rabid Puritan, which furnishes a quaint idea of the amusement of the people three hundred years ago. " Upon the 13th January anno 1583, being the Lord's day, an infinite number of people, men, women, and children, resorted unto Paris Garden to see beare-baytyng, playes, and other pastimes, and being altogether mounted aloft upon these scaffolds and galleries, and in the midst of all their jollity and pastime, all the whole building (not one stick so much as standing) fell down miraculously to the ground, with much horror and confusion. In the fall of it, five men and two women were slam outright, and above one hundred and fifty persons more sore wounded and bruised, whereof many died shortly after; some of them having their braines dashed out, some their heads all to quash, some their leggea broken, some their amies, some their backs, some one hurt some another, there being nothing heard but wofull shreekes and cryes which did even pierce the skies; children bewailing there the death and hurts of their parents, parents of their children, wives of their husbands, and husbands of their wives, so that every way, from foure of the clock in the afternoon till nine at night, especially over London Bridge, many were carried in chaires, and led betwixt their friends, and so brought to their houses with sorrowful heavy hearts, like lame cripples. A just, though terrible judgement of God upon these playhaunters and prophaners of His holy day." The Puritans strenuously maintained that this incident was a visitation of Providence, and the Lord Mayor for that year wrote to the Lord Treasurer, asking him to use his influence to suppress the diversions. The

biting, with clawing, with roaring, with tossing and tumbling, he would work and wind himself from them ; and when he was loose, to shake his ears twice or thrice, with the blood and the slaver hanging about his physiognomy." The same writer tells us that thirteen bears were provided for this occasion, and they were baited with a great sort of ban dogs. The manner in which these sports were exhibited towards the close of the sixteenth century is thus described by Hentzner, a German traveller, whose itinerary was printed in 1598, and who was present at one of these performances :" There is still another place built in the form of a theatre, which serves for the baiting of bulls and hears; they are fastened behind, and then worried by great English Bulldogs, but not without great risk to the dogs, from the horns of the one and the teeth of the other, and it sometimes happens that they are killed on the spot; but fresh ones are immediately supplied in the places of those that are wounded or tired. To this entertainment there often fellows that of whipping a blinded bear."' Though the baiting of bulls and bears was a diversion of daily occurrence in London ; until the time of the Commonwealth, holidays, and especially Sundays, were the times at which the populace generally would be able to be present. Precaution was taken for the safety of the spectators, but in spite of this accidents were by no means infrequent. A terrible accident happened at the Bankside Bear Gardens on Sunday, January 13, 1588, by the fall of a scaffold that had been overloaded. The fanatical writers of the day represented the disaster as a judgment from Heaven because the exhibition took place on a Sunday. Amongst the rest, Prynne,

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. accident was however soon forgotten and the sports went on as usual. Indeed, that the Puritanic opinion was not universally held is proved from an anecdote recorded of Sir Thomas More, a further proof of the truth of the old adage, "The better the day the better the deed." ITe says, "At Beverley, late, much of the people being at a bear-baiting one Sunday, the church fell suddenly down at evensong time, and over-' whelmed some that then were in it. A good fellow that after heard the tale told : ' So.' quoth he, ' now may you see what it is to be at evensong when you should be at the bearbaiting.' " An order of the Privy Council in 1591 prohibited the exhibition of plays on Thursdays, because on Thursdays bear-baitings and suchlike pastimes had been usually practised ; and an injunction was sent to the Lord Mayor that " in divers places the players do use to recite their plays to the great hurt and destruction of the game of bear-baiting and like pastimes, which are maintained for her Majesty's pleasure." The elegant and varied amusements of Queen Elizabeth are well illustrated in a letter written by Rowland White to Sir Robert Sidney.. The date is May 12th, 1600. " Her Majesty is very well. This day she appointes to see a Frenchman doe feates upon a rope in the Conduit Court. Tomorrow she hath commanded the beares, the bull, and the ape to be baited in the Tilt Yard. Upon Wednesday she will have solemn dauncing." James I., in 1618, by his " Pook of Sports," prohibited bear and bull-baitings on Sundays, yet the baitings and divine service went hand in hand. I have shown that mass preceded the bear baiting which Mary and her sister

15 Elizabeth witnessed at Hatfield, and that the Tutbury bull-running was preceded by a service in church ; so Carleton, writing to Sir Thomas Edmonds, mentions that the Easter holidays of that year " were spent at court with accustomed solemnities. The Sunday was well suited with two reverend preachers, the Pishop of Bath to the household, and Chichester before the King. The Tuesday whereof the afternoon was spent in bearbaiting, was as well-fitted with a chaplain, one Dr. Smith, head of a house in Cambridge, who so well baited all the great ones for abusing the King's ear in preferment of suit .... that I know not how he escaped baiting himself." King James was, like his predecessor, accustomed to regale ambassadors and other great foreign personages with bear or bull-baiting ; thus, in 1628, Chamberlain wrote:"The Spanish Ambassador is much delighted in bearbaiting. He was there last week, where they showed him all the pleasure they could both with bull. bear, and horse, besides jackanapes, and then turned a white bear into the Thames, where the dogs baited him swimming, which was the best sport of all." Charles I., like his father, was very fond of bull and bear-baiting, and the privy purse expenses bear witness to the frequency with which he amused himself with such sports in the earlier years of his reign, before the evil days came. Thus, in 1632, Gabriel Marsh, Marshal of the Admiralty and Master of the Bears, received 10 for his services in baiting them before the King and Queen at Whitsuntide. Charles II. languidly patronised the sport, and as I have already stated, it was in his reign that the royal bears were removed from Pankside to Hockley-in.-the-Hole. An

16

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. sealed. When Anne came to the throne she discountenanced all such amusements, and respectability immediately voted them low and vulgar. Bull-baiting survived for nearly another century and a half, but decent people began to shun the sport, and its votaries were shortly to be found only among the common people. The newspapers of Anne's time frequently contained advertisements of baitings that were to take place, but the very form in which the announcements were made prove that the amusement had fallen from its high estate, and that a great gulf existed between the sport of kings of the beginning of the seventeenth century and the barbarous recreation which it had become at its close. The following advertisements appeared in 1706 : "At the Bear Garden in Hockley-in-theHole, near Clerkenwell Green, this present Monday, there is a great match to be fought by two dogs of Smithfield Bars against two dogs of Hampstead, at the Reading Bull, for one guinea, to be spent, five let goes out of hand, which goes fairest and farthest in wins all. The famous Bull of Fireworks, which pleased the gentry to admiration. Likewise there are two bear dogs, to jump three jumps apiece at the bear ; who jumps highest for ten shillings, to be spent. Also variety of bull-baiting and bear baiting ; it being a day of general sport by all the old gamesters ; and a bulldog to be drawn up with fireworks. Beginning at three o'clock." Another advertisement of about the same date is as follows : "At William Wells'Bear Garden, in Tuttle Fields, Westminster, this present Monday, there will be a green bull baited ; and twenty

account of bear-baiting as practised in this reign is given in " A Description of England and Ireland," published in 1672 by a Frenchman, Mons. Jorevin, but as it furnishes no details other than those already given, it is unnecessary that I should make any quotations. He visited the Bear Garden at Bankside, and on one occasion witnessed a fencing match which appears to have been fought a outrance, as one of the combatants had his wrist almost cut off, while his antagonist lost "a slice of his head and almost all his ear." Jorevin strongly denounced the inhumanity and cruelty of the spectacle. Steele may have had the Frenchman's strictures in mind when writing in The Tatler thirty-seven years afterwards (1709). He says:" Some French writers have represented the diversions of the common people much to our disadvantage, and imputed it to a natural fierceness and cruelty of temper, as they do some other entertainments peculiar to our nation. I mean those elegant diversions of bull-baiting and prize-fighting, with the like ingenious recreations of the bear garden. I wish I knew how to answer this reproach which is cast upon us, and excuse the death of so many innocent cocks, bulls, dogs, and bears as have been set together by the ears or died an untimely death only to make us sport." * With the death of Charles II. bull and bear-baiting altogether ceased to be fashionable amusements, although the sport was still immensely popular with the ci.mmon people. But as soon as the Court withdrew its favour the ultimate fate of this form of amusement, as far as the higher classes were concerned, was practically * Tatler, Feb. 16th, 1709.

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. dogs to fight for a collar, the dog that runs farthest and fairest wins the collar, with other diversions of bull and bear baiting. Beginning at two o'clock." It is not quite clear as to the exact time when bear-baiting at Bankside was altogether discontinued, but it was probably about this period. Strype, in his first edition of Stow, published in 1720, speaking of Bear Alley, on this spot, says:" Here is a glass house, and about the middle a new-built court, well inhabited, called Bear Garden Square, so called as being built in the place where the Bear Garden formerly stood, until removed to the other side of the water, which is more convenient for the butchers and suchlike who are taken with such rustic sports as the baiting of bears and bulls." In bull-baiting the object the dog was required to effect was that termed "pinning and holding;" that is, to seize the bull by the nose, and then not to leave go the hold. As the bull's nose was his most tender part, he was rendered helpless when seized by it. The bull in fighting would, as a matter of course, lower his head to use his horns, and was sometimes provided with a hole in which to bury his nose. He had a collar about his neck, fastened to a thick rope some four or five yards long, hung to a hook, and so attached to a stake that it might turn round. By means of this rope the bull circulated to watch his enemy. The dog when properly trained would " play low," that is, would keep his own head close to the ground, or if of arger size would creep on his belly to avoid being above the bull's horns, his object, of course, being, if possible, to seize the bull by the nose. The bull, meanwhile, would endeavour as carefully to defend it by laying it close to the ground, the game bulls (old

17 veterans) frequently scraping a hole for themselves, when one was not provided, and with his horns he attempted to toss the dog. On some occasions a hull would toss a dog thirty and even forty feet high. The men about endeavoured to catch the falling dogs upon their shoulders to lighten their fall. Sand, too, was usually laid upon the ground, but a great many dogs were killed, more had their limbs broken, and dogs frequently held so fast that their teeth were broken, as the bulls swung them about. It not infrequently happened that the men were tossed as well as the dogs, and the old writer * from whom I have gathered these particulars quaintly adds " men, bull, and dog seem exceedingly pleased, and as earnest at the sport as if it were for both their lives and livelihoods. Many great wagers are laid on both sides, and great journeys will men and dogs go for such a diversion." From the commencement of the present century bull-baiting, although, as I have shown, it was still patronised, especially in middle and northern England, practically became an obsolete sport; when it was practised it was attended only by the lowest part of the populace, and something like a thrill of horror was felt by the better class of the community when it learned that such an exhibition had taken place. A Bill to abolish bull-baiting was, however, thrown out in the House of Commons on its second reading, the 21th May, 1802, chiefly through the influence of Mr. William Windham, who, in a speech in favour of the custom, declared that the pluck of the English nation would certainly decrease if the bill were allowed to pass. Sheridan, in his speech in its favour, said : " What sort of moral lesson would it be to * " John Houghton's Collection." 1694. 3

