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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law


ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos

CLI1ICAL LAW
1haL branch of publlc law whlch deals wlLh Lhe organlzaLlon and
operaLlons of Lhe governmenLal organs of Lhe SLaLe and deflnes Lhe
relaLlons of Lhe SLaLe wlLh Lhe lnhablLanLs of lLs LerrlLory

Scope]D|v|s|ons of o||t|ca| Law
1 ConsLlLuLlonal LawLhe sLudy of Lhe malnLenance of Lhe proper
balance beLween auLhorlLy as represenLed by Lhe Lhree lnherenL powers
of Lhe sLaLe and llberLy as guaranLeed by Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs
2 AdmlnlsLraLlve Law 1haL branch of publlc law whlch flxes Lhe
organlzaLlon deLermlnes Lhe compeLence of admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
who execuLes Lhe law and lndlcaLes Lo Lhe lndlvldual remedles for Lhe
vlolaLlon of hls rlghL
3 Law on Munlclpal CorporaLlons
4 Law of ubllc Cfflcers
3 LlecLlons Law

8as|s
1 1987 ConsLlLuLlon
2 1973 and 1933 ConsLlLuLlons
3 Crganlc laws made Lo apply Lo Lhe hlllpplnes
a hlllpplne 8lll of 1902
b !ones Law of 1916
c 1ydlngsMcuuffle Law of 1934
4 SLaLuLes execuLlve orders and decrees and [udlclal declslons
3 uS ConsLlLuLlon

Const|tut|on Statute
rleglslaLlon dlrecL from Lhe people
rsLaLes general prlnclples
rlnLended noL merely Lo meeL exlsLlng
condlLlons
rlL ls Lhe fundamenLal law of Lhe SLaLe
rleglslaLlon from Lhe people's represenLaLlve
rprovldes Lhe deLalls of Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of
whlch lL LreaLs
rlnLended prlmarlly Lo meeL exlsLlng condlLlons
only
rlL conforms Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon

nILIINL CCNS1I1U1ICN
Const|tut|onlL ls Lhe documenL whlch serves as Lhe fundamenLal law of
Lhe SLaLe LhaL body of rules and maxlms ln accordance wlLh whlch Lhe
power of soverelgnLy are hablLually exerclsed 1haL wrlLLen lnsLrumenL
enacLed by dlrecL acLlon of Lhe people by whlch Lhe fundamenLal powers
of Lhe governmenL are esLabllshed llmlLed and deflned and by whlch
Lhose powers are dlsLrlbuLed among Lhe several deparLmenLs for Lhelr
safe and
useful exerclse for Lhe beneflL of Lhe body pollLlc lL ls Lhe baslc and
paramounL law Lo whlch all oLher laws musL conform and Lo
whlch all persons lncludlng Lhe hlghesL offlclals of Lhe land musL defer
no acL shall be valld however noble lLs lnLenLlon lf lL confllcLs wlLh Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon 1he ConsLlLuLlon musL ever remaln supreme All musL bow Lo
Lhe mandaLe of Lhls law 8lghL or wrong Lhe ConsLlLuLlon musL be upheld
as long as Lhe soverelgn people have noL changed lL

C|ass|f|cat|on
1 WrlLLen or unwrlLLen
Wr|tten Unwr|tten
one whose precepLs are embodled ln one documenL or seL of documenLs
conslsLs of rules whlch have noL been lnLegraLed lnLo a slngle concreLe
form buL
are scaLLered ln varlous sources

Lxamp|es a sLaLuLes of fundamenLal
characLer
b [udlclal declslons
c commenLarles of publlclsLs
d cusLoms and LradlLlons
e cerLaln common law prlnclples
2 LnacLed (convenLlonal) or Lvolved (CumulaLlve)

Lnacted (convent|ona|) Lvo|ved (Cumu|at|ve)
formally sLruck off aL a deflnlLe Llme and place followlng a consclous or
dellberaLe efforL Laken by a consLlLuenL body or ruler
Lhe resulL of pollLlcal evoluLlon noL lnauguraLed aL any speclflc Llme buL
changlng by accreLlon raLher Lhan by any sysLemaLlc meLhod
3 8lgld or llexlble

k|g|d I|ex|b|e
one LhaL can be amended only by a formal and usually dlfflculL process
one LhaL can be changed by ordlnary leglslaLlon
1he hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon ls wrlLLen convenLlonal and rlgld lL ls
embodled lnone documenL and can be amended only by a formal and
usually dlfflculL process

Interpretat|on
1 verbo Leqiswhenever posslble Lhe words used ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
musL be glven Lhelr ordlnary meanlng except where Lechnlcal Lerms are
employed
2 When Lhere ls AmblgulLyrotio /eqis et onimoA doubLful provlslon
shall be examlned ln Lhe llghL of Lhe hlsLory of Lhe Llmes and Lhe
condlLlons and clrcumsLances under whlch Lhe ConsLlLuLlon was framed
%ivi/ Liberties union
vs xecutive 5ecretory 194 5 l17)
3 ut moqis vo/eot quom pereotLhe ConsLlLuLlon has Lo be lnLerpreLed
as a whole %roncisco vs n 6 No 1021 November 10 200l)
lf Lhe plaln meanlng of Lhe word ls noL found Lo be clear resorL Lo oLher
alds ls avallableconsLrue Lhe ConsLlLuLlon from whaL appears upon lLs
face" 1he proper lnLerpreLaLlon Lherefore depends more on how lL was
undersLood by Lhe people adopLlng lL Lhan ln Lhe framers' undersLandlng
Lhereof
ln case of doubL Lhe provlslon should be consldered as selfexecuLlng
mandaLory raLher Lhan dlrecLory and prospecLlve raLher Lhan reLroacLlve

Se|fexecut|ng prov|s|onone whlch ls compleLe ln lLself and becomes
operaLlve wlLhouL Lhe ald of supplemenLary or enabllng leglslaLlon or LhaL
whlch supplles a sufflclenL rule by means of whlch Lhe rlghL lL granLs may
be en[oyed or proLecLed

Lssent|a| ua||t|es of the Wr|tten Const|tut|on
1 8road
2 8rlef and
3 ueflnlLe

Lssent|a| parts of a good wr|tten Const|tut|on
a C onsLlLuLlon of LlberLyseLs forLh Lhe fundamenLal clvll and pollLlcal
rlghLs of Lhe clLlzens and lmposes llmlLaLlons on Lhe powers of Lhe
governmenL as a means of securlng Lhe en[oymenL of Lhose rlghLs eq 8lll
of 8lghLs
b C onsLlLuLlon of CovernmenLouLllnes Lhe organlzaLlon of Lhe
governmenL enumeraLes lLs powers lays down cerLaln rules relaLlve Lo lLs
admlnlsLraLlon and deflnes Lhe elecLoraLe eq LeglslaLlve LxecuLlve and
!udlclal ueparLmenLs
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons
c C onsLlLuLlon of SoverelgnLyLhe provlslons polnLlng ouL Lhe mode or
procedure ln accordance wlLh whlch formal changes ln Lhe fundamenLal
law may be broughL abouL eq ArL xvllAmendmenLs or 8evlslons

Lffects of Dec|arat|on of Unconst|tut|ona||ty
2 V|ews
a C81PCuCx vlLW
2


l an unconsLlLuLlonal acL ls noL a law
ll lL confers no rlghLs
lll lL lmposes no duLles
lv lL affords no proLecLlon
v lL creaLes no offlce
vl lL ls lnoperaLlve as lf lL had noL been passed aL all
b MCuL8n vlLWCourLs slmply refuse Lo recognlze Lhe law and
deLermlne Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLles as lf Lhe sLaLuLe had no exlsLence
CerLaln legal effecLs of Lhe sLaLuLe prlor Lo lLs declaraLlon of
unconsLlLuLlonallLy may be recognlzed
1hus a publlc offlcer who lmplemenLed an unconsLlLuLlonal law prlor Lo
Lhe declaraLlon of unconsLlLuLlonallLy cannoL be held llable %not vs l%

art|a| Unconst|tut|ona||ty
kequ|s|tes
a 1he leglslaLure musL be wllllng Lo reLaln Lhe valld porLlon(s) usually
shown by
Lhe presence of a separablllLy clause ln Lhe lawln1Ln1 Cl 1PL
LLClSLA1lvL and
b 1he valld porLlon can sLand lndependenLly as lawlnuLLnuLnCL Cl
1PL 8CvlSlCnS

kLAM8LL
WL 1nL SCVLkLIGN IILIINC LCLL IMLCkING 1nL AID CI
ALMIGn1 GCD IN CkDLk 1C 8UILD A IUS1 AND nUMANL SCCIL1
AND LS1A8LISn A GCVLkNMLN1 1nA1 SnALL LM8CD CUk IDLALS AND
ASIkA1ICNS kCMC1L 1nL CCMMCN GCCD CCNSLkVL AND
DLVLLC CUk A1kIMCN AND SLCUkL 1C CUkSLLVLS AND CUk
CS1LkI1 1nL 8LLSSINGS CI
INDLLNDLNCL AND DLMCCkAC UNDLk 1nL kULL CI LAW AND A
kLGIML CI 1kU1n IUS1ICL IkLLDCM LCVL LUALI1 AND LACL
DC CkDAIN AND kCMULGA1L 1nIS CCNS1I1U1ICN

1he reamble ls noL a source of power or rlghL for any deparLmenL of
governmenL lL seLs down Lhe orlgln scope and purpose of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon lL bears wlLness Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls Lhe
manlfesLaLlon of Lhe soverelgn wlll of Lhe llllplno people 1he
ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhe llllplno people as Lhe auLhor of Lhe consLlLuLlon calls
aLLenLlon Lo an lmporLanL prlnclple LhaL Lhe documenL ls noL [usL Lhe work
of represenLaLlves of Lhe people buL of Lhe people Lhemselves who puL
Lhelr mark approval by raLlfylng lL ln a pleblsclLe
1 lL does noL confer rlghLs nor lmpose duLles
2 lndlcaLes auLhorshlp of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon enumeraLes Lhe prlmary alms
and asplraLlons of Lhe framers and serves as an ald ln Lhe consLrucLlon of
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon



Ak1ICLL I
NA1ICNAL 1LkkI1Ck
@e notiono/ territory comprises te Pi/ippine orcipe/oqo wit o// te
is/onds ond woters embroced terein ond o// oter territories over wic
te Pi/ippines os sovereiqnty or jurisdiction consistinq of its terrestrio/
f/uvio/ ond oerio/ domoins inc/udinq its territorio/ seo te seobed te
subsoi/ te insu/or se/ves ond oter submorines oreos @e woters
oround between ond connectinq te is/onds of te orcipe/oqo
reqord/ess of teir breodt ond dimensions form port of te interno/
woters of te Pi/ippines"

1wo (2) arLs of Lhe naLlonal 1errlLory
1 1he hlllpplne archlpelago wlLh all Lhe lslands and waLers embraced
Lhereln and
2 All oLher LerrlLorles over whlch Lhe hlllpplnes has soverelgnLy or
[urlsdlcLlon

r Do you cons|der the Sprat|ys Group of Is|ands as part of h|||pp|ne
Arch|pe|ago? rSpraLlys Croup of lslands ls noL parL of Lhe hlllpplne
Archlpelago because lL ls Loo far away from Lhe Lhree maln lslands of Lhe
hlllpplnes lL ls found geographlcally almosL ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe SouLh
Chlna Sea lL ls noL parL of Lhe hlllpplne Archlpelago PlsLorlcally when
we Lalk abouL
hlllpplne Archlpelago we refer Lo Lhose lslands and waLers LhaL were
ceded by Lhe Spaln Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes by vlrLue of 1reaLy of arls ln
1898 And LhaL dld noL lnclude Lhe SpraLlys Croup of lslands yeL under Lhe
LreaLy Lhe lslands LhaL were ceded by Spaln were ldenLlfledLhe maln
lslandsLuzon vlsayas and Mlndanao Clearly lL dld noL lnclude Lhe
SpraLlys Croup of lslands
SpraLlys Croup of lslands was only dlscovered someLlme ln Lhe 1930's by a
llllplno 1omas Cloma 1he laLLer walved hls rlghLs over Lhe lslands ln favor
of Lhe hlllpplne CovernmenL ln effecL Lhe governmenL sLepped lnLo Lhe
shoes of Lhe dlscoverer 8y Lhen resldenL Marcos whaL he dld Lhe
momenL 1omas Cloma walved hls rlghLs over Lhe SpraLlys Croup of
lslands ls Lo have Lhe lslands lmmedlaLely occupled by hlllpplne Lroops
Pe Lhen lssued u 1396 consLlLuLlng Lhe SpraLlys Croup of lslands as a
regular munlclpallLy clalmlng lL Lhe MunlclpallLy of kalayaan placlng lL
under Lhe rovlnce of alawan And Lhen he had Lhe elecLlons
lmmedlaLely held ln Lhe lslands so from LhaL Llme on unLll now we
conLlnue Lo hold elecLlons Lhere 1he hlllpplne exerclses noL only
[urlsdlcLlon buL also soverelgnLy over Lhe SpraLlys Croup of
lslands yeL lL ls noL parL of Lhe hlllpplne Archlpelago Ceographlcally lL ls
Loo far away from Lhe hlllpplne Archlpelago
Cn May 20 1980 Lhe hlllpplnes reglsLered lLs clalm wlLh Lhe un
SecreLarlaL
1he hlllpplne clalm Lo Lhe lslands ls [usLlfled by reason of hlsLory
lndlspensable need and effecLlve occupaLlon and conLrol 1hus ln
accordance wlLh Lhe lnLernaLlonal law Lhe SpraLlys Croup of lslands ls
sub[ecL Lo Lhe soverelgnLy of Lhe hlllpplnes

rDo you cons|der the Sprat|ys group of Is|ands as part of our Nat|ona|
1err|tory?
r?es ArLlcle l of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon provldes @e ootloool tettltoty
comptlses te llllpploe otclpeloqo x x x ooJ oll otet tettltotles ovet
wlc te llllpploes os sovetelqoty ot jotlsJlctloo x x x 1he SpraLlys
Croup of lslands falls under Lhe second phrase and all oLher LerrlLorles
over whlch Lhe hlllpplnes has soverelgnLy or [urlsdlcLlon" lL ls parL of our
naLlonal LerrlLory because hlllpplnes exerclse soverelgnLy Lhrough
elecLlon of publlc offlclals) over SpraLlys Croup of lslands

rWhat was the bas|s of the h|||pp|nes' c|a|m over the Sprat|ys?

r1hrough dlscovery of 1omas Cloma and occupaLlon

Modes of acqu|r|ng terr|tor|es
1 ulscovery and CccupaLlonwhlch are Lerra nulllus (land belonglng Lo
no one)

Doctr|ne of Lffect|ve Cccupat|ondlscovery alone ls noL enough Mere
dlscovery glves
only an lnchoaLe rlghL Lo Lhe dlscoverer lor LlLle Lo flnally vesL dlscovery
musL be followed by effect|ve occupat|on ln a reasonable Llme and
aLLesLaLlon of Lhe same
2 Cesslon by 1reaLy Lxamples are 1reaLy of arls LreaLy beLween lrance
and uS cedlng Loulslana Lo Lhe laLLer and LreaLy beLween 8ussla and uS
cedlng Alaska Lo Lhe laLLer
3 rescrlpLlonwhlch ls a concepL under Lhe Clvll Code 1errlLory may
also be acqulred Lhrough conLlnuous and unlnLerrupLed possesslon over a
long perlod of Llme Powever ln lnLernaLlonal law Lhere ls no rule of
Lhumb as Lo Lhe lengLh of Llme for acqulslLlon of LerrlLory Lhrough
prescrlpLlon ln Lhls connecLlon conslder Lhe

Grot|us Doctr|ne of |mmemor|a| prescr|pt|on whlch speaks of
unlnLerrupLed possesslon golng beyond memory
4 ConquesL or Sub[ugaLlon (conqulsLadores)Lhls ls no longer recognlzed
lnasmuch as Lhe un CharLer prohlblLs resorL Lo LhreaL or use of force
agalnsL Lhe LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy or pollLlcal lndependence of any sLaLe and
3 AccreLlonanoLher concepL ln Lhe Clvll Code lL ls Lhe lncrease ln Lhe
land area of
3


Lhe SLaLe elLher Lhrough naLural means or arLlflclally Lhrough human
labor

h|||pp|ne Arch|pe|ago r r
1 1reaLy of arls uecember 10 1898Cesslon of Lhe hlllpplne lslands
by Spaln Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes
2 1reaLy beLween Spaln and uS aL WashlngLon november 7 1900
lncluslon of Cagayan Sulu and SlbuLo
3 1reaLy beLween uS and C8 !anuary 2 1930lncluslon of 1urLle and
Mangsee lslands

Cther terr|tor|es over wh|ch the h|||pp|nes has sovere|gnty or
[ur|sd|ct|on
1 8aLanes(1933 ConsLlLuLlon)
2 1hose conLemplaLed under ArLlcle l 1973 ConsLlLuLlonbelonglng Lo
Lhe hlllpplnes by hlsLorlc rlghL or legal LlLle
3 u 1396 !une 11 1978 consLlLuLlng Lhe SpraLly's Croup of lslands as a
regular munlclpallLy clalmlng lL Lhe MunlclpallLy of kalayaan placlng lL
under Lhe rovlnce of alawan

r#xxx @e woters oround between ond connectinq te is/onds of te
orcipe/oqoreqord/ess of teir breodt ond dimensions form port of te
interno/ woters of te Pi/ippines"

r1hls second senLence of ArLlcle l ls not Lhe Archlpelago uocLrlne 1hls ls
only our resLaLemenL/reafflrmaLlon of our adherence Lo Lhe Archlpelago
uocLrlne slmply because we are an archlpelago conslsLlng of 7107 lslands
lL ls essenLlal for our naLlonal survlval LhaL we adhere Lo Lhe archlpelago
prlnclple

Arch|pe|ago Doctr|nemerely emphaslzes Lhe unlLy of lands and waLers
lL ls a body of waLers lnLerconnecLed wlLh oLher naLural feaLures under
Lhe unlLed naLlon ConvenLlon on Lhe Law of Sea (unCLCS) lL conslsLs of
drawlng lmaglnary basellne connecLlng Lhe ouLermosL lslands of Lhe
archlpelago ln whlch all waLers lslands ls consldered as one lnLegraLed
whole An archlpelago ls deflned as group of lslands lnLerconnecLlng
waLers and oLher naLural feaLures whlch are so closely lnLerrelaLed LhaL
such lslands waLers and naLural feaLures form an lnLrlnslc geographlcal
economlcal and pollLlcal enLlLy or whlch hlsLorlcally been regarded as
such CorrelaLe Lhls docLrlne Lo rlghL of lnnocenL of passage rlghL of arrlval
under sLress and unCLCS requlrlng Lhe deslgnaLlon of archlpelaglc
seaways so LhaL forelgn vessels may pas Lhrough an archlpelago

2 klnds of Archlpelago
1 Coasta| Arch|pe|agoslLuaLed close Lo a malnland and may be
consldered a parL Lhereof
2 M|dCcean Arch|pe|agoslLuaLed ln Lhe ocean aL such dlsLance from
Lhe coasLs of flrm land 1he hlllpplnes ls classlfled as mldocean
archlpelago [usL llke lndonesla 1he hlllpplnes ls noL ln any way
connecLed physlcally wlLh Lhe Asla malnland

Components of Nat|ona| 1err|tory
l 1erresLrlalland mass on whlch Lhe lnhablLanLs llve r r
ll lluvlalmarlLlme r

a Interna| or nat|ona| watersbodles of waLer wlLhln Lhe land mass
among Lhem are
l 8 lverswhlch may be
1 naLlonal
2 8oundarydlvldes Lhe LerrlLorles of SLaLes
3 lnLernaLlonalflows Lhru varlous SLaLes

a 1ha|weg Doctr|nefor boundary rlvers ln Lhe absence of an agreemenL
beLween Lhe rlparlan sLaLes Lhe boundary llne ls lald on Lhe mlddle of Lhe
maln navlgable channel

b M|dd|e of the 8r|dge Doctr|newhere Lhere ls a brldge over a
boundary rlver Lhe boundary llne ls Lhe mlddle or cenLer of Lhe brldge
ll 8 ays and gulfsa bay ls a wellmarked lndenLaLlon whose peneLraLlon
ls ln such proporLlon Lo Lhe wldLh of lLs mouLh as Lo conLaln a landlocked
waLers and consLlLuLes more Lhan a curvaLure of Lhe coasL Also referred
Lo as [ur|d|ca| bay 1he area musL be as large as or larger Lhan a seml
clrcle whose dlameLer ls a llne drawn across Lhe mouLh of such
lndenLaLlon or lf Lhe mouLh ls less Lhan 24 mlles wlde eq noJsoo 8oy lo
coooJo one whose waLers are consldered lnLernal because of Lhe
exlsLence of a hlsLorlc LlLle

lll S LralLsnarrow passageways connecLlng 2 bodles of waLer lf Lhe
dlsLance beLween Lhe 2 opposlLe coasL ls noL more Lhan 6 mlles Lhey are
consldered lnLernal waLers

r ln lnLernaLlonal law when a sLralL wlLhln a counLry has a wldLh of more
Lhan slx (6) mlles Lhe cenLer lane ln excess of Lhe Lhree (3) mlles on boLh
sldes ls consldered lnLernaLlonal waLers
lv C analsLhe mosL famous ls Lhe Suez Canal whlch ls neuLrallzed and
Lhe anama Canal whlch ls open Lo everyone ln Llmes of war or peace

b Arch|pe|ag|c watersare Lhe waLers enclosed by Lhe archlpelaglc
basellnes regardless of Lhelr depLh or dlsLance from Lhe coasL
Arch|pe|ag|c Statea sLaLe made up wholly of one or Lwo archlpelagos lL
may lnclude oLher lslands
Stra|ght Arch|pe|ag|c 8ase||neLo deLermlne Lhe archlpelaglc waLers Lhe
sLaLe shall draw sLralghL basellnes connecLlng Lhe ouLermosL polnLs of Lhe
ouLermosL lslands and drylng reefs provlded LhaL Lhe raLlo of Lhe area of
Lhe waLer Lo Lhe area of Lhe land lncludlng aLolls ls beLween 11 and 91
1he lengLh of such basellnes shall noL exceed 100 nauLlcal mlles excepL up
Lo 3 of Lhe LoLal number of basellnes encloslng any archlpelago may
exceed LhaL lengLh up Lo a maxlmum 123 mlles 1he basellnes drawn
should noL deparL Lo any appreclable exLenL from Lhe general
conflguraLlon of Lhe archlpelago All Lhe waLers wlLhln Lhe basellnes shall
Lhen be consldered lnLernal waLers 1he breadLh of Lhe 12mlle LerrlLorlal
sea Lhe conLlguous zone Lhe excluslve economlc zone and Lhe conLlnenLal
shelf shall Lhen be measured from Lhe archlpelaglc basellnes

rvessels may be allowed |nnocent passage wlLhln Lhe archlpelaglc waLers
buL Lhls rlghL may be suspended afLer publlcaLlon ln Lhe lnLeresL of
lnLernaLlonal securlLy 1he coasLal sLaLe may also deslgnaLe otclpeloqlc
seo looes for conLlnuous unobsLrucLed LranslL of vessels

c 1err|tor|a| SeaLhe belL of Lhe sea locaLed beLween Lhe coasL and Lhe
lnLernal waLers of Lhe coasLal sLaLe on Lhe oLher hand and Lhe hlgh seas
on Lhe oLher exLendlng up Lo 12 nauLlcal mlles from Lhe lowwotet motk
or ln Lhe case of archlpelaglc sLaLes from Lhe basellnes

8ase||nels a llne from whlch Lhe breadLh of Lhe LerrlLorlal sea Lhe
conLlguous zone and Lhe excluslve economlc zone ls measured ln order Lo
deLermlne Lhe marlLlme boundary of Lhe coasLal sLaLe
1ypes of basellne
l normal 8asellne MeLhod
ll SLralghL 8asellne meLhod

d Cont|guous 2oneexLends up Lo 12 nauLlcal mlles from Lhe LerrlLorlal
sea Lhls shall noL exceed 24 nauLlcal mlles from Lhe archlpelaglc basellnes
1he coasLal sLaLe may exerclse llmlLed [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe conLlguous
zone
1 1o prevenL lnfrlngemenL of cusLoms flscal lmmlgraLlon or sanlLary laws
and regulaLlons wlLhln lLs LerrlLory or LerrlLorlal sea and
2 1o punlsh lnfrlngemenL of Lhe above laws and regulaLlons commlLLed
wlLhln lLs LerrlLory

e Lxc|us|ve Lconom|c 2oneshall noL exLend beyond 200 nauLlcal mlles
from Lhe archlpelaglc basellnes

f Cont|nenta| she|flL ls Lhe seabed and subsoll of Lhe submarlne areas
exLendlng beyond Lhe hlllpplne LerrlLorlal sea LhroughouL Lhe naLural
prolongaLlon of Lhe land LerrlLory lL exLends up Lo
l 1he ouLer edge of Lhe conLlnenLal margln or
4


ll A dlsLance of 200 nauLlcal mlles from Lhe archlpelaglc basellnes
whlchever ls Lhe farLhesL 1he conLlnenLal shelf does not form parL of Lhe
hlllpplne LerrlLory 1he hlllpplnes has Lhe soverelgn rlghLs over Lhe
conLlnenLal shelf for Lhe purpose of explorlng lL and explolLlng lLs naLural
resources

g n|gh SeasLreaLed as tes commooes Lhus noL LerrlLory of any
parLlcular SLaLe 1hese are Lhe waLers whlch do noL consLlLuLe Lhe lnLernal
waLers archlpelaglc waLers LerrlLorlal sea and excluslve economlc zones
of a sLaLe 1hey are beyond Lhe [urlsdlcLlon and soverelgn rlghLs of SLaLes

Ireedom of nav|gat|onrefers Lo Lhe rlghL Lo sall shlp on Lhe hlgh sea
sub[ecL Lo lnLernaLlonal law and Lhe laws of Lhe flag of Lhe sLaLe
lllAerlalLhls refers Lo Lhe alr space above Lhe land and waLers of Lhe
SLaLer
%ee ulscossloos ooJet lotetootloool low%

Ak1ICLL II
DLCLAkA1ICN CI kINCILLS AND S1A1L CLICILS
Sec 1 Art|c|e II
@e Pi/ippines is o democrotic ond repub/icon 5tote 5overeiqnty resides
in te peop/e ond o// qovernment outority emonotes from tem
(ke|ate th|s to Art|c|e kI)
1 LssenLlal feaLures 8epresenLaLlon and 8enovaLlon
2 ManlfesLaLlons
r Curs ls a governmenL of law and noL of men %Illlovlceoclo vs lokboo J9
lll 778%
r 8ule of Lhe ma[orlLy (lurallLy ln elecLlons)
r AccounLablllLy of publlc offlclals
r 8lll of rlghLs
r LeglslaLure cannoL pass lrrepealable laws
r SeparaLlon of powers

kepub||can|sm
rJot is o repub/icon form of qovernment?
rlL ls a governmenL of Lhe people by Lhe people and for Lhe people a
represenLaLlve governmenL whereln Lhe powers and duLles of governmenL
are exerclsed and dlscharged for Lhe common good and welfare

rCharacter|st|cs of a repub||can form of government
1 1he people do noL govern Lhemselves dlrecLly buL Lhrough Lhelr
represenLaLlves
2 lL ls founded upon popular suffrage
3 1here ls Lhe LrlparLlLe sysLem of Lhe governmenL Lhe muLual
lnLerdependence of Lhe Lhree deparLmenLs of Lhe governmenL

S1A1La communlLy of persons more or less numerous permanenLly
occupylng a deflnlLe porLlon of LerrlLory lndependenL of exLernal conLrol
and possesslng a governmenL Lo whlch a greaL body of lnhablLanLs render
hablLual obedlence %clk vs compos koeJo 42 ckA 2J%

State Nat|on
ls a legal or [urlsLlc concepL ls an eLhnlc or raclal concepL

State Government
possesses a governmenL Lo whlch a greaL merely an lnsLrumenLallLy of
Lhe SLaLe body of lnhablLanLs render hablLual obedlence Lhrough whlch
Lhe wlll of Lhe SLaLe ls lmplemenLed and reallzed

kepub||can stateone consLrucLed on Lhe prlnclple LhaL Lhe supreme
power resldes ln Lhe body of Lhe people lLs purpose Lherefore ls Lo
guaranLee agalnsL Lwo (2) exLremes
1 Cn Lhe one hand monarchy and ollgarchy
2 Cn Lhe oLher pure democracy

L|ements of State
1 eoplerLhe lnhablLanLs of Lhe SLaLe Lhe # of whlch ls capable for self
sufflclency and selfdefense of boLh sexes for perpeLulLy
a lnhablLanLs
b ClLlzens
c LlecLors
2 1 errlLorya flxed porLlon of Lhe surface of Lhe earLh lnhablLed by Lhe
people of Lhe SLaLe
3 CovernmenLLhe agency or lnsLrumenLallLy Lhrough whlch Lhe wlll of
Lhe SLaLe ls formulaLed expressed and reallzed r