18

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. hews her to pieces without quitting her grip, while he sells her puppies at five guineas apiece! " * As a further proof of how hard even the cruellest custom will die when it is rooted in the affections of the people, it may be remembered that the first act for the prevention of cruelty to animals, known from the name of the member of Parliament who introduced the bill as Martin's Act, proved ineffective for the suppression of the sport, as the bull was not mentioned therein by name, because the express mention of the animal would have caused the rejection of the Bill, and it was not until 1835, that both bull and bear-baiting, as well as dog fighting, were prohibited by law. Of this latter debased form of " sport" I shall have something to say in the next chapter. * See Ante page 7.

the wife and children of the farmer who sold his bull for the purpose of being baited to see the poor simple, harmless animal, which for years they had cherished as a favourite, and learned to look on with affection, tied to a stake, worried by dogs, and his bleeding tongue torn out of his mouth by the roots ? But this cruelty was not the only cruelty exercised on these occasions. What sort of moral lesson, for instance, was it to the children of the farmer who brings his aged bull-bitch, many years the faithful sentinel of his house and farmyard, surrounded by her pups, to prove at the bull-ring the staunchness of her breed? He brings her forward; sets her at the infuriated animal. She seizes him by the nose and pins him to the ground. But what is the reward from her owner amidst the applauses of the mob to his favourite animal? He calls for a hedging bill, and to prove her breed

Historical Sketch of the Bulldog. While I was preparing for a second edition of this work, Mr. George R. Krehl, editor of the Stockkeeper kindly sent me a photograph of an old bronze plaque, which' has been unearthed by Mr. John Proctor, of Antwerp, and, when giving it to me with permission to publish it, informed me that the, former gentleman purchased the medallion in Paris from Monsieur A. Provendier, a wellknown breeder of toy bulldogs, who himself had bought it from a trainer of dogs who visits the Sundaydog market of that City, its original possessor being a Parisian bric-a-brac dealer. The head has certainly the appearance of that of a cropped bulldog. The description above the head reads, Dogue de Burgo Espagne. The date is 1625, and the name of the artist, Cazalla. The appearance of the plaque indicates its age, and everything points to the probability of its genuineness. Mr. Proctor took his find to a connoisseur in such matters, who pronounced it authentic. Burgos is the principal town in the old province of Old Castille,in Spain, a town formerly noted for the breeding of dogs for use in the arena, and still a centre of the national pastime, bull fighting. Mr. Krehl is of opinion that this discovery tends to support the argument that the British Bulldog is of Spanish origin, and that the original home of the breed was Spain. In the earlier pages of this chapter, I have pointed out that it is a matter of pure speculation whether the bulldog or the mastiff, or indeed either, can be considered the indigenous dog of England, and I have at some length stated my reasons for considering that both breeds were probably derived from the old English alaunt or allan. The date of the medallion is, as already

19 stated, 1625, but I have adduced evidence from a contemporary writer, that a dog existed, known by the name of bulldog, or, as it was then written, bolddogge, as early as the reign of Richard III., while in 1631, only six years after the date of Mr. Proctor's plaque, the English merchant. Eaton, residing at St. Sebastian, instructs his friend Williugham, dwelling at St. Swithin's Lane, in the City of London, to procure him a couple ol good bulldogs, whieh he desired sent to him as a present for some Spanish friends. It is with great pleasure that I am able, by reason of Mr. Krehl's courtesy, to publish this interesting memento of the past, the head is distinctly of the bulldog type, it enables us the better to understand how the late Mr. F. Adcock came to form the opinion that the Spanish dogs which he brought over here were true bulldogs, and there can be little doubt that those animals were of the same type of dog as the existing English Bulldog,but I am bound to say that the latest evidence in favour of Mr. Adcock's contention is hardly sufficient to refute the evidence which 1 have brought together in the earlier portions of this chapter as to the origin of our national breed. The weight of evidence is clearly in favour of the conclusion that the English Bulldog is of British origin, although other countries may have produced a dog with many similar characteristics. Mr. Krehl who takes such an interest in the bulldog, has certainly added a link in the chain of evidence as to its origin, but until more cogent proof is adduced, the vast majority of the Bulldogs' many and warm partisans will continue to regard him as an undoubted British production.

20

The Bulldog as Dog Fighter.

CHAPTER II. THE BULLDOG AS DOG FIGHTER. A HISTORICAL sketch of the Bulldog would be incomplete which contained no reference to the vicious amusement sport it was not of dog-fighting, and this chapter is therefore devoted to giving some account of perhaps the most brutal of the many debasing pastimes to which our forefathers were addicted. To those who live in the humanising environment of the present time, it appears almost incredible that well on to the first half of the nineteenth century "sporting noblemen " could publicly announce their intention to match their dogs at Westminster Pit; that Eton boys, released from severer studies, would wend their way to Bachelors' Acre or the Brocas to engage in dog-fighting or badger-baiting, and that the advertising columns of /tail's Life regularly contained announcements to the "Fancy" that Mr So-and-so "would match his dog Jack or Billy against any dog breathing at 18lbs " at one or other of the numerous " pits " which abounded in the metropolis But perhaps undue elation at the great change in the manners and morals of fin de siccle society would be'premature, for, as I shall presently show, the " sport " is not yet wholly extinct, and there are those who assert that a " set-to " is by no means a rare occurrence in that portion of the Midlands which, if the assertion be true, is well designated the " black country." Dog-fighting was one of the amusements afforded to our ancestors at the bear gardens at Bankside and elsewhere, to which reference has been made in the preceding chapter. Burnet, in his " History of My Own Times," refers to dog-fighting, which he comments upon with just reprehension ; he further informs us that the ladies were great admirers of such brutal sports, and frequenters of the gardens at which these scenes were enacted. For this base and degraded practice the Bulldog was anciently very much in request. Later a cross between a Bulldog and some other breed, usually the terrier, superseded the pure Bulldog, as it was found that such a cross produced a dog possessed of greater quickness, who consequently was able to get the first holdan important matter where dog-fighting is concerned. Still the Bulldog always had hjs admirers amongst those who practised this form of sport- Thus Jesse mentions Lord Camelford's renowned Bulldog Belcher, who fought one hundred and four battles and never met defeat. Old volumes of the Sporting Magazine contain frequent accounts of contests between Bulldogs. One specimen will suffice. *"DOG FIGHTING.The Westminster Pit

The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. as crowded on Tuesday evening, January 18, with all the dog fanciers in the metropolis to witness a battle between the celebrated dog Boney and a black novice called Gas, lately introduced to the fancy by Charley, to whom the dog belongs. The stakes were forty sovereigns, and everything was arranged to the satisfaction of the amateurs. The pit was lighted with an elegant chandelier and a profusion of wax lights. The dogs were brought to the scratch at eight o'clock in excellent con-

21 immediately bled and put into a warm bath. There were nearly three hundred persons present." It was a Bulldog and a Bull bitch also who were respectively the hero and the heroine of the combat which took place at that same historic temple of the "Fancy," the Westminster Pit, some six years previously, the card of invitation to which lies before me as I write. The " scratch " was a chalked line in the

dition, and were seconded by their respective masters. Boney was the favourite at 3 to 1, and so continued till within ten minutes of the termination of the contesta confidence arising solely from his known bottom, for to the impartial spectator Gas took the lead throughout. The battle lasted an hour and fifty minutes, when Boney was carried out insensible. He was * The Sporting Magazine, 1825.

centre of the pit. The dogs were " played " at opposite corners, and each dog in turn had to cross the "scratch" and fetch his opponent out of his corner. It is a mistake to suppose that the dogs were set on each other. Writers who have described these matches state that the animals were only too anxious to be at work, and would literally scream with rage, or at other times utter no sound at all, but lower their heads and watch each other

22

The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. There were other details, many of a sickening character, connected with a dog fight in the "good old times," but these I will spare the reader. It must not be forgotten that not only was this amusement engaged in by the lower, but also by the upper classes, and that such matches were of every-day occurrence, and that dog dealers and breeders of reputation were prepared to offer facilities for the " sport " for the private delectation of their patrons. Before me lies the " business " card of a well known dealer of the period, which is sufficiently interesting to be given fac simile:

with bloodshot eyes, and an ominous licking of the jaws. Once released by the seconds they would fly straight at each other's throats and become locked together in a life and death struggle. Rarely growling or whimpering at all, they would bite and tear in grim silence, as though anxious to rip limb from limb. In a few minutes the sawdust became soaked with blood, and huge gaping wounds would appear on head, chest, and legs. Various dogs adopted different tactics J some would fight at the head, others at the throat, others at the legs, which not infre-

quently in such cases would be broken. The "round" ended when one of the dogs "turned;" that is, loosened his hold to breathe ; both dogs were then taken to their corners and sponged. About a minute was allowed between each " round." The duration of a fight varied considerably; it might last three or four hours and then end in a " draw."

Ben White some seventy years ago was a well known figure in canine circles, and was probably the last member of the " Fancy," in London at least, who made dog-fighting and kindred diversions the main business of their lives. Old Conduit Fields at that period was mere waste land, and sufficiently removed from the busy haunts of men to offer a con-

The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. venient locale for a "sport," which was even then beginning to be eyed with suspicion by the authorities. In Ben's " accommodation pit" his patrous could at all times ensure the amusements of dog - fighting, ratting, badgering, or cocking, as their inclination might tend. Ben is the central figure in the well-known picture of "Ben White running his Bulldog Tumbler and Lady Sandwich's Bess at the head of Bill Gibbons's bull," prints of which are still by no means uncommon, where his odd figure, queer, shrewd face, and club feet, as he cheers on a couple of Bulldogs to attack the bull, are likely to render him immortal for all time. After a while he removed from Old Conduit Fields to Kensal New Town, where, under the respectable aspect of a guileless and innocent vendor of dogs, he carried on the old game until his death, some fifty-five years ago. To him succeeded Bill George, who, at the same place, thenceforward to be known as " Canine Castle," conducted a really legitimate business,' until his decease, at the age of seventynine, on June 4, 1881. On the passing of the Act of 1835, dogfighting declined, as the pastime became too hazardous for its votaries, under ordinary circumstances, to engage in it. As late as 1871, however, a writer in a Birmingham paper, whose article affords much information upon the more recent history of the subject, gives a graphic description both of the preliminaries and of the actual conflict. Such contests, he states, were at that date of frequent occurrence at Walsall and its neighbourhood. "All preliminaries being settled," he says, " the deposits paid up, the dogs duly weighed, a referee appointed, and so forth, a day is fixed for the encounter, and the 'office,' or

23 'griffin' given to the select circle of blackguardly patrons. It is hard to say where the rendezvous may bean old barn, a public house cellar, or some secluded spot. Great are the precautions taken to evade the law : doors are barred, windows blocked up, and every aperture closed. No person can quit the place under any circumstances until the fight is over; the temperature is often quite tropical, and men strip to the shirt, and sit bathed in perspiration, and half fainting, for hours together. A few rats and a terrier are generally at hand as decoys, so that if a police raid should take place, the canine combatants would be stowed away somewhere, and the officers may drop in upon a party of men mildly engaged in killing a few rats. Before the proceedings commence, a leader looks round the brutal faces of the company, and asks if ' everybody is known,' and woe betide the unlucky stranger who has not proper credentials ; he will get remarkably full change for his shilling entrance (or gate) money."* I have already described what the fight itself was like, and it is unnecessary, therefore, that I should recapitulate. We are frequently reminded however that the amusement is not yet altogether unknown. In The Licensed Victuallers' Gazette for January 27, 1899, in an obituary notice of a bull-bitch, the chronicler says: " Some time back, when she belonged to a bulldog fancier who liked to try what ' sand ' his pets had, she fought for two hours and a quarter." "Early in the fight," the bitch " was unlucky enough to get bitten right through one knee, and she had consequently to ' come ' on three legs and a swinger. A bit later " she was again bitten " in the kneeonly it was the other knee this timeand * Birmingham Daily Mail, Nov. 23rd, 1371.

The Bulldog as Dog Fighter. yet after that she kept on coming, like Widdrington in 'Chevy Chase.' who 'When his legs were smitten off, still fought upon his stumps.' " In the same week that this obituary was published, a dog fight took place in the neighbourhood of Regent's Park, described as a stubborn one, lasting one hour and seventeen minutes, and was reported in the London newspapers. Still, if dog-fighting is not yet quite a thing of the past, it is certainly in extremis. It is sixty-five years since such sports were first prohibited by law, and what immense strides forward have we since made in the humane and kindly treatment of our friend the dog ! The bad old days have gone, never to return. The dog is now firmly established as the family pet, the attached follower, the companion of our sports, and the guardian of our homes; never again, in England at least, to be put to ignoble use, or to minister to a depraved appetite for brutalising and debasing " sport."

Old Fanciers, and Old Dogs.

25

CHAPTER III. OLD FANCIERS, AND OLD DOGS. SO far I have dealt with periods prior to dog showing days, of periods when the Bulldog was used for practical purposes, for work and not for show. In the times already referred to, the amusements of the people were sadly lacking in humanity, and especially so where the animal creation was concerned. The gross cruelty practised was deplorable, and it is a relief to find that with the commencement of the Nineteenth Century also began the dawn of more enlightened views regarding the treatment of dumb animals. The more seriousminded and humane section of the community began to think that, after all, the prevailing amusements, such as bull baiting with Bulldogs, bear baiting, dog fighting, were blots which could very well be swept away with advantage, both to man and beast. Perhaps few customs have died harder than dog and cock fighting, and even now-a-days instances occasionally occur when the practices are secretly carried on. As legal sports, however, the practices of bull and bear baiting and dog fighting ceased with the Act of Parliament already referred to, and the Bulldog's occupation was gone. From that time forward the breed began to deteriorate, and, with the era of modern dog shows, the appearance of an up-to-date specimen became a caricature of the active and plucky animal that baited the bull, and which was a dangerous customer at any time. For the show bench as an object lesson of what can be done by scientific breeding for "points," the Bulldog is an excellent example of the triumph of man over nature, but as an example of what the dog originally was he can hardly be considered a success. The early show Bulldogs were not so cloddy as the exaggerated specimens now are, they were not so heavily built that their powers of locomotion were impeded, nor were they in temperament the soft-hearted, make-friendswith-anybody kind of animal of the present day ; on the contrary, they might well be described as dare-devil intelligent brutes, game, possessing a wonderful degree of tenacity and stamina, and capable from their build of putting their powers to effective test. There being after the passing of the Act no inducements for breeding, or keeping, the Bulldog, the breed began to diminish in numbers as well as quality, and had it not been for the fact that the practice of dog fighting died very hard, and the existence of some fanciers who kept and bred specimens notwithstanding that the "sport" had fallen upon evil days, the breed would in all probability have become extinct, an event, indeed, which was perilously near consummation more than once during the present century. The commence-

26

Old Fanciers, and Old Dogs. dogs he owned, one of his best was Young King Dick, a dog bred by Jacob Lamphier, of Birmingham. He turned out so good that the old Birmingham fancier got his son, Fred Lamphier, to purchase him back again, which he did for 40, a large sum to pay in those days for a Bulldog. Lola Montes, a fallow and white specimen, was another of his best. For a long time she never bred, but on being turned loose in the kennel, she eventually commenced to breed, and from that time bred regularly, doing good service as a brood bitch. Viper and Wasp were two excellent lightweight specimens owned by George, whilst Dan, a heavy weight, who scaled 65 lbs., he sold for 100. After the purchase, the young gentleman, who gave what was in those days a long price, took the dog to Long's Hotel, when it performed the feat of jumping through a pane of glass without injury to itself. Ringer was another of the good specimens bred by Bill George, and which was very like the well-known Ajax, also bred by him. He was a white and brindle dog, and did a lot of winning for Mr. Adcock. Duchess, a bitch under 30 lbs. and a prize winner, was also bred by Mr. George. There were, of course, other old-time breeders who kept and bred Bulldogs, and from some of these Bill George drew his supplies. Jim Green, of Somers Town, was one of these, as was also an old fellow known by the name of " Whiskers, the Navvy." Lutey, an old Chelsea pensioner, always kept Hulldogs, 40 years ago, and reared plenty fur Bill George. Ted Burridge, of Somefs Town, and Jim Ferriman, who lived in Macclesfield Street, City Road, too, kept and bred Bulldogs, many years ago, and Mike Lee, of St. Luke's, also owned a number of Bulldogs, as likewise did a Ned Wilkinson. Jim Shaw,

ment of the dog show era, however, drew marked attention towards the breed, and created another incentive for breeding specimens of the old English Bulldog. Of the old school of fanciers, Ben White was, as stated in the last chapter, a typical dog breeder, dealer, and keeper of fighting Bulldogs, but his successor, the late Mr. William George, better known as Bill George, stands out prominently as the most remarkable man of his time in this particular line. Bill George, on the death of Ben White, succeeded to the latter's business of a dog dealer and, christening the premises in Kensal Rise the Canine Castle, he carried on the business of a dog dealer and breeder in such a way that he became noted as an honourable dealer at a time when dog dealing was looked upon as an occupation whose professors were not particularly noted for their practice of honesty. He specialised in Bulldogs, and bred and possessed many good specimens, and when during the latter part of his life, dog shows became the vogue, his kennel produced dogs as well able to win on the show bench and breed winners, as, formerly, specimens of their strain had been able to hold their own in the dog pit. Bill George's Canine Castle obtained a remarkable reputation, and by the kind permission of the proprietors of "Punch," I am able to give a reproduction from its pages of an amusing illustration of Bill George's kennels as they appeared according to Mr. Punch. This illustration of " Punch's visit to a remarkable place," at the commencement of this chapter, showing Bill George's Bulldogs in barrels, is sufficient evidence of the late fancier's reputation and unique position in the dog world at that time. Of the show Bull-

Old Fanciers, and Old Dogs. and his son, Billy Shaw, kept specimens of the breed, both owning many creditable dogs. Billy Shaw owned a good dog called Duke. Charles Stockdale, Charles Aistrop, Jack Clarke, of Marylo bone, and Harry Orme, of Shoreditch, all London fanciers, went in for the breed. The latter bred very small specimens, as did Bill Tapper and others, alluded to in the Chapter on Toy Bulldogs. It was not until 1850 that dog shows, as we now know them, were first held. Directly these exhibitions were placed upon a firm footing, Bulldog classes began to be provided, and, as already stated, a fresh incentive to breed them was offered to the dog fancier. As time passed, the number of votaries of the breed increased, and for show purposes we find that specimens were being bred principally in three great centres,namely, London, Birmingham, and Sheffield. There were, of course, specimens to be found elsewhere, but the majority of the successful breeders in the earlier days of dog shows were to be found in one or other of these cities. Of the London fancy in the show Bulldog line somewhat later, two London breeders may be mentioned as standing out conspicuously, viz.. Mr. J. W, Berrie and the late Mr. Verinder. One of the earliest prize winners bred by the former was " Old " King Cole, who, however, should not be confounded with King Cole of later years, also bred by Mr. Berrie, and whose blood for stud purposes gave him quite a posthumous notoriety in later years. Mr. Berrie also bred Champion Venom, Champion Monarch, Champion Gannster, Britannia, Berrie, Black wall Crib (better known as Blewitts Crib), Jess, Cervantes, and comparatively recently Champion Blackwall Beauty and many other specimens

27 might be added to these. Mr. Verinder, who resided at Barnet, bred largely, and in the sixties bred such prize winners as Poll and Nosegay, and in the seventies he bred a number of successful animals, among them being Bill Sykes and Fagin, a white and brindledog. He also bred the celebrated Slenderman, at first known as Gordon Murray, Young Sir Anthony, Mona, and Rose, all successful prise winners. Ned Clarke, of London, also bred some good specimens. Harry Layton, besides owning various celebrated animals, also bred some good specimens in the seventies, the best being that fine specimen, Champion Smasher. Among other prize winners, too, bred by this old fancier, were Billy, Kit, and Miss Smasher. Another London breeder was the late Mr. Jack Ashburne, also known as " City " Jack. He prided himself in being one of the old school, and in latter days never lost an opportunity of expostulating against the tendency to breed what he termed cripples and monstrosities. His chief successes were Gun, Clicquot, Warrior, Madame Lola, and Ada, all bred by him in the seventies, and all prize winners. Other London supporters of the breed at the period were Tom Ball, then of Peckham, who bred that good dog Lord Nelson. He was also the breeder of Othello and Bonnie Bessie, whilst later on he put Champion Ruling Passion to his credit. He was likewise the actual breeder of Champions His Lordship, Cigarette, etc. but parted with the dam before she whelped. Messrs. Craft r, Frank Redmond, Stockdale, Billy Page, W. Newton who bred, among others, Peerless, and in conjunction with Mr. P. Rust, the wonderful-headed Adrastus James Goode, Teddy Morgan, Robert Fulton, G. Sandle, E. Nichols, Rivers Wilson, Jim Ferriman. W. H. Tyzer, and Edwin