Government of the h|||pp|nesrefers Lo Lhe corporaLe governmenLal
enLlLy Lhrough whlch Lhe funcLlons of Lhe governmenL are exerclsed
LhroughouL Lhe hlllpplnes lncludlng save as Lhe conLrary appears from
Lhe conLexL Lhe varlous arms Lhrough whlch pollLlcal auLhorlLy ls made
effecLlve ln Lhe hlllpplnes wheLher perLalnlng Lo Lhe auLonomous
reglons Lhe provlnclal clLy munlclpal or barangay subdlvlslons or oLher
forms of local governmenL

rue !ure vs ue lacLo
De Iure De Iacto
rPas a rlghLful LlLle buL no power or conLrol elLher because Lhe same has
been wlLhdrawn from lL or because lL has noL yeL acLually enLered lnLo Lhe
exerclse Lhereof

rAcLually exerclses Lhe power or conLrol buL wlLhouL legal LlLle

a De facto propergovernmenL LhaL geLs possesslon and conLrol of or
usurps by force or by Lhe volce of Lhe ma[orlLy Lhe rlghLful legal
governmenL and malnLalns lLself agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe laLLer

b Government of aramount IorcesesLabllshed and malnLalned by Lhe
mlllLary forces who lnvade and occupy a LerrlLory of Lhe enemy ln Lhe
course of war

c Independent Government esLabllshed by Lhe lnhablLanLs of Lhe
counLry who rlse ln lnsurrecLlon agalnsL Lhe parenL SLaLe

rresldenLlal vs arllamenLary

res|dent|a| ar||amentary
r1here ls separaLlon of leglslaLlve and execuLlve powers 1he flrsL ls lodged
ln Lhe resldenL and Lhe second ls vesLed ln Congress
rlL embodles lnLerdependence by separaLlon and coordlnaLlon
r1here ls fuslon of boLh execuLlve and leglslaLlve powers ln arllamenL
alLhough Lhe acLual exerclse of Lhe execuLlve powers ls vesLed ln a rlme
MlnlsLer who ls chosen by and accounLable Lo arllamenL

rlL embodles lnLerdependence by lnLegraLlon

runlLary vs lederal CovernmenL
Iunct|ons of the government
a C onsLlLuenLcompulsory because consLlLuLlve of Lhe socleLy
b M lnlsLranLunderLaken Lo advance Lhe general lnLeresL of Lhe socleLy
merely opLlonal

Doctr|ne of arens atr|aeLhe governmenL as guardlan of Lhe rlghLs of
Lhe people may lnlLlaLe legal acLlons for and ln behalf of parLlcular
lndlvldual %6overnment of te Pi/ippine ls/onds vs Monte de Piedod l5
5 7l8 oboos vs Pi/opi/ 58 5 94)
4 SoverelgnLyLhe supreme and unconLrollable power lnherenL ln a SLaLe
by whlch LhaL SLaLe ls governedr
lL ls Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse Lhe funcLlons of a SLaLe Lo Lhe excluslon of any
oLher SLaLe Whlle soverelgnLy has LradlLlonally been deemed absoluLe
and allencompasslng on Lhe domesLlc level lL ls however sub[ecL Lo
resLrlcLlons and llmlLaLlons volunLarlly agreed Lo by Lhe hlllpplnes
expressly or lmplledly as a member of Lhe famlly of naLlons ln lLs
ueclaraLlon of rlnclples and SLaLe ollcles Lhe ConsLlLuLlon adopLs Lhe
generally accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law as parL of Lhe law of Lhe
land and adheres Lo Lhe pollcy of peace equallLy [usLlce freedom
cooperaLlon and amlLy wlLh all naLlons 8y Lhe docLrlne of lncorporaLlon
Lhe counLry ls bound by generally accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law
whlch are consldered Lo be auLomaLlcally parL of our own laws
3



"Government of Laws and Not of Men"soverelgnLy of Lhe people also
lncludes Lhe concepL LhaL governmenL offlclals have only Lhe auLhorlLy
glven Lhem by law and deflned by law and such auLhorlLy conLlnues only
wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe people

klnds of SoverelgnLy r
a LegalLhe power Lo lssue flnal commands
b ollLlcalLhe sum LoLal of all Lhe lnfluences whlch lle behlnd Lhe law
c lnLernalLhe supreme power over everyLhlng wlLhln lLs LerrlLory
d LxLernalalso known as |ndependencefreedom from exLernal
conLrol

CharacLerlsLlcs
a ermanence
b Lxcluslveness
c Comprehenslveness
d AbsoluLeness
e lndlvlslblllLy
f lnallenablllLy
g lmprescrlpLlblllLy

SoverelgnLy ofLen referred Lo as Imper|umls Lhe SLaLe's auLhorlLy Lo
govern lL lncludes passlng laws governlng a LerrlLory malnLalnlng peace
and order over lL and defendlng lL agalnsL forelgn lnvaslon
lL ls Lhe governmenL auLhorlLy possessed by Lhe SLaLe expressed ln Lhe
concepL of soverelgnLy

Dom|n|umls Lhe capaclLy of Lhe SLaLe Lo own or acqulre properLy such
as lands and naLural resources %Lee nonq nok vs uovid No Ll0l89
uecember 27 1972 5eporote Opinion of lustice kopunon in rut vs
5ecretory of uN 6 No 1l5l85 uecember 2000)

lL necessarlly lncludes Lhe power Lo allenaLe whaL ls owned lL was Lhe
foundaLlon for Lhe early Spanlsh decrees embraclng Lhe feudal Lheory of
joto teqollo LhaL all lands were held from Lhe Crown

Lffect of 8e|||gerent Cccupat|onLhere ls no change ln soverelgnLy
Powever pollLlcal laws excepL Lhose of Lreason are suspended munlclpal
laws remaln ln force unless changed by Lhe belllgerenL occupanL

r|nc|p|e of lus Post/iminiumaL Lhe end of Lhe occupaLlon when Lhe
occupanL ls ousLed from Lhe LerrlLory Lhe pollLlcal laws whlch have been
suspended shall auLomaLlcally become effecLlve agaln %Pero/to vs
uirector of Prisons No L049 November 12 1945)

Lffect of Change of Sovere|gntypollLlcal laws of Lhe former soverelgn
are abrogaLed unless Lhey are expressly reenacLed by Lhe afflrmaLlve acL
of Lhe new soverelgn Munlclpal laws remaln ln force %Mocorio/o vs
suncion dm ose No 1lll Moy l1 1982)

Lffect of kevo|ut|onary GovernmentlL ls bound by no consLlLuLlon
Powever lL dld noL repudlaLe Lhe CovenanL or ueclaraLlon ln Lhe same
way lL repudlaLed Lhe ConsLlLuLlon As Lhe Je jote governmenL Lhe
revoluLlonary governmenL could noL escape responslblllLy for Lhe SLaLe's
good falLh compllance wlLh lLs LreaLy obllgaLlons under lnLernaLlonal law
uurlng Lhe lnLerregnum when no consLlLuLlon or 8lll of 8lghLs exlsLed
dlrecLlves and orders lssued by governmenL offlcers dld noL exceed Lhe
auLhorlLy granLed Lhem by Lhe revoluLlonary governmenL 1he dlrecLlves
or orders should noL have also vlolaLed Lhe CovenanL or Lhe ueclaraLlon
%epub/ic vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 10478 lu/y 21 200l)

Iur|sd|ct|onls Lhe manlfesLaLlon of soverelgnLy
a 1 errlLorlalpower of Lhe SLaLe over persons and Lhlngs wlLhln lLs
LerrlLory sub[ecL Lo lLs conLrol and proLecLlon
b ersonalpower of Lhe SLaLe over lLs naLlonals whlch may be
exerclsed by Lhe sLaLe even lf Lhe lndlvldual ls ouLslde Lhe LerrlLory of Lhe
SLaLe
c L xLraLerrlLorlalpower of Lhe SLaLe over persons Lhlngs or acLs beyond
lLs LerrlLorlal llmlLs by reason of Lhelr effecLs Lo lLs LerrlLory

Sec 2 Art|c|e II
(Incorporat|on C|ause)

@e Pi/ippine renounces wor os on instrument of notiono/ po/icy odopts
te qenero//y occepted princip/es of internotiono/ /ow os port of te /ow
of te /ond ond oderes to te po/icy of peoce equo/ity justice freedom
cooperotion ond omity wit o// notions

1hree (3) parLs
1 8enunclaLlon of warLhe power Lo wage a defenslve war ls of Lhe very
essence of soverelgnLy
2 AdopLlon of Lhe prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law
3 Adherence Lo a pollcy of peace equallLy [usLlce freedom cooperaLlon
amlLy

1he second parL ls noLhlng more Lhan a formal accepLance of a prlnclple Lo
whlch all clvlllzed naLlons musL conform

1he Lhlrd parL ls called Lhe selflsh pollcy"Lhe guldlng prlnclple of
hlllpplne forelgn pollcy ls Lhe naLlonal lnLeresL Powever Lhls ls Lempered
wlLh concern for equallLy peace freedom and [usLlce

Sect|on 23 (1) Art|c|e VI @e onqress by o vote of twotltJs of bot
nooses lo jolo sessloo ossembleJ votloq sepototely so// ove te so/e
power to dec/ore te existence of o stote of wor

Doctr|ne of Incorporat|onLhe docLrlne where Lhe generally accepLed
prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law are made parL of Lhe law of Lhe land elLher
by express provlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or by means of [udlclal declaraLlon
or flaL 1he docLrlne ls applled whenever munlclpal Lrlbunals or local
courLs are confronLed wlLh slLuaLlons ln whlch Lhere appears Lo be a
confllcL beLween a rule of lnLernaLlonal law and Lhe provlslons of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon or sLaLuLe of a SLaLe LfforLs should flrsL be exerLed Lo
harmonlze Lhem so as Lo glve effecL Lo boLh ln case of confllcL beLween
lnLernaLlonal law and munlclpal law Lhe laLLer shall prevall
Powever Lhe docLrlne dlcLaLes LhaL rules of lnLernaLlonal law are glven
equal sLandlng wlLh and are noL superlor Lo naLlonal leglslaLlve
enacLmenLs

Lex posterior deroqote prioriln SLaLes where Lhe consLlLuLlon ls Lhe
hlghesL law of Lhe land boLh sLaLuLes and LreaLles may be lnvalldaLed lf
Lhey are ln confllcL wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon %5ecretory of lustice vs Lontion
6 No 1l945 lonuory 18 2000)

Pi/ip Morris lnc vs Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnLernaLlonal law has been
made parL of Lhe law of Lhe land does noL by any means lmply Lhe prlmacy
of lnLernaLlonal law over naLlonal law ln Lhe munlclpal sphere

Doctr|ne of Auto||m|tat|on lL ls Lhe docLrlne where Lhe hlllpplnes
adheres Lo prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law as a llmlLaLlon Lo Lhe exerclse of
lLs soverelgnLy

rJot wor does te Pi/ippines renounce?
r1he hlllpplnes renounces an aggress|ve war because of lLs membershlp
ln Lhe unlLed naLlons whose charLer renounces war as an lnsLrumenL of
naLlonal pollcles of lLs member SLaLes

Sec 3 Art|c|e II
(C|v|||an Supremacy C|ause)
ivi/ion outority is ot o// times supreme over te mi/itory @e rmed
orces of te Pi/ippines is te protector of te peop/e ond te 5tote lts
qoo/ is to secure te sovereiqnty of te 5tote ond te inteqrity of te
notiono/ territory

C|v|||an Supremacy C|ause
6


Sec 18 Art VIIlnsLallaLlon of Lhe resldenL as Lhe hlghesL clvlllan
auLhorlLy as Lhe commanderlnchlef of Lhe AlexLernal manlfesLaLlon
LhaL clvlllan auLhorlLy ls supreme over Lhe mlllLary

Sec S(1) Art kVImembers of Lhe Al swear Lo uphold and defend Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon whlch ls Lhe fundamenLal law of Lhe clvll governmenL
Clvlllan supremacy ls noL a guaranLeed supremacy of clvlllan offlcers who
are ln power buL of supremacy of Lhe soverelgn people 1he Armed
lorces ln Lhls sense ls Lhe proLecLor of Lhe people and Lhe SLaLe"

Sec 6 Art|c|e kVI1he SLaLe shall esLabllsh and malnLaln one pollce
force whlch shall be naLlonal ln scope and clvlllan ln characLer Lo be
admlnlsLered and conLrolled by a naLlonal pollce commlsslon 1he
auLhorlLy of local execuLlves over Lhe pollce unlLs ln Lhelr [urlsdlcLlon shall
be provlded by law

rl8P vs 2omoro 6 No 141284 uqust 15 2000 Lhe deploymenL of
Lhe Marlnes does noL consLlLuLe a breach of Lhe clvlllan supremacy clause
1he calllng of Lhe marlnes ln Lhls case consLlLuLes permlsslble use of
mlllLary asseL for clvlllan law enforcemenL x x x 1he llmlLed parLlclpaLlon
of Lhe Marlnes ls evldenL ln Lhe provlslons of Lhe LeLLer of lnsLrucLlon (LCl)
lLself whlch sufflclenLly provldes Lhe meLes and bounds of Lhe Marlnes'
auLhorlLy lL ls noLeworLhy LhaL Lhe local pollce forces are Lhe ones charge
of Lhe vlslblllLy paLrols aL all Llmes Lhe real auLhorlLy belonglng Lo Lhe n
ln facL Lhe MeLro Manlla ollce Chlef ls Lhe overall leader of Lhe n
Marlnes [olnL vlslblllLy paLrols
under Lhe LCl Lhe pollce forces are Lasked Lo brlef or orlenL Lhe soldlers
on pollce paLrol procedures lL ls Lhelr responslblllLy Lo dlrecL and manage
Lhe deploymenL of Lhe marlnes lL ls llkewlse Lhelr duLy Lo provlde Lhe
necessary equlpmenL Lo Lhe Marlnes and render loglsLlc supporL Lo Lhese
soldlers ln vlew of Lhe foregolng lL cannoL be properly argued LhaL
mlllLary auLhorlLy ls supreme over clvlllan auLhorlLy
lL ls worLh menLlonlng LhaL mlllLary asslsLance Lo clvlllan auLhorlLles ln
varlous forms perslsLs ln hlllpplne [urlsdlcLlon 1he hlllpplne experlence
reveals LhaL lL ls noL averse Lo requesLlng Lhe asslsLance of Lhe mlllLary ln
Lhe lmplemenLaLlon and execuLlon of cerLaln LradlLlonally clvll" funcLlons
x x x Some of Lhe mulLlfarlous acLlvlLles whereln mlllLary ald has been
rendered exempllfylng Lhe acLlvlLles LhaL brlng boLh Lhe clvlllan and Lhe
mlllLary LogeLher ln a relaLlonshlp of cooperaLlon are
1 LlecLlons
2 AdmlnlsLraLlon of Lhe hlllpplne naLlonal 8ed Cross
3 8ellef and rescue operaLlons durlng calamlLles and dlsasLers
4 AmaLeur sporLs promoLlon and developmenL
3 uevelopmenL of Lhe culLure and Lhe arLs
6 ConservaLlon of Lhe naLural resources
7 lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe agrarlan reform program
8 LnforcemenL of cusLoms laws
9 ComposlLe clvlllanmlllLary law enforcemenL acLlvlLles
10 ConducL of llcensure examlnaLlons
11 ConducL of naLlonwlde LesL for elemenLary and hlgh school sLudenLs
12 AnLldrug enforcemenL acLlvlLles
13 SanlLary lnspecLlons
14 ConducL of census work
13 AdmlnlsLraLlon of Lhe Clvll AeronauLlc 8oard
16 AsslsLance ln lnsLallaLlon of weaLher forecasLlng devlces
17 eace and order pollcy formulaLlon ln local governmenL unlLs

1hls unquesLlonably consLlLuLes a gloss on execuLlve power resulLlng from
a sysLemaLlc unbroken execuLlve pracLlce long pursued Lo Lhe
knowledge of Congress and yeL never before quesLloned WhaL we have
here ls a muLual supporL and cooperaLlon beLween Lhe mlllLary and
clvlllan auLhorlLles noL derogaLlon of clvlllan supremacy

Sec 4 Art|c|e II
@e prime duty of te 6overnment is to serve ond protect te peop/e
@e 6overnment moy co// upon te peop/e to defend te 5tote ond in
te fu/fi//ment tereof o// cititens moy be required under conditions
provided by /ow to render persono/ mi/itory or civi/ service

ruoes te Pi/ippines renounce defensive wor?

rno because lL ls duLy bound Lo defend lLs clLlzens under Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon Lhe prlme duLy of Lhe governmenL ls Lo serve and proLecL Lhe
people

Posse ommitotuslL ls Lhe power of Lhe sLaLe Lo requlre all ablebodled
clLlzens Lo perform clvlc duLy Lo malnLaln peace and order
ln Peop/e vs Loqmon Pi/ 1l Lhe accused ln Lhls case prosecuLed for
fallure Lo reglsLer for mlllLary servlce under Lhe naLlonal uefense AcL
assalled Lhe valldlLy of Lhe AcL 1he Supreme CourL upheld Lhe law on Lhe
basls of Lhe compulsory mlllLary and clvll servlce provlslon of Lhen 1933
ConsLlLuLlon lL sald LhaL x x x @e Joty of te Covetomeot to JefeoJ te
tote coooot be petfotmeJ except ttooq oo otmy
@o leove te otqoolzotloo of oo otmy to te wlll of te cltlzeos woolJ be to
moke tls Joty to te Covetomeot excosoble soolJ tete be oo sofflcleot
meo wo volooteet to eollst tetelox x x te tlqt of te Covetomeot to
tepolte compolsoty mllltoty setvlce ls o coosepoeoce of lts Joty to JefeoJ
te tote ooJ ls teclptocol wlt lts Joty to JefeoJ te llfe llbetty ooJ
ptopetty of te cltlzeo x x x

Sec S Art|c|e II
@e mointenonce of peoce ond order te protection of /ife /iberty ond
property ond te promotion of te qenero/ we/fore ore essentio/ for te
enjoyment by o// te peop/e of te b/essinqs of democrocy

8lghL Lo bear arms lL ls sLaLuLory and noL a consLlLuLlonal rlghL 1he
llcense Lo carry a flrearm ls nelLher a properLy nor a properLy rlghL
nelLher does lL creaLe a vesLed rlghL
Lven lf lL were a properLy rlghL lL cannoL be consldered absoluLe as Lo be
placed beyond Lhe reach of pollce power 1he malnLenance of peace and
order and Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe people agalnsL vlolence are consLlLuLlonal
duLles of Lhe SLaLe and Lhe rlghL Lo bear flrearm ls Lo be consLrued ln
connecLlon and ln harmony wlLh Lhese consLlLuLlonal duLles
%ovet vs omu/o 6 No 1570l lune 9 2004)

Sec 6 Art|c|e II
@e seporotion of urc ond 5tote so// be invio/ob/e

1he SLaLe should noL use lLs money and coerclve power Lo esLabllsh
rellglon lL should noL supporL a parLlcular rellglon 1he SLaLe ls prohlblLed
from lnLerferlng wlLh purely eccleslasLlcal affalrs 8uL lL does noL mean
LhaL Lhere ls LoLal or absoluLe separaLlon 1he beLLer rule ls symbloLlc
relaLlons beLween Lhe church and SLaLe
ConsLlLuLlonal provlslons evldenclng Lhe SeparaLlon of Church and SLaLe
1 Sec 6 ArL ll
2 Sec 3 ArL lllno law shall be made respecLlng an esLabllshmenL of
rellglon or prohlblLlng Lhe free exerclse Lhereof 1he free exerclse and
en[oymenL of rellglous professlon and worshlp wlLhouL dlscrlmlnaLlon or
preference shall forever be allowed no rellglous LesL shall be requlred for
Lhe exerclse of clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs
3 Sec 2 (3) ArL lxCrellglous secL cannoL be reglsLered as pollLlcal parLy
4 Sec 3 (2) ArL vlno secLoral represenLaLlve from Lhe rellglous secLor
3 Sec 28 (3) ArL vlCharlLable lnsLlLuLlons churches and parsonages or
convenLs appurLenanL LhereLo mosques nonproflL cemeLerles and all
lands bulldlngs and lmprovemenLs acLually dlrecLly and excluslvely used
for rellglous charlLable or educaLlonal purposes sha|| be exempt from
taxat|on
6 Sec 29 (2) ArL vlno publlc money or properLy shall be approprlaLed
applled pald or employed dlrecLly or lndlrecLly for Lhe use beneflL or
supporL of any secL church denomlnaLlon secLarlan lnsLlLuLlon or sysLem
of rellglon or of any prlesL preacher mlnlsLer or oLher rellglous Leacher
or dlgnlLary as such except when such prlesL preacher mlnlsLer or
dlgnlLary ls asslgned Lo Lhe armed forces or Lo any penal lnsLlLuLlon or
governmenL orphanage or leprosarlum
7 Sec 3 (3) ArL xlvAt the opt|on expressed ln wrlLlng by Lhe parenLs or
guardlans rellglon shall be allowed Lo be LaughL Lo Lhelr chlldren or wards
ln publlc elemenLary and hlgh schools wlLhln Lhe regular class hours by
lnsLrucLors deslgnaLed or approved by Lhe rellglous auLhorlLles of Lhe
7


rellglon Lo whlch Lhe chlldren or wards belong wlLhouL addlLlonal cosL Lo
Lhe CovernmenL
8 Sec 4 (2) ArL xlvllllplno ownershlp requlremenL for educaLlonal
lnsLlLuLlons except Lhose esLabllshed by rellglous groups and mlsslon
boards ustrio vs NL ond Pu Mission orp of te 7t uoy
dventists 6 No 124l82 uqust 1 1999 an eccleslasLlcal affalr
lnvolves Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe church and lLs members and relaLes
Lo maLLer of falLh rellglous docLrlnes worshlp and governance of Lhe
congregaLlon Lxamples of Lhese affalrs ln whlch Lhe SLaLe cannoL meddle
are proceedlngs for excommunlcaLlon ordlnaLlon of rellglous mlnlsLers
admlnlsLraLlon of sacramenLs and oLher acLlvlLles Lo whlch ls aLLached
rellglous slgnlflcance ln Lhls case whaL ls lnvolved ls Lhe relaLlonshlp of
Lhe church as an employer and Lhe mlnlsLer as an employee lL ls purely
secular and has no relaLlon whaLsoever wlLh Lhe pracLlce of falLh worshlp
or docLrlne of Lhe church

S1A1L CLICILS

Sec 7 Art|c|e II
(Independent Iore|gn o||cy)

@e 5tote so// pursue on independent foreiqn po/icy ln its re/otions wit
oter stotes te poromount considerotion so// be notiono/ sovereiqnty
territorio/ inteqrity notiono/ interest ond te riqt to se/f
determinotion

1he word relaLlons" covers Lhe whole gamuL of LreaLles and lnLernaLlonal
agreemenLs and oLher klnds of lnLercourse 1hls ls Lhe closesL reference Lo
mlllLary bases
1here ls a marked anLlpaLhy ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lowards forelgn mlllLary
presence ln Lhe counLry or of forelgn lnfluence ln general %Lim vs
xecutive 5ecretory 6 No 151445 pri/ 11 2002)

Sec 8 Art|c|e II
(o||cy of Ireedom from Nuc|ear Weapons)

@e Pi/ippines consistent wit te notiono/ interest odopts ond pursues
o po/icy of freedom from nuc/eor weopons in its territory
Clearly Lhe ban ls on nuclear armsLhaL ls Lhe use and sLockplllng of
nuclear weapons devlces and parLs Lhereof And Lhls lncludes noL only
possesslng conLrolllng and manufacLurlng nuclear weapons buL also
nuclear LesL ln our LerrlLory as well as Lhe use of our LerrlLory as dumplng
ground for radloacLlve wasLe
1he provlslon however ls noL a ban on Lhe peaceful uses of nuclear
energy nor ls lL a ban on all nuclearcapable vessels" lor a vessel Lo be
banned lL ls noL enough LhaL lL ls capable of carrylng nuclear arms lL musL
acLually carry nuclear arms
nuclear weapons lf sLored ln our LerrlLory may lnvlLe LhreaLs of forelgn
lnvaslon and Lhere ls a danger Lo Lhe llfe and llmbs of Lhe people because
of Lhe LhreaL of exploslon

Sec 9 Art|c|e II
(Iust and Dynam|c Soc|a| Crder)

@e 5tote so// promote o just ond dynomic socio/ order tot wi// ensure
te prosperity ond independence of te notion ond free te peop/e from
poverty trouq po/icies tot provide odequote socio/ services promote
fu// emp/oyment o risinq stondord of /ivinq ond on improved quo/ity of
/ife for o//

lL reflecLs a preoccupaLlon wlLh poverLy as resulLlng from sLrucLures LhaL
mlre Lhe people ln a llfe of dependence

Sec 10 Art|c|e II
(Soc|a| Iust|ce)

@e 5tote so// promote socio/ justice in o// poses of notiono/
deve/opment
(8ead SecLlons 1 and 2 of ArLlcle xlll)

Sect|ons 12 of Art|c|e kIII
Sect|on 1@e cooqtess soll qlve lqest ptlotlty to te eooctmeot of
meosotes tot ptotect ooJ eoooce te tlqt of oll te people to omoo
Jlqolty teJoce soclol ecooomlc ooJ polltlcol loepoolltles ooJ temove
coltotol loepoltles by epoltobly Jlffosloq weolt ooJ polltlcol powet fot te
commoo qooJ
@o tls eoJ te tote soll teqolote te ocpolsltloo owoetslp ose ooJ
Jlsposltloo of ptopetty ooJ lts loctemeots

Sect|on 2@e ptomotloo of soclol jostlce soll locloJe te commltmeot to
cteote ecooomlc oppottooltles boseJ oo fteeJom of loltlotlve ooJ self
tellooce
1he ConsLlLuLlon covers all phases of naLlonal developmenL buL wlLh more
emphasls noL only on economlc lnequlLles buL also on pollLlcal and culLural
lnequlLles

Sec 11 Art|c|e II
(ersona| D|gn|ty and numan k|ghts)

@e 5tote vo/ues te diqnity of every umon person ond quorontees fu//
respect for umon riqts
(8ead SecLlons 1719 of ArLlcle xlll)

Sect|on 12 Art|c|e II
(1he Iam||y as 8as|c Soc|a| Inst|tut|on)
@e 5tote recoqnites te sonctity of fomi/y /ife ond so// protect ond
strenqten te fomi/y os o bosic outonomous socio/ institution lt so//
equo//y protect te /ife of te moter ond te /ife of te unborn from
conception @e noturo/ ond primory riqt ond duty of porents in te
reorinq of te yout for civic efficiency ond te deve/opment of moro/
corocter so// receive te support of te qovernment
(8ead ArLlcle xv)

1he famlly here ls Lo be undersLood as a sLable heLerosexual relaLlonshlp
wheLher formallzed by clvllly recognlzed marrlage or noL Calllng Lhe
famlly a baslc soclal lnsLlLuLlon" ls an asserLlon LhaL Lhe famlly ls anLerlor
Lo Lhe SLaLe and ls noL a creaLure of Lhe SLaLe 1he caLegorlzaLlon of Lhe
famlly as auLonomous" ls meanL Lo proLecL Lhe famlly agalnsL
lnsLrumenLallzaLlon by Lhe SLaLe

roLecLlon of Lhe unborn
1he unborn's enLlLlemenL Lo proLecLlon beglns from concepLlon" le
from Lhe momenL of concepLlon 1he lnLenLlon ls Lo proLecL llfe from lLs
beglnnlng and Lhe assumpLlon ls LhaL human llfe beglns aL concepLlon and
LhaL concepLlon Lakes place aL ferLlllzaLlon
1he provlslon ls lnLended Lo prevenL Lhe SLaLe from adopLlng Lhe docLrlne
ln uS
Supreme CourL declslon of oe vs Jode 410 u5 11l whlch llberallzed
aborLlon laws up Lo Lhe 6Lh monLh of pregnancy by allowlng aborLlon aL
Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe moLher any Llme durlng Lhe flrsL 6 monLhs when lL
can be done wlLhouL danger Lo Lhe moLher

naLural 8lghL and uuLy of arenLs
arenLs are enLlLled Lo Lhe supporL of laws deslgned Lo ald Lhem ln Lhe
dlscharge of Lhelr responslblllLy
1he provlslon also hlghllghLs Lhe lnherenL duLy of Lhe SLaLe Lo acL as
poteos pottloe and Lo proLecL Lhe rlghL of persons and lndlvlduals who
because of age or lnherenL lncapaclLy are ln an unfavorable poslLlon vls
vls oLher parLles
Peop/e vs Lorin 6 No 128777 October 7 1998 8A 7610 whlch
penallzes chlld prosLlLuLlon and oLher sexual abuses was enacLed ln
consonance wlLh Lhe pollcy of Lhe
SLaLe Lo provlde speclal proLecLlon Lo chlldren from all forms of abuse"
Lhus Lhe CourL granLs Lhe vlcLlm full vlndlcaLlon and proLecLlon granLed
under Lhe law