28

Old

Fanciers, and Old Dogs. was very successful, and dogs of his breeding, which won prizes, were numerous. And let me pause here to say that, in speaking of prizes in this chapter and throughout this work, I refer to prizes won at important shows, mostly under Kennel Club Rules. Fred Lamphier bred Rush, Queen Bess, Minnie, Gipsy Queen, Duchess, Young King (re - named Bumble), Crack, Teddy Clinker, Duke, the notable Champion Crib (better known as Turton's Crib), and Thunder, later on known as Champion Richard Coeur de Lion, Sir Anthony, and others. Very old fanciers who bred in Sheffield long before dog shows became the vogue were the brothers Jim and Tom Gibbons, and coming to times contemporary with those I am dealing with, we find a curious character in "Fakey " Joe Joseph Taylor was his real namebut his friends knew him as " Fakey." Other Sheffield breeders were Tommy Barber, George Mosley, Peter Wilson, Tom Spencer, T. Nuttal, and a good supporter of the breed was Mr. Thos. Turton, who eventually became owner of Champion Crib, in whose ownership this marvellous dog died. Besides London, Birmingham, and Sheffield, other towns possessed Bulldog fanciers in the early days of dog-showing. From Manchester hailed that ardent fancier, Mr. J. Henshall, who bred Duke III., Peg, Bismark (not Meagre's), and Julius Caesar, and W. Webb, of Ipswich, bred Meagre's Bismark, Faust and Champion Ida. Mr. Joseph Bowman was a well-known Ipswich breeder, and Mr. P. Rust, also of Ipswich, bred such notable specimens as Master Gully, Champion Sancho Panza, Lulu, Guppy, Champion Diogenes and Draco. Mr. J. C. Lyell, of Dundee, bred Leeb, and later on Champion Britomartes, and

Farquharson, all of London, worked hard with success in the earlier days of dog shows. Mr. Edwin Farquharson, too, bred in the seventies, and put to his credit Rob Roy, and later on Dona Sol and Maritana. Birmingham was a hotbed of the breed in the sixties and seventies, the principal breeders being Messrs. Jacob Lamphier, J. Hincks, E. Booth, Jesse Oswell, G. A. Dawes, and Fred Reeves. Jacob Lamphier, who was the father of Fred Lamphier, named later on as a Sheffield breeder, was a successful fancier, the principal of the produce of his stud of dogs being King Dick, Venom, Meg, Madge, Romanie and Adam, a fallow smut, who is the first Bulldog registered in the Kennel Club Stud Book. I should say, to prevent confusion, that the Lamphier's Venom and King Dick, now referred to, are not the same dogs as Champion King Dick and Champion Venom, the former of which he owned. Mr. Dawes, of Birmingham, in the seventies, bred a number of very useful animals, among the prize winners being Donald, Young David, Dora, Adder, Ajax III., Alpha, Arria, Judy and Queen. Mr. Hincks bred Nelson, Dick and Ben, whilst Mr. Fred Reeves bred Gambler and Punch, and the accidental service of one of his bitches resulted in his being the breeder of Champion Queen Mab in later years. Among other breeders in this city wer Jesse Oswell, J. Guymer, G. Underhill, E. A. Wilkinson, and J. B. Wilkes, all of whom bred winners. Sheffield was the third centre where the Bulldog was fostered in these days, and the most notable of the many of the workng class who cultivated the breed was Jacob Lamphier's son, Fred Lamphier. He

Old Fa nciers, and Old Dogs. as long ago as 1807, the Duke of Hamilton bred Champion Duke. All those named were enthusiastic supporters in the early dog-showing period, and there were many others also who were aiming at breeding better specimens than the best, from a show point of view, yet produced. As

29 time advanced, so did the number of fanciers increase, and the names of the principal breeders and exhibitors of later days are far too numerous to set out at length in this work, and their names, and the names of many I am compelled to omit, can be found in the Kennel Club Stud Book.

30

Early Dog 5hows.

CHAPTER IV. EARLY DOG SHOWSBULLDOG CLASSIFICATION. CREDIT must assuredly be given to the working man for the part be has taken in tbe preservation of the national breed. Tbe abolition of bull and bear baiting and dog fighting brought to an end all excuse for the Bulldog's existence, and even the advent of dog shows did not cause the breed to be preserved and taken up by the rich. The first show ever held, which took place in Newcastle, had only classes for pointers and setters, and at the first show held in Birmingham in the same year, no class was provided for the Bulldog breed. We find, however, in 18(!0, one class allotted to Bulldogs at the Birmingham show of that year, the first prize going to Mr. J. Hincks, the second prize not being awarded. In 18G1, at the North of England Exhibition, held at Leeds, at the meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society, a class was provided for Bulldogs, with two prizes, but in the same year at Birmingham the entries in the class for Bulldogs were good enough to warrant extra first and second prizes. Manchester's first show was held this year, one class being provided for the National breed, and in the following year, at the Agricultural Hall, London, we find two classes provided, one for large size and the other for small-sized specimens, the winner in the heavy weights being Jacob Lamphier's King Dick with Bill George's Dan as runner-up In the small size class, H. Orme won with his Violet. In the same year Birmingham Show provided only one class, King Dick again being the conqueror. The next year (1863), the First Annual Grand National Show was held at Cremorne, Chelsea, and two classes were provided for Bulldogs, one for specimens over 18 lbs. and the other for under 18 lbs. In the " heavy " weight class the winner turned up in the redoubtable King Dick, whilst the light weight winner was W. Tupper's Floss. In the same year was held the first great International Dog Show held at the Agricultural Hall, and here again Lamphier's King Dick carried all before him in the heavy weight class, which was now limited to dogs over 2C lbs., and Orme's Violet took premier honours in the class for Bulldogs under that weight. This year Birmingham varied from its old classification of one class, and provided one for dogs and another for bitches. King Dick again turned up the winner in the dogs, and the same owner's Venom took the first prize in bitches. In the next year (18G4) at the second Cremorne Show, two classes were provided for Bulldogs, King Dick again winning in the heavy weights, and Tupper's Brandy secured first prize in the light weights, and the second International Dog Show at the Agricultural Hall, in the same year with

Early Dog Shows. two classes over and under 20 lbs., the allconquering King Dick again defeated all coiners in the. heavy weight class, Orme's Violet doing the same in the light weight class. At the Birmingham Show of the same year two classes were provided, one for each sex, Lamphier's King Dick again winning in dogs, the same owner carrying off the first prize in bitches with Madge. This year, another show was held in Manchester, one class again being provided for Bulldogs, Mr. Thomas's Gambler winning. In 1865, the third Great International Dog Show was held at the Agricultural Hall, Islington, two classes being provided for Bulldogs over and under 20 lbs., King Dick being again to the fore in heavy weights, whilst in the light weights the first prize was not awarded. After this show, the classification for Bulldogs gradually increased, and we find that at the Birmingham Show, held in December of that year, a Champion class for dogs only was added as well as classes for each sex. King Dick won the championship. It is notable that at Manchester this year, the Bulldogs were given two classes, the classification being for dogs over and under 12 lbs. ! and in the following year (1866) the classification was the same. In 18GG, Birmingham dropped its classification to two classes, one for dogs and another for bitches, and did the like in 18G7, Manchester following suit in the same year, and neither provided any better classification in 1808. In 1869, however, at the first exhibition of the National Dog Club, held in Islington, matters took a turn for the better, for the national breed, and classes were provided for dogs and bitches, and also a mixed class for specimens under 21 lbs. Birmingham, however, stuck to its old classification of two classes this year, and -Manchester had the same as Birmingham. In 1870, the first Crystal Palace

31 Show was held, but only two classes were provided for Bulldogs,- and at Birmingham the same year, the classification was the same as before, as it was also at Manchester. In 1871 the classification was better at the Crystal Palace, but not at Birmingham. This year Manchester again supplied a class for each sex. The first Edinburgh and Glasgow Shows were held this year ; only one class was provided. In 1872, a show was held at Dublin, and two classes for Bulldogs were provided, while Glasgow, and Edinburgh's second venture provided only one class each. At the Crystal Palace Show, however, the classification was better. At the Grand National Dog Show this year, held at Nottingham, it is interesting to note that the dividing weight, although considerably higher than 12 lbs., was'still low, being only 25 lbs. Two classes were provided. Birmingham this year again provided two classes and Manchester only one. The year 1873 found Glasgow with only one class, and the same may be said of Dublin, Manchester (Free Trade Hall), and Edinburgh. At the Crystal Palace Show this year, the classification remained the same as in 1872, but the dividing weight was raised to 30 lbs. At Nottingham the same year there were two classes, the dividing limit being 25 lbs., but the Birmingham executive made an advance in increasing its classification to four classes, one each for dogs and bitches over and under 24 lbs. Manchester Belle Vue Show had two classes, one each for dogs and bitches. The foregoing particulars will afford the necessary information as to the classification adopted at early shows. It is unnecessary to pursue the subject into modern days; it suffices to say that the breed is well looked

32

Early Dog Shows. tions. It is not at all likely that there will be any diminution in the interest taken in the breed, for it is so well looked after and supported by individual fanciers and societies alike, that it may safely be predicted that the breed will exist for all time

after. Nowadays the classification of Bulldogs is all that can be desired; in fact, so great is the support given to the breed by Show Committees, and the various Specialists' Clubs, that it is generally one of the best catered-for breeds at all public exhibi-

Modern Bulldogs.

33

CHAPTER V. MODERN BULLDOGS.THE PRINCIPAL STRAINS.

THE first Bulldog registered at the Kennel Club was appro priately named Adam. This dog weighed about 30 lbs., and first saw the light in 1864. He belonged to Mr. R. Heathfield and was bred by Jacob Lamphier. Although first in order in the initial volume of the Kennel Club, he was not the earliest dog referred to in it, for Percival's Captain, whose name also appears in the first volume, was born ten years earlier, that is about 1854, and Stockdale's Gruff was whelped in 1858, while others whose names occur in the volume, were also whelped as early as the "fifties." The pedigrees of many of these early representatives of the national breed can, unfortunately, scarcely be relied upon ; still, the genealogical trees proving the descent of famous contemporary Bulldogs are often (historically) of great interest. Many famous animals among the earlier specimens were known by peculiar designations, and this practice applied in some cases even to their owners. For instance, " Gentleman " Brown was the invariable designation of Mr. H. Brown, of Gilling Lodge, Hampstead. He owned a lot of Bulldogs, was an enthusiastic patron of "the fancy," and liked a "scrap" as well'as anybody. The late Mr. Jack Ashburne, too, was better known in the fancy as "City Jack," and is

even so described in the Kennel Club Stud Book, whilst another fancier, Mr. Robert Fulton, is also referred to in it as " Scotch Bob." "Fakey" Joe, of Sheffield, was really Mr. Joseph Taylor, a publican and an ex-butcher of that town. Although he went in for Bulldogs in early "faking" days, he did not gain his title through practising the gentle art of deceiving the judge, but, some of his friends suggested, from the quality of his stock in trade as a purveyor of meat. In many instances the peculiar designations of the dogs were a matter of necessity, owing to so many bearing a similar name ; Crib, for instance, is a name which has been applied to nearly eighty known specimens. No wonder some of these eighty acquired other designations to distinguish them from their numerous namesakes. J. Ford's Crib was also alias Tom Sayers, and J. Hinck's Crib was also known as "the cropped dog." This latter was bred in Paris, the offspring of a Bordeaulais Bulldog, out of Slut I., a hare-lipped sister to King Dick. Mr. G. Blewitt's Crib was known as " Turk," also as Black wall Crib, and Turton's Crib was also known as Sheffield Crib. Some of the earlier specimens acquired their peculiar names from other causes. Baily's Dan was always known as the "Penny Dog," not because he was valued at this sum, but because he was taken round the country with a caravan and exhi-

34

Modern

Bulldogs. sixties, and was a white dog with tulip ears and a frog mouth. He eventually got disqualified at Hanley, owing to his tulip ears having been faked. The first really notable Bulldog on the show bench was Jacob Lamphier's King Dick, and he appeared at a time when the Bulldog, as a show dog, was but at the beginning of his existence. In those days there were all sorts of specimens about, of good, bad, and indifferent quality, and of all sizes. The small Bulldog was very much in evidence in the fifties and sixties, so much so that the dividing weight at the earlier shows was generally about 20 to 25 lbs., and even less. This fact has been quoted as an argument in favour of the French Bulldogs that have during the past few years been introduced to the English show bench, the suggestion being that they are really English Bulldogs, and a survival of days when light weight Bulldogs were commonly seen at shows. In the Midlands, at the period of which I am now speaking, there were to be found quite a number of black Bulldogs, with pepper-coloured limbs; they were known as black-backed Bulldogs, but the purity of their blood is questionable. In early days the term "rough haired" was often used, but this did not imply that they were not smooth coated animals, but had reference only to the quality of the coat, and implied a certain degree of coarseness. Of the winning dogs at the first shows at which classes for Bulldogs were provided, the most conspicuous were G. Whitehouse's Rush, bred in 18G0, T. Spencer's Spring, bred in 185S, J. Percival's Captain, Bill George's Dan, J. B. Pike's Lord Nelson, R. J. Llovd

bited, the price of admission being one penny. The " Penny Dog " was got by Bill George's Pan, out of Bess, an Irish bitch owned by Mr. J. Mullins. Another representative of the national breed which was taken round the country on show was Gipsy, the first specimen owned by Mr. G. W. Richards, who on going to America left it with " Fakey'' Joe to dispose of. That gentleman sold it to a showman, and it was first exhibited at the Sheffield Fair as the Champion Bullbitch of the world. "Dan the Post Worrier" was another of the old Dans, the Penny Dog being his sire, ex Adcock's Puss. The Post Worrier could not stand the sight of a stick, and always seized it. He was bought by an officer, who kept him in the barrack yard chained to a post, which he ultimately gnawed through, hence his name. There are a number of other animals whose names raise curiosity. Percival's Toss, for instance, was known as " the Bristol Road Dog," Steve Kingston's Joe as " the Kensington Dog," Oram's Billy as the " Cremorne Dog," and " the German's Dog " was really Brilliant, owned by Mr. Berdetta, whilst Mr. W. McDonald's Lady, a winner in 18G2, owned to "the Stratford Dog" as her sire. Then there is a bitch recorded, whose only description is " the Navigator's Bitch." Among the earlier Bulldogs there are those, too, which have become known to posterity for other than show reasons, such as Mr. R. Lloyd Price's Michael the Archangel, who, after winning a prize at the Crystal Palace in 1870, was eaten during the siege of Paris in the next year. Little Dick must have been a somewhat interesting specimen. He was born in the

Modern Bulldogs. Price's Romanie and Madge, W. McDonald's Tiny and Wasp, Mike Lee's Kit, J. Hincks Madman and Rose, F. Adcock's Nelly, H. Orme's Violet, J. Lamphier's Venom and Kinj,r Dick. Of the prize winners of those days King Dick was the first to make a gnat name in the stud annals of Bulldogdom. This dog, although one of the earliest specimens exhibited on the show bench, was a first-class animal, and as a stud dog he transmitted his sterling qualities to his progeny and his career may well be taken as the starting point from which has proceeded most of the successful strains of later day Bulldogs. The dog has often been called " Old King Dick " to dissociate him from other King Dicks. In regard to this duplication of names, the regulation of the Kennel Club preventing it was a boon to the pedigree student, for the number of Cribs, Dans, King Dicks, Judys, Jessies, Joes, Bullys, Billys, Nells, Tumblers, Duchesses and so forth, became bewildering and threatened to become chaotic ; indeed, the loose method of naming Bulldogs in vogue in early days has in numerous instances altogether obliterated their identity. Even the same owners frequently possessed more than one dog with identical names and even with identical " sub-titles." Thus there were two dogs named King Dick II., whilst one of these also gloried in the name of "Jumbo,*' "Young Dick/' and "Young King Dick." Champion or "Old King Dick " was whelped in 1858, the year previous to that in which the first Dog Show was held, and he died in 1866. During his show career he carried off a number of prizes and attained the status of a champion, but this was not all, for at stud he was equally successful and was responsible for the good points of many a later day specimen, and the successful prize

35 strains of the present day mostly trace back to him. He got Meg, the dam of Sir Anthony and also King Dick II., who in his turn sired Michael the Archangel already mentioned. The greatest of all his descendants, however, was the noted Champion Crib, often called Turton's or Sheffield Crib. That Champion Crib was a direct descendant of Champion King Dick on his dam's side there is no question, but the accuracy of his pedigree on his sire's side is a matter that never has and probably never will be really cleared up. Historically this is to be regretted, although at this distance of time it is not of the slightest moment for breeding purposes. Champion Crib was bred by Fred Lamphier, of Sheffield, the son of Jacob Lamphier, of Birmingham, and was whelped in 1871. In the Kennel Club Stud Book it is stated that he was by Duke II., ex Rush, and described as "over251bs."in weight. He was, however, a dog of over GO lbs. weight. His pedigree is disputed, as his 3ire is also said to be one of the various Tumblers, probably the dog of that name by King Dick II. ex Slut II., and known as Sheffield Tumbler. Whatever may have been his parentage on his sire's side, he was certainly a wonderful specimen, and in the opinion of such good judges of the breed as Mr. J. W. Berrie, Mr. G. W. Richards and others who knew the dog, and have kept in touch with the breed ever since which greatly adds to the value of their opinion at the present timehe was the best Bulldog that ever graced a show bench. Crib was a heavy weight brindle dog, short in back and limbs, without being in any way a cripple or monstrosity, with an immense skull- He died an unbeaten champion whilst in the ownership of the late Mr. Turton. As a show

36

Modern Bulldogs. were established, the members of which have practically monopolised the prizes at shows ever since. The first of these strains is that arising from the union of Champion Crib with Mr. Berrie's Rose, the second from his being mated with Mr. F. Lamphier's Meg, the third from his union with Mr. P. Rust's Miss Smiff, and the fourth from his union with Mr. W. Beckett's Kit. CRIB-ROSE STRAIN The strain, which goes back to Champion Crib and Berrie's Rose, commenced through these two animals being mated by Mr. J. W. Berrie which produced the wonderfully fine litter which contained what were subsequently known to fame as Champion Monarch, Champion Gamester, Royal George, Britannia, and Blister. This litter was whelped on September 17th, 1878, and the best of the lot was Champion Monarch. He was a heavy weight brindle, with a white mark on brisket, and died in 1885, surviving his brother, Gamester, by a couple of years. He was eventually sold to Mr. D. S. Oliver, of Clifton, who exhibited him at Birmingham in 1880, where he was disqualified for having his ear faked, and this at the zenith of his fame! Mr. Oliver's honour was never questioned, but the matter was a disagreeable one, and so disgusted was Mr. Oliver that he soon left the breed. He, however, showed the dog at the Kennel Club Alexandra Palace Show, directly after the Birmingham Show, and won, and yet it was not disqualified, although the objection at Birmingham had been laid by Mr. S. E. Shirley, the Chairman of the Kennel Club. Champion Gamester, also a brindle, was not the equal of his illustrious brother for he possessed a pair of bad ears. He was, however, greatly used at stud and his

specimen, the dog's career was remarkable, while his reputation as a sire was even more so, and this descendant of Champion King Dick became one of the most celebrated stud dogs of the national breed. From Champion Crib the four principal strains of present-day Bulldogs directly spring, and when the fact is recalled that at the Bulldog Club Shows held at the Royal Aquarium in 1892 and 1893 every dog of known pedigree exhibited at those important shows had Champion Crib's blood in its veins, the enormous influence of this dog as a veritable pillar of the stud book can be better realized. This dog's blood became so fashionable that the four great strains which sprang from him practically over-ran the show bench. There were, however, many other good dogs not bred from Champion Crib (although a number of them trace back to his ancestor King Dick), which did good service to the breed. Of these may be mentioned Redmond's Romany, Fulton's Bowler and Falstaff, G. A. Payne's Nelly, C. Layton's Billy, Clark's Daisy, Brent's Boniface, Adcock's Ajax and Affable, Hincks' Ben and Nell, Billy Shaw's Bill, Ward's Captain, F. Reeves's The Cure and Fansy, Bill George's Dan, Parsley's Dan, Henshall's Duke and Gambler, Stockdale's Gruff, Pike's Lord Nelson, E. Nichols's Beauty, Else's Floss, F. Lamphier's Meg, G. A. Dawes's Alexander, Nell, King Brum, Maggie Lauder, and Donna, J. Lawrence's Nettle, Harry Layton's Kit, R. Nichols's Noble, J. Oswell's Polly, G. Paper's Prince, and Mr. S. E. Shirley's Beeswing, all these were prize-winners in the sixties and early seventies. In the later seventies, the influence of Champion Crib began to show itself, and subsequently four great prize-winning strains