Sect|on 13 Art|c|e II
V|ta| ko|e of the outh |n Nat|on8u||d|ng
8


@e 5tote recoqnites te vito/ ro/e of te yout in notionbui/dinq ond
so// promote ond protect teir pysico/ moro/ spirituo/ inte//ectuo/
ond socio/ we//beinq lt so// incu/cote in te yout potriotism ond
notiono/ism ond encouroqe teir invo/vement in pub/ic ond civic offoirs

Sect|on 14 Art|c|e II
(Lqua||ty of Women and Men)
@e 5tote recoqnites te ro/e of women in notionbui/dinq ond so//
ensure te fundomento/ equo/ity before te /ow of women ond men
(8ead SecLlon 14 ArLlcle xlll)
P@@ o vs NL 6 No 118978 Moy 2l 1997 Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe
peLlLloner's pollcy of noL accepLlng or conslderlng as dlsquallfled from
work any woman worker who conLracLs marrlage runs afoul of Lhe LesL of
and Lhe rlghL agalnsL dlscrlmlnaLlon whlch ls guaranLeed all women
workers under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Whlle a requlremenL LhaL a woman
employee musL remaln unmarrled may be [usLlfled as a bona flde
occupaLlonal quallflcaLlon" where Lhe parLlcular requlremenLs of Lhe [ob
would demand Lhe same dlscrlmlnaLlon agalnsL marrled women cannoL
be adopLed by Lhe employer as a general prlnclple

Sect|on 1S Art|c|e II
(k|ght to nea|th)
@e 5tote so// protect ond promote te riqt to eo/t of te peop/e ond
insti// eo/t consciousness omonq tem
(8ead SecLlons 1113 of ArLlcle xlll as an aspecL of Soclal !usLlce)

Sect|on 16 Art|c|e II
(k|ght to A 8a|anced and nea|thfu| Lco|ogy)
@e 5tote so// protect ond odvonce te riqt of te peop/e to o
bo/onced ond eo/tfu/ eco/oqy in occord wit te rytm ond ormony
of noture

rOposo vs octoron lr 224 5 792 lL was held LhaL Lhe 34 mlnors
duly [olned by Lhelr respecLlve parenLs pleadlng Lhe cause of lnLer
generaLlonal responslblllLy" and lnLergeneraLlonal [usLlce" had a valld
cause of acLlon ln quesLlonlng Lhe granL of 1lmber Llcenslng AgreemenLs
(1LAs) for commerclal logglng purposes 1he mlnors flled Lhe acLlon for
Lhemselves as represenLlng Lhelr generaLlon as well as generaLlons yeL
unborn" 1he SC on Lhe basls of SecLlon 16 ArLlcle ll llnked wlLh Lhe rlghL
Lo healLh recognlzed a rlghL Lo a balanced and healLhful ecology" and
Lhe correlaLlve duLy Lo refraln from lmpalrlng Lhe envlronmenL"
M @imber orporotion vs /co/o 6 No 111088 lune 1l 1997 on
Lhe lssue LhaL Lhe LoLal log ban" ls a new pollcy whlch should be applled
prospecLlvely and noL affecL Lhe rlghLs of peLlLloner vesLed under Lhe
1lmber Llcenslng AgreemenL (1LA) Lhe Sc held LhaL Lhls ls noL a new pollcy
buL a mere relLeraLlon of Lhe pollcy of conservaLlon and proLecLlon Lhe
rlghL Lo a balanced and healLhful ecology

Sect|on 17 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// qive priority to educotion science ond tecno/oqy orts
cu/ture ond sports to foster potriotism ond notiono/ism occe/erote socio/
proqress ond promote toto/ umon /iberotion ond deve/opment
(8ead also SecLlon 2 ArLlcle xlv)
ln P vs ue 6utmon 6 No 14481 lune 21 2004 whlle lL ls Lrue
LhaL Lhe SC has upheld Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghL of every clLlzen Lo selecL a
professlon or course of sLudy sub[ecL Lo falr reasonable and equlLable
admlsslon and academlc requlremenLs Lhe exerclse of Lhls rlghL may be
regulaLed pursuanL Lo Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe Lo safeguard healLh
morals peace educaLlon order safeLy and general welfare 1hus persons
who deslre Lo engage ln Lhe learned professlons requlrlng sclenLlflc or
Lechnlcal knowledge may be requlred Lo Lake an examlnaLlon as a
prerequlslLe Lo engaglng ln Lhelr chosen careers 1hls regulaLlon assumes
parLlcular perLlnence ln Lhe fleld of medlclne ln order Lo proLecL Lhe
publlc from Lhe poLenLlally deadly effecLs of lncompeLence and lgnorance
PMM5 lnc vs 244 5 770 Lhe CourL sald LhaL Lhe requlremenL
LhaL a school musL flrsL obLaln governmenL auLhorlzaLlon before operaLlng
ls based on Lhe SLaLe pollcy LhaL educaLlonal programs and/or operaLlons
shall be of good quallLy and Lherefore shall aL leasL saLlsfy mlnlmum
sLandards wlLh respecL Lo currlcula Leachlng sLaff physlcal planL and
faclllLles and admlnlsLraLlve and managemenL vlablllLy

Sect|on 18 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote offirms /obor os o primory socio/ economic force lt so//
protect te riqt of te workers ond promote teir we/fore
ln Lhe case of 8ernordo vs NL 6 No 122917 lu/y 12 1999 Lhe SC
held LhaL Lhe Magna CarLa for ulsabled ersons mandaLes LhaL quallfled
dlsabled persons be granLed Lhe same Lerms and condlLlons of
employmenL as quallfled ablebodled employees Lhus once hey have
aLLalned Lhe sLaLus of regular workers Lhey should be accorded all Lhe
beneflLs granLed by law noLwlLhsLandlng wrlLLen or verbal conLracLs Lo
Lhe conLrary 1hls LreaLmenL ls rooLed noL merely ln charlLy or
accommodaLlon buL ln [usLlce for all

Sect|on 19 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// deve/op o se/fre/iont ond independent notiono/ economy
effective/y contro//ed by i/ipinos
1he ConsLlLuLlon does noL necessarlly rule ouL Lhe enLry of forelgn
lnvesLmenLs goods and servlces lL conLemplaLes nelLher economlc
secluslon" nor mendlcancy ln Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy"
Aslde from envlslonlng a Lrade pollcy based on equallLy and reclproclLy"
Lhe fundamenLal law encourages lndusLrles LhaL are compeLlLlve ln boLh
domesLlc and forelgn markeLs" Lhereby demonsLraLlng a clear pollcy
agalnsL a shelLered domesLlc Lrade envlronmenL buL one ln favor of Lhe
gradual developmenL of robusL lndusLrles LhaL can compeLe wlLh Lhe besL
ln Lhe forelgn markeLs %@oodo vs nqoro 272 5 18)

Sect|on 20 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote recoqnites te indispensob/e ro/e of te privote sector
encouroqes privote enterprise ond provides incentives to needed
investments
(8ead ArLlcle xll)

Doctr|ne of Iree Lnterpr|se
ssociotion of Pi/ippine oconut uesiccotors vs P 6 No 11052
ebruory 10 1998 Lhe SC sald LhaL alLhough Lhe ConsLlLuLlon enshrlnes
free enLerprlse as a pollcy lL neverLheless reserves Lo Lhe CovernmenL Lhe
power Lo lnLervene whenever necessary for Lhe promoLlon of Lhe general
welfare as reflecLed ln SecLlons 6 19 of ArLlcle xll
Pest Monoqement ssociotion of te Pi/ippines vs erti/iter ond
Pesticide utority 6 No 15041 ebruory 21 2007 ooJ
Pormoceutico/ ond neo/t ore ssociotion of te Pi/ippines vs 5ec
uuque lll 6 No 17l0l4 October
9 2007 lL was held LhaL desplLe Lhe facL LhaL our presenL ConsLlLuLlon
enshrlnes free enLerprlse as a pollcy" lL neverLheless reserves Lo Lhe
CovernmenL Lhe power Lo lnLervene whenever necessary Lo promoLe Lhe
general welfare lree enLerprlse does noL call for removal of 'proLecLlve
regulaLlons' lL musL be clearly explalned and proven by compeLenL
evldence [usL exacLly how such proLecLlve regulaLlon would resulL ln Lhe
resLralnL of Lrade

Sect|on 21 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// promote compreensive ruro/ deve/opment ond oqrorion
reform
8ural developmenL encompasses a broad specLrum of soclal economlc
human culLural pollLlcal and even lndusLrlal developmenL
(See Lhe case of ssociotion of 5mo// Londowners of te Pi/ippines vs
5ecretory of qrorion eform 175 5 l4l)


Sect|on 22 Art|c|e II
@e stote recoqnites ond promotes te riqts of indiqenous cu/turo/
communities witin te fromework of notiono/ unity ond deve/opment
8ead SecLlon 3(2) ArLlcle vl SecLlon 3 ArLlcle xll SecLlon 17 ArLlcle xlv

Sect|on 23 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// encouroqe nonqovernmento/ communitybosed or
sectoro/ orqonitotions tot promote te we/fore of te notion
9


(8ead SecLlons 1316 of ArLlcle xlll)

Sect|on 24 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote recoqnites te vito/ ro/e of communicotion ond informotion in
notionbui/dinq
(8ead SecLlons 1011 ArL xvl Sec 23 ArL xvlll)

Sect|on 2S Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// ensure te outonomy of /oco/ qovernments
(8ead ArLlcle x)

8osco vs P6O 197 5 52 1he SC held LhaL Lhe local auLonomy
under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon slmply means decenLrallzaLlon" and does
noL make Lhe local governmenLs soverelgn wlLhln Lhe SLaLe or an
lmpetlom lo lmpetlo
Limbonos vs Monqe/in 170 5 78

Decentra||zat|on of Adm|n|strat|on Decentra||zat|on of ower
delegaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve powers Lo Lhe local governmenL unlL ln order
Lo broaden Lhe base of governmenLal powers
abdlcaLlon by Lhe naLlonal governmenL of governmenLal powers

Lino vs Pono 6 No 12909l uqust l0 2001 Lhe Sc sald LhaL Lhe baslc
relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe naLlonal leglslaLure and Lhe local governmenL
unlLs has noL been enfeebled by Lhe new provlslons ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
sLrengLhenlng Lhe pollcy of local auLonomy WlLhouL meanlng Lo deLracL
from LhaL pollcy Congress reLalns conLrol of Lhe LCus alLhough ln a
slgnlflcanLly reduced degree now under our prevlous ConsLlLuLlons 1he
power Lo creaLe sLlll lncludes Lhe power Lo desLroy 1he power Lo granL
sLlll lncludes Lhe power Lo wlLhhold or recall 1rue Lhere are noLable
lnnovaLlons ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon llke Lhe dlrecL confermenL on Lhe LCus of
Lhe power Lo Lax whlch cannoL now be wlLhdrawn by mere sLaLuLe 8y and
large however Lhe naLlonal leglslaLure ls sLlll Lhe prlnclpal of LCus whlch
cannoL defy lLs wlll or modlfy or vlolaLe lL Curs ls sLlll a unlLary form of
governmenL noL a federal sLaLe 8elng so any form of auLonomy granLed
Lo local governmenLs wlll necessarlly be llmlLed and conflned wlLhln Lhe
exLenL allowed by Lhe cenLral auLhorlLy

ludqe uodo/e vs O 6 No 125l50 uecember l 2002 even as we
recognlze LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon guaranLees auLonomy Lo LCus Lhe
exerclse of local auLonomy remalns sub[ecL Lo Lhe power of conLrol by
Congress and Lhe power of general supervlslon by Lhe resldenL xxx 1he
resldenL can only lnLerfere ln Lhe affalrs and acLlvlLles of a LCu lf he flnds
LhaL Lhe laLLer had acLed conLrary Lo law 1he resldenL or any of hls alLer
egos cannoL lnLerfere ln local affalrs as long as Lhe concerned LCu acLs
wlLhln Lhe parameLers of Lhe law and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Any dlrecLlve
Lherefore by Lhe resldenL or any of hls alLer egos seeklng Lo alLer Lhe
wlsdom of a lawconformlng [udgmenL on local affalrs of a LCu ls a paLenL
nulllLy because lL vlolaLes Lhe prlnclple of local auLonomy as well as Lhe
docLrlne of separaLlon of powers of Lhe execuLlve and leglslaLlve
deparLmenLs ln governlng munlclpal corporaLlons

Sect|on 26 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// quorontee equo/ occess to opportunities for pub/ic
service ond proibit po/itico/ dynosties os moy be defined by /ow

Pomotonq vs OML 6 No 11872 pri/ 1l 2004 Lhe SC sald LhaL
Lhls provlslon does noL besLow a rlghL Lo seek Lhe resldency lL does noL
conLaln a [udlclally enforceable consLlLuLlonal rlghL and merely speclfles a
guldellne for leglslaLlve acLlon 1he provlslon ls noL lnLended Lo compel Lhe
SLaLe Lo enacL poslLlve measures LhaL would accommodaLe as many as
posslble lnLo publlc offlce 1he prlvllege may be sub[ecLed Lo llmlLaLlons
Cne such valld llmlLaLlon ls Lhe provlslon of Lhe Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code on
nulsance candldaLes

Sect|on 27 Art|c|e II
@e 5tote so// mointoin onesty ond inteqrity in te pub/ic service ond
toke positive ond effective meosures oqoinst qroft ond corruption

Sect|on 28 Art|c|e II
5ubject to reosonob/e conditions prescribed by /ow te 5tote odopts ond
imp/ements o po/icy of fu// pub/ic disc/osure of o// its tronsoctions
invo/vinq pub/ic interest

kINCILL CI 1kANSAkLNC

DCC1kINL CI SLAkA1ICN CI CWLkS
1hls prlnclple operaLed as an lmpllclL llmlLaLlon on leglslaLlve powers as on
Lhe Lwo oLher powers ln essence separaLlon of powers means Lhe
leglslaLlon belongs Lo Congress execuLlon Lo Lhe execuLlve seLLlemenL of
legal conLroversles Lo Lhe [udlclary Lach ls prevenLed from lnvadlng Lhe
domaln of Lhe oLhers 8uL Lhe separaLlon ls noL LoLal 1he sysLem allows
for checks and ba|ances" Lhe neL effecL of whlch belng LhaL ln general
no one deparLmenL ls able Lo acL wlLhouL Lhe cooperaLlon of aL leasL one
of Lhe oLher deparLmenLs

urpose 1o prevenL concenLraLlon of powers ln one deparLmenL and
Lhereby Lo avold Lyranny 1he purpose was noL Lo avold frlcLlon buL by
means of Lhe lnevlLable frlcLlon lncldenL Lo Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of
governmenLal powers among Lhe Lhree deparLmenLs Lo save Lhe people
from auLocracy
1 1o secure acLlon
2 1o foresLall overacLlon
3 1o prevenL despoLlsm
4 1o obLaln efflclency

ln Lo 8uqo/8Loon @ribo/ ssociotion vs omos 6 No 127882
uecember 1 2004 Lhe courL resLralned lLself from lnLrudlng lnLo pollcy
maLLers Lo allow Lhe resldenL and Congress maxlmum dlscreLlon ln uslng
mlneral resources of our counLry and ln securlng Lhe asslsLance of forelgn
groups Lo eradlcaLe Lhe grlndlng poverLy of our people and answer Lhelr
cry for vlable employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe counLry 1he !udlclary ls
loaLh Lo lnLerfere wlLh Lhe due exerclse by coequal branches of
governmenL of Lhelr offlclal funcLlons" LeL Lhe developmenL of mlnlng
lndusLry be Lhe responslblllLy of Lhe pollLlcal branches of Lhe governmenL
1he quesLloned provlslons of 8A 7942 (hlllpplne Mlnlng AcL of 1993) are
noL unconsLlLuLlonal

ln Mocedo vs vosquet 221 5 44 ln Lhe absence of any
admlnlsLraLlve acLlon Laken agalnsL Lhe 81C !udge by Lhe SC wlLh regard Lo
Lhe former's cerLlflcaLe of servlce Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed by Lhe
Cmbudsman encroaches lnLo Lhe SC's power of admlnlsLraLlve supervlslon
over all courLs and lLs personnel ln vlolaLlon of Lhe docLrlne of separaLlon
of powers

r|nc|p|e of 8|end|ng of owers lnsLances when powers are noL conflned
excluslvely wlLhln one deparLmenL buL are asslgned Lo or shared by
several deparLmenLs

r|nc|p|e of Checks and 8a|ances 1hls allows one deparLmenL Lo reslsL
encroachmenLs upon lLs prerogaLlve or Lo recLlfy mlsLakes or excesses
commlLLed by Lhe oLher deparLmenLs

r1he flrsL and safesL crlLerlon Lo deLermlne wheLher a glven power has
been valldly exerclsed by a parLlcular deparLmenL ls wetet ot oot te
powet os beeo coostltotlooolly coofetteJ opoo te Jepottmeot clolmloq
lts exetclseslnce Lhe confermenL ls usually done expressly Powever
even ln Lhe absence of express confermenL Lhe exerclse of Lhe power may
be [usLlfled under Lhe doctr|ne of necessary |mp||cat|on 1he granL of
express power carrled wlLh lL all oLher powers LhaL may be reasonably
lnferred from lL

Iust|c|ab|e quest|on lmplles a glven rlghL legally demandable and
enforceable an acL or omlsslon vlolaLlve of such rlghL and a remedy
granLed and sancLloned by law for sald breach of rlghL %osibonq vs
quino 92 5 42)

1nL INnLkLN1 CWLkS CI 1nL S1A1L
10


1 ollce ower
2 ower of LmlnenL uomaln
3 ower of 1axaLlon

S|m||ar|t|es
1 lnherenL ln Lhe SLaLe exerclsed even wlLhouL need of express
consLlLuLlonal granL
2 necessary and lndlspensable SLaLe cannoL be effecLlve wlLhouL Lhem
3 MeLhods by whlch SLaLe lnLerferes wlLh prlvaLe properLy
4 resupposes equlvalenL compensaLlon
3 Lxerclsed prlmarlly by Lhe leglslaLure

D|st|nct|ons
o||ce ower Lm|nent Doma|n 1axat|on
r8egulaLes boLh llberLy and properLy
rmay be exerclsed on|y by
rAffecLs properLy rlghLs
rmay even be exerclsed by
raffecLs properLy rlghLs
rmay be exerclsed on|y by governmenL cannoL be delegaLed Lo
admlnlsLraLlve body
rproperLy Laken ls usually noxlous(unpleasanL and harmful) or lnLended
for noxlous purpose and may Lhus be desLroyed
rcompensaLlon ls Lhe lnLanglble alLrulsLlc feellng LhaL Lhe lndlvldual has
conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe publlc good prlvaLe enLlLles
rLhe properLy ls wholesome and devoLed Lo publlc use or purpose
rcompensaLlon ls Lhe full and falr equlvalenL of Lhe properLy Laken
governmenL cannoL be delegaLed Lo admlnlsLraLlve body
rLhe properLy ls wholesome and devoLed Lo publlc use or purpose
rlL ls Lhe proLecLlon and/or publlc lmprovemenLs lnsLlLuLed by
governmenL for Lhe Laxes pald

L|m|tat|ons Cenerally Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs alLhough ln some cases Lhe
exerclse of Lhe power prevalls over speclflc consLlLuLlonal guaranLees 1he
courLs may annul Lhe lmprovldenL exerclse of pollce power
1hese powers musL noL be exerclsed arblLrarlly Lo Lhe pre[udlce of 8lll of
8lghLs

ln ricto vs ity 6overnment of ueton ity 122 5 759 Lhe ClLy
CovernmenL of CC was noL exerclslng pollce power when Lhey requlred
prlvaLe cemeLery owners Lo reserve 6 of Lhe burlal loLs for pauper's
burlal ground 1he SC held LhaL ln pollce power Lhe properLy Lo be Laken
ls Lo be desLroyed 1he 6 are prlvaLe properLy of Lhe cemeLery owners
1hls ls a Laklng of prlvaLe properLy Sec 9 ArL
lll ltlvote ptopetty soll oot be tokeo fot pobllc ose wltoot jost
compeosotloo Clearly Lhls ls an lnvalld exerclse of pollce power 1he
ClLy was made Lo pay Lhe owners [usL compensaLlon

ln Pi/ippine Press lnstitute vs OML 244 5 272 Sec 2 of
CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon no 2772 whlch mandaLes newspapers of general
clrculaLlon ln every provlnce or clLy Lo provlde free prlnL space of noL less
Lhan Z page as CCMLLLC space was held Lo be an lnvalld exerclse of
pollce power Lhere belng no showlng of Lhe exlsLence of a naLlonal
emergency or lmperlous publlc necesslLy for Lhe Laklng of prlnL space nor
LhaL Lhe resoluLlon was Lhe only reasonable and callbraLed response Lo
such necesslLy 1hls was held Lo be an exerclse of Lhe power of emlnenL
domaln albelL lnvalld because Lhe CCMLLLC would noL pay for Lhe space
Lo be glven Lo lL by Lhe newspapers

rollce power and power of LaxaLloncannoL be delegaLed Lo
admlnlsLraLlve bodles

rollce power and power of emlnenL domaln boLh lnvolved Laklng 1hey
dlffer ln purpose

rollce powerLo desLroy because Lhe properLy ls harmful obnoxlous
poses a rlsk Lo Lhe
publlc
rower of emlnenL domalnonly prlvaLe properLy ls Lhe sub[ecL of Laklng
Lhe purpose ls Lo converL Lhe prlvaLe properLy Lo publlc use

CLICL CWLk lL ls Lhe power of promoLlng publlc welfare by
resLralnlng and regulaLlng Lhe use of llberLy and properLy
lL ls Lhe power vesLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln Lhe leglslaLure Lo make
ordaln and esLabllsh all manner of wholesome and reasonable laws
sLaLuLes and ordlnances elLher wlLh penalLles or wlLhouL noL repugnanL
Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon as Lhey shall [udge Lo be for Lhe good and welfare of
Lhe commonwealLh and for Lhe sub[ecLs of Lhe same
1he power ls plenary and lLs scope ls vasL and pervaslve reachlng and
[usLlfylng measures for publlc healLh publlc safeLy publlc morals and Lhe
general welfare lL ls Lhe power Lo prescrlbe regulaLlons Lo promoLe Lhe
healLh morals peace educaLlon good order or safeLy and general
welfare of Lhe people (now common good)

%8inoy vs uominqo 201 5 508)
lL has been descrlbed as Lhe mosL essenLlal lnslsLenL and Lhe leasL
llmlLable of powers exLendlng as lL does Lo all Lhe greaL publlc needs" lL ls
Lhe power vesLed ln Lhe leglslaLure Lo make ordaln and esLabllsh all
manner of wholesome and reasonable laws sLaLuLes and ordlnances
elLher wlLh penalLles or wlLhouL noL repugnanL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon as
Lhey shall [udge Lo be for Lhe good and welfare of Lhe commonwealLh and
for Lhe sub[ecLs of Lhe same %or/os 5uperdruq orp vs u5Ju 6 No
1494 lune 29 2007)

obrero vs Lopid 6 No 129098 uecember 200 a careful readlng
of Lhe quesLloned 8esoluLlon reveals LhaL Lhe Cmbudsman dlsmlssed
peLlLloner's crlmlnal complalnL because respondenLs had valldly resorLed
Lo Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe when Lhey effecLed Lhe demollLlon of Lhe
lllegal flshpond ln quesLlon followlng Lhe declaraLlon Lhereof as a nulsance
per se ln Lhe words of Lhe Cmbudsman Lhose who parLlclpaLed ln Lhe
blasLlng of Lhe sub[ecL flshpond were only lmpelled by Lhelr deslre Lo serve
Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe general publlc for Lhe good and Lhe hlghesL good

8equlslLes (LlmlLaLlons)
1 Lawfu| sub[ectLhe lnLeresLs of Lhe publlc ln general as dlsLlngulshed
from Lhose of a parLlcular class requlre Lhe exerclse of Lhls power
2 Lawfu| meansLhe means employed are reasonably for Lhe
accompllshmenL of Lhe purpose and noL unduly oppresslve on lndlvlduals

Affected w|th pub||c |nterest"an lndusLry ls sub[ecL Lo conLrol for Lhe
publlc good lL has been consldered as Lhe equlvalenL of sub[ecL Lo Lhe
exerclse of pollce power"

Construct|on consLrued sLrlcLly and any doubL musL be resolved agalnsL
Lhe granL

Scope/CharacLerlsLlcs
lL ls Lhe mosL pervaslve leasL llmlLable and Lhe mosL demandlng of Lhe
Lhree powers 1he [usLlflcaLlon ls found ln solos popoll est soptemo lex
(Lhe welfare of Lhe people ls Lhe supreme law) and slc otete too ot olleoom
ooo loeJos (use your properLy so as noL Lo lmpalr oLhers)
1 lL cannoL be bargalned away Lhrough Lhe medlum of a LreaLy or a
conLracL
2 1he Laxlng power may be used as an lmplemenL of pollce power
3 LmlnenL domaln may be used as an lmplemenL Lo aLLaln Lhe pollce
power ob[ecLlve %ssociotion of Londowners vs 5ecretory of qrorion
eform 175 5 l4l)
4 ln Ortiqos o vs 6 No 12102 uecember 4 2000
nonlmpalrmenL of conLracLs or vesLed rlghLs clauses wlll have Lo yleld Lo
Lhe superlor and leglLlmaLe exerclse by Lhe SLaLe of Lhe pollce power
3 ln P vs ue 6utmon 6 No 14481 lune 21 2004 Lhe exerclse of
Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghL of every clLlzen Lo selecL a professlon or course of
sLudy may be regulaLed pursuanL Lo Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe Lo
safeguard healLh morals peace educaLlon order safeLy and Lhe general
welfare of Lhe people 1hls regulaLlon assumes parLlcular perLlnence ln Lhe
fleld of medlclne Lo proLecL Lhe publlc from Lhe poLenLlally dead effecLs of
lncompeLence and lgnorance
11



ln ovet vs omu/o 4l1 5 5l4 Lhe rlghL Lo bear arms ls merely
sLaLuLory prlvllege 1he llcense Lo carry flrearm ls nelLher a properLy nor a
properLy rlghL
nelLher does lL creaLe a vesLed rlghL A permlL Lo carry ouLslde one's
resldence may be revoked aL any Llme Lven lf lL were a properLy rlghL lL
cannoL be consldered as absoluLe as Lo be beyond Lhe reach of Lhe pollce
power

Who may exerc|se po||ce power?
1he power ls lnherenLly vesLed ln Congress Powever Lhey may valldly
delegaLe Lhls power Lo Lhe followlng
1 Lhe resldenL
2 admlnlsLraLlve bodlespubllc and quaslpubllc corporaLlons
3 Lhe lawmaklng bodles of local governmenL unlLs
Local governmenL unlLs exerclse Lhe power under Lhe general welfare
clause

NOO vs @orres 6 no 127249 ebruory 27 1998 whlle pollce
power may be delegaLed Lo Lhe resldenL by law 8A 6939 and u 260 as
amended do noL auLhorlze Lhe resldenL or any oLher admlnlsLraLlve
body Lo Lake over Lhe lnLernal managemenL of a cooperaLlve Accordlngly
Memorandum Crder no 409 lssued by Lhe
resldenL consLlLuLlng an ad hoc commlLLee Lo Lemporarlly Lake over and
manage Lhe affalrs of CAnC8LCC ls lnvalld

ln MMu vs 8e/ir vi//oqe ssociotion 6 No 1l592 Morc 27
2000 Lhere ls no provlslon ln 8A 7924 LhaL empowers Lhe MMuA or lLs
councll Lo enacL ordlnance approve resoluLlons and approprlaLe funds
for Lhe general welfare" of Lhe lnhablLanLs of MeLro Manlla 1hus MMuA
may noL order Lhe openlng of nepLune SL ln Lhe 8elAlr Subdlvlslon Lo
publlc Lrafflc as lL does noL possess delegaLed pollce power

Sect|on 11 Art|c|e kte cooqtess moy by low cteote speclol
mettopolltoo polltlcol sobJlvlsloos sobject to o pleblsclte os set fott lo
ectloo 10 eteof @e compooeot cltles ooJ moolclpolltles soll tetolo
telt boslc ootooomy ooJ soll be eotltleJ to telt owo locol execotlves
ooJ leqlslotlve ossemblles @e jotlsJlctloo of te mettopolltoo oototlty
tot wlll teteby be cteoteJ soll be llmlteJ to boslc setvlces tepoltloq
cootJlootloo
MMuA ls noL a speclal meLropollLan pollLlcal subdlvlslon
Powever ln MMu vs 6orin 6 No 1l02l0 pri/ 15 2005 alLhough
Lhe law (8A 7924) does noL granL Lhe MMuA Lhe power Lo conflscaLe and
suspend or revoke drlvers' llcenses wlLhouL need of any leglslaLlve
enacLmenL Lhe same law vesLs Lhe MMuA Lhe duLy Lo enforce exlsLlng
Lrafflc rules and regulaLlons 1hus where Lhere ls a Lrafflc law or
regulaLlon valldly enacLed by Lhe leglslaLure or Lhose agencles Lo whom
leglslaLlve power has been delegaLed Lhe MMuA ls noL precludedand ln
facL ls duLybound Lo conflscaLe and suspend or revoke drlvers' llcenses
ln Lhe exerclse of lLs mandaLe of LransporL and Lrafflc managemenL as well
as Lhe admlnlsLraLlon and lmplemenLaLlon of all Lrafflc enforcemenL
operaLlons Lrafflc englneerlng servlces and Lrafflc educaLlon programs