Modern Bulldogs. title indicates the prizes he won. Gamester, then in the ownership of Mr. S. J. Smith, died of rabies after having bitten Mr. J. W. Berrie. Mr. Berrie suffered no ill effects from the bite, a most fortunate circumstance as the dog was hopelessly mad. Royal George, who was a white and brindie, was not by any means a "flyer." He had, however, sterling qualities and notably a fine under jaw, a point in which Monarch and Gamester were both deficient. Britannia was also a really good bitch. The perpetuation of the CribRose strain in this litter was well sustained by Monarch, Gamester, and Royal George. Monarch got Champion British Monarch, owned by various fanciers and ultimately by Mr. Sam Woodiwiss who gave 175 for it, then a record price for a Bulldog. Mr. Alfred Benjamin's bitch Champion Britomartis too was sired by Champion Monarch, and she on one occasion performed the feat of beating all the exhibits at a Bulldog Club Show. She was ultimately sold to go to America. Monarch also got Champion Wheel of Fortune, a beautiful lemon and white bitch, who won numerous prizes whilst owned by Mr. J. W. Gurney, and later by Mrs. W. H. Sprague. Next may bo mentioned Monarch's son, Champion Taurus, who won numerous prizes tor her breeder, Mr. J. H. Ellis, and this dog in its turn got Bill Richardson, whose stuffed remains were afterwards placed over the portal of the boxing room at the Blue Anchor, Sfaoreditoh. Lord Yarmouth, a good brindle and white heavy weight, was a son of Bill Richardson. Still, dealing with Monarch, we find he also got that fine specimen, Mr. C. E. Bartlett's Monarch III., who sired Mr. Cyril F. W. Jackson's little bitch Sally Scattercash, who only scaled 231bs., Monarch also sired Mrs. Ida Roberto's Young Monarch, who sired the apple-headed, yet fine specimen, Mr. T. J. Barnes's Phulax. The dog Nap was also sired by Monarch, who, and in his turn, sired Mr. J. H. Ellis's Champion Pathfinder, a wonderfully turned-up jawed dog, who sired Mr. G. R. Murrell's King Lud, Mr. J. H. Ellis's Tom Boy and Holy Friar, Mr. II. Peabody's Found It, and Mr. W. J. Pegg's Wild Fang, who was the sire of Mrs. Peabody's Eirst Attempt, and Mr. G. R. Murrell's Ivan, who was the sire of Mrs. C. E. C. Clarke's Mersham Charmer Mrs. Marley's Pressmoor Eestus was also sired by Pathfinder. He was soon lost to English breeders, as he was exported to America, but in his old age Mr. W. H. Eord re-imported him, but, alas ! too late to be of any benefit to the breed. Before finally taking leave of Champion Monarch, the progeny of his illustrious son, Champion British Monarch, must be referred to. As a stud dog British Monarch did not shine as much as might have been expected, still he got some good ones, notably Mr. A. M. Hodgson's Champion Harper, Mr. S. J. Smith's Carrie, Mr. G. W. Richard's Sheffield Monarch, who became the sire of Mr. W. Oliver's Save Monarch, and Mr. W. H. Sprague's, Sprague's Rose. British Monarch also sired Lady de Clifford's Queen Rose,Mr. Stevens's German Monarch, and Mr. J. G. W. James's Little Bricks. Queen Rose was undoubtedly the best of his progeny, and her early death was a great loss to the breed. German Monarch was a fair specimen only, but greatly sought after for stud purposes, for he and his sister, the beautiful Queen Rose, besides being sired by Champion British Monarch, had for their dam the celebrated

38

Modern Bulldogs. Holborn. The Alderman also sired Mr. J. B. Campbell's Satan II., and Bedgebury Lion got Mr. F. Thayre'a Zohara. Bruce II. also sired Mr. G. Ure's The Antiquary, also known as Master Biuce,who, in his turn sired Mr. R. D. Thomas's Stratton Billy, Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Boom-de-Ay, Mr. Alfred Robinson's Bingo, and Mr. J. H. Ellis's Captain Jack. Bruce II. also sired Mr. II. Thompson's Shylock, who sired Mr. H. C. Brookes' Baby Bacchus. Mr. Harry Lay ton's Bend'or also did good service for the strain, for in the first place, he got Mr. George Raper's Champion Rustic King, who sired his Rustic Model, and Mr. J. H. Ellis's Semolina. Bend'or also got Dick II. who sired Mr. J. T. Reid's beautiful bitch, Champion Magic and Mr. J. H. Ellis's Champion Guido, the sire of Mr. S. E. Shirley's Firemaster, Messrs. Morford and Rust's Ripon, and Mr. W. W. Crocker's Hushmueh. Returning again to Gamester, we find that he was the sire of Mr. A. P. By ford's Spartan, who got Mr. Gardiners' Brooklyn Return, who sired Mr. G. R. Murrell's Dunster Lad, who was responsible for Mr. Jack Ashburne's dudley, Our Dick. Gamester also got Mr. G. W. Mayhew's Bendigo, who sired his Slasher, who became the sire of Mr. A. Pemberton's Johnny Morgan. Gamester's eon, Alaric, also did good service in getting Pagan, for that dog sired that marvellous - headed specimen, Mr. Murrell's King Orry, whilst he, in his turn, got Mr. Crabtree's Champion Boomerang (one of the very best ever whelped), and Champion Katerfelto, Mr. Cassell's Champion Facey Romford, and Mr. O'Mahony's President Carnot, the sire of Mr. R. Tidman's Duke of Albemarle. Facey Romford sired Mr. Eumorfopoulos' Forlorn '94. Alaric also sired Mr. E. H. Naylor's Ashton Billy, and Mr. C.

Champion Dryad, formerly known as Rosa Belle. German Monarch was put to an enormous number of good bitches, and in view of tins must be considered really a failure at stud. He, however, got Mr. W. H. Ford's White Venn and Village Maid, and Lady de Clifford's Orphan Lad. Mr. A. M. Hodgson's Champion Harper sired General Roberts, who got Mrs. Marley's Felton Chance It and Mrs. C. B Evans's Ivel Doctor. Harper is also to be credited with being the sire of Mr. Hodgson's Heathen, the sire of Mr. Guy Boothby's Champion Monkey Brand. The strain as perpetuated through Champion Gamester was equally successful. The following owe their existence to Gamester : Champion Diogenes, Champion Gladstonekoff, Bruce II., the beautiful bitch Acme, Empress V., Bend'or, Blucher, Master Kildare, Dona Sol and Maritana (the two latter the foundation of the late Mr. J. S. Pybus Sellons' successful kennel), Susan, Alaric, Sweet Briar, Emperor, and President Garfield. The last-named was a large dog, and like the same owner's Gladstonekoff won many prizes under the late Mr. J. W. Gurney's colours, and aired Zeus the sire of Sheffield Barry, who sired those splendid fawns, Mr. A. J. Sewell's Champion Queer Street, and Mrs. Fletcher's Regent Street Prince, as well as Mr. C. L. Roger's Bayrhum and Mr. Smaelen's Queen Lena. Mr. McDonald's Bruce II. just referred to, sired Mr. Frank Crowther's excellent bitch, Enfield Tartlet, and The Alderman, who sired that famous Champion, Mr. A. P. Beresford Hope's Bedgebury Lion. As a puppy, this white and brindle-marked dog created an immense sensation when shown for the first time at nine months old at the Bulldog Club Show at the Central Hall,

Modern Bulldogs. R. C. King's Black Prince, which latter sired Kettering Jumbo, who in his turn got Mr. J. W. Ross's good bitch, Salvo. Black Prinoe also got Mr. C. E. Bartlett's Tonic, sire of Messrs. C. F. W. and K. Jackson's Bladud and Holy Terror. Black Prince also sired Pair Prince, who got Mr. J. B. Gheude's Leonidas, and Mr. J. Sandle's Lord Nelson III., who got Mrs. \V. W. Crocker's Lady Hamilton IT. Champion Boomerang sired Mr. A. Mutter's Yorker and Mr. G. R. Murrell's Katapult. The third and last of Champion Crib's litter which assisted to perpetuate the Crib-Rose strain was the dog Royal George who, though not so successful a sire as his more illustrious brothers, it must be allowed had never the same opportunities. He got, however, Prince George, and Mr. P. Rust's Adrastus (a good - headed animal, but deformed in the front leg) and the prize winning curiosity Fisherman. Some voted this latter a monstrosity, but the fact is he was a little before his time, and had he appeared at the close of the 19th century instead of in the year 1880 lie would have been in great demand at stud and a force to reckon with on the Show bench. Adrastus got Jumbo VIII. who sired Mr. J. Stichbury's good dog .lummy. Adrastus also got Royal Rogue the sire of Mr. C. F. W. Jackson's The Graven Tmage. CRIB-MEG STRAIN. As the result of mating Champion Crib with Mr. F. Lamphier's Meg, a bitch of less than 20 lbs. weight, a strain was established which has among its representatives some of the best dogs seen on the show bench. The litter responsible for its establishment was that containing the dog known to the Bulldog world as Tiger, a brindle dog, and an

39 admittedly faked specimen. Fred Lamphier owned the dog and put it to a bitch which "Fakey" Joe, of Sheffield, had bought for him for three sovereigns. The result was four puppies, which Lamphier named Thunder, Lightning, Storm, and Rainthree dogs and a bitch (Rain). The litter soon got notorious through being shown and disqualified by Mr. .1. W. Berrie, the judge, at the Nottingham Show of 1875, upon the ground that the whole lot were faked. Upon Thunder being afterwards shown at Wolverhampton he was again disqualified and yet a third time at the Bulldog Club Show. The allegation was that the dogs had been cut under the upper lips. Thunder passed into the hands of Mr. G. Raper who re-named him Richard Coeur-de-Lion and under Mr. Raper's colours, notwithstanding rebuffs in its infancy, the dog had a celebrated career, and in the end died a Champion, covered with show bench honours. He was the sire of Beaconsfield, who got Mr. J. Muir Drew's Ninepins, and Thornfield, the sire of Mr. J. W. Baker's Aston Thornfield. The pup, which was named Lightning, was also a good one, and passed into the hands of Mr. Peace, and, under the name of Duke, won important prizes. Storm came to a sad end, being poisoned, and history does not record the fate of Rain. Mr. Raper's Rosy Cross was also one of this strain, being got by Tiger, as was his Champion Redowa and Ringleader, and Mr. Clay's Duke, who got Byron II., who sired Mr. Raper's Rabagas; but one of the most useful animals belonging to this strain, and of which Tiger was the progenitor, was the late Mr. Fred Reeve's Crib, who worthily upheld the reputation of the strains founded by his illustrious grand-sire, Turton's Crib. Reeve's Crib was the sire of that beautiful bitch, the late Mr. J.

40

Modern Bulldogs. Enfield Grabber, Mr. J. Muir Drew's Grabber II., Mr. J. S. Pybus Sellons' Diomed, Mr. F. Stevens's Claudian, Mr.Fred Nash's Champion Dolores, and Mr. A. Best's Oswegotruly a notable list. Of this bevy of specimens Saleni, Champion Ruling Passion, Grabber II., and Champion Dolores stand out prominently. Ruling Passion, besides giving birth to a most celebrated litter, also performed the feat under Mr. Farman's colours of carrying off the Kennel Club Prize at the Bulldog Club's Show in 1894 for the best dog or bitch in the show. Oswego, it should be noted, sired the bitch Mischief, who Mr. J. S. Pybus Sellon matched at 50 to 5 against Mr. Preece's Young Dolly, and got beaten. This, however, did not alter the fact that she was a most beautiful bitch, and at public auction directly afterwards was purchased by Mr. Alfred George for 80 on an American commission. Enfield Grabber sired Mr. Pearson's Ashton Duke, who got Messrs. Lewis and Everill's Despot. Of other dogs got by Reeve's Crib, Jolly Sailor should be named as the sire of Mr. Joe Davis's Bull Ring Nell and Bull Ring Rose. Crib also sired Mr. W. P. Laing's Lord Marmion, Dr. Bedel Benison's Sir Tristan, and Mr. J. S. Pybus Sellon's Dandelion, who maintained the reputation of the Crib Meg Strain, by getting a lob of good stock, notably the celebrated "little big 'un," Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Dockleaf, bred by Mr. Sellon. This dog had a short and brilliant career, and was the bone of much contention, by some deemed to be a wonder, and by others declared to be a monstrosity or cripple. He was only once beaten on the show bench (by Champions Ruling Passion and Guido), but suffered defeat in the match with

S. Pybus Sellon's Champion Queen Mab, who, on one occasion, beat all the dogs and bitches at a Bulldog Club Show. It is a curious fact in connection with the breeding of this bitch, who was destined to become one of the best of Bull bitches, that she was sired by Reeve'fl Crib when ho was but ten months old, and the service of her dam, Mab, was an accidental one. Another notable son of Reeve's Crib was Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Forceps, who also won numerous prizes under the colours of the late Dr. Bedel Benison and sired the former's good bitch. Champion Blackberry, who, incidentally here, it may be remarked, was the dam of Mr. Woodiwiss's Champion Baron Sedgemere, Champion Boas and Champion Battledora, and Mr. George R. Sims's Barney Barnato, but these really belong to another branch of Champion Crib's strains. Also numbered among his progeny were Mr. R. D. Thomas's Orient Forceps and the Duke of Glos'ter, who got Mr. G. E. Taylor's Bully Boy II. Forceps also sired Mr. J. Davis's Lion Seeker, the sire of Mr. A. E. Baker's Aston Lion, who got Mr. J. W. Ross's Champion Blackwall Beauty, Mr. A. E. Baker's Aston Bit of Fashion, Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Master John Bull, and Mr. A. Mutter's Fresh Start. Aston Lion also sired Mr. W. G. Smartt's Royal Duke, who got Mr. Guy Boothby's Black Watch and Mr. II. A. Marfleet's Champion Bromley Crib. Mrs. W. H. Sprague's Champion Grabber, another celebrated son of Reeve's Crib, who died in the ownership of Mr. J. H. Ellis, was a celebrated prize winner, and did good service at stud. He sired Mr. J. W. Ross's Tomsh, Mr. J. H. Ellis's Saleni, Mr. Edgar Farman's Champion Ruling Passion, Mr. A. J. Smith's Bo'swain, Mr. H. Shaw's

Modern Bulldogs. Mr. A. J. Smith's Champion His Lordship, and again in the walking match against Mr. George Murrells King Orry, events which were fully described in my History of the .Bulldog Club. As a stud dog he had little chance of showing his qualities, but there is no doubt of his excellence, for even with the little opportunity he had he gave evidence pf his worth by getting such excellent specimens as Mr. J. S. Pybus Sellon's Donax, Mr. Charles Hathaway's beautiful bitch Homestead Lady Dockleaf, and Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Baronius. Donax in his turn sired Mr. E. K. Austin's Delaware. Mr. Alfred Robinson's Aurora was another beautiful bitch got by Dandelion and Mr. W. G. Smartt's Smartt's Punch, too, was an excellent heavy weight got by this dog. He also sired Mr. Sellon's Dabchick and Dacoit (the latter being known as Stonewall Jackson when the property of Mr. G. W. Richards), Mr. J. L. Peacock's Great Govan and Mr. Edgar Farman's Evil Beast and Defendant. Another notable son of Champion Crib be longing to the same strain was Sir Anthony, a white dog, who did a lot of winning for Captain Holdsworth. This dog also got some good stock, and sired among others Mr. W. Oliver's Champion Rozelle, Lord Mandeville's Slenderman, which was originally named Gordon Murray, and Captain Holdsworth's Doon Brae. All these dogs did a lot of winning and rendered good service at stud. Doon Brae sired some good ones, and Slenderman also established a reputation in the same way, and got, among others, Conqueror, the sire of that good specimen Surplice. Sir Anthony also got Mr. W. N. Parson's Champion Billy, who got Mr. S. G. Parker's Baby II.

41 CRIB-MISS SMIFF STRAIN. The third strain which was established by the redoubtable Bulldog Champion Crib was that which resulted from the litter for which he and Mr. P. Russ's Miss Smiff wera responsible. This union produced Mr. S. E. Shirley's fine specimen of the breed Champion Sancho Panza, a fawn dog, bred by Mr. P. Rust, which won numerous prizes under the colours of the Chairman of the Kennel Club, dying in the Ettington Park Kennels in 1887 at the ripe age of nearly eleven years. It cannot for one moment be contended that Champion Crib's son Champion Sancho Panza was the forerunner of a long lineage of prize winners such as Crib's sons Monach Gamester, Royal George and Tiger were, still Sancho Panzo distinctly influenced the breed in his day and his immediate descendants were extremely successful and his blood flows in the veins of many a specimen who perhaps comes within the category of other strains. And in this respect it may be as well to say that although a dog may belong to a particular strun it does not thereby follow that he may not be closely connected with another. In this work in dealing with the strains of Champion Crib I have adopted the Salic method and traced down the offspring on the male side and by following this system, for which we have the best of precedents in the human race, I have found it possible to indicate in a systematic way the main strains from which the modern Bulldog is derived. Lord Nelson, owned by Mr. J. B. Wilkes, was one of Sancho Panza's best progeny. He was bred by Mr. Tom Ball. Lord Nelson in his time got a lot of good stock, and the very pretty and good bitch, Mr. A. P. Byford's Lady Nelson, was by no

42

Modern Bulldogs. descendant of Champion Crib, had less of that dog's blood in him than many of his contemporaries. Don Pedro was a London-bred onefull of old London blood, and himself besides being, as we have seen, the great grandson of an illustrious great grandsire, was in his turn the sire of some illustrious specimens. Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Dryad, Mr. W. H. Ford's Champion Don Salano, Mr. Harding Cox's Bilali, Mr. E. W. Jaquet's Ayessha, Mr. Fred Reeve's Stockwell, Mr. J. Muir Drew's Champion Kitty Cole, Mr. A. J. Smith's Champion His Lordship, Mr. Tod's Stiletto, Mr. Edgar Farman's Champion Cigarette and Felon, and Mr. C. L. Roger's Dona Disdain, were all sons and daughters of this noted stud dog. Mr. Tod's Exodus was sired by Moses, who was got by Don Pedro. Certainly Don Pedro has left his mark most distinctly upon the modern Bulldog, and the success of his more remote has proved as successful as that of his immediate descendants. Incidentally I may say here that his daughter, Champion Dryad, was the dam of Lady de Clifford's Queen Rose, who would most assuredly have been a champion had she lived. Mr. W. H. Ford's Don Salano was a successful son of Don Pedro, both at stud and on the show bench. He sired amongst others that capital little bitch, Mr. R. D. Thomas's Champion Bicester Beauty and Bicester Daisy, Mr. S. Longmore's Orient Don, Mr. A. S. Coxon's Cyclops, Mr. J. B. Joel's Lord Francis and Don Alexis, and Mr. W. H. Ford's Ivy Leaf, Don Alexis became the sire of Mr. E. A. Vicary's Primula, Mr. W. J. Pegg's Don Cervantes and Woodcote Galtee More, and Mrs. W. II. Ford's Catalina. Don Salano also got M r. Ford's Champion Petramosse,and Dona Venn. Another of Don Pedro offspring,

means the least celebrated of his progeny. She won a lot of prizes and was a really beautiful light weight. Empress III. was another good one. This bitch was destined to become the dam of Champion Diogenes. Lord Nelson got Sir Garnet Wolsley, the sire of Cameron, who in his turn became the progenitor of Mr. C. G. Hopton's L'Ambassador. Captain Houldsworth's Faust was another of this strain, being got by Sancho Panza, and did a lot of winning, and besides getting other stock he sired Mr. J. II. Ellis's Champion Ida. The same owner's Champion Bellisima too claimed Champion Sancho Panza as her sire. She was a heavy weight brindle. Cervantes was another good one of Sancho Panza's get, and also were Farewell, Don Quixote and Julius Ctesar. Julius Caesar in his turn got Lambkin, who got Wadsley Jack.who got Mr. R. G. S. Mann's John of the Funnel the sire of Mr. Walter Jefferies's Rodney Stone. This strain is noticeable as responsible for bitches producing good progeny which following their paternal ancestry belong to another strain. CRIB.KIT STRAIN. Besides the strains already alluded to, Champion Crib was responsible for a fourth, established by his breeding with Mr. W. Beckett's Kit, through their offspring Mr. Vero Shaw's Sepoy. This dog was bred in 1S74, and won important prises, but more interesting to later day fanciers is the fact that he sired Mr. W. H. Hudson's dudley nosed Sahib, who got Mr. J. W. Ross's Don Carlos, the sire of his Don Leon, and who in his turn got Mr. W. T. Davis's Ilford Mikado. Sahib's best get, however, was certainly the celebrated stud dog and prize winner, Mr. W. H. Sprague's Don Pedro. This latter dog, although a direct lineal

Modern Bulldogs. Stockwell, although not a show specimen, was certainly useful at stud, for this dog, on being put to Dextrine by Mr. Sellon, the result was Champion Dimboola. He also got Mr. Sellon's Dairymaid, Mr. K. D. Thomas's Balaclava, and excelled himself when he sired the famous litter of which Blackberry was the dam, containing Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's Champion Baron Sedgemere, Champion Boas and Champion Battledora and Mr. Gr. K. Sims' Barney Barnato. Another of Stock well's get was Mr. G. G. Tod's Housewife, his Queen of Slieba was also got by a member of this strain, her sire being Champion His Lordship. His Lordship, in addition to getting Queen of Sheba, also got Lady de Clifford's Cats Eye, and Mrs. G. J. A. Oliphant's Chatley Nob, Mr. Murrell's Lady Essex, and Captain C. E. Le Poer Trench's dogs Crust and Crumbs. Stiletto sired Mr. G. G. Tod's King Soloman. Champion Dimboola sired Mr. Jeffenes' Dick Swiveller, who in his turn got the typical little bitch, Mr. E. K. Austin's True Type. In this chapter I have endeavoured to deal with the principal modern strains of Bulldogs in such a manner that the reader can at once appreciate the fact that practically the whole of the present day show Bulldogs trace directly back through one or other of the strains I have dealt with to Champion Crib or that still more ancient specimen King Dick. Possibly there are some animals whose male ancestry steer clear of these venerable Pillars of

43 the Bulldog Stud Book, and in earlier show days a number of such naturally did exist. Old Sixpence, otherwise known as Tramp, might be named as a dog probably not belonging to any of the foregoing strains. He was a dog that was got by Blondin, a dog sired by Nelson, whose pedigree is unknown. Sixpence was the sire of King Cole, whose blood Mr. Selon used so much as a cross out from the Crib strain. This dog sired King Cole Juniors an excellent specimen. Champion Alexander and Champion Duke, the latter bred by the Duke of Hamilton, both deserve mention as animals not coming within the King Dick or Crib strains. It would,however, be unprofitable to enter into an enumeration of the various dogs which twenty-five years ago then traced their pedigrees back, along strains different to those which have since predominated, and been built up during the last quarter of a century, and, in concluding this chapter I will merely remark that some excellent specimens have from time to time cropped up on the show bench whose pedigrees are unknown and ever will be. One of the most notable of these was Mr. Sam Woodiwiss's white Champion Dog Datholite, and among other notable specimens exhibited in more modern days, whose parentage never will be known, may be mentioned, Mr. H. Peabody's The Unknown, Mr. Egg's Bully II., and Mr. S. Woodiwiss's Romance.