Add|t|ona| L|m|tat|ons (When exerc|sed by de|egate)
a express granL by law
b wlLhln LerrlLorlal llmlLs (for local governmenL unlLs excepL when
exerclsed Lo proLecL waLer supply)
c musL noL be conLrary Lo law
lor munlclpal ordlnance Lo be valld
1 lL musL noL conLravene Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or any sLaLuLe
2 lL musL noL be unfalr or oppresslve
3 lL musL noL be parLlal or dlscrlmlnaLory
4 lL musL noL prohlblL buL may regulaLe Lrade
3 lL musL noL be unreasonable and
6 lL musL be general ln appllcaLlon and conslsLenL wlLh publlc pollcy

ln ity of Moni/o vs ludqe Loquio 6 No 118127 pri/ 12 2005 Lhe SC
declared as an lnvalld exerclse of Lhe pollce power Lhe ClLy of Manlla
Crdlnance no 7783 whlch prohlblLed Lhe esLabllshmenL or operaLlon of
buslnesses provldlng cerLaln forms of amusemenL enLerLalnmenL servlces
and faclllLles ln Lhe LrmlLaMalaLe area" for belng conLrary Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon lnfrlnglng Lhe guaranLees of due process and equal
proLecLlon of Lhe laws

ln enteno vs vi//o/onPorni//os 2l 5 197 %1994) sollclLaLlon for
rellglous purposes may be sub[ecL Lo proper regulaLlon by Lhe SLaLe ln Lhe
exerclse of pollce power
ln cebedo Optico/ ompony lnc vs l29 5 l14 %2000) Lhe
lssuance of buslness llcenses and permlLs by a munlclpallLy or clLy ls
essenLlally regulaLory ln naLure 1he auLhorlLy whlch devolved upon local
governmenL unlLs Lo lssue or granL such llcenses or permlLs ls essenLlally
ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon
of Lhe general welfare clause of Lhe LCC 1he lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe
Comprehenslve Agrarlan 8eform Law (CA8L) ls an exerclse of pollce power
and Lhe power of emlnenL domaln 1o Lhe exLenL LhaL Lhe CA8L prescrlbes
reLenLlon llmlLs Lo Lhe landowners Lhere ls an exerclse of pollce power for
Lhe regulaLlon of prlvaLe properLy ln accordance wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon 8uL
where Lo carry ouL such regulaLlon Lhe owners are deprlved of lands Lhey
own ln excess of Lhe maxlmum area allowed Lhere ls also Laklng under Lhe
power of emlnenL domaln 1he Laklng conLemplaLed ls noL a mere
llmlLaLlon of Lhe use of Lhe land WhaL ls requlred ls Lhe surrender of Lhe
LlLle Lo and physlcal possesslon of Lhe sald excess and all beneflclal rlghLs
accrulng Lo Lhe owner ln favor of Lhe farmer beneflclary 1he 8lll of rlghLs
provldes LhaL oo petsoo soll be JeptlveJ of llfe llbetty ooJ ptopetty
wltoot Joe ptocess of low 1he CA8L was noL lnLended Lo Lake away
properLy wlLhouL due process of law

1he exerclse of power of emlnenL domaln requlres LhaL due process be
observed ln Lhe Laklng of prlvaLe properLy oxos ond o vs l21
5 10 %1999) epub/ic vs Moni/o /ectric ompony 6 No 141l14
November 15 2002 Lhe regulaLlon of raLes Lo be charged by publlc
uLlllLles ls founded upon Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe and sLaLuLes
prescrlblng rules for Lhe conLrol and regulaLlons of publlc uLlllLles are a
valld exerclse Lhereof When a prlvaLe properLy ls used for a publlc
purpose and ls affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL lL ceases Lo be jotls ptlvotl
only and becomes sub[ecL Lo regulaLlon 1he regulaLlon ls Lo promoLe Lhe
common good
Submlsslon Lo regulaLlon may be wlLhdrawn by Lhe owner by
dlsconLlnulng use buL as long as Lhe use of Lhe properLy ls conLlnued Lhe
same ls sub[ecL Lo publlc regulaLlon
ln regulaLlng raLes charged by publlc uLlllLles Lhe SLaLe proLecLs Lhe publlc
agalnsL arblLrary and excesslve raLes whlle malnLalnlng Lhe efflclency and
quallLy of servlces rendered Powever Lhe power Lo regulaLe raLes does
noL glve Lhe SLaLe Lhe rlghL Lo prescrlbe raLes whlch are so low as Lo
deprlve Lhe publlc uLlllLy of a reasonable reLurn on lnvesLmenL

Pi/ippine Press lnstitute %PPl) vs OML 244 5 272 SecLlon 2 of
CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon no 2772 whlch mandaLes newspapers of general
clrculaLlon ln every provlnce or clLy Lo provlde free prlnL space of noL less
Lhan Z page as CCMLLLC space was held Lo be |nva||d exerclse of pollce
power Lhere belng no showlng of Lhe exlsLence of naLlonal emergency or
lmperlous publlc necesslLy for Lhe Laklng of prlnL space nor LhaL Lhe
resoluLlon was Lhe only reasonable and callbraLed response Lo such
necesslLy

ub||c purpose and use has broader concepL now lL now lncludes
vlCA8lCuS 8LnLll1S LhaL socleLy may derlve from a parLlcular measure
eq CCnCL8n lC8 1PL CC8SC recognlzed Lhls as one for publlc
purpose and use

CWLk CI LMINLN1 DCMAIN also known as Lhe power of
exproprlaLlon 1he power of emlnenL domaln ls Lhe power of Lhe SLaLe Lo
forclbly Lake prlvaLe properLy for publlc use upon paymenL of [usL
compensaLlon lL ls Lhe rlghL or power of a soverelgn sLaLe Lo approprlaLe
prlvaLe properLy Lo parLlcular uses Lo promoLe publlc welfare
lL ls governmenL's rlghL Lo approprlaLe ln Lhe naLure of a compulsory sale
Lo Lhe SLaLe prlvaLe properLy for publlc use or purpose %Modoy vs
28 5 58)
12


1he ulLlmaLe rlghL of Lhe soverelgn power Lo approprlaLe noL only Lhe
publlc buL even Lhe prlvaLe properLy of all clLlzens wlLhln Lhe LerrlLorlal
soverelgnLy for publlc purpose

ower of Lm|nent Doma|n Destruct|on Due to Necess|ty
rlnvolves publlc rlghLs
rLhe properLy ls converLed Lo publlc use
rLhere musL be paymenL of [usL compensaLlon
runderLaken by Lhe SLaLe
rlnvolves prlvaLe rlghLs such as selfpreservaLlon and selfdefense
rLhere ls no need for Lhe converslon Lo publlc use
rno need for [usL compensaLlon
rmay be valldly underLaken even by prlvaLe lndlvlduals

Cb[ect of Lxpropr|at|on
1 anyLhlng LhaL comes under Lhe domlnlon of man
2 real personal Langlble and lnLanglble
3 properLy rlghL
4 churches and oLher rellglous properLles
3 properLy already devoLed Lo publlc use
Lxcept money because compensaLlon ls also money

Who may exerc|se?
Cenerally Lhe leglslaLure buL also upon valld delegaLlon Lo
1 Lhe resldenL
2 lawmaklng bodles of LCus
3 admlnlsLraLlve bodlespubllc and quaslpubllc corporaLlons
4 rlvaLe enLerprlses performlng publlc servlces
ln Lhe case of kepub/ic vs 6 No 14587 lu/y 2 2002 Lhe power of
emlnenL domaln musL by enabllng law be delegaLed Lo local
governmenLs by Lhe naLlonal leglslaLure and Lhus can only be as broad as
Lhe real auLhorlLy would wanL lL Lo be 1he granL of Lhe power Lo local
governmenL unlLs under 8A 7160 cannoL be undersLood as equal Lo Lhe
pervaslve and all encompasslng power vesLed ln Lhe leglslaLlve branch of
governmenL

llL 5coo/ oundotion vs Municipo/ity of Posiq 6 No 1522l0 uqust
9 2005Sec 19 of Lhe LCC requlres Lhe LCu Lo Lender a prlor wrlLLen
deflnlLe and valld offer Lo acqulre Lhe properLy before Lhe flllng of Lhe
complalnL for emlnenL domaln

i/streom lnt/ lnc vs 284 5 71Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of
emlnenL domaln ls clearly superlor Lo Lhe flnal and execuLor [udgmenL
rendered by Lhe courL ln an e[ecLmenL case

P vs PLu@ 2 5 20servlces were consldered embraced ln Lhe
concepL of properLy sub[ecL Lo Laklng under Lhe power of emlnenL
domaln 8epubllc ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe soverelgn power of emlnenL
domaln may requlre Lhe Lelephone company Lo permlL lnLerconnecLlon of
Lhe governmenL Lelephone sysLem and LhaL of Lhe
Lu1 as Lhe needs of governmenL servlce may requlre sub[ecL Lo Lhe
paymenL of [usL compensaLlon Lo be deLermlned by Lhe courL

Where Lxpropr|at|on Su|t Is I||ed
ln Lhe 8eglonal 1rlal CourLbecause lL ls lncapable of pecunlary
esLlmaLlon
kequ|s|tes
1 Necess|tywhen exerclsed by
a CongresslL ls a pollLlcal quesLlon %Municipo/ity of Meycouoyon
8u/ocon vs l 157 5 40)
b uelegaLeLhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher Lhere ls a genulne necesslLy
for Lhe exerclse ls a [usLlceable quesLlon %epub/ic vs Lo Orden de Po
8enedictinos 1 5 49)
1he 81C has Lhe power Lo lnqulre Lo Lhe legallLy of Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL
of emlnenL domaln and Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhere ls a genulne necesslLy
for lL %8ordi//on vs 8rqy Mosi/i of o/ombo Loquno 6 No 1488
pri/ l0 200l)

Loqcoo vs ludqe Lobro 6 No 15574 October 1l 2004Lhere was
no showlng aL all why peLlLloners' properLy was slngled ouL for
exproprlaLlon by Lhe clLy ordlnance or whaL necesslLy lmpelled Lhe
parLlcular cholce or selecLlon 1he ordlnance sLaLed no reason for Lhe
cholce of peLlLloners' properLy as Lhe slLe of a soclallzed houslng pro[ecL

2 r|vate propertyall prlvaLe properLy capable of ownershlp may be
exproprlaLed excepL money and coses lo octloo may lnclude servlces
%epub/ic vs PLu@ 2 5 20)

In ity of Moni/o vs inese ommunity 40 Pi/ l49 a cemeLery open
Lo Lhe publlc was already ln publlc use and no parL of Lhe ground could be
Laken for oLher publlc uses under a general auLhorlLy 1he ClLy of Manlla
was wlLhouL auLhorlLy Lo exproprlaLe Lhe properLy (1he Congress lLself
should exproprlaLe or Lhere musL be speclal granL)

3 1ak|ng Lhere ls Laklng when
a 1he owner ls acLually deprlved or dlspossessed of hls properLy
b 1here ls pracLlcal desLrucLlon or maLerlal lmpalrmenL of Lhe value of Lhe
properLy
c 1he owner ls deprlved of Lhe ordlnary use of hls properLy
d 1he owner ls deprlved of [urlsdlcLlon supervlslon and conLrol of hls
properLy

8equlslLes for a valld Laklng (LMAuC)
a 1he exproprlaLor musL enter a prlvaLe properLy
b LnLry musL be for more Lhan a momentary perlod
c LnLry musL be under warranL or color of author|ty
d roperLy musL be devoted Lo publlc use or oLherwlse lnformally
approprlaLed or ln[urlously affecLed
e uLlllzaLlon of Lhe properLy musL be ln such a way as Lo oust Lhe owner
and deprlve hlm of beneflclal en[oymenL of Lhe properLy

%epub/ic vs oste/vi 58 5 ll)
1he Laklng of prlvaLe properLy may lnclude Lhe lmpalrmenL of Lhe use of
Lhe properLy for whlch lL was lnLended ln u5 vs ousby l28 u5 25 Lhe
fllghL of planes from a nearby mlllLary alrporL over plalnLlff's properLy
below Lhe navlgable alrspace resulLlng ln Lhe ruln of plalnLlff's chlcken
farm was consldered compensable Laklng So also were low landlng and
Lakeoff fllghLs whlch made nearby resldenLlal area unllvable

%6riqqs vs //eqeny ounty l9 u5 84) 1hls ls Laklng ln Lhe
consLlLuLlonal sense

rAveolJo klzol oseJ to be te commetclol ceotet of Moollo nowevet
weo te llqt kollwoy @tooslt %lk@% wos bollt te commetclol voloe of
AveolJo wos qteotly JlmlolseJ @e sops ooJ stotes oJ to close @e
owoets of tese estobllsmeots soffeteJ losses becoose of te opetotloo of
te lk@ olooq AveolJo klzol Ate tey eotltleJ to be polJ jost
compeosotloo?

rno SC held LhaL Lhe klnd of ln[ury or loss LhaL one musL suffer LhaL wlll
[usLlfy Lhe paymenL of [usL compensaLlon musL be a spec|a| k|nd of |n[ury
or |oss as ln Lhe case of Causby lf Lhe ln[ury or loss LhaL one suffered ls
one whlch he suffered LogeLher wlLh Lhe resL of Lhe communlLy hls only
compensaLlon ln such a case ls Lhe a|tru|st|c fee||ng LhaL somehow he ls
able Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe common good

NOO vs 6 No 109ll8 November 20 2000 1he owner of
Lhe properLy cuL Lhe elecLrlc llnes alleglng LhaL lL lmpalred hlm of Lhe use
of hls properLy 1he SC held LhaL Lhe properLy owner was noL [usLlfled ln
cuLLlng Lhe elecLrlc llnes Pls properLy becomes Lhe servlenL esLaLe sub[ecL
Lo Lhe encumbrance and Lhe acqulslLlon of an easemenL of rlghL of way
flled by an elecLrlc power company for Lhe consLrucLlon of Lransmlsslon
llnes falls wlLhln Lhe purvlew of Lhe power of emlnenL domaln Powever
slnce Lhere was an lmpalrmenL of Lhe use of Lhe properLy he ls enLlLled Lo
Lhe paymenL of [usL compensaLlon
1he esLabllshmenL of an easemenL ls a form of compensable Laklng ln

13


NPOO vs 5ps 6utierret 6 No 0077 lonuory 18 1991 Lhe owner
of Lhe land was awarded full compensaLlon agalnsL Lhe nACCC8's
argumenL LhaL Lhe owners were noL LoLally deprlved of Lhe use of Lhe land
and could sLlll planL Lhe same crops as long as Lhey dld noL come lnLo
conLacL wlLh Lhe wlres 1he CourL sald Lhe rlghL of way easemenL
perpeLually deprlves defendanLs of Lhelr proprleLary rlghLs as manlfesLed
by Lhe lmposlLlon by Lhe plalnLlff upon defendanLs LhaL below sald
Lransmlsslon llnes no planL hlgher Lhan 3 meLers ls allowed lurLhermore
because of Lhe hlghLenslon currenL conveyed Lhrough Lhe Lransmlsslon
llnes danger Lo llfe and llmbs LhaL may be caused beneaLh sald wlres
cannoL alLogeLher be dlscounLed and Lo cap lL all plalnLlff only pays Lhe
fee Lo defendanL once whlle Lhe laLLer shall conLlnually pay Lhe Laxes due
on sald affecLed porLlon of Lhelr properLy

ln Peop/e vs ojordo 104 Pi/ 44 a munlclpal ordlnance prohlblLlng a
bulldlng whlch would lmpalr Lhe vlew of Lhe plaza from Lhe hlghway was
consldered Laklng 1he properLy owner was held Lo be enLlLled Lo paymenL
of [usL compensaLlon

ln ve/ormo vs 252 5 400 Lhe owner of Lhe properLy can recover
possesslon of Lhe properLy from squaLLers even lf he agreed Lo Lransfer
Lhe properLy Lo Lhe CovernmenL unLll Lhe Lransfer ls consummaLed or Lhe
exproprlaLlon case ls flled

1ak|ng under Lm|nent Doma|n roceed|ng tak|ng under o||ce ower
rCnly prlvaLe properLles may be Laken
r1he prlvaLe properLy ls Laken ln order Lo converL lL Lo publlc use
rAll properLles are sub[ecL Lo Laklng
r1he purpose of Laklng ls Lo desLroy Lhe properLy because lL ls harmful or
obnoxlous Lo Lhe publlc

Pi/ippine Press lnstitute %PPl) vs OML 244 5 272 SecLlon 2 of
CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon no 2772 whlch mandaLes newspapers of general
clrculaLlon ln every provlnce or clLy Lo provlde free prlnL space of noL less
Lhan Z page as CCMLLLC space was held Lo be an exerclse of power of
emlnenL domaln albelL lnvalld because Lhe CCMLLLC would noL pay for
Lhe space Lo be glven Lo lL by Lhe newspapers

@L8P lnc vs OML 289 5 1998 Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of Sec
92 of 8 881 (requlrlng radlo and Lelevlslon sLaLlon owners and operaLors
Lo glve Lo Lhe CCMLLLC radlo and Lelevlslon Llme free of charge) was
challenged on Lhe ground LhaL lL vlolaLed Lhe due process clause and Lhe
emlnenL domaln provlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon by Laklng alrLlme from radlo
and Lelevlslon broadcasLlng sLaLlons wlLhouL paymenL of [usL
compensaLlon 1he SC held LhaL all broadcasLlng wheLher by radlo or by
Lelevlslon sLaLlons ls llcensed by Lhe governmenL Alrwaves frequencles
have Lo be allocaLed as Lhere are more lndlvlduals who wanL Lo broadcasL
Lhan Lhere frequencles Lo asslgn A franchlse ls Lhus a prlvllege sub[ecL
among oLher Lhlngs Lo amendmenL by Congress ln accordance wlLh Lhe
consLlLuLlonal provlslon LhaL any such franchlse or rlghL granLed x x
x shall be sub[ecL Lo amendmenL alLeraLlon or repeal by Lhe Congress
when Lhe common good so requlres" (ArL xll Sec11)
ln Lhe granLlng of Lhe prlvllege Lo operaLe broadcasL sLaLlons and
LhereafLer supervlslng radlo and Lelevlslon sLaLlons Lhe SLaLe spends
conslderable publlc funds ln llcenslng and supervlslng such sLaLlons lL
would be sLrange lf lL cannoL even requlre Lhe llcensees Lo render publlc
servlce by glvlng free alrLlme x x x As radlo and Lelevlslon broadcasL
sLaLlons do noL own Lhe alrwaves no prlvaLe properLy ls Laken by Lhe
requlremenL LhaL Lhey provlde alrLlme Lo Lhe CCMLLLC

I vs CCMLLLC 1LLL8A vs CCMLLLC
rLhere was Laklng of properLy
rnewspaper space ls Lhe prlvaLe properLy
of Lhe newspaper owners
rprlnL medla do noL en[oy prlvllege
rLhere was no Laklng of prlvaLe properLy
ralrwaves are scarce resources Lhe use ls regulaLed by Lhe SLaLe
rfranchlse (prlvllege) ls lssued by Lhe SLaLe
(ArL xll Sec 11)
rShlfLlng argumenL alleged ln 1LLL8A boLh l and 1LLL8A are medla
of communlcaLlon and lnformaLlon Lqual proLecLlon clause was ralsed as
an lssue 1he SC ruled LhaL equal proLecLlon clause does noL guaranLee
absoluLe equallLy 1here may be classlflcaLlon ersons or Lhlngs osLenslbly
slmllarly slLuaLed may noneLheless be LreaLed dlfferenLly lf Lhere ls a
basls for valld classlflcaLlon

4 ub||c usepubllc lnLeresL" publlc beneflL" publlc welfare" publlc
convenlence" %eyes vs Nn 6 No 147511 lonuory 20 200l)
1he general concepLmeeLlng publlc need or publlc exlgency may
lnclude lndlrecL publlc beneflL or advanLage

ln stote of 5o/ud limenet vs P2 l49 5 240 publlc use ls whaLever
may be beneflclally employed for Lhe general welfare
lL has been broadened Lo lnclude noL only uses dlrecLly avallable Lo Lhe
publlc buL also Lhose whlch redound Lo Lhelr lndlrecL beneflL LhaL only a
few would acLually beneflL from Lhe exproprlaLlon of Lhe properLy does
noL necessarlly dlmlnlsh Lhe essence and characLer of publlc use
%Monosco vs 252 5 412)

ln i/streom lnt/ lnc vs 284 5 71 Lhe facL LhaL Lhe properLy ls
less Lhan Z hecLare and LhaL only a few could acLually beneflL from Lhe
exproprlaLlon does noL dlmlnlsh lLs publlc use characLer lnasmuch as
publlc use" now lncludes Lhe broader noLlon of lndlrecL publlc beneflL or
advanLage lncludlng ln parLlcular urban land reform and houslng
8y express leglslaLlve auLhorlLy granLed by Congress ln Sec 19 8A 7160
LCus may exproprlaLe prlvaLe properLy for publlc use or purpose or
welfare for Lhe beneflL of Lhe poor and Lhe landless 1hus ln Modoy vs
28 5 58 Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe Sanggunlang anlalawlgan of
Agusan del Sur was wlLhouL auLhorlLy Lo dlsapprove 8unawan Munlclpal
8esoluLlon no 4389 because clearly Lhe MunlclpallLy of 8unawan has
auLhorlLy Lo exerclse Lhe power of emlnenL domaln and lLs Sangggunlang
8ayan Lhe capaclLy Lo promulgaLe Lhe assalled resoluLlon
Powever ln Lhe case of Municipoci/ity of Porooque vs vM eo/ty
orporotion 292 5 7 Lhe SC declared LhaL Lhere was lack of
compllance wlLh Sec 19 of 8A 7160 where Lhe Munlclpal Mayor flled a
complalnL for emlnenL domaln over Lwo (2) parcels of land on Lhe sLrengLh
of Lhe resoluLlon passed by Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan because whaL ls
requlred by law ls an ordlnance and noL mere resoluLlon

ln roncio lr vs Municipo/ity of Meycouoyon 6 No 1704l2 Morc
24 2008 Lhe Supreme CourL held LhaL Lhe deLermlnaLlon of a publlc
purpose for Lhe exproprlaLed properLy ls noL a condlLlon precedenL before
a courL may lssue a wrlL of possesslon Cnce Lhe requlslLe ln Sec 19 of Lhe
Local CovernmenL Code are saLlsfled Lhe lssuance of Lhe wrlL becomes a
mlnlsLerlal maLLer for Lhe courL

3 Iust Compensat|onLhe full and falr markeL value of Lhe properLy
Laken lL ls Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe properLy lL ls seLLled LhaL Lhe
markeL value of Lhe properLy ls LhaL sum of money whlch a person
deslrous buL noL compelled Lo buy and an owner wllllng buL noL
compelled Lo sell would agree on a prlce Lo be glven and recelved
Lherefor"

Medlum money excepL paymenL oLher Lhan money %ssociotion of 5mo//
Londowners vs 5ecretory of qrorion eform 175 5 l4l) paymenL ls
allowed Lo be made parLly ln bonds because under Lhe CA8 lL deals wlLh
Lhe revoluLlonary klnd of exproprlaLlon
1he deLermlnaLlon of [usL compensaLlon ln emlnenL domaln cases ls a
[udlclal funcLlon and facLual flndlngs of Lhe CA are concluslve on Lhe
parLles and revlewable only when Lhe case falls wlLhln Lhe recognlzed
excepLlons %NPOO vs 5on Pedro 6 No 170945 5eptember 2
200)

Lond 8onk vs %ond u vs ) 249 5 149Sec 16(e) 8A 6637
Lhe deposlL of compensaLlon musL be ln cash" or ln Land 8ank bonds"
noL ln any oLher form and cerLalnly noL ln a LrusL accounL"

keckon|ng po|nt of market va|ue of the property
14


lMv aL Lhe daLe of a) flllng of Lhe complalnL or
b) Lhe Laklng whlchever ls earller

ku|es |n Iust Compensat|onku|e 67 Sec 6
1 ueLermlne Lhe acLual or baslc value of Lhe properLy
2 lf enLlre properLy noL exproprlaLed
Va|ue of property consequent|a| benef|ts + consequent|a| damages
(bas|c or actua|) (C8) (CD)
rlf consequenLlal beneflLs exceed consequenLlal damages C8 and Cu
should be dlsregarded because Lhe 8ASlC vALuL of Lhe properLy should be
pald ln every case

8as|c]market va|ueLhe prlce LhaL may be agreed upon by Lhe parLles
wllllng buL noL compelled Lo enLer lnLo a conLracL of sale
r l a cLors Lo be consldered
rCosL of acqulslLlon rAcLual or poLenLlal uses
rCurrenL value of llke properLles rln parLlcular case slze of lands shape
locaLlon and Lax declaraLlon

Consequent|a| damagesln[urles dlrecLly caused on Lhe resldue of Lhe
prlvaLe properLy Laken by reason of exproprlaLlon
Lxample Lhe properLy lefL ls ln odd shape or wlLh area vlrLually unusable

Consequent|a| 8enef|tsLhe remalnder ls as a resulL of Lhe
exproprlaLlon placed ln a beLLer locaLlon such as fronLlng a sLreeL where
lL used Lo be an lnLerlor loL

ssociotion of 5mo// Londowners vs u 175 5 l4l %1989) Lhe
power of emlnenL domaln could be used as an lmplemenL of pollce power
1he expressed ob[ecLlve of Lhe law was Lhe promoLlon of Lhe welfare of
Lhe farmers whlch came clearly under Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe 1o
achleve Lhls purpose Lhe law provlded for Lhe exproprlaLlon of agrlculLural
lands (sub[ecL Lo mlnlmum reLenLlon llmlLs for Lhe landowners) Lo be
dlsLrlbuLed among Lhe landless peasanLry

ruA8A8 deLermlnes [usL compensaLlon (excepLlon Lo Lhe general rule LhaL
courLs declde Lhe value)
ruA8 may make lnlLlal valuaLlon owner goes Lo courL lf noL saLlsfled
rLxproprlaLlon may be lnlLlaLed by court act|on or by |eg|s|at|on ln boLh
lnsLances [usL compensaLlon ls deLermlned by Lhe courLs
rln epub/ic vs 5o/em lnvestment orporotion et o/ 6 No 1l759
lune 2l 2000 Lhe Supreme CourL held LhaL lL ls only upon paymenL of [usL
compensaLlon LhaL LlLle over Lhe properLy passes Lo Lhe governmenL
1herefore unLll Lhe acLlon for exproprlaLlon has been compleLed and
LermlnaLed ownershlp over Lhe properLy belng exproprlaLed remalns wlLh
Lhe reglsLered owner ConsequenLly Lhe laLLer can exerclse all rlghLs
perLalnlng Lo an owner lncludlng Lhe rlghL Lo dlspose of hls properLy
sub[ecL Lo Lhe power of Lhe SLaLe ulLlmaLely Lo acqulre lL Lhrough
exproprlaLlon

1he uela 8amas make much of Lhe facL LhaL ownershlp of Lhe land was
Lransferred Lo Lhe governmenL because Lhe equlLable and Lhe beneflclal
LlLle were already acqulred by lL ln 1983 leavlng Lhem wlLh only Lhe naked
LlLle Powever xxx Lhe recognlzed rule lndeed ls LhaL LlLle Lo Lhe properLy
exproprlaLed shall pass from Lhe owner Lo Lhe exproprlaLor only upon full
paymenL of [usL compensaLlon

|ega| |nterest for expropr|at|on cases6
from Lhe Llme of Laklng unLll [usL compensaLlon ls acLually pald
lnLeresL musL be clalmed oLherwlse lL ls deemed walved

r1lLle Lo Lhe properLy sha|| not be Lransferred unLll afLer acLual paymenL
of [usL compensaLlon ls made Lo Lhe owner

Genu|ne Necess|ty
naLlonal leglslaLlonquesLlon of necesslLy ls CLl1lCAL [udlclary has no
power Lo lnqulre

uelegaLellberally ln favor of Lhe prlvaLe properLy owner [udlclary can
lnqulre lnLo wheLher Lhe auLhorlLy conferred upon such delegaLe correcLly
and properly exerclsed/ wheLher exproprlaLlon conLemplaLed by Lhe
delegaLe necessary or wlse