44

Description of a Bulldog.

CHAPTER VI. DESCRIPTION OF A BULLDOG AND SCALE OF POINTS. THE standard of points of a perfectlyformed Bulldog, drawn up by The Bulldog Club (Incorporated) and which will be found set out at the conclusion of this chapter, is a carefullycompiled description of an ideal Bulldog. If the reader has once mastered the Bulldog Club's description, and can also apply it, he should be a good judge of the breed. It is one thing, however, to read a formal description, and altogether another to apply it, and those who are inexperienced in the breed can only become experts by constant observation of the various specimens exhibited at the many shows now held. A good plan for the novice to adopt is, first to read up the description, and having obtained such a general idea as it conveys to him, proceed to seek out an acknowledged crack, and carefully study its formation, point by point. The student will, by this means, get a basis in his mind to work upon. It's no use to know that a Bulldog should have a Well-turned-up under-jaw, without knowing what extent of turn-up amounts to a well-turned-up one. Again, take the temples or frontal bones. There should be " very prominent, broad, square and high," but it would tax the ability of the smartest to grasp the amount of breadth, squareness and elevation without actual observation and comparison. And this leads me to say that, by comparison only, can a proper knowledge of the points of the breed be acquired. The best possible plan by which to acquire knowledge of the points of the breed, and which I have adopted myself when desiring to describe a Bulldog's points to others, is to place a good specimen and a rank bad one side by side, and go through all the points one by one, comparing those possessed by the good dog with those of the bad one. By following this course, the various points can be easily and readily grasped, and what should and what should not be, quickly fixed in the mind. The standard description of points of the old English Bulldog was drawn up by the Bulldog Club in 1875, after most careful enquiries amongst the most prominent breeders, and the comparison of one or two descriptions then existing and formulated by enthusiastic owners in the very early days of the breed's existence as a show dog. The institution of dog shows and the consequent xhibition of dogs for competition on the show point principle necessitated, as in all other breeds, the establishment of an accepted code of points whereby the breeder could have a guide, and the judge a standard to place in their proper positions the dogs paraded before him. Probably the earliest of these descrip-

Description of a Bulldog, tions was that drafted by that very old time fancier, Jacob Lamphier, of Birmingham. The description, however, which the Bulldog Club found of the greatest service, and a great portion of which it adopted, was that drafted by Mr. Samuel Wickens, and known as the Philo-Kuon standard, it being issued under that nom de plume in the year 1864, and published in February of the following year. The cause of the drafting of this particular standard of points was the establishment about that time by Mr. Rockstro and his friends of a club called The Bulldog Club, whose career was very short and whose only work was the drafting of this description. If the Club did nothing else, it carried out a most important piece of work in thus recording the views of those most capable in those days of giving an opinion upon the points and properties of the national breed. I am enabled to give an exact reproduction, from an original copy in the possession of Mr. J. W. Berne, of this extremely interesting document, interesting not only on account of its antiquity in bench competition annals, but also by reason of the peculiarity of some of the views expressed in it. The reader will observe the general " getup " of this record of what the national dog should be, its quaint wording and the general idea running through the whole description that of a dog, powerful, yet active and courageous in the extreme, and never beaten until life is extinct. Such is the train of thought which must pass through the minds of all those who peruse the lines which constitute the Thilo-Kuon description. "The British Bulldog is a majestic.ancient animal, very scarce, much maligned, and, as a rule, very little understood," is the opening statement in the descriptive head note,

45 which, by the way, discloses the fact that the word Bulldog was then a hyphenated word. The description further records that "if treated with kindness, often noticed, and frequently with his master, he is a quiet and tractable dog." Doubtless this was a very fair description of the breed in those days, so far as temperament went. Many will draw a long breath on reading that he was an extraordinary water dog, but, as a matter of fact, there were plenty of specimens years ago who would readily take to the water Mr. J. W. Ross, Borne years ago, possessed specimens which were wonderful water dogs. These would spring into the water from a height of fifteen feet, and bring ashore heavy planks and even anchor buoys, and other instances might be quoted to prove that Rhilo-Kuon's statement was quite correct, whatever may be the objection to water often displayed by present day specimens. It is further stated that " He is the boldest and most resolute of animals," and "there is nothing a good Bulldog will not attack, and ever brave and unappalled, with matchless courage he will give up only with life itself." Altogether the opening statements are descriptive of an animal the embodiment of pluck, tenacity and British character, and it concludes with the remarkable statement that this noble dog becomes " degenerate abroad," and the reminder that the Bulldog is in truth "a national animal, and is perfectly identified with old England, and he is a dog of which Englishmen may be proud." Up-to-date breeders, pause and think : Is this the sort of animal you are breeding today ? Such is the description which, in the year 1864, well-known breeders accepted, and, in formal manner, adopted as correct,

46

Description of a Bulldog. and button ears does not mention either, and simply says the shape termed rose ear is the most correct. No doubt the number of tulip and button-eared specimens about in PhiloKuon's day was answerable for the inclusion of these types of ears in his standard. Again in tails, the references materially differ, Philo-Kuon's standard mentioning a formation of the caudal appendage which does not appear in the Bulldog Club standard ; the tail, by the way, seems to be the very last point breeders take the smallest trouble about, so long as the animal does not get it over its back, and it is not coarse. Speaking of tails, doubtless the attempts to get heavier bone all through has caused them to become thicker, a whip tail did once exist but only on light-boned dogs. In connection with the various points of a Bulldog, it is curious to note how great a part the fashion of the hour plays in the breeding of Bulldogs and their respective positions in the judging ring. As surely as fashion prevails and changes among the fair sex, so surely does fashion prevail and change in connection with the various points of a Bulldog in theeyes of the fancy. How long the cycle of time lasts before the old long-sought-for and bred-topoint again becomesthe point above all things to breed to, I do not pretend to say, but it is an incontrovertible fact that certain points come, go and return again in estimation and value. For instance, dog breeders are at one time all for size of skull and head, and weedy animals with good heads are often in the running, whilst in another period bodies are all the rage, and a good headed dog, with a moderate body, may at times think himself lucky to get into the money, when a plainer-faced good-bodied specimen is about. At one time the great essential is a mass of wrinkles, whilst

and although a little high flown, there is no doubt that it fitted Bulldogs of that time a great deal better than it does those of presentday specimens. In fact, to pause a moment before a pampered champion nowadays, and endeavour to imagine the heart and ability of his ancestors inside him, will produce a feeding of sadness in the observer at the painful results of inbreeding for points. From one extreme breeders have gone to the other, and the national dog in many instances is not possessed of those characteristics of which he always figures as tin; emblem Excellent as an example of distorting nature by patient imbreeding, the average Bulldog is a harmless, good-natured, unwieldy specimen of caninity, able to get along very fairly by himself. Friendly with all, he is a manufactured articlea mass of show points. A comparison of the standard of the Bulldog Club with that of Philo-Kuon reveals the fact that the two are, in a general way, identical. In certain particulars they differ, but as a whole, both aim at describing the same beau ideal. The contents of both documents disclose that their authors had the same ideas in view, and that the perfect dog in the minds of the authors of the one was the same perfect dog which was in the minds of the authors of the other, a thickset, powerful, moderately cloddy big-skulled, short-faced, heavy-boned animal. In some of its details, the descriptions differ, as, for instance, in connection with ears. Philo-Kuon's standard specifically allows tulip ears, as well as button and rose, and no distinction whatever is made in their value from a show point of view. The standard description of the Bulldog Club whilst not expressly denouncing these tulip

Description of a Bulldog. at another this is not so requisite as a well out at shoulder front. No doubt the cause of these fashions is that so soon as breeders have succeeded in attaining their object in one direction they turn their attention to another. The prevailing fashion of the past ten years has been to breed Bulldogs extremely cloddy, short-backed, and low to the ground, and therefore necessarily not so active as in times gone by. Inbreeding has been going on to an alarming extent with the result that whilst the dog has been reduced to the required shape, his temperament and activity have been seriously impaired. In fact, so much so that an important deletion was made a few years ago in the standard description so as to make it the better fit the dog. This deletion was the statement in the standard that " the outline of Rosa in the picture of Crib and Rosa is considered to nearly approach perfection in shape, make, and size of the ideal type of the Bulldog." Rosa after having been held up by Philo-Kuon in his standard as possessing a perfect shape ; after having run the gauntlet of adoption by the first Bulldog Club; after having, ten years later, been adopted by the present Club and after having retained the honourable position in its standard for nearly a quarter of a century, the committee of the Bulldog Club in the year 1894 ruthlessly dragged her from her high estate and cast her away because, forsooth, the present day animals will not fit her beautiful outline. Tempora mutantur. By the old school this act on the part of the Bulldog Club was considered little short of vandalism. Whether the Club was right or wrong is not for me to decide. Certain it is that fashion has decreed for the moment that

47 the English Bulldog should not be what Rosa was, and her retention became a farce in consequence of the continued disregard to her model by the judges one and all. So much for the past, but for practical purposes, the present must be dealt with, and the student of the Bulldog must turn to the standard for information for present-day practical use. The description of the English Bulldog accepted all the world over is that of the Bulldog Club (Incorporated.) It was drawn up by the Bulldog Club in 1875, after careful consideration, and after ascertaining the views of old breeders upon the subject, and is as follows : The Bulldog. Standard Description of the Correct Appearance and the several points in Detail of a Perfectly-formed Bulldog. In forming a judgment on any specimen of the breed, the general appearancewhich is the first impression the clog makes as a whole on the eye of the judgeshould be first considered. Secondly, should be noticed its size, shape, and make, or rather its proportions in the relation they bear to each other. (No point should be so much in excess of the others as to destroy the general symmetry, or make the dog appear deformed, or interfere with its powers of motion, &c.) Thirdly, his style, carriage, gait, temper, and his several points should be considered separately in detail, as follows, due allowance being made for the bitch, which is not so grand or as well developed as a dog : 1. The general appearance of the Bulldog is that of a smooth-coated thick-set dog, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact. Its head strikingly massive, and large in proportion to the dog's size. Its