Moy eminent domoin be borred by #res judicoto" or #/ow of te cose"?
r1he prlnclple of tes joJlcoto whlch flnds appllcaLlon ln generally all cases
and proceedlngs cannot bar Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe or lLs agenLs Lo
exproprlaLe prlvaLe properLy 1he very naLure of emlnenL domaln as an
lnherenL power of Lhe SLaLe dlcLaLes LhaL Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse Lhe power
be absoluLe and unfeLLered even by a prlor [udgmenL or tes joJlcoto 1he
scope of emlnenL domaln ls plenary and llke pollce power can reach
every form of properLy whlch Lhe SLaLe mlghL need for publlc use" All
separaLe lnLeresLs of lndlvlduals ln properLy are held of Lhe governmenL
under Lhls LaclL agreemenL or lmplled reservaLlon noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe
granL Lo lndlvlduals Lhe emlnenL domaln Lhe hlghesL and mosL exacL ldea
of properLy remalns ln Lhe governmenL or ln Lhe aggregaLe body of Lhe
people ln Lhelr soverelgn capaclLy and Lhey have Lhe rlghL Lo resume Lhe
possesslon of Lhe properLy whenever Lhe publlc lnLeresL requlres lL 1hus
Lhe SLaLe or lLs auLhorlzed agenLs cannoL be forever barred from
exerclslng sald rlghL by reason alone of prevlous noncompllance wlLh any
legal requlremenL
Whlle Lhe prlnclple of tes joJlcoto does noL denlgraLe Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe
Lo exerclse emlnenL domaln lL does noL apply Lo speclflc lssues declded ln
a prevlous case lor example a flnal [udgmenL dlsmlsslng an exproprlaLlon
sulL on Lhe ground LhaL Lhere was no prlor offer precludes anoLher sulL
ralslng Lhe same lssue lL cannoL however bar Lhe SLaLe or lLs agenL from
LhereafLer complylng wlLh Lhls requlremenL as prescrlbed by law and
subsequenLly exerclslng lLs power of emlnenL domaln over Lhe same
properLy Municipo/ity of Porooque vs vM eo/ty orp 292 5
78 %1998)


Jen moy te property owner be entit/ed to te return of te
exproprioted property in eminent domoin coses?
r ln Provincio/ 6overnment of 5orsoqon vs vi//oroyo Lhe unpald
landowners were allowed Lhe alLernaLlve remedy of recovery of Lhe
properLy 1he CourL ruled LhaL under ordlnary clrcumsLances lmmedlaLe
reLurn Lo Lhe owners of Lhe unpald properLy ls Lhe obvlous remedy"
Powever ln cases where land ls Laken for publlc use publlc lnLeresL musL
be consldered %stote of 5o/ud limenet vs P2 l49 5 240)

k|ght of |andowner |n case of nonpayment of [ust compensat|onas a
rule lL does noL enLlLle Lhe landowners Lo recover possesslon of Lhe
exproprlaLed loLs buL only Lo demand paymenL of Lhe falr markeL value of
Lhe properLy %epub/ic vs 6 No 14587 lu/y 2 2002 eyes vs
Nn 6 No 147511 lonuory 20 200l)

Powever ln P vs vicente Lim 6 No 115 lune 29 2005 Lhe SC
sald LhaL Lhe facLs of Lhe case do noL [usLlfy Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe rule ln
Lhls case Lhe 8epubllc was ordered Lo pay [usL compensaLlon tw|ce Lhe
f|rst was ln Lhe exproprlaLlon proceedlngs and Lhe second ln Lhe acLlon
for recovery of possesslon llfLyseven (37) years have passed slnce Lhen
1he CourL consLrued Lhe 8epubllc's fallure Lo pay [usL compensaLlon as a
dellberaLe refusal on lLs parL under such clrcumsLances recovery of
possesslon ls ln order lL was Lhen held LhaL where Lhe governmenL falled
Lo pay [usL compensaLlon wlLhln 3 years from Lhe flnallLy of Lhe [udgmenL
ln Lhe exproprlaLlon proceedlngs Lhe owners concerned shall have Lhe
rlghL Lo recover possesslon of Lhelr properLy

|a|nt|ff's r|ght to d|sm|ss the comp|a|nt |n Lm|nent Doma|n
ln exproprlaLlon cases Lhere ls no such Lhlng as Lhe plalnLlff's maLLerof
rlghL" Lo dlsmlss Lhe complalnL preclsely because Lhe landowner may
have already suffered damages aL Lhe sLarL of Lhe Laklng 1he plalnLlff's
rlghL Lo dlsmlss Lhe complalnL has always been sub[ecL Lo courL approval
and Lo cerLaln condlLlons %NPOO Pobre vs 6 No 10804
uqust 12 2004)

k|ght to repurchase or reacqu|re the property
13


1he properLy owner's rlghL Lo repurchase Lhe properLy depends upon Lhe
characLer of Lhe LlLle acqulred by Lhe exproprlaLor eq lf Lhe land ls
exproprlaLed for a parLlcular purpose wlLh a condlLlon LhaL when Lhe
purpose ls ended or abandoned Lhe properLy shall reverL Lo Lhe former
owner Lhen Lhe former owner can reacqulre Lhe properLy ln Lhls case
Lhe Lerms of Lhe [udgmenL ln Lhe exproprlaLlon case were very clear and
unequlvocal granLlng LlLle Lo Lhe loL ln fee slmple Lo Lhe 8epubllc no
condlLlon on Lhe rlghL Lo repurchase was lmposed %Moctonebu

lnternotiono/ irport utority vs 6 No 1l9495 Novermber 27
2000) epub/ic vs 6 No 14587 lu/y 2 2002 ln argulng for Lhe
reLurn of Lhelr properLy on Lhe basls of nonpaymenL respondenLs
lgnored Lhe facL LhaL Lhe rlghL of Lhe exproprlaLory auLhorlLy ls far from
LhaL of an unpald seller ln ordlnary sales Lo whlch Lhe remedy ls resclsslon
may perhaps apply LxproprlaLlon ls an lo tem proceedlng and afLer
condemnaLlon Lhe paramounL LlLle ls ln Lhe publlc under a new and
lndependenL LlLle

CWLk CI 1AkA1ICNls Lhe power Lo demand from Lhe members of
socleLy Lhelr proporLlonaLe share/conLrlbuLlon ln Lhe malnLenance of Lhe
governmenL
lL ls Lhe power by whlch Lhe SLaLe ralses revenue Lo defray Lhe necessary
expenses of Lhe CovernmenL

Scope covers persons properLy or occupaLlon Lo be Laxed wlLhln Lhe
Laxlng [urlsdlcLlon
lL ls so pervaslve lL reaches even Lhe clLlzens abroad and Lhelr lncome
ouLslde Lhe
hlllpplnes all Lhe lncome earned ln Lhe hlllpplnes by a clLlzen or allen

8as|s power emanaLlng from necesslLy (llfeblood docLrlne)

Importance of 1axat|on
1 no consLlLuLlonal governmenL can exlsL wlLhouL lL
2 lL ls one greaL power upon whlch Lhe whole naLlonal fabrlc ls based
3 lL ls necessary for Lhe exlsLence and prosperlLy of Lhe naLlon and
4 lL ls Lhe llfeblood of Lhe naLlon
Who may exerc|se? Cenerally Lhe leglslaLure buL also upon valld
delegaLlon
1 Lawmaklng bodles of LCus (Sec 3 ArL x)
2 resldenL (llmlLed exLenLdelegaLed Larlff powers) under Sec 28 (2)
ArL vl of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or as an lncldenL of emergency powers LhaL
Congress may granL Lo hlm under Sec 23 (2) arL vl

urpose unavoldable obllgaLlon of Lhe governmenL Lo proLecL Lhe people
and exLend Lhem beneflLs ln Lhe form of publlc pro[ecLs and servlces

ubllc purposeproceeds musL be devoLed Lo publlc use lL lncludes
lnul8LC1 publlc advanLage/beneflLs 1he mere facL LhaL Lhe Lax wlll be
dlrecLly en[oyed by prlvaLe lndlvldual does noL make lL lnvALlu so long as
Lhe same llnk Lo publlc welfare ls esLabllshed

kequ|s|tes
1 lL musL be for publlc purpose
2 lL shall be unlform
3 erson or properLy Laxed shall be wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Laxlng
auLhorlLy
4 ln assessmenL collecLlon noLlce and hearlng shall be provlded

L|m|tat|ons on the ower of 1axat|on
loeteot llmltotloos
1 ubllc purpose
2 nondelegablllLy of power
3 1errlLorlallLy or SlLus of LaxaLlon
4 LxempLlon of governmenL from LaxaLlon
3 lnLernaLlonal comlLygenerally accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law

coostltotloool llmltotloos
1 uue process of lawLax should noL be conflscaLory
ruue process does noL requlre prevlous noLlce and hearlng before a law
prescrlblng flxed/speclflc Laxes on cerLaln arLlcles may be enacLed
rlf Lhe Lax Lo be collecLed ls Lo be based on Lhe value of Lhe Laxable
properLyad valorem LaxLhe Laxpayer ls enLlLled Lo be noLlfled of Lhe
assessmenL proceedlng and Lo be heard on Lhe correcL valuaLlon
2 Lqual proLecLlon of lawLaxes should be unlform and equlLable
3 unlformlLypersons/Lhlngs belonglng Lo Lhe same class shall be Laxed
aL Lhe same raLe

LqulLablllLyLaxes should be apporLloned among Lhe people accordlng Lo
Lhelr capaclLy Lo pay

rogresslvlLy
4 nonlmpalrmenL of conLracLs
3 nonlmprlsonmenL for nonpaymenL of poll Lax
6 8evenue and Larlff bllls musL orlglnaLe ln Lhe PC8
7 nonlnfrlngemenL of rellglous freedom
8 uelegaLlon of leglslaLlve auLhorlLy Lo Lhe resldenL Lo flx Larlff raLes
lmporL and exporL quoLas Lonnage and wharfage dues
9 1ax exempLlon of properLles acLually dlrecLly and excluslvely used for
rellglous charlLable and educaLlonal purposes
10Ma[orlLy voLe of all Lhe members of Congress requlred ln case of
leglslaLlve granL of Lax exempLlons
11nonlmpalrmenL of Lhe SC's [urlsdlcLlon ln Lax cases
121ax exempLlon of revenues and asseLs of lncludlng granLs
endowmenLs donaLlons or conLrlbuLlons Lo educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons

Doub|e taxat|onaddlLlonal Laxes are lald
1 Cn Lhe same sub[ecL
2 8y Lhe same Laxlng auLhorlLy
3 uurlng Lhe same Laxlng perlod and
4 lor Lhe same purpose

uouble LaxaLlon ls allowed by law Powever lL wlll noL be allowed lf Lhe
same wlll resulL ln vlolaLlon of Lhe equal proLecLlon clause WhaL ls
prohlblLed ls dlrecL double LaxaLlon

ln Punto/on vs Municipo/ 8oord of Moni/o 95 Pi/ 4 Lhere ls no double
LaxaLlon lf one Lax ls lmposed by Lhe LCu and Lhe oLher by Lhe naLlonal
CovernmenL
1axesLhe enforced proporLlonal conLrlbuLlons from persons and
properLy levled by Lhe SLaLe by vlrLue of lLs soverelgnLy for Lhe supporL of
Lhe governmenL and for all publlc needs

1Ak LICLNSL

1 AS 1C 8ASIS
ower of LaxaLlonLo ralse revenue ollce powerLo regulaLe
2 AS 1C LIMI1A1ICN
8aLe or amounL Lo be collecLed ls unllmlLed provlded lL ls noL conflscaLory
AmounL ls llmlLed Lo cosL of a)lssulng Lhe llcense and b)necessary
lnspecLlon of pollce survelllance
3 AS 1C C8ILC1
lmposed on persons or properLy ald for prlvllege of dolng someLhlng buL
prlvllege ls revocable
4 AS 1C LIILC1 CI NCNAMLN1
8uslness or acLlvlLy does noL become lllegal
8uslness becomes lllegal

1ax Debt
rdue Lo Lhe governmenL ln lLs soverelgn capaclLy
rdue Lo Lhe governmenL ln lLs corporaLe capaclLy
1axes cannoL be sub[ecL Lo offseLLlng or compensaLlon for Lhe slmple
reason LhaL Lhe governmenL and Lhe Laxpayers are noL credlLors and
debLors of each oLher

%Pi/ex Mininq orp vs l 294 5 87)
1ax exempt|ons
dlscreLlon of Lhe leglslaLure
16


1 Sec 28 (4) ArL vl
2 Sec 28 (3) ArL vl
3 Sec 4 (3) ArL xlv
4 Sec 4 (4) ArL xlv
3 Where Lax exempLlon ls granLed graLulLously lL may be revoked aL wlll
buL noL lf granLed for a valuable conslderaLlondeemed Lo parLake of Lhe
naLure of conLracL and obllgaLlon LhereofproLecLlon agalnsL lmpalrmenL
ln L/odoc vs l 14 5 292 a parlsh prlesL accepLed a donaLlon Lo be
used for Lhe consLrucLlon of a church 1he money was spenL for Lhe
purpose 1he Cl8 lmposed Lax 1he ob[ecLlon was based on consLlLuLlonal
exempLlon of church properLles from Laxes 1he SC re[ecLed LxempLlon
referred only Lo properLy Laxes lmposed on lands bulldlngs and
lmprovemenLs used for rellglous purposes 1he Lax ln Lhls case ls noL an ad
valorem Lax on Lhe church lLself buL an exclse Lax lmposed on Lhe prlesL
(noL on Lhe properLles) for hls exerclse of Lhe prlvllege Lo accepL Lhe
donaLlon

1err|tor|a||ty |n 1axat|onLhe power Lo Lax operaLes only wlLhln Lhe
LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Laxlng auLhorlLy lL cannoL be exerclsed
beyond Lhe boundarles excepL under cerLaln clrcumsLances

1axab|e S|tus of kea| ropert|esLhe place where Lhey are slLuaLed

Mobi/io 5equntur PersonomLhe lnLanglble personal properLy such as
credlLs bank deposlLs bonds corporaLe sLocks whlch do noL admlL of
acLual locaLlon and do noL have lnherenL value buL mere evldence of debLs
or properLy are usually Laxable ln Lhe sLaLe of resldence of Lhe owner

Un|form|ty |n 1axat|onall Laxable arLlcles or klnds of properLy of Lhe
same class shall be Laxed aL Lhe same raLe 1here ls unlformlLy when a Lax
operaLes ln LaxaLlon wlLh Lhe same force and effecL on lLs sub[ecL
wherever found

Lqua||ty of 1axat|onLaxes shall be sLrlcLly proporLlonal Lo Lhe relaLlve
value of Lhe Laxable properLy

Art|c|e III
8ILL CI kIGn1S

S|gn|f|cance CovernmenL ls powerful When llmlLed lL becomes
Lyrannlcal lL ls a guaranLee LhaL Lhere are cerLaln areas of person's llfe
llberLy or properLy whlch governmenL power may noL Louch
rAll Lhe powers of Lhe governmenL (pollce power power of emlnenL
domaln and power of LaxaLlon) are llmlLed by Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs

C|ass|f|cat|on of k|ghts
1 o||t|ca| k|ghtsgranLed by law Lo members of a communlLy ln relaLlon
Lo Lhelr dlrecL or lndlrecL parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe esLabllshmenL or
admlnlsLraLlon of governmenL
2 C|v|| k|ghtsrlghLs whlch munlclpal law wlll enforce aL Lhe lnsLance of
prlvaLe lndlvlduals for Lhe purpose of securlng Lhem Lhe en[oymenL of
Lhelr means of happlness
3 Soc|a| and Lconom|c k|ghtsLhese are Lhe rlghLs whlch generally
requlre lmplemenLlng leglslaLlon (ArLlcle xlll)

rDoctr|ne of referred Ireedom (n|erarchy of k|ghts)some rlghLs are
preferred P8M mp/oyees Orq vs P8M o lnc 51 5 189

r Whlle Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs also proLecLs properLy rlghLs Lhe prlmacy of
human rlghLs over properLy ls recognlzed 8ecause Lhese freedoms are
dellcaLe and vulnerable as well as supremely preclous ln our socleLy" and
Lhe LhreaL of sancLlons may deLer Lhelr exerclse almosL as poLenLly as Lhe
acLual appllcaLlon of sancLlons" Lhey need breaLhlng space Lo survlve"
permlLLlng governmenL regulaLlon only wlLh narrow speclflclLy"
r roperLy and properLy rlghLs can be losL Lhru prescrlpLlon buL human
rlghLs are lmprescrlpLlble

rln Lhe hlerarchy of clvll llberLles Lhe rlghLs of free expresslon and of
assembly occupy a preferred poslLlon as Lhey are essenLlal Lo Lhe
preservaLlon and vlLallLy of our clvll and pollLlcal lnsLlLuLlons and such
prlorlLy glves Lhese llberLles Lhe sancLlLy and Lhe sancLlon noL permlLLlng
dublous lnLruslons"

r 1he superlorlLy of Lhese freedoms over properLy rlghLs ls underscored by
Lhe facL LhaL o mete teosoooble ot totloool telotloo betweeo te meoos
employeJ by te low ooJ lts object ot potposetot te low ls oeltet
otblttoty oot Jlsctlmloototy oot opptesslvewoolJ sofflce to vollJote o
low wlc testtlcts ot lmpolts ptopetty tlqts

r Cn Lhe oLher hand a consLlLuLlonal or valld lnfrlngemenL of human
rlghLs requlres a more sLrlngenL crlLerlon namely exlsLence of a grave and
lmmedlaLe danger of a subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe has Lhe rlghL Lo
prevenL

Sec 1 Art III
No person so// be deprived of /ife /iberty or property witout due
process of /ow nor so// ony person be denied te equo/ protection of te
/ows

LlMl1A1lCnS Cl SCvL8LlCn1?
lnherenL ln soverelgnLy and Lherefore noL even requlred Lo be conferred
by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon are Lhe pollce emlnenL domaln and LaxaLlon powers
1he 8lll of 8lghLs noLably Lhe due process equal proLecLlon and non
lmpalrmenL clauses ls a means of llmlLlng Lhe exerclse of Lhese powers by
lmposlng on Lhe SLaLe Lhe obllgaLlon Lo proLecL lndlvldual rlghLs 1he 8lll of
8lghLs ls addressed Lo Lhe SLaLe noLably Lhe governmenL Lelllng lL whaL lL
cannoL do Lo Lhe lndlvldual

A DUL kCCLSS CI LAW
1haL whlch hears before lL condemns whlch proceeds upon lnqulry and
renders [udgmenL only afLer Lrlal

rApplles Lo all persons wlLhouL regard Lo any dlfference ln race color or
naLlonallLy
rArLlflclal personscovered buL only lnsofar as Lhelr properLy ls
concerned
rLxLends Lo allens
rlncludes Lhe means of llvellhood
8esponslveness Lo Lhe supremacy of reason obedlence Lo Lhe dlcLaLes of
[usLlce"

%rmitoMo/ote note/ Mote/ Operotors ssociotion vs ity of Moni/o
20 5 849)
L|felncludes Lhe rlghL of an lndlvldual Lo hls body ln lLs compleLeness
free from dlsmembermenL and exLends Lo Lhe use of Codglven faculLles
whlch make llfe en[oyable

L|bertylncludes Lhe rlghL Lo exlsL and Lhe rlghL Lo be free from arblLrary
personal resLralnL or servlLude x x x lL lncludes Lhe rlghL of Lhe clLlzen Lo
be free Lo use hls faculLles ln all lawful ways %ubi vs Provincio/ 8oord of
Mindoro l9 Pi/ 0)
ropertyls anyLhlng LhaL come under Lhe rlghL of ownershlp and be Lhe
sub[ecL of conLracL lL represenLs more Lhan Lhe Lhlngs a person owns lL
lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo secure use and dlspose of Lhem
ubllc offlce ls noL a properLy whlch one may acqulre a vesLed rlghL lL ls
neverLheless a proLecLed rlghL %8ince vs OML 218 5 782)

Scope]Aspects of Due rocess
1 rocedural uue rocessLhe meLhod or manner by whlch Lhe law ls
enforced
lL serves as a resLrlcLlon on acLlons of [udlclal and quasl[udlclal agencles of
Lhe governmenL
kequ|s|tes (noncrlmlnal cases)
a An lmparLlal court or tr|buna| cloLhed wlLh [udlclal power Lo hear and
deLermlne maLLer before lL
b Iur|sd|ct|on properly acqulred over person of defendanL and over
properLy whlch ls Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe proceedlng
c Cpportun|ty to be heard and
17


d Iudgment rendered upon lawful hearlng and based on evldence
adduced

Impart|a| Court or 1r|buna|!udges musL noL only be lmparLlal buL musL
also appear Lo be lmparLlal as an added assurance Lo Lhe parLles LhaL hls
declslon wlll be [usL

ln nto/do vs /ove!acobo Clave acLlng as Chalrman of CSC rendered a
declslon agalnsL peLlLloner When peLlLloner appealed Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
resldenL Lhe same !acobo Clave buL Lhls Llme acLlng as resldenLlal
LxecuLlve AsslsLanL upheld hls own earller declslon 1he SC held LhaL Lhls
vlolaLes fundamenLal falrness requlred by due process A publlc offlcer
who declded Lhe case should noL be Lhe same person Lo declde lL on
appeal because he cannoL be an lmparLlal [udge

Peop/e vs Mendeni//o %2001) [udges have as much lnLeresL as counsel ln
Lhe orderly and expedlLlous presenLaLlon of evldence and have Lhe duLy
Lo ask quesLlons LhaL would ellclL Lhe facLs on Lhe lssues lnvolved clarlfy
amblguous remarks by wlLnesses and address Lhe polnLs overlooked by
counsel CuesLlons whlch merely clear up dublous polnLs and ellclL
relevanL evldence are wlLhln Lhe prerogaLlve of a [udge Lo ask

Sec 14 (1) Art III-o petsoo soll be elJ to ooswet fot o ctlmlool
offeose wltoot Joe ptocess of low 1hls ls procedural due process ln
crlmlnal cases

kequ|s|tes of Cr|m|na| Due rocess
a Accused has been heard ln a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon
b Accused ls proceeded agalnsL under Lhe orderly processes of law
c Accused ls glven noLlce and opporLunlLy Lo be heard
d !udgmenL rendered wlLhln auLhorlLy of consLlLuLlonal law
rlf Lhe prosecuLlon produces Lhe convlcLlon based on unLrue evldence
Lhen lL ls gullLy of deprlvlng Lhe accused of due process 1hus false
LesLlmony can be quesLloned by Lhe accused regardless of Lhe Llme LhaL
lapsed %Mejio vs Pomoron No L5741 pri/ 15 1988)
2 S ubsLanLlve uue rocesslL requlres LhaL Lhe law lLself noL merely Lhe
procedures by whlch Lhe law would be enforced ls falr reasonable and
[usL 1hls serves as a resLrlcLlon on Lhe governmenL's law and rulemaklng
powers a prohlblLlon of arblLrary laws
r1he hearL Lo subsLanLlve due process ls Lhe reasonableness" or Lhe
absence of exerclse of arblLrary power 1hese are necessarlly relaLlve
concepLs whlch depend on Lhe clrcumsLances of every case
rAs a general rule when Lhe SLaLe acLs Lo lnLerfere wlLh llfe llberLy or
properLy Lhe presumpLlon ls LhaL Lhe acLlon ls valld ln rare cases as ln
prlor resLralnL" Lhere ls a presumpLlon of lnvalldlLy

kequ|s|tes
a lnLeresL of Lhe publlc
b Means employed are reasonably necessary for accompllshmenL of
purpose and noL unduly oppresslve
r1he leglslaLure may noL under Lhe gulse of proLecLlng Lhe publlc lnLeresL
arblLrarlly lnLerfere wlLh prlvaLe buslness or lmpose unusual and
unnecessary resLrlcLlons upon lawful occupaLlons

Vo|dforvagueness ku|ea crlmlnal sLaLuLe LhaL falls Lo glve a person of
ordlnary lnLelllgence falr noLlce LhaL hls conLemplaLed conducL ls
forbldden by Lhe sLaLuLe or ls so lndeflnlLe LhaL lL encourages arblLrary
and erraLlc arresLs and convlcLlons ls vold for vagueness 1he
consLlLuLlonal vlce ln a vague or lndeflnlLe sLaLuLe ls Lhe ln[usLlce Lo Lhe
accused ln placlng hlm on Lrlal for an offense Lhe naLure of whlch he ls
glven no falr warnlng
A law ls vague" as noL Lo saLlsfy Lhe due process need for noLlce when lL
lacks comprehenslble sLandards LhaL men of common lnLelllgence musL
necessarlly guess as Lo lLs meanlng and dlffer as Lo lLs appllcaLlon" or ls so
lndeflnlLe LhaL lL encourages arblLrary and erraLlc arresLs and
convlcLlons" lL ls ln[usLlce Lo Lhe accused ln placlng hlm on Lrlal for an
offense Lhe naLure of whlch he ls glven no falr warnlng

lL ls repugnanL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln 2 aspects
1 lL vlolaLes due process for fallure Lo accord persons especlally Lhe
parLles LargeLed by lL falr noLlce of Lhe conducL Lo avold and
2 lL leaves law enforcers unbrldled dlscreLlon ln carrylng ouL lLs provlslons
and become an arblLrary flexlng of Lhe CovernmenL muscle
1he acL musL be uLLerly vague on lLs face LhaL ls Lo say lL cannoL be
clarlfled by elLher savlng clause or by consLrucLlon %Peop/e vs ue/o
Piedro l50 5 1l lonuory 24 2001)

Cverbreadth Doctr|nedecrees LhaL a governmenLal purpose may noL be
achleved by means whlch sweep unnecessarlly broadly and Lhereby
lnvade Lhe area of proLecLed freedoms

Iac|a| Cha||engea faclal challenge ls allowed Lo be made Lo a vague
sLaLuLe and Lo one whlch ls overbroad because of posslble chllllng effecL"
upon proLecLed speech Cn lLs face" lnvalldaLlon of sLaLuLes resulLs ln
sLrlklng Lhem down enLlrely on Lhe ground LhaL Lhey mlghL be applled Lo
parLles noL before Lhe CourL whose acLlvlLles are consLlLuLlonally
proLecLed lL consLlLuLes a deparLure from Lhe case and conLroversy
requlremenL of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and permlLs declslons Lo be made wlLhouL
concreLe facLual seLLlngs and ln sLerlle absLracL conLexLs

@onodo vs @uvero 14 5 44 %198) Motloo fot tecooslJetotloo xxx
1he clause unless lL ls oLherwlse provlded refers Lo Lhe daLe of
effecLlvlLy and noL Lo Lhe requlremenL of publlcaLlon lLself w/c cannoL ln
any evenL be omlLLed 1hls clause does noL mean LhaL Lhe leglslaLure may
make Lhe law effecLlve lmmedlaLely upon approval or on any oLher daLe
w/o lLs prevlous publlcaLlon ubllcaLlon ls lndlspensable ln every case buL
Lhe leglslaLure may ln lLs dlscreLlon provlde LhaL Lhe usual 13day perlod
shall be shorLened or exLended lL ls noL correcL Lo say LhaL under Lhe
dlspuLed clause publlcaLlon may be dlspensed w/ alLogeLher 1he reason ls
LhaL such omlsslon would offend due process lnsofar as lL would deny Lhe
publlc knowledge of Lhe laws LhaL are supposed Lo govern lL
coocloslve ptesomptloo of koowleJqe of te low 1he concluslve
presumpLlon LhaL every person knows Lhe law presupposes LhaL Lhe law
has been publlshed lf Lhe presumpLlon ls Lo have any legal [usLlflcaLlon aL
all 1he Lerm lows should refer Lo all laws and noL only Lo Lhose of general
appllcaLlon for sLrlcLly speaklng all laws relaLe Lo Lhe people ln general
albelL Lhere are some LhaL do noL apply Lo Lhem dlrecLly An example ls a
law granLlng clLlzenshlp Lo a parLlcular lndlvldual llke a relaLlve of res
Marcos who was decreed lnsLanL naLurallzaLlon

kULL All sLaLuLes lncludlng Lhose of local appllcaLlon and prlvaLe laws
shall be publlshed as a condlLlon for Lhelr effecLlvlLy w/c shall begln 13
days afLer publlcaLlon unless a dlfferenL effecLlvlLy daLe ls flxed by Lhe
leglslaLure

Coverage Covered by Lhls rule are us and LCs promulgaLed by Lhe res
ln Lhe exerclse of leglslaLlve powers AdmlnlsLraLlve rules and regulaLlons
musL also be publlshed lf Lhelr purpose ls Lo enforce or lmplemenL exlsLlng
law pursuanL Lo a valld delegaLlon lnLerpreLaLlve regulaLlons and Lhose
merely lnLernal ln naLure le regulaLlng only Lhe personnel of Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency and noL Lhe publlc need noL be publlshed
nelLher ls publlcaLlon requlred of Lhe socalled leLLers of lnsLrucLlons
lssued by admlnlsLraLlve superlors concernlng Lhe rules or guldellnes Lo be
followed by Lhelr subordlnaLes ln Lhe performance of Lhelr duLles
lobllcotloo most be lo foll or lL ls no publlcaLlon aL all slnce lLs purpose ls
Lo lnform Lhe publlc of Lhe conLenLs of Lhe laws 1he mere menLlon of Lhe
number of Lhe u Lhe LlLle of such decree lLs whereabouLs Lhe supposed
daLe of effecLlvlLy and ln a mere supplemenL of Lhe CC cannoL saLlsfy Lhe
publlcaLlon requlremenL 1hls ls noL even subsLanLlal compllance

rubllcaLlon of laws ls parL of subsLanLlve due process lL ls lmperaLlve Lo
Lhe valldlLy of laws us LCs AdmlnlsLraLlve rules and regulaLlons except
lnLerpreLaLlve leglslaLlons

%@oodo vs @uvero No Ll915 uecember 29 198)
Notes ln Lhe orlglnal case @onodo vs @uvero 1l 5 27 %1985) Lhe SC
ruled LhaL as a maLLer of subsLanLlve due process any law musL be
publlshed before Lhe people can be expecLed Lo observe Lhem 8uL
18


accordlng Lo a spllL declslon publlcaLlon need noL be made ln Lhe Cfflclal
CazeLLe lL ls enough LhaL lL be publlshed ln a newspaper of general
clrculaLlon

AfLer Lhe LuSA revoluLlon upon Lhe reconsLlLuLlon of Lhe SC Lhe orlglnal
[udgmenL was reconsldered and Lhe SC now ruled LhaL publlcaLlon musL
be made ln Lhe
Cfflclal CazeLLe pursuanL Lo CA 638 and Lhe Clvll Code unless a law
provldes oLherwlse LhaL ls a dlfferenL mode of publlcaLlon
WhaL musL be publlshed are (1) all laws of general appllcaLlon and even
Lhose noL of general appllcaLlon llke (2) prlvaLe laws affecLlng only
parLlcular lndlvlduals eg leglslaLlve granL of clLlzenshlp (3) laws of local
appllcaLlon and (4) rules and regulaLlons of a subsLanLlve characLer 1hls
means noL only Lhe LlLle buL Lhe enLlre law When? ottwlt LhaL ls
lmmeJlotely Where? Ooly lo te Offlclol Cozette

5ecretory of lustice vs Lontion %2000) an exLradlLee ls noL enLlLled Lo
noLlce and hearlng durlng Lhe evaluaLlon sLage of Lhe exLradlLlon process
u 1069 affords an exLradlLee sufflclenL opporLunlLy Lo meeL Lhe evldence
agalnsL hlm once Lhe peLlLlon ls flled ln courL uurlng Lhe evaluaLlon sLage
rlghL Lo know ls wlLhheld Lo accommodaLe Lhe more compelllng lnLeresL of
Lhe SLaLeLo prevenL escape of poLenLlal exLradlLe whlch may be
preclplLaLed by premaLure lnformaLlon on Lhe basls of Lhe requesL for
exLradlLlon

oxos vs vosquet %2001) lack of noLlce Lo parLlclpaLlon of complalnanLs
aL Lhe 8LlnvLS1lCA1lCn does noL render Lhe resoluLlon of Lhe
Cmbudsman null and vold (8uL ln prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lhelr
parLlclpaLlon ls needed)

Lxcept|ons to Not|ce and near|ng kequ|rements
Pi/comsot vs /cuot %1989)wlLhouL conducLlng any hearlng n1C
ordered PlLCCMSA1 Lo reduce lLs raLes by 13 PlLCCMSA1 challenged
Lhe valldlLy of Lhe order on Lhe ground LhaL lL ls an exerclse of a quasl
[udlclal power wlLhouL Lhe requlred hearlng n1C replled LhaL Lhe order
was merely lnLerlocuLory 1he SC held LhaL flxlng raLes ls quasl[udlclal ln
naLure Pence unllke ln Lhe exerclse of quaslleglslaLlve power lL musL be
preceded by a hearlng 1he facL of Lhe order belng merely lnLerlocuLory
does noL alLer Lhe slLuaLlon because for all pracLlcal purposes lL ls flnal as
Lo Lhe perlod covered

8u1 ln odio ommunicotions vs N@ %1990)Lhe CourL upheld Lhe
Lemporary raLes granLed by Lhe n1C asserLlng LhaL Lhe law allows Lhe n1C
Lo approve Lemporary raLe requesLed by publlc servlce agency provlded
hearlngs are held wlLhln 30 days LhereafLer

rAs a general rule noLlce and hearlng as Lhe fundamenLal requlremenLs
of procedural due process are essenLlal only when an admlnlsLraLlve body
exerclses lLs CuASl!uulClAL funcLlon

rln Lhe exerclse of lLs LxLCu1lvL or LLClSLA1lvL funcLlons such as lssulng
rules and regulaLlons an admlnlsLraLlve body need noL comply wlLh Lhe
requlremenLs of noLlce and hearlng

5untoy vs Peop/e %1957)Lhe passporL of a person soughL for Lhe
commlsslon of a crlme may be cancelled wlLhouL noLlce and hearlng

quitob/e 8onkinq orp vs o/deron 6 No 1518 uecember 14
2004 Lhe Sc ruled LhaL no mallce or bad falLh aLLended Lhe 8ank's
dlshonor of Calderon's credlL card lnasmuch as Lhe dlshonor was [usLlfled
under lLs CredlL Card AgreemenL whlch provlded LhaL Lhe cardholder
agreed noL Lo exceed hls approved credlL llmlL oLherwlse Lhe card
prlvllege would be auLomaLlcally suspended wlLhouL noLlce Lo Lhe
cardholder

Appea| and due process
Appeal ls noL a naLural rlghL nor ls lL a parL of due process generally lL
may be allowed or denled by Lhe leglslaLure ln lLs dlscreLlon 8uL where
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon glves a person Lhe rlghL Lo appeal denlal of Lhe rlghL Lo
appeal consLlLuLes a vlolaLlon of due process Where Lhere ls sLaLuLory
granL of Lhe rlghL Lo appeal denlal of LhaL remedy also consLlLuLes a denlal
of due process

re||m|nary Invest|gat|on and due process
rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls noL a consLlLuLlonal rlghL buL ls merely a rlghL
conferred by sLaLuLe %5eropio vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 14848
lonuory 28 200l) lL may be walved expressly or by fallure Lo lnvoke lL
%8enedicto vs 6 No 125l59 5eptember 4 2001) 1he rlghL may be
forfelLed by lnacLlon and cannoL be lnvoked for Lhe flrsL Llme on appeal
%Peop/e vs Loqoo 6 No 118457 pri/ 8 1997)

6o vs 20 5 1l8 when Lhere ls sLaLuLory granL of Lhe rlghL Lo
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon denlal of Lhe same ls an lnfrlngemenL of Lhe due
process clause 1he rlghL Lo prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls subsLanLlve noL
merely formal or Lechnlcal 1o deny lL Lo Lhe peLlLloner would deprlve hlm
of Lhe full measure of hls rlghL Lo due process %usop vs 5ondiqonboyon
6 No 1l88590 ebruory 22 2001)

re[ud|c|a| ub||c|ty
1o warranL a flndlng of pre[udlclal publlclLy Lhere musL be allegaLlon and
proof LhaL Lhe [udges have been unduly lnfluenced noL slmply LhaL Lhey
mlghL be by Lhe barrage of publlclLy eLlLloners cannoL [usL rely on Lhe
subllmlnal effecLs of publlclLy because Lhese are baslcally unbeknown
and beyond knowlng %Jebb vs ue Leon 1995)

ruoes te due process c/ouse encomposs te riqt to be ossisted by
counse/ durinq on odministrotive inquiry?

r no 1he rlghL Lo counsel whlch cannoL be walved unless Lhe walver ls ln
wrlLlng and ln Lhe presence of counsel ls a rlghL afforded a suspecL or an
accused durlng cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon lL ls noL an absoluLe rlghL and may
Lhus be lnvoked or re[ecLed ln a crlmlnal proceedlng and wlLh more
reason ln an admlnlsLraLlve lnqulry Whlle lnvesLlgaLlons conducLed by an
admlnlsLraLlve body may aL Llmes be akln Lo a crlmlnal proceedlng Lhe
facL remalns LhaL under exlsLlng laws a parLy ln an admlnlsLraLlve lnqulry
may or may noL be asslsLed by counsel lrrespecLlve of Lhe naLure of
charges and of Lhe respondenL's capaclLy Lo represenL hlmself and no
duLy resLs on such body Lo furnlsh Lhe person belng lnvesLlgaLed wlLh
counsel ln an admlnlsLraLlve proceedlng a respondenL has Lhe opLlon of
engaglng Lhe servlces of counsel or noL 1hus Lhe rlghL Lo counsel ls noL
lmperaLlve ln admlnlsLraLlve lnvesLlgaLlons because such lnqulrles are
conducLed merely Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhere are facLs LhaL merlL
dlsclpllnary measures agalnsL errlng publlc offlcers and employees wlLh
Lhe purpose of malnLaln Lhe dlgnlLy of governmenL servlce
1he rlghL Lo counsel ls noL lndlspensable Lo due process unless requlred by
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or law %Lumiqued vs xeveo 282 5 125)

rls on extroditee entit/ed to notice ond eorinq before te issuonce of o
worront of orrest once te petition for extrodition is fi/ed in court?

r 8oLh on sLaLuLory and consLlLuLlonal grounds Lhe answer ls no" ln
6overnment of u5 vs non Puruqonon 6 No 148571 5eptember 24
2002
1 C n Lhe basls of LxLradlLlon Law
Sec 6 of u 1069LxLradlLlon Law uses Lhe word lmmedlaLe" Lo quallfy
Lhe arresL of Lhe accused 1hls quallflcaLlon would be rendered nugaLory
by seLLlng for hearlng Lhe lssuance of Lhe arresL warranL Pearlng enLalls
sendlng noLlces Lo Lhe opposlng parLles recelvlng facLs and argumenLs
from Lhem and glvlng Lhem Llme Lo prepare and presenL such facLs and
argumenLs ArresL subsequenL Lo a hearlng can no longer be consldered
lmmedlaLe" 1he law could noL have lnLended Lhe word as a mere
superflulLy buL on Lhe whole as a means of lmpalrlng a sense of urgency
and swlfLness ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher a warranL or arresL should
be lssued 8y uslng Lhe phrase lf lL appears" Lhe law furLher conveys LhaL
accuracy ls noL as lmporLanL as speed aL such an early sLage 1he Lrlal
courL ls noL expecLed Lo make an exhausLlve deLermlnaLlon Lo ferreL ouL
Lhe Lrue and acLual slLuaLlon lmmedlaLely upon Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon
lrom Lhe knowledge and Lhe maLerlal Lhen avallable Lo lL Lhe courL ls
19


expecLed merely Lo geL a good flrsL lmpresslona prlma facle flndlng
sufflclenL Lo make a speedy lnlLlal deLermlnaLlon as regards Lhe arresL and
deLenLlon of Lhe accused

2 C n Lhe basls of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
Lven Sec 2 of ArLlcle lll does noL requlre a noLlce and hearlng before Lhe
lssuance of a warranL of arresL 1o deLermlne probable cause for Lhe
lssuance of arresL warranLs Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself requlres only
examlnaLlonunder oaLh or afflrmaLlonof complalnanLs and Lhe
wlLnesses Lhey may produce 1here ls no requlremenL Lo noLlfy and hear
Lhe accused before Lhe lssuance of warranL of arresL

8 LUAL kC1LC1ICN CLAUSL
1he equal proLecLlon of Lhe law ls embraced ln Lhe concepL of due
process as every unfalr dlscrlmlnaLlon offends Lhe requlremenLs of [usLlce
and falr play lL has noneLheless been embodled ln a separaLe clause ln
SecLlon 1 of ArLlcle lll Lo provlde for a more speclflc guaranLy agalnsL any
form of undue favorlLlsm or hosLlllLy from Lhe governmenL ArblLrarlness
ln general may be challenged on Lhe basls of Lhe due process clause 8uL lf
Lhe parLlcular acL assalled parLakes of an unwarranLed parLlallLy or
pre[udlce Lhe sharper weapon Lo cuL lL down ls Lhe equal proLecLlon
clause
lL slmply requlres LhaL all persons or Lhlngs slmllarly slLuaLed should be
LreaLed allke boLh as Lo rlghLs conferred and responslblllLles lmposed
Slmllar sub[ecLs ln oLher words should noL be LreaLed dlfferenLly so as Lo
glve undue favor Lo some and un[usLly dlscrlmlnaLe agalnsL oLhers
lL does noL requlre Lhe unlversal appllcaLlon of Lhe laws on all persons or
Lhlngs wlLhouL dlsLlncLlon 1hls mlghL ln facL someLlmes resulL ln unequal
proLecLlon as where for example a law prohlblLlng maLure books Lo all
persons regardless of age would beneflL Lhe morals of Lhe youLh buL
vlolaLe Lhe llberLy of adulLs WhaL Lhe clause requlres ls equallLy among
equals as deLermlned accordlng Lo a valld classlflcaLlon 8y classlflcaLlon ls
meanL Lhe grouplng of persons or Lhlngs slmllar Lo each oLher ln cerLaln
parLlculars and dlfferenL from all oLhers ln Lhese same parLlculars
%Pi/ippine ludqes ssociotion vs Prodo 227 5 70l)

Who are protectedall persons or Lhlngs slmllarly slLuaLed should be
LreaLed allke boLh as Lo rlghLs conferred and responslblllLles lmposed
naLural and [urldlcal persons are enLlLled Lo Lhls guaranLee buL wlLh
respecL Lo arLlflclal persons Lhey en[oy Lhe proLecLlon only lnsofar as Lhelr
properLy ls concerned

Scope
o||t|ca| Lconom|c and Soc|a| Lqua||ty
Art kIII Secs 12 (soc|a| [ust|ce)pollLlcal economlc
Sect|on 1@e cooqtess soll qlve lqest ptlotlty to te eooctmeot of
meosotes tot ptotect ooJ eoooce te tlqt of oll te people to omoo
Jlqolty teJoce soclol ecooomlc ooJ polltlcol loepoolltles ooJ temove
coltotol loepoltles by epoltobly Jlffosloq weolt ooJ polltlcol powet fot te
commoo qooJ
@o tls eoJ te tote soll teqolote te ocpolsltloo owoetslp ose ooJ
Jlsposltloo of ptopetty ooJ lts loctemeots

Sect|on 2@e ptomotloo of soclol jostlce soll locloJe te commltmeot to
cteote ecooomlc oppottooltles boseJ oo fteeJom of loltlotlve ooJ self
tellooce

Art kIII Sec 3 (protect|on to |abor)
Art|c|e kII Sect|on 10 (nat|ona||zat|on of bus|ness) IILIINC IIkS1
CLIC@e cooqtess soll opoo tecommeoJotloo of te ecooomlc ooJ
ploooloq oqeocy weo te ootloool lotetest Jlctotes tesetve to cltlzeos of
te llllpploes ot to cotpototloos ot ossoclotloos ot leost slxty pet ceotom
%0% of wose copltol ls owoeJ by soc cltlzeos ot soc lqet
petceotoqe os cooqtess moy ptesctlbe cettolo oteos of lovestmeots
@e cooqtess soll eooct meosotes tot wlll eocootoqe te fotmotloo ooJ
opetotloo of eotetptlses wose copltol ls wolly owoeJ by lllploos
lo te qtoot of tlqts ptlvlleqes ooJ coocessloos covetloq te ootloool
ecooomy ooJ pottlmooy te tote soll qlve ptefeteoce to poollfleJ
lllploos
@e tote soll teqolote ooJ exetclse oototlty ovet fotelqo lovestmeots
wltlo lts ootloool jotlsJlctloo ooJ lo occotJooce wlt lts ootloool qools
ooJ ptlotltles

Art kII Sec 2(2) (reservat|on of mar|ne resources)economlc
@e tote soll ptotect te ootloos motloe weolt lo lts otclpeloqlc
wotets tettltotlol seo ooJ excloslve ecooomlc zooe ooJ tesetve lts ose
ooJ eojoymeot excloslvely to lllploo cltlzeos

Art III Sec 11 (free access to the courts)pollLlcal economlc
tee occess to te cootts ooJ poosljoJlclol boJles ooJ oJepoote leqol
osslstooce soll oot be JeoleJ to ooy petsoo by teosoo of povetty

Art VIII Sec S(S) (|ega| a|d to the poor)xxx ltomolqote toles
coocetoloq te ptotectloo ooJ eofotcemeot of coostltotloool tlqts
pleoJloq ptoctlce ooJ ptoceJote lo oll cootts te oJmlssloo to te
ptoctlce of low te l8l ooJ leqol osslstooce to te ooJetptlvlleqeJ oc
toles soll ptovlJe o slmpllfleJ ooJ loexpeoslve ptoceJote fot te speeJy
Jlsposltloo of coses soll be oolfotm fot oll cootts of te some qtoJe ooJ
soll oot Jlmlols locteose ot moJlfy sobstootlve tlqts koles of
ptoceJote of speclol cootts ooJ poosljoJlclol boJles soll temolo effectlve
ooless JlsopptoveJ by te opteme coott

Art IkC Sec 10 (protect|on of cand|dates)pollLlcal
8ooo flJe cooJlJotes fot ooy pobllc offlce soll be ftee ftom ooy fotm of
otossmeot ooJ Jlsctlmlootloo

Art II Sec 26 (pub||c serv|ce)@e tote soll qootootee epool occess to
oppottooltles fot pobllc setvlce ooJ ptolblt polltlcol Jyoostles os moy be
JefloeJ by low

Art II Sec 14 (equa||ty of women and men)@e tote tecoqolzes te
tole of womeo lo ootloobollJloq ooJ soll eosote te fooJomeotol
epoollty befote te low of womeo ooJ meo 1here are areas of economlc
acLlvlLy whlch can be llmlLed Lo llllplnos 1he
ConsLlLuLlon lLself acknowledges Lhls ln varlous places explolLaLlon of
marlne wealLh (ArLlcle xll SecLlon 2 paragraph 2) cerLaln areas of
lnvesLmenL (ArLlcle xll SecLlon 10) Lo name a few

ln lconq v nernondet 201 Pi/ 1155 %19l7) Lhe SC upheld Lhe valldlLy
of Lhe law whlch naLlonallzed Lhe reLall Lrade lor Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe
law can be observed by Lhe naLlonal lnLeresL
8uL Lhere are areas where allens cannoL be kepL away for Lhe slmple
reason LhaL Lhey cannoL be deprlved of a common means of llvellhood
especlally when Lhey are admlLLed Lo Lhe counLry as lmmlgranLs

Va||d C|ass|f|cat|on
ersons or Lhlngs osLenslbly slmllarly slLuaLed may noneLheless be
LreaLed dlfferenLly lf Lhere ls a basls for valld classlflcaLlon 1he requlslLes
are
1 ClasslflcaLlon musL be based on subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons whlch make for
real dlfferences
2 1he dlsLlncLlon musL be germane Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe lawLhe
dlsLlncLlons whlch are Lhe bases for Lhe classlflcaLlon should have a
reasonable relaLlon Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe law
3 noL llmlLed Lo exlsLlng condlLlons only and
4 lL musL apply Lo all members of Lhe same class

Pi/ippine ludqes ssociotion vs Prodo 227 5 70l 1he wlLhdrawal of
franklng prlvlleges formerly granLed Lo Lhe [udlclary buL remalned wlLh Lhe
execuLlve and leglslaLlve deparLmenLs was declared unconsLlLuLlonal
because Lhe Lhree branches of governmenL are slmllarly slLuaLed

vi//eqos vs nui ionq Lhe ordlnance lmposlng a work permlL fee of
3000 upon all allens deslrous of obLalnlng employmenL ln Lhe ClLy of
Manlla was declared unconsLlLuLlonal because Lhe fee lmposed was
unreasonable and excesslve and lL falled Lo conslder valld subsLanLlal
dlfferences ln slLuaLlon among lndlvldual allens who were requlred Lo pay
lL
20


Sexua| D|scr|m|nat|on
Pi/ ssociotion of 5ervice xporters vs uri/on 1l 5 l8 female
domesLlc worklng abroad were ln a class by Lhemselves because of Lhe
speclal rlsks Lo whlch Lhelr class was exposed

Adm|n|strat|on of Iust|ce
ovet vs P66 6 No 1l071 uecember 9 1988 Speclal granL of
exempLlon ln favor of Lhe Marcoses as conLalned ln Lhe agreemenL
enLered lnLo by CCC wlLh Marcos lamlly Lo compromlse Lhe lllgoLLen
wealLh cases (exempL from all Laxes) flled by Lhe former agalnsL Lhe laLLer
ls a CLASS LLClSLA1lCn vllaLlve of Lhe equal proLecLlon clause

Locson vs xecutive 5ecretory 6 No 12809 lonuory 20 1999
peLlLloner's and lnLervenor's rlghL Lo equal proLecLlon was noL vlolaLed by
Lhe enacLmenL of 8A 8249 because Lhe law was noL dlrecLed only Lo
kuraLong 8aleleng cases Lvery classlflcaLlon made by law ls presumed
reasonable and Lhe parLy who challenges Lhe law musL presenL proof of
arblLrarlness

ub||c o||cy
enito vs OML 95 5 7l 1he law excludlng resldenLs of
Mandaue ClLy from voLlng for provlnclal candldaLes was [usLlfled as a
maLLer of leglslaLlve dlscreLlon" and LhaL equal proLecLlon would be
vlolaLed only lf group wlLhln Lhe clLy were allowed Lo voLe whlle oLhers
were noL

O/ivores vs 5ondiqonboyon 248 5 700 when Lhe mayor lssued
permlL ln favor of unldenLlfled vendors whlle lmposlng numerous
requlremenLs upon 8aclaran CredlL CooperaLlves he vlolaLed Lhe equal
proLecLlon clause when falled Lo show LhaL Lhe Lwo were noL slmllarly
slLuaLed

@iu vs 6 No 127410 lonuory 20 1999 Lhe execuLlve order
granLlng Lax and duLy lncenLlves only Lo buslness and resldenLs wlLhln Lhe
secured area" of Sublc Speclal Lconomlc Zone and denylng Lhem Lo Lhose
who llve wlLhln Lhe zone buL ouLslde such fenced ln" LerrlLory ls vALlu
1he ConsLlLuLlon does noL requlre absoluLe equallLy among resldenLs lL ls
enough LhaL all persons under llke clrcumsLances or condlLlons are glven
Lhe same prlvlleges and requlred Lo follow Lhe same obllgaLlons
ClasslflcaLlon based on valld and reasonable sLandards does noL vlolaLe
Lhe equal proLecLlon clause

lnternotiono/ 5coo/ //ionce of ducotors vs uisumbinq 6 No
128845 lune 1 2000 Lhere were no reasonable dlsLlncLlons beLween Lhe
servlces rendered by forelgnhlres" and localhlres" as Lo [usLlfy Lhe
dlsparlLy ln salarles pald Lo Lhose Leachers

ke|at|ve Const|tut|ona||ty
entro/ 8onk mp/oyees ssociotion vs 85P 6 No 148208 uecember
15 2004 Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of a sLaLuLe cannoL ln every lnsLance be
deLermlned by a mere comparlson of lLs provlslons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
slnce Lhe sLaLuLe may be consLlLuLlonally valld as applled Lo one seL of
facLs and lnvalld ln appllcaLlon Lo anoLher A sLaLuLe valld aL one Llme may
become vold aL anoLher Llme because of alLered clrcumsLances 1hus lf a
sLaLuLe ln lLs pracLlcal operaLlon becomes arblLrary or conflscaLory lLs
valldlLy even Lhough afflrmed by a former ad[udlcaLlon ls open Lo lnqulry
and lnvesLlgaLlon ln Lhe llghL of changed condlLlons

ln uum/oo v ome/ec 95 5 l92 %1980) Lhe SC upheld Lhe valldlLy of
sec 4 of 8aLas 8lg 32 dlsquallfylng reLlred elecLlve local offlclals who have
recelved reLlremenL beneflLs and would have been 63 years old aL Lhe
sLarL of Lhe Lerm lL does noL vlolaLe equal proLecLlon for lL glves younger
blood Lhe opporLunlLy Lo run Lhe local governmenL

ln lqot v ome/ec 95 5 l92 %1980) however Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon of
candldaLes convlcLed or slmply charged wlLh naLlonal securlLy offenses
was sLruck down as unconsLlLuLlonal for vlolaLlng Lhe presumpLlon of
lnnocence and Lhus ulLlmaLely Lhe equal pollLlcal proLecLlon

Sec 2 Art|c|e III

Searches and Se|zures
@e riqt of te peop/e to be secure in teir persons ouses popers ond
effects oqoinst unreosonob/e seorces ond seitures of wotever noture
ond for ony purpose so// be invio/ob/e ond no seorc worront or
worront of orrest so// issue except upon probob/e couse to be
determined persono//y by te judqe ofter exominotion under oot or
offirmotion of te comp/oinont ond te witnesses e moy produce ond
porticu/or/y describinq te p/oce to be seorced ond te persons or tinqs
to be seited

Scope 1he proLecLlon ls avallable Lo all persons lncludlng allens wheLher
accused of crlme or noL ArLlflclal persons are also enLlLled Lo Lhe
guaranLee alLhough Lhey may be requlred Lo open Lhelr books of accounLs
for examlnaLlon by Lhe SLaLe ln Lhe exerclse of pollce and Laxlng powers
1he rlghL ls personal lL may be lnvoked only by Lhe person enLlLled Lo lL
%5tonei// vs uiokno 20 5 l8l) As such Lhe rlghL may be walved
elLher expressly or lmplledly buL Lhe walver musL be made by Lhe person
whose rlghL ls lnvaded noL by one who ls noL duly auLhorlzed Lo effecL
such walver %Peop/e vs uomoso 212 5 457)

SLAkCn WAkkAN1may be sald Lo parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe Lhlngs Lo be
selzed when Lhe descrlpLlon Lhereln ls as speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll
ordlnarlly allow or when Lhe descrlpLlon expresses a concluslon of facL
noL of law by whlch Lhe warranL offlcer may be gulded ln maklng Lhe
search and selzure or when Lhe Lhlngs descrlbed are llmlLed Lo Lhose
whlch bear dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls belng
lssued

WAkkAN1 CIAkkLS1sald Lo parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe person Lo be
selzed lf lL conLalns Lhe name of Lhe person Lo be arresLed

kequ|s|tes of a va||d warrant
1 lL musL be based upon probab|e causesuch facLs and clrcumsLances
anLecedenL Lo Lhe lssuance of Lhe warranL LhaL ln Lhemselves are sufflclenL
Lo lnduce a cauLlous man Lo rely on Lhem and acL ln pursuance Lhereof
lL conslsLs of a reasonable ground of susplclon supporLed by clrcumsLances
sufflclenLly sLrong ln Lhemselves Lo warranL a cauLlous man ln bellevlng
accused Lo be commlLLlng Lhe offense or Lo be gullLy of Lhe offense

r Ior a search warrantsuch facLs and clrcumsLances whlch would lead a
reasonably dlscreeL and prudenL man Lo belleve LhaL an offense has been
commlLLed and LhaL Lhe ob[ecLs soughL ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe offense are
ln Lhe place soughL Lo be searched %8urqos v ief of 5toff 1ll 5
800)

r Ior a warrant of arrestsuch facLs and clrcumsLances whlch would lead
a reasonably and prudenL man Lo belleve LhaL an offense has been
commlLLed by Lhe person soughL Lo be arresLed %Jebb vs ue Leon 6
No 1212l4 uqust 2l 1995)

ln 5tonei// v uiokno 20 5 l85 %197) 42 search warranLs were
lssued for alleged vlolaLlon of CenLral 8ank Laws Lhe 1arlff and CusLoms
Code Lhe nl8C and Lhe 8evlsed enal Code 1he SC volded Lhe warranLs
on Lhe ground LhaL lL was lmposslble for Lhe [udge Lo have found probable
cause ln vlew of Lhe number of laws alleged Lo have been vlolaLed by Lhe
peLlLloner Pow could he even know whaL parLlcular provlslon of each law
had been vlolaLed? lf he dld noL know Lhls how could lL be deLermlned lf
Lhe person agalnsL whom Lhe warranL was lssued was probably gullLy
Lhereof? ln LruLh Lhls was a flshlng expedlLlon whlch vlolaLed Lhe sancLlLy
of domlclle and prlvacy of communlcaLlons 1o esLabllsh Lhe requlremenL
of probable cause Lhe rule ls Cne crlme one warranL

2 1he probable cause musL be deLermlned personally by Lhe [udge
1he [udge shall
a ersonally evaluaLe Lhe reporL and Lhe supporLlng documenLs
submlLLed by Lhe publlc prosecuLor regardlng Lhe exlsLence of probable
cause and on Lhe basls Lhereof lssue a warranL of arresL or
21


b lf Lhe basls Lhereof he flnds no probable cause he may dlsregard Lhe
prosecuLor's reporL and requlre Lhe submlsslon of supporLlng affldavlLs of
wlLnesses Lo ald hlm ln arrlvlng aL a concluslon as Lo Lhe exlsLence of
probable cause under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon only a [udge can lssue a
warranL Lhe offenslve and much abused phrase and oLher responslble
offlcer as may be auLhorlzed by law ln Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon has been
removed

Search warrant Warrant of arrest
r 1he [udge musL personally examlned ln Lhe form of searchlng CAs ln
wrlLlng and under oaLh Lhe complalnanL and any wlLnesses he may
produce on facLs personally known Lo Lhem

r 1he deLermlnaLlon of probable cause depends Lo a large exLenL upon Lhe
flndlng or oplnlon of Lhe [udge who

r lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe [udge should personally examlne Lhe
complalnanL and hls wlLnesses Lhe [udge would slmply personally revlew
Lhe lnlLlal deLermlnaLlon of Lhe prosecuLor Lo see lf lL ls supporLed by
subsLanLlal evldence

r !udge deLermlnes Lhe probablllLy noL Lhe cerLalnLy of Lhe gullL of Lhe
accused conducLed Lhe requlred examlnaLlon of Lhe appllcanL and Lhe
wlLnesses and ln so dolng he need noL conducL a de novo hearlng

3 1he deLermlnaLlon musL be made afLer examlnaLlon under oaLh or
afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce
1he examlnaLlon conducLed by Lhe [udge Lakes Lhe form of searchlng
quesLlons 1he requlremenL LhaL Lhe [udge musL personally examlne Lhe
complalnanL and hls wlLnesses means LhaL Lhe acLual examlnaLlon cannoL
be delegaLed Lo someone else llke Lhe clerk of courL
So sald Lhe CourL ln 8oce ond o %Pi/) v uit l7 5 82l %1971)
ln Lhls case when Lhe 8l8 agenL and hls wlLnesses arrlved ln courL ln Lhe
mlddle of a hearlng Lhe [udge suspended Lhe hearlng and dlrecLed Lhe
branch clerk Lo examlne and Lake Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe wlLnesses ln hls
chambers AfLer he was Lhrough wlLh Lhe hearlng he wenL back Lo hls
chambers and flndlng LhaL Lhe examlnaLlon was flnlshed asked Lhe 8l8
agenL and hls wlLnesses lf Lhey afflrmed whaL Lhey whaL Lhey LesLlfled Lo
afLer whlch he lssued Lhe search warranL ln quesLlon
1he deLermlnaLlon of Lhe reasonableness of Lhe [udlclal warranL musL be
based on Lhe affldavlL of one who has personal knowledge of Lhe facLs Lo
whlch he LesLlfles 1he LesLlmony cannoL be based on mere bellef nelLher
can lL be based on a reporL CLherwlse Lhe warranL ls vold

1hus ln 8urqos v ief of 5toff %1984) relLeraLlng Lhe 1937 case of
8odrlguez v vlllamlel Lhe LesLlmony based on a mlllLary reporL LhaL Lhe
newspaper We lorum was used for subverslve were held Lo be noL a
personal knowledge and so was lnadmlsslble

Llkewlse ln orro v Lisinq 1l7 5 541 %1985) Lhe LesLlmony based on
lnvesLlgaLlon reporLs LhaL cerLaln lLems ln Lhe hlllpplne 1lmes were
subverslve were held Lo be noL personal knowledge and Lhus Lhe search
warranL lssued was noL valld

4 lL musL parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe persons
or Lhlngs Lo be selzed

Search warrant Warrant of arrest
r 1he descrlpLlon of Lhe properLy Lo be selzed need noL be Lechnlcally
accuraLe nor necessarlly preclse and lLs naLure wlll necessarlly vary
accordlng Lo wheLher Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe properLy or lLs characLer ls a
maLLer of concern Lhe descrlpLlon ls

r Genera| warrants are proscrlbed and unconsLlLuLlonal Powever a Iohn
Doe Warrant (a warranL for Lhe apprehenslon of a person whose Lrue
name ls unknown) saLlsfles Lhe consLlLuLlonal requlreme3nL of
parLlcularlLy lf Lhere ls some Jesctlptloo requlred Lo be speclflc only
lnsofar as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll allow petsoooe whlch wlll enable Lhe
offlcer Lo ldenLlfy Lhe accused
lallure Lo sLaLe wlLh parLlcularlLy Lhe place Lo be searched and lLems Lo be
selzed makes Lhe warranL used for flshlng evldence (a general warranL)
whlch ls vold

ln 8urqos v ief of 5toff Lhe descrlpLlon whlch read subverslve
documenLs leafleLs papers Lo promoLe Lhe ob[ecLlve of Lhe MovemenL
for a lree hlllpplnes Lhe LlghL a llre MovemenL and Lhe Aprll 6
MovemenL were held noL Lo be parLlcular descrlpLlons Lhus maklng Lhe
warranL a general warranL

ln orro v Lisinq Lhe search and selzure of prlnLed coples and dummles
of hlllpplne 1lmes subverslve documenLs arLlcles prlnLed maLLers
handbllls leafleLs banners and LypewrlLers Lape recorders eLc was
agaln lnvalldaLed for Lhe descrlpLlon was noL aL all parLlcular or speclflc
Lhus maklng Lhe warranLs general warranLs When lL comes Lo prlnLed
maLLers Lhe offenslve maLerlal need noL be seL ouL ln full lL ls enough lf lL
speclfles Lhe lssues and Lhe LlLle of Lhe arLlcles 1he lnsLrucLlon Lo selze
subverslve maLerlals ls noL valld because Lhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher
a maLerlal ls subverslve or noL ls noL for Lhe pollce offlcer Lo declde no
unfeLLered dlscreLlon musL be granLed Lo hlm
1he maLLer ls dlfferenL lf goods were searched and selzed because of Lhelr
lnLrlnslc quallLy (as when Lhey are sLolen or smuggled) Lhan lf Lhe goods
were searched for Lhe ldeas Lhey conLaln (as when a subverslve
newspaper ls soughL) ln Lhe laLLer case a more deLalled descrlpLlon of Lhe
physlcal feaLures of Lhe lLem ls requlred Lo avold delegaLlng Lhe
appreclaLlon of ldeas and Lhus LhreaLen free expresslon

roperLles sub[ecL Lo Selzure
1 roperLy sub[ecL of Lhe offense
2 roperLy sLolen or embezzled and oLher proceeds or frulLs of Lhe
offense and
3 roperLy used or lnLended Lo be used as Lhe means of commlLLlng an
offense

ermlsslble Area of Search

ln Peop/e vs nindoy 6 No 1l22 Moy 10 2002 Lhe warranLless
search and selzure as an lncldenL Lo a lawful arresL may exLend beyond Lhe
person of Lhe one arresLed Lo lnclude Lhe premlses or surroundlngs under
hls lmmedlaLe conLrol

AdmlsslblllLy of lllegally Selzed Lvldence
ArLlcles lllegally selzed are noL admlsslble as evldence 1he rule has been
consLlLuLlonally afflrmed ln SecLlon 3(2) ArLlcle lll whlch provldes LhaL
such evldence soll be looJmlsslble fot ooy potpose lo ooy ptoceeJloq
Such evldence ls Lhe fru|t of the po|sonous tree Powever lL ls submlLLed
LhaL lL may noneLheless be used ln Lhe [udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve acLlon
LhaL may be flled agalnsL Lhe offlcer responslble for lLs lllegal selzure
lL has also been held LhaL where Lhe accused dld noL ralse Lhe lssue of Lhe
admlsslblllLy of Lhe evldence agalnsL hlm on Lhe ground LhaL lL had been
lllegally selzed such omlsslon consLlLuLes a walver of Lhe proLecLlon
granLed by SecLlon 3 and Lhe lllegally selzed evldence could Lhen be
admlLLed agalnsL hlm %Peop/e vs xo/o 221 5 494)

WAkkAN1LLSS AkkLS1
1 When a person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed ls acLually commlLLlng or
ls aLLempLlng Lo commlL an offense
2 When an offense has [usL been commlLLed and he has probable cause
Lo belleve based on personal knowledge of facLs or clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe
person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL and
3 When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls an escapee or a deLenLlon prlsoner
(Sect|on S ku|e 113 ku|es of Cr|m|na| rocedure)

1he 8ule requlres LhaL Lhe accused perform some overL acL LhaL would
lndlcaLe LhaL he has commlLLed ls acLually commlLLlng or ls aLLempLlng Lo
commlL an offense

1he offlcer arresLlng a person who has [usL commlLLed ls commlLLlng or ls
abouL Lo commlL an offense musL have personal knowledge of Lhe facL
22


1he offense musL also be commlLLed ln hls presence or wlLhln hls vlew
%Peop/e vs @udtud 8o/onq 6 No 1440l7 5eptember 2 200l)

WAkkAN1LLSS SLAkCnLS AND SLI2UkLS
(a) Jeo seotc ls moJe of movloq velcles
1he reason ls Lhe person may escape easlly lf a warranL has Lo be applled
for Lhe mean Llme ln Lhe 1arlff and CusLoms Code cusLoms agenLs are
speclflcally auLhorlzed Lo search and selze vehlcles even wlLhouL a
warranL CheckpolnLs are valld ln some lnsLances dependlng on Lhe
purpose (eg apprehend a suspecLed crlmlnal) and Lhe clrcumsLances (eg
probable cause LhaL Lhe crlmlnal ls lnslde Lhe car) 1here ls no quesLlon
LhaL when a chlld has been reporLed kldnapped ln a communlLy Lhe pollce
can sLop all cars and check lf Lhe deLalned chlld ls ln any one of Lhem

(b) Jeo seotc ls oo loclJeot to o vollJ ottest
ku|e 126 Sec 12 5eorc incident to /owfu/ orrest A petsoo lowfolly
ottesteJ moy be seotceJ fot Jooqetoos weopoos ot ooytloq wlc moy
be oseJ os ptoof of te commlssloo of oo offeose wltoot o seotc
wottoot A person arresLed may be searched for dangerous weapons or
anyLhlng LhaL proves Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense lL follows LhaL Lhe
search can only be made wlLhln Lhe area of conLrol of Lhe arresLed person
and wlLhln Lhe Llme of Lhe arresL

ln No/osco v rut Pono 1l9 5 152 %1985) Mllagros 8oque and
CynLhla nolasco were arresLed aL Lhe lnLersecLlon of Mayon and Margal
SLreeLs ln CC aL 1130 am havlng been wanLed as hlgh offlcers of Lhe
C AL 1200 noon 8oques aparLmenL locaLed 2 blocks away was
searched and some documenLs selzed 1he SC aL flrsL held LhaL Lhe search
was valld even lf Lhe warranL lssued was vold for falllng Lo descrlbe wlLh
parLlcularlLy Lhe Lhlngs Lo be selzed because lL was an lncldenL of a valld
arresL
8uL afLer Lhe LuSA revoluLlon Lhe reconsLlLuLed SC granLed Lhe moLlon for
reconslderaLlon and held LhaL [usL because Lhere was a valld arresL dld noL
mean LhaL Lhe search was llkewlse valld 1o be valld Lhe search musL be
lncldenLal Lo Lhe arresL le noL separaLed by Llme or place from Lhe
arresL lf Lhe basls for allowlng lncldenLal searches ls looked lnLo one can
see LhaL Lhls slLuaLlon ls noL one lnvolvlng a valld lncldenLal search
1he law allows Lhe arresLlng offlcer Lo search a person valldly arresLed (by
frlsklng hlm for lnsLance) because (1) a weapon held by Lhe arresLed
person may be Lurned agalnsL hls capLor and (2) he may desLroy Lhe proof
of Lhe crlme lf Lhe arresLed offlcer has Lo flrsL apply for a search warranL
from a [udge

lf ln Lhe nolasco case Lhe search was conducLed 30 mlnuLes afLer Lhe
arresL Lhere ls no longer any danger LhaL Lhe capLured may Lurn agalnsL
Lhe capLor and lf Lhe documenLs ln Lhe aparLmenL were 2 blocks away
Lhe search would no longer be [usLlfled slnce Lhere ls no way for 8oque Lo
go back Lo Lhe aparLmenL and desLroy Lhe documenLs havlng been
arresLed already

ln Peop/e vs uo no 5on l08 5 4l2 whlle a conLemporaneous
search of a person arresLed may be effecLed Lo dlscover dangerous
weapons or proofs or lmplemenLs used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
and whlch search may exLend Lo Lhe area wlLhln hls lmmedlaLe conLrol
where he mlghL galn possesslon of a weapon or evldence he can desLroy a
valld arresL musL precede Lhe search 1he process cannoL be reversed
ln a search lncldenLal Lo a lawful arresL as Lhe precedenL arresL
deLermlnes Lhe valldlLy of Lhe lncldenLal search Lhe legallLy of Lhe arresL ls
quesLloned ln a large ma[orlLy of Lhese cases eg wheLher an arresL was
merely used as a preLexL for conducLlng a search ln Lhls lnsLance Lhe law
requlres LhaL Lhere be flrsL a lawful arresL before a search can be made
Lhe process cannoL be reversed

ln Lhe case of Peop/e vs 6o l54 5 ll8 %2001) Lhe pollce saw Lhe gun
Lucked ln appellanL's walsL when he sLood up 1he gun was plalnly vlslble
no search was conducLed as none was necessary AccusedappellanL could
noL show any llcense for Lhe flrearm wheLher aL Lhe Llme of hls arresL or
LhereafLer 1hus he was ln effecL commlLLlng a crlme ln Lhe presence of
Lhe pollce offlcers no warranL of arresL was necessary ln such a slLuaLlon
lL belng one of Lhe recognlzed excepLlons under Lhe 8ules
As a consequence of appellanL's valld warranLless arresL he may be
lawfully searched for dangerous weapons or anyLhlng whlch may used as
proof of Lhe commlsslon of an offense wlLhouL a search warranL as
provlded ln 8ule 126 SecLlon 12 1hls ls a valld search lncldenLal Lo a
lawful arresL 1he subsequenL dlscovery ln hls car of drug paraphernalla
and Lhe crysLalllne subsLance whlch was laLer ldenLlfled as shabu Lhough
ln a dlsLanL place from where Lhe lllegal possesslon of flrearms was
commlLLed cannoL be sald Lo have been made durlng an lllegal As such
Lhe selzed lLems do noL fall wlLhln Lhe excluslonary clause Pence noL
belng frulLs of Lhe polsonous Lree Lhe ob[ecLs found aL Lhe scene of Lhe
crlme such as Lhe flrearm Lhe shabu and Lhe drug paraphernalla can be
used as evldenced agalnsL appellanL 8esldes lL has been held LhaL drugs
dlscovered as a resulL of a consenLed search ls admlsslble ln evldence

ln Peop/e vs Mo/ino l52 5 174 %2001) Lo consLlLuLe a valld lo
floqtoote Jellto arresL Lwo (2) requlslLes musL concur 1) Lhe person Lo be
arresLed musL execuLe an overL acL lndlcaLlng LhaL he has [usL commlLLed
ls acLually commlLLlng or ls aLLempLlng Lo commlL a crlme and 2) such
overL acL ls done ln Lhe presence or wlLhln Lhe vlew of Lhe arresLlng
offlcer

ln Peop/e vs stre//o 6 Nos 1l85l940 lonuory 21 200l Lhe
arresLlng offlcer may Lake from Lhe arresLed lndlvldual any money or
properLy found upon Lhe laLLer's person LhaL whlch
1 Was used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
2 Was Lhe frulL of Lhe crlme
3 May provlde Lhe person arresLed wlLh Lhe means of commlLLlng
vlolence or escaplng
4 May be used ln evldence ln Lhe Lrlal of Lhe case

1he search however musL be conLemporaneous Lo Lhe arresL and made
wlLhln a permlsslble area of search

8equlslLe Lhe apprehendlng offlcer musL have been spurred by probable
cause ln effecLlng Lhe arresL whlch could be consldered as one ln cadence
wlLh Lhe lnsLances of permlsslble arresL enumeraLed ln SecLlon 3(a) 8ule
113 of Lhe 8ules of CourL

ln Lhe case of Peop/e vs Monti//o 6 No 12l872 lonuory l0 1998 Lhe
offlcer could reasonably assumeslnce Lhe lnformanL was by Lhelr slde
and had so lnformed Lhem and polnLed ouL Lhe culprlLLhaL Lhe drugs
were ln Lhe appellanL's luggage and lL would have been lrresponslble lf
noL downrlghL absurd for Lhem Lo adopL a walLandsee" aLLlLude aL Lhe
rlsk of evenLually loslng Lhelr quarry
(c) Jeo tloqs selzeJ ote wltlo plolo vlew of o seotcloq potty

Peop/e vs nedisi 5utuki 6 No 12070 October 2l 200l whenever
Lhe rlghL agalnsL unreasonable search and selzure ls challenged an
lndlvldual may choose beLween lnvoklng Lhe consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon or
walvlng hls rlghL by glvlng consenL Lo Lhe search and selzure A reasonable
search ls noL Lo be deLermlned by any flxed formula buL ls Lo be resolved
accordlng Lo Lhe facLs of Lhe case

|a|n V|ew Doctr|neflnds appllcaLlon only when Lhe lncrlmlnaLlng naLure
of Lhe ob[ecL ls ln Lhe plaln vlew" of Lhe pollce offlcer
1he law enforcemenL offlcer musL lawfully make an lnLruslon or properly
be ln a poslLlon from whlch he can parLlcularly vlew Lhe area ln Lhe course
of such lawful lnLruslon he came lnadverLenLly across a plece of evldence
lncrlmlnaLlng Lhe accused

1he ob[ecL musL be open Lo eye and hand and lLs dlscovery lnadverLenL
lL ls clear LhaL an ob[ecL ls ln plaln vlew lf Lhe ob[ecL lLself ls plalnly
exposed Lo slghL 1he dlfflculLy arlses when Lhe ob[ecL ls lnslde a closed
conLalner Where Lhe ob[ecL selzed was lnslde a closed package Lhe ob[ecL
lLself ls noL ln plaln vlew and Lherefore cannoL be selzed wlLhouL a
warranL Powever lf Lhe package proclalms lLs conLenLs wheLher by lLs
dlsLlncLlve conflguraLlon lLs Lransparency or lf lLs conLenLs are obvlous Lo
23


an observer Lhen Lhe conLenLs are ln plaln vlew and may be selzed ln
oLher words lf Lhe package ls such LhaL an experlenced observer could
lnfer from lLs appearance LhaL lL conLalns Lhe prohlblLed arLlcle Lhen Lhe
arLlcle ls deemed ln plaln vlew lL musL be lmmedlaLely apparenL Lo Lhe
pollce LhaL Lhe lLems LhaL Lhey observe may be evldence of a crlme
conLraband or oLherwlse sub[ecL Lo selzure %Peop/e vs uorio l01 5
8)

kequ|s|tes
1 valld lnLruslon based on a valld warranLless arresL ln whlch Lhe pollce
are legally presenL ln Lhe pursulL of Lhelr offlclal duLles
2 1he evldence was lnadverLenLly dlscovered by Lhe pollce who have Lhe
rlghL Lo be where Lhey are
3 1he evldence musL be lmmedlaLely apparenL and
4 laln vlew [usLlfled mere selzure of evldence wlLhouL furLher search
(d) topooJtlsk
lL ls deflned as Lhe vernacular deslgnaLlon of Lhe rlghL of a pollce offlcer Lo
sLop a clLlzen on Lhe sLreeL lnLerrogaLe hlm and paL hlm for weapons
where a pollce offlcer observes an unusual conducL whlch leads hlm
reasonably Lo conclude ln llghL of hls experlence LhaL crlmlnal acLlvlLy may
be afooL and LhaL Lhe persons wlLh whom he ls deallng may be armed and
presenLly dangerous where ln Lhe course of lnvesLlgaLlng Lhls behavlor he
ldenLlfled hlmself as a pollceman and make reasonable lnqulrles and
where noLhlng ln Lhe lnlLlal sLages of Lhe encounLer serves Lo dlspel hls
reasonable fear for hls own or oLhers' safeLy he ls enLlLled for Lhe
proLecLlon of hlmself or oLhers ln Lhe area Lo conducL a carefully llmlLed
search of Lhe ouLer cloLhlng of such persons ln an aLLempL Lo dlscover
weapons whlch mlghL be used Lo assaulL hlm
1he lnLeresL of effecLlve crlme prevenLlon and deLecLlon allows a pollce
offlcer Lo approach a person ln approprlaLe clrcumsLances and manner
for purposes of lnvesLlgaLlng posslble crlmlnal behavlor even Lhough Lhere
ls lnsufflclenL probable cause Lo make an acLual arresL

8equlslLes for SLopandlrlsk
1 1he pollce offlcer should properly lnLroduce hlmself and make Lhe lnlLlal
lnqulrles approach and resLraln a person who manlfesLs unusual and
susplclous conducL ln order Lo check Lhe laLLer's ouLer cloLhlng for
posslbly concealed weapons
2 1he apprehendlng offlcer musL have a genulne reason Lo warranL Lhe
bellef LhaL Lhe person Lo be held has weapons or conLraband concealed
abouL hlm

r lL should Lherefore be emphaslzed LhaL a search and selzure should
precede Lhe arresL for Lhe prlnclple of sLopandfrlsk Lo apply
(e) Jeo tete ls o vollJ exptess wolvet moJe voloototlly ooJ lotelllqeotly
Walver cannoL be lmplled from Lhe facL LhaL Lhe person consenLed or dld
noL ob[ecL Lo Lhe search for lL many happen LhaL he dld so only ouL of
respecL for Lhe auLhorlLles 1he walver musL be expressly made lL musL be
glven by Lhe person whose rlghL ls vlolaLed

ln Peop/e vs 8onqcorowon 6 No 14l944 lu/y 11 2002 Lhe shabu ln
Lhe baggage of Lhe accused was found by (prlvaLe) securlLy offlcers of Lhe
lnLerlsland passenger vessel who Lhen reporLed Lhe maLLer Lo Lhe
hlllpplne CoasL Cuard 1he search and selzure of Lhe sulLcase and
conLraband lLems were carrled ouL wlLhouL governmenL lnLervenLlon
Accordlngly Lhe excluslonary rule may noL be lnvoked
(f) eotces of vessel ooJ oltctoft fot vlolotloo of flsety lmmlqtotloo ooJ
costoms low
(g) eotces of ootomoblles ot botJets ot coosttoctlve botJets fot vlolotloo
of lmmlqtotloo ooJ smoqqlloq lows
(h) lospectloo of bollJloqs ooJ otet ptemlses fot te eofotcemeot of flte
sooltoty ooJ bollJloq teqolotloos
(l) cooJoct of oteol totqet zooloq ooJ sotototloo Jtlve lo te exetclse
of mllltoty powets of te lteslJeot
([) Ilsool seotc ot ceckpolots

Const|tut|ona||ty of checkpo|nts and area| target zon|ngs doctr|ne of
ex|gent c|rcumstances
1he consLlLuLlonal rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures ls a
personal rlghL and can be lnvoked only by Lhose whose rlghLs have been
lnfrlnged or LhreaLened Lo be lnfrlnged
noL all searches and selzures are prohlblLed 1hose whlch are reasonable
are noL forbldden 1hose whlch are warranLed by Lhe exlgencles of publlc
order and are conducLed ln a way leasL lnLruslve Lo moLorlsLs are allowed
lor admlLLedly rouLlne checkpolnLs do lnLrude Lo a cerLaln exLenL on
moLorlsLs' rlghL Lo free passage wlLhouL lnLerrupLlon" buL lL cannoL be
denled LhaL as a rule lL lnvolves only a brlef deLenLlon of Lravellers durlng
whlch Lhe vehlcle's occupanLs are requlred Lo answer a brlef quesLlon or
Lwo lor as long as Lhe vehlcle ls nelLher searched nor lLs occupanLs
sub[ecLed Lo a body search and Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcle ls llmlLed Lo a
vlsual search sald rouLlne checks cannoL be regarded as vlolaLlve of an
lndlvldual's rlghL agalnsL unreasonable search ln facL Lhese rouLlne
checks when conducLed ln a flxed area are even less lnLruslve
1he checkpolnL hereln conducLed was ln pursuance of Lhe gun ban
enforced by Lhe CCMLLLC 1he CCMLLLC would be hard puL Lo lmplemenL
Lhe ban lf lLs depuLlzed agenLs were llmlLed Lo a vlsual search of
pedesLrlans lL would also defeaL Lhe purpose for whlch such ban was
lnsLlLuLed 1hose who lnLend Lo brlng a gun durlng sald perlod would know
LhaL Lhey only need a car Lo be able Lo easlly perpeLraLe Lhelr mallclous
deslgns
1here ls no need for checkpolnLs Lo be announced noL only lL would be
lmpracLlcal lL would also forewarn Lhose who lnLend Lo vlolaLe Lhe ban
Lven so badges of leglLlmacy of checkpolnLs may sLlll be lnferred from
Lhelr flxed locaLlon and Lhe regularlzed manner ln whlch Lhey are
operaLed %Peop/e vs usono l2l 5 754)

knock and Announce r|nc|p|e
Ceneral 8ule ollce offlcers are obllged Lo glve noLlce show Lhelr
auLhorlLy and demand LhaL Lhey be allowed enLry 1hey may only break
open any ouLer or lnner door or wlndow of a house Lo execuLe Lhe search
warranL lf afLer such noLlce and demand such offlcers are refused enLry
Lo Lhe place of dlrecLed search
LxcepLlons unannounced lnLruslon lnLo Lhe premlses ls permlsslble when
1 A parLy whose premlses or ls enLlLled Lo Lhe possesslon Lhereof refuses
upon demand Lo open lL
2 When such person already knew of Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe offlcers and of
Lhelr auLhorlLy and persons
3 When Lhe offlcers are [usLlfled ln Lhe honesL bellef LhaL Lhere ls an
lmmlnenL perll Lo llfe or llmb
4 When Lhose ln Lhe premlses aware of Lhe presence of someone
ouLslde are Lhen engaged ln an acLlvlLy whlch [usLlfles Lhe offlcers Lo
belleve LhaL an escape or Lhe desLrucLlon of evldence ls belng aLLempLed

%Peop/e vs nuonq 2en nuo ond Lee6 No 1l9l01 5eptember 29
2004)

ln Peop/e vs Morti 19l 5 57 Lhe consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon agalnsL
unreasonable searches and selzures refers Lo Lhe lmmunlLy of one's
person from lnLerference by governmenL and lL cannot be exLended Lo
acLs commlLLed by prlvaLe lndlvlduals so as Lo brlng lL wlLhln Lhe amblL of
alleged unlawful lnLruslon

ruo te ordinory riqt oqoinst unreosonob/e seorces ond seitures opp/y
to seorces conducted ot te oirport pursuont to routine oirport security
procedures?
r ln Lhe case of Peop/e vs Lei/o lonson 6 No 1l8881 uecember 18
2000 persons may lose Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe search and selzure clause by
exposure of Lhelr persons or properLy Lo Lhe publlc ln a manner reflecLlng
a lack of sub[ecLlve expecLaLlon of prlvacy whlch expecLaLlon socleLy ls
prepared Lo recognlze as reasonable Such recognlLlon ls lmpllclL ln alrporL
securlLy procedures WlLh lncreased concern over alrplane hl[acklng and
Lerrorlsm has come lncreased securlLy aL Lhe naLlon's alrporLs assengers
aLLempLlng Lo board an alrcrafL rouLlnely pass Lhrough meLal deLecLors
Lhelr carryon baggage as well as checked luggage are rouLlnely sub[ecLed
Lo xray scans Should Lhese procedures suggesL Lhe presence of
susplclous ob[ecLs physlcal searches are conducLed Lo deLermlne whaL Lhe
ob[ecLs are 1here ls llLLle quesLlon LhaL such searches are reasonable
24


glven Lhelr mlnlmal lnLruslveness Lhe gravlLy of Lhe safeLy lnLeresLs
lnvolved and Lhe reduced prlvacy expecLaLlons assoclaLed wlLh alrllne
Lravel lndeed Lravelers are ofLen noLlfled Lhrough alrporL publlc address
sysLems slgns and noLlces ln Lhelr alrllne LlckeLs LhaL Lhey are sub[ecL Lo
search and lf any prohlblLed maLerlals or subsLances are found such
would be sub[ecL Lo selzure

1hese announcemenLs place passengers on noLlce LhaL ordlnary
consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon agalnsL warranLless searches and selzures d o
not apply Lo rouLlne alrporL procedures

Peop/e vs 5uson onton 6 No 148825 uecember 27 2002 a search
made pursuanL Lo a rouLlne alrporL securlLy procedure ls allowed under 8A
6233 whlch provldes LhaL every alrllne LlckeL shall conLaln a condlLlon LhaL
handcarrled luggage eLc shall be sub[ecL Lo search and Lhls condlLlon
shall form parL of Lhe conLracL beLween Lhe passenger and Lhe alr carrler
1o llmlL Lhe acLlon of Lhe alrporL securlLy personnel Lo slmply refuslng Lhe
passenger enLry lnLo Lhe alrcrafL and sendlng her home (as suggesLed by
Lhe appellanL) and Lhereby deprlvlng Lhe securlLy personnel of ablllLy
and faclllLy Lo acL accordlngly lncludlng Lo furLher search wlLhouL warranL
ln llghL of such clrcumsLances would be sancLloned lmpoLence and
lneffecLlveness ln law enforcemenL Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe socleLy" 1he
sLrlp search ln Lhe ladles' room was [usLlfled under Lhe clrcumsLances
rocedure for Selzure of ornographlc MaLerlals
1o [usLlfy a warranLless search as an lncldenL Lo a lawful arresL Lhe arresL
musL be on accounL of a crlme havlng been commlLLed
1 1here musL be a crlmlnal charge agalnsL Lhe person for purveylng Lhe
porno maLerlals
2 AppllcaLlon for search warranL musL be obLalned from Lhe [udge
3 MaLerlals musL be broughL Lo courL ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe accused
for Lhe crlme charged
4 ueLermlnaLlon wheLher Lhe lLems conflscaLed are pornographlc
maLerlals
3 !udgmenL rendered by Lhe courL %Pito vs 178 5 l2)
Sec 3 Art|c|e III
%1) @e privocy of communicotion ond correspondence so// be invio/ob/e
except upon /owfu/ order of te court or wen pub/ic sofety or order
requires oterwise os prescribed by /ow
%2) ny evidence obtoined in vio/otion of tis or te precedinq section
so// be inodmissib/e for ony purpose in ony proceedinq

1he guaranLee lncludes wlLhln Lhe manLle of lLs proLecLlon Langlble as
well as lnLanglble ob[ecLs (See 8A 4200 below)

Lxcept|ons to |nv|o|ab|||ty
1 Lawful order of Lhe courL
2 When publlc safeLy or orders requlres oLherwlse as may be provlded by
law

rls tere o constitutiono/ riqt to privocy?
r?es 1he essence of prlvacy ls Lhe rlghL Lo be lefL alone" lL ls expressly
recognlzed ln SecLlon 3(1) of ArLlcle lll CLher facLs of Lhe rlghL Lo prlvacy
are proLecLed ln varlous provlslons of Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs le SecLlons 1
(rlghL Lo due process clause) 2 (rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches and
selzures) 6 (rlghL Lo llberLy of abode and of changlng Lhe same as well as
Lhe rlghL Lo Lravel) 8 (freedom of assoclaLlon) and 17 (rlghL agalnsL self
lncrlmlnaLlon) %Op/e vs @orres 6 No 12785 lu/y 2l 1988)

Zones of prlvacy recognlzed and proLecLed ln our laws
1 1he Clvll Code provldes LhaL every person shall respecL Lhe dlgnlLy
personallLy prlvacy and peace of mlnd of hls nelghbors and oLher
persons" and punlshes as acLlonable LorLs several acLs by a person of
meddllng and prylng lnLo Lhe prlvacy of anoLher lL also holds a publlc
offlcer or employee or any prlvaLe lndlvldual llable for damages for any
vlolaLlon of Lhe rlghLs and llberLles of anoLher person and recognlzes Lhe
prlvacy of leLLers and oLher prlvaLe communlcaLlons

2 1he 8evlsed enal Code makes a crlme Lhe vlolaLlon of secreLs by an
offlcer Lhe revelaLlon of Lrade and lndusLrlal secreLs and Lrespass Lo
dwelllng
3 A nLlWlreLapplng Law (8A 4200)lnvaslon of prlvacy
4 S ecrecy of 8ank ueposlLs (8A 1403)
3 l nLellecLual roperLy Law (8A 8293)
6 8 ules of CourLon prlvlleged communlcaLlon llkewlse recognlze Lhe
prlvacy of cerLaln lnformaLlon Sec 24 8ule 130(c) 8evlsed 8ules on
Lvldence

kA 4200 Ant|W|re 1app|ng Act
lL prohlblLs any person noL belng auLhorlzed by all parLles Lo any prlvaLe
communlcaLlon or spoken word Lo Lap any wlre or cable or by uslng any
oLher devlce or arrangemenL Lo secreLly overhear lnLercepL or record Lhe
same or Lo communlcaLe Lhe conLenL Lhereof Lo any person
1he use of sald record may be permlLLed ln Lhe followlng lnsLances
1 ln clvll or crlmlnal proceedlngs lnvolvlng cerLaln speclfled offenses
prlnclpally affecLlng naLlonal securlLy and
2 When auLhorlzed by Lhe courL whlch may be lssued under Lhe followlng
condlLlons
a 1he consLlLuLlonal requlremenLs for Lhe lssuance of a warranL should be
complled wlLh and
b 1he auLhorlLy shall be effecLlve only for slxLy (60) days
Any evldence obLalned ln vlolaLlon of Lhls law ls noL admlsslble ln any
proceedlng
8A 4200 clearly and unequlvocally makes lL lllegal for any person noL
auLhorlzed by all parLles Lo any prlvaLe communlcaLlon Lo secreLly record
such communlcaLlons by means of a Lape recorder 1he law does noL
make any dlsLlncLlon A Lelephone exLenslon ls noL among Lhe devlces
covered by Lhls law %6oonon vs l 145 5112)

Novorro vs 6 No 121087 uqust 2 1999 Lwo local medla men
ln Lucena ClLy wenL Lo Lhe pollce sLaLlon Lo reporL alleged lndecenL show
ln one nlghL esLabllshmenL ln Lhe ClLy AL Lhe sLaLlon Lhere was a heaLed
argumenL beLween pollce offlcer navarro and Llngan one of Lhe Lwo
medla men whlch led Lo flsLlcuffs Llngan fell and hls head hlL Lhe
pavemenL whlch caused hls deaLh uurlng Lhe Lrlal !albuena Lhe oLher
medla man LesLlfled resenLed ln evldence Lo conflrm hls LesLlmony was
a volce recordlng he had made of Lhe heaLed dlscusslon aL Lhe pollce
sLaLlon beLween accused pollce offlcer navarro and Lhe deceased Llngan
whlch was Laken wlLhouL Lhe knowledge of Lhe Lwo 1he SC held LhaL
!albuena's LesLlmony ls conflrmed by Lhe volce recordlng he had made lL
may be asked wheLher Lhe Lape ls admlsslble ln vlew of 8A
4200 whlch prohlblLs wlre Lapplng 1he answer ls ln Lhe afflrmaLlve 1he
law prohlblLs Lhe overhearlng lnLercepLlng or recordlng of pr|vate
commun|cat|ons Slnce Lhe exchange beLween peLlLloner navarro and
Llngan was noL prlvaLe lLs Lape recordlng ls not proh|b|ted

Lxempted acts
A use of such record or any coples Lhereof as evldence ln any clvll
crlmlnal lnvesLlgaLlon or Lrlal of offenses menLloned below Secs 1 par
2
8 Any peace offlcer who ls auLhorlzed by Lhe wrlLLen order of Lhe CourL
(81C wlLhln whose LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon Lhe acLs for whlch auLhorlLy ls
applled for are Lo be execuLed) Lo execuLe any of Lhe acLs declared Lo be
unlawful ln cases lnvolvlng Lhe crlmes of Sec 3 par 1
1 Lreason
2 esplonage
3 provoklng war and dlsloyalLy ln case of war
4 plracy
3 muLlny ln Lhe hlgh seas
6 rebelllon
7 consplracy and proposal Lo commlL rebelllon
8 lnclLlng rebelllon
9 sedlLlon
10 consplracy Lo commlL sedlLlon
11 lnclLlng Lo sedlLlon
12 kldnapplng as deflned by Lhe 8C
23


13vlolaLlons of CA 616 punlshlng esplonage and oLher offenses agalnsL
naLlonal securlLy

1he W8l11Ln C8uL8 shall only be lssued or granLed upon wrlLLen
appllcaLlon wlLh Lhe examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe
appllcanL and Lhe wlLnesses he may produce and musL show
a) 1haL Lhere are reasonable grounds Lo belleve LhaL any of Lhe crlmes
enumeraLed hereln has been commlLLed or ls belng commlLLed provlded
LhaL ln cases lnvolvlng Lhe offenses of rebelllon consplracy and proposal
Lo commlL rebelllon lnclLlng Lo rebelllon sedlLlon consplracy Lo commlL
sedlLlon such auLhorlLy shall be granLed only upon prlor proof LhaL a
rebelllon or acLs of sedlLlon as Lhe case may be have acLually been or are
belng commlLLed
b) 1haL Lhere are reasonable grounds Lo belleve LhaL evldence may be
obLalned essenLlal Lo Lhe convlcLlon of any person for or Lo Lhe soluLlon
of or Lo Lhe prevenLlon of any of such crlmes
c) 1haL Lhere are no oLher means readlly avallable for obLalnlng such
evldence

Contents
1 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe person or persons whose communlcaLlons
conversaLlons dlscusslons or spoken words are Lo be overheard
lnLercepLed or recorded and ln Lhe case of Lelegraphlc or Lelephonlc
communlcaLlons Lhe Lelegraph llne and Lhe Lelephone number lnvolved
and lLs locaLlon
2 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe peace offlcer auLhorlzed Lo overhear lnLercepL or
record Lhe communlcaLlons conversaLlons dlscusslons or spoken words
3 1he offense or offenses soughL Lo be commlLLed or prevenLed and
4 1he perlod of Lhe auLhorlzaLlon

Lffect|v|ty 1he auLhorlzaLlon shall be effecLlve for Lhe perlod speclfled ln
Lhe order whlch shall noL exceed 60 days from Lhe daLe of lssuance of Lhe
order unless exLended or renewed by Lhe courL upon belng saLlsfled LhaL
such exLenslon or renewal ls ln Lhe publlc lnLeresL

rocedure All recordlngs made under courL auLhorlzaLlon wlLhln 48 hours
afLer Lhe explraLlon of Lhe perlod flxed ln Lhe order
1 Shall be deposlLed wlLh Lhe courL ln a sealed envelope or sealed
package
2 shall be accompanled by an affldavlL of Lhe peace offlcer granLed such
auLhorlLy sLaLlng Lhe number of recordlngs made Lhe daLes and Llmes
covered by each recordlng Lhe number of Lapes dlscs or records lncluded
ln Lhe deposlL and cerLlfylng LhaL no dupllcaLes or coples are lncluded ln
Lhe envelope or package deposlLed wlLh Lhe courL
3 shall noL be opened or Lhe recordlngs replayed or used ln evldence or
Lhelr conLenLs revealed excepL upon order of Lhe courL whlch shall noL be
granLed excepL upon moLlon wlLh due noLlce and opporLunlLy Lo be heard
Lo Lhe person or persons whose conversaLlons or communlcaLlons have
been recorded

LNAL1
Any person who vlolaLes Lhe provlslons of Lhls AcL shall upon convlcLlon
be punlshed by
1 lmprlsonmenL for noL less Lhan 6 monLhs or more Lhan 6 years and
2 wlLh Lhe accessory penalLy of perpeLual absoluLe dlsquallflcaLlon from
publlc offlce lf Lhe offender be a publlc offlclal aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense and
3 lf Lhe offender ls an allen he shall be sub[ecL Lo deporLaLlon
proceedlngs

ADMISSI8ILI1
Any communlcaLlon or spoken word or Lhe exlsLence conLenLs subsLance
purporL effecL or meanlng of Lhe same or any parL Lhereof or any
lnformaLlon Lhereln conLalned obLalned or secured by any person ln
vlolaLlon of Lhls AcL shall noL be admlsslble ln evldence ln any [udlclal
quasl[udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve hearlng or lnvesLlgaLlon

Lxc|us|onary ku|e
Art III Sec 3 xxx
(2) Any evldence obLalned ln vlolaLlon of Lhls (prlvacy of communlcaLlon
and correspondence) or Lhe precedlng secLlon (unreasonable searches and
selzures) shall be lnadmlsslble for any purpose ln any proceedlng
Cne of Lhe remedles of one who was vlcLlmlzed by an lllegal search ls Lo
ask for Lhe suppresslon of Lhe Lhlngs selzed and Lhe evldence lllegally
Laken
1he excluslonary rule prohlblLs Lhe use of any evldence obLalned ln
vlolaLlon of SecLlons 2 and 3 (1) ArL lll for any purpose and ln any
proceedlng 1he evldence ls absoluLely useless 1hls has noL always been
Lhe case

ln Moncodo v Peop/es ourt %1948) Lhe SC followlng Lhe uS case of
Wolf v Colorado rules LhaL evldence lllegally obLalned ls noL necessarlly
excluded lf ls oLherwlse admlsslble under Lhe rules of evldence ln such
case Lhe evldence admlLLed wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo any crlmlnal clvll or
admlnlsLraLlve llablllLy of Lhe offlcer who lllegally selzed lL ln oLher words
Lhe admlsslblllLy of Lhe evldence ls noL effecLed by Lhe lllegallLy
of Lhe means by whlch lL was acqulred

lL was ln 5tonei// v uiokno supra followlng Lhe uS case of Moop v
Oio 199 when Lhe excluslonary rule was flrsL adopLed ln Lhe
hlllpplnes Lhe SC noLlng LhaL Lhe LoLal suppresslon of Lhe Lhlng selzed ls
Lhe only effecLlve means of ensurlng Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghL whlch lL seeks
Lo preserve 1he CourL noLed Lhe lnsufflclency of Lhe oLher remedles (eg
acLlon for damages crlmlnal punlshmenL reslsLance) especlally ln Lhe
hlllpplnes where vlolaLlons were commlLLed by Lhose ln power and were
Lhus equlpped wlLh Lhe pardonlng power Lo waLer down Lhe gravlLy of Lhe
oLher penalLles lmposed Lo vlolaLors of Lhose consLlLuLlonal rlghLs
1he vlcLlm may or may noL geL back Lhe Lhlng selzed dependlng on
wheLher lL ls conLraband or noL lL Lhe Lhlng ls conLraband lL would noL be
reLurned and only lLs suppresslon can be asked for 8uL lf Lhe Lhlng ls
legal Lhe parLy can ask for lLs reLurn even lf no crlmlnal prosecuLlon has
yeL been flled as ln Lhe SLonehlll case

C|v|| Act|on for Damages
A clvll case for damages can also be flled pursuanL Lo ArLlcle 32 of Lhe Clvll
Code

ln berco v ver Lhe SC held LhaL even lf Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL ls
suspended Lhe courL can neverLheless enLerLaln an acLlon noL only
agalnsL Lhe Lask force buL even agalnsL Lhe Lop ranklng offlclals who
ordered Lhe selzure Lo recover damages for Lhe lllegal searches and
selzures made ln a despoLlc manner 8y so dolng one can lndlrecLly
lnqulre lnLo Lhe valldlLy of Lhe suspenslon of Lhe prlvllege

omiret vs 248 5 590 8A 4200 clearly and unequlvocally makes lL
lllegal for any person noL auLhorlzed by all parLles Lo any prlvaLe
communlcaLlon Lo secreLly record such communlcaLlons by means of a
Lape recorder 1he law does noL make a dlsLlncLlon

2u/ueto vs 25l 5 99 Lhe rlghL may be lnvoked agalnsL Lhe wlfe
who wenL Lo Lhe cllnlc of her husband and Lhere Look documenLs
conslsLlng of prlvaLe communlcaLlons beLween her husband and hls
alleged paramour

r5ou/d in comero inspection of bonk occounts be o//owed?
r 8efore an ln camera lnspecLlon may be allowed Lhere musL be a
pendlng case before a courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon lurLher Lhe
accounL musL be clearly ldenLlfled Lhe lnspecLlon llmlLed Lo Lhe sub[ecL
maLLer of Lhe pendlng case before Lhe courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon 1he
bank personnel and Lhe accounL holder musL be noLlfled Lo be presenL
durlng Lhe lnspecLlon and such lnspecLlon may cover only Lhe accounL
ldenLlfled ln Lhe pendlng case

ln union 8onk vs SecLlon 2 of Lhe Law on Secrecy of 8ank ueposlLs as
amended declares bank deposlL Lo be absoluLely confldenLlal except
1 ln an examlnaLlon made ln Lhe course of speclal or general examlnaLlon
of a bank LhaL ls speclflcally auLhorlzed by Lhe MoneLary 8oard afLer belng
saLlsfled LhaL Lhere ls reasonable ground Lo belleve LhaL a bank fraud or
26


serlous lrregularlLy has been or ls belng commlLLed and LhaL lL ls necessary
Lo look lnLo deposlL Lo esLabllsh such fraud or lrregularlLy
2 ln an examlnaLlon made by an lndependenL audlLor hlred by Lhe bank Lo
conducL lLs regular audlL provlded LhaL Lhe examlnaLlon ls for audlL
purposes only and Lhe resulLs Lhereof shall be for Lhe excluslve use of Lhe
bank
3 upon wrlLLen permlsslon of Lhe deposlLor
4 ln case of lmpeachmenL
3 upon order of a compeLenL courL ln cases of brlbery or derellcLlon of
duLy of publlc offlclals or
6 ln cases where Lhe money deposlLed or lnvesLed ls Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of
Lhe llLlgaLlon

ln Lhe case of Morquet vs uesierto 6 No 1l5882 lune 27 2001
Lhere ls yeL no pendlng llLlgaLlon before any courL of compeLenL auLhorlLy
WhaL ls exlsLlng ls an lnvesLlgaLlon by Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman ln
shorL whaL Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman would wlsh Lo do ls Lo flsh for
addlLlonal evldence Lo formally charge Amado Lagdameo eL al wlLh Lhe
Sandlganbayan Clearly Lhere was no pendlng case ln courL whlch would
warranL Lhe openlng of Lhe bank accounL for lnspecLlon

numan Secur|ty Act of 2007
Sect|on 3 nAS of 2007 provldes LhaL Lhe auLhorlLles may upon a wrlLLen
order of Lhe CourL of Appeals llsLen Lo lnLercepL and record wlLh Lhe use
of any mode form klnd or Lype of elecLronlc or oLher survelllance
equlpmenL or lnLercepLlng and Lracklng devlces or wlLh Lhe use of any
sulLable ways and means for LhaL purpose any communlcaLlon message
conversaLlon dlscusslon or spoken or wrlLLen words beLween members
of LerrorlsL group rovlded 1haL survelllance lnLercepLlon and recordlng
of communlcaLlons beLween lawyers and cllenLs docLor and paLlenLs
[ournallsLs and Lhelr sources and confldenLlal buslness correspondence
shall noL be auLhorlzed

Sec 4 Art|c|e III
No /ow so// be possed obridqinq te freedom of speec of expression
or te press or te riqt of te peop/e peoceob/y to ossemb/e ond
petition te qovernment for redress of qrievonces

1he rule on prlvlleged communlcaLlons has lLs genesls noL ln Lhe naLlon's
penal code buL ln Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon guaranLeelng
freedom of speech and of Lhe press As early as 1918 ln u5 vs oete l8
Pi/ 25l Lhe SC ruled LhaL publlcaLlons whlch are prlvlleged for reasons of
publlc pollcy are proLecLed by Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLy of freedom of
speech 1hls consLlLuLlonal rlghL cannoL be abollshed by Lhe mere fallure
of Lhe leglslaLure Lo glve lL express recognlLlon ln Lhe sLaLuLe punlshlng
llbel %8orjo/ vs l01 5 1)

1he freedom Lo speak lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo be sllenL 1hls freedom lncludes
also lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo an audlence ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe SLaLe cannoL
prohlblL Lhe people from hearlng whaL a person has Lo say whaLever be
Lhe quallLy of hls LhoughLs 1hls rlghL however ls noL demandable agalnsL
Lhose unwllllng Lo llsLen who may noL be herded by Lhe governmenL lnLo
a capLlve audlence

1ypes of rlvlleged CommunlcaLlons
1 Abso|ute|y pr|v||eged commun|cat|onsLhose whlch are noL acLlonable
even lf Lhe auLhor acLed ln bad falLh An example ls found ln ArLlcle vl
SecLlon 11 whlch exempLs a member of Congress from llablllLy for any
speech or debaLe ln Lhe Congress or ln any CommlLLee Lhereof
2 ua||f|ed|y pr|v||eged commun|cat|onsLhose conLalned defamaLory
lmpuLaLlons are noL acLlonable unless found Lo have been made wlLhouL
good lnLenLlon or [usLlflable moLlve 1o Lhls genre belong prlvaLe
communlcaLlons" and falr and Lrue reporL wlLhouL any commenLs or
remarks"

Ireedom of Lxpress|on
AspecL
1 lreedom from censorshlp or prlor resLralnL and
2 lreedom from subsequenL punlshmenL
lree speech and free press may be ldenLlfled wlLh Lhe llberLy Lo dlscuss
publlcly and LruLhfully any maLLer of publlc lnLeresL wlLhouL censorshlp
and punlshmenL 1here ls Lo be no prevlous resLralnL on Lhe
communlcaLlon of vlews or subsequenL llablllLy wheLher ln llbel sulLs
prosecuLlon for sedlLlon or acLlon for damages or conLempL proceedlngs
unless Lhere be a clear and presenL danger of subsLanLlve evll LhaL
Congress has a rlghL Lo prevenL %ovet vs 6onto/et 6 No 18ll8
ebruory 15 2008)

8esLrlcLlons on lree Speech
1 Contentbased kestr|ct|onsare lmposed because of Lhe conLenL of
Lhe speech lLself dlsLorL publlc debaLe have lmproper moLlvaLlon and are
usually lmposed because of fear how people wlll reacL Lo a parLlcular
speech

rSub[ecL Lo Lhe ClearandresenL danger 8ule 1esL
ln 5onidod vs OML a rule prohlblLlng columnlsLs commenLaLors
and announcers from campalgnlng elLher for or agalnsL an lssue ln a
pleblsclLe musL have compelllng reason Lo supporL lL or lL wlll noL pass
musLer under sLrlcL scruLlny

1hese resLrlcLlons are censorlal and Lherefore Lhey bear a heavy
presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonal valldlLy ln addlLlon Lhey wlll be LesLed for
posslble overbreadLh and vagueness

2 Contentneutra| kestr|ct|onsare Lhose whlch are noL concerned wlLh
Lhe conLenL of Lhe speech
r1he clearandpresenL danger rule ls lnapproprlaLe as a LesL for
deLermlnlng Lhe consLlLuLlonal valldlLy of laws

1esLs for a valld CovernmenLal lnLerference
1 C|ear and resent Danger ku|ewhen words are used ln such
clrcumsLance and of such naLure as Lo creaLe a clear and presenL danger
LhaL wlll brlng abouL
subsLanLlve evll LhaL sLaLe has Lhe rlghL Lo prevenL
2 Dangerous 1endency ku|ewords uLLered creaLe a dangerous
Lendency of an evll whlch SLaLe has Lhe rlghL Lo prevenL
3 8a|anc|ng of Interest 1estwhen parLlcular conducL ls regulaLed ln
lnLeresL of publlc order and Lhe regulaLlon resulLs ln an lndlrecL
condlLlonal parLlal abrldgmenL of speech Lhe duLy of Lhe courLs ls Lo
deLermlne whlch of Lhe 2 confllcLlng lnLeresLs demand greaLer proLecLlon
under Lhe parLlcular clrcumsLances presenLed

ln Lhe case of dionq vs OML 207 5 71l Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe
posLlng of decals and sLlckers on cars calesas Lrlcycles pedlcabs and
oLher movlng vehlcles needs Lhe consenL of Lhe owner of Lhe vehlcle
Pence Lhe preference of Lhe clLlzens becomes cruclal ln Lhls klnd of
propaganda noL Lhe flnanclal resources of Lhe candldaLe 1he owner can
even prepare hls own decals or sLlckers for posLlng on hls personal
properLy 1o sLrlke down Lhls rlghL and en[oln lL ls lmpermlsslble
encroachmenL of hls llberLles 1he prohlblLlon on posLlng of decals and
sLlckers on moblle" places wheLher publlc or prlvaLe excepL ln auLhorlzed
areas deslgnaLed by Lhe CCMLLLC becomes censorshlp whlch cannoL be
[usLlfled by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon

Doctr|ne of Ia|r Comment
lalr commenLarles on maLLers of publlc lnLeresL are prlvlleged and
consLlLuLe a valld defense ln an acLlon for llbel or slander lL means LhaL
whlle ln general every dlscredlLable lmpuLaLlon publlcly made ls deemed
false because every man ls presumed lnnocenL unLll hls gullL ls [udlclally
proved and every false lmpuLaLlon ls deemed mallclous neverLheless
when Lhe dlscredlLable lmpuLaLlon ls dlrecLed agalnsL a publlc person ln
hls publlc capaclLy lL ls noL necessarlly acLlonable ln order LhaL such
dlscredlLable lmpuLaLlon Lo a publlc offlclal may be acLlonable lL musL
elLher be a false allegaLlon of facL or a commenL based on a false
supposlLlon lf Lhe commenL ls an expresslon of oplnlon based on
esLabllshed facLs lL ls lmmaLerlal LhaL Lhe oplnlon happens Lo be mlsLaken
as long as lL mlghL reasonably lnferred from Lhe facLs %8orjo/ vs l01
5 1)
27


k|ght to Assemb|e and et|t|on Government
1he rlghL Lo assemble ls noL sub[ecL Lo prlor resLralnL and may noL be
condlLloned
upon Lhe prlor lssuance of a permlL or auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe governmenL
auLhorlLles
Powever Lhe rlghL musL be exerclsed ln such a way as wlll noL pre[udlce
Lhe publlc
welfare
lf assembly ls Lo be held aL a publlc place permlL for Lhe use of such place
and
loqe 887/12/2008 soyr
88
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
noL for Lhe assembly lLself may be valldly requlred ower of local offlclals
ls merely for
regulaLlon and noL for prohlblLlon %Primicios vs uqoso L1800 lonuory
27 1948)
ermlL for publlc assembly ls noL necessary lf meeLlng ls Lo be held ln
a A prlvaLe place
b 1he campus of a governmenLowned or operaLed educaLlonal
lnsLlLuLlon or
c A freedom park
1he provlslons of 8 880 (ubllc Assembly AcL of 1983) are noL absoluLe
ban on
publlc assemblles buL a resLrlcLlon LhaL slmply regulaLes Lhe Llme place
and manner of
Lhe assemblles 1he CourL referred Lo lL as contentneutra| regulaLlon
1esL for Lawful Assembly
1 urpose 1esLLhe purpose for whlch Lhe assembly ls held regardless of
Lhe
ausplces under whlch lL ls organlzed and
2 Ausplces 1esL
ln Lhe case of 8oyon vs rmito 6 No 198l8 pri/ 25 200
CallbraLed
reempLlve 8esponse (C8) serves no valld purpose lf lL means Lhe
someLhlng else
Accordlngly whaL ls Lo be followed ls and should be LhaL mandaLed by Lhe
law lLself
namely maxlmum Lolerance whlch speclflcally means Lhe hlghesL degree
of resLralnL
LhaL Lhe mlllLary pollce and oLher peace keeplng auLhorlLles shall observe
durlng a
publlc assembly or ln dlspersal of Lhe same
Sec S Art|c|e III
No /ow so// be mode respectinq on estob/isment of re/iqion or
proibitinq te
free exercise tereof @e free exercise ond enjoyment of re/iqious
profession
ond worsip witout discriminotion or preference so// forever be
o//owed No
re/iqious test so// be required for te exercise of civi/ or po/itico/ riqts
ke||g|onany speclflc sysLem of bellef worshlp conducL eLc ofLen
lnvolvlng a code of
eLhlcs and a phllosophy
lL ls a professlon of falLh Lo an acLlve power LhaL blnds and elevaLes man
Lo hls
CreaLor %q/ipoy vs uit 4 Pi/ 201)
Ireedom of ke||g|on
1 nonLsLabllshmenL Clause
Scope
a SLaLe cannoL seLup church
b CannoL pass laws whlch ald one rellglon all rellglons or prefer one over
anoLher
c nor lnfluence a person Lo go Lo or remaln away from church agalnsL hls
wlll
nor
loqe 897/12/2008 soyr
89
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
d lorce hlm Lo profess a bellef or dlsbellef ln any rellglon
2 lreedom of 8ellglous 8ellef and Worshlp
uual aspecL of lreedom of 8ellglous 8ellef and Worshlp
a lreedom Lo belleveabsoluLe as long as Lhe bellef ls conflned wlLhln
Lhe
realm of LhoughL and
b lreedom Lo acL on one's bellefsub[ecL Lo regulaLlon where Lhe bellef
ls
LranslaLed lnLo exLernal acLs LhaL affecL Lhe publlc welfare
Lcc|es|ast|ca| Affa|rlL lnvolves Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe church and
lLs members
and relaLes Lo maLLers of falLh rellglous docLrlnes worshlp and
governance of Lhe
congregaLlon Lo whlch Lhe sLaLe cannoL meddle
8enevo|ent Neutra||tyrecognlzes LhaL governmenL musL pursue lLs
secular goals and
lnLeresL buL aL Lhe same Llme sLrlve Lo uphold rellglous llberLy Lo Lhe
greaLesL exLenL
posslble wlLhln flexlble consLlLuLlonal llmlLs 1hus alLhough Lhe morallLy
conLemplaLed by
laws ls secular benevolenL neuLrallLy could allow for accommodaLlon of
morallLy based
on rellglon provlded lL does noL offend compelllng sLaLe lnLeresLs
1
hree (3)SLep process of Lhe compelllng SLaLe lnLeresL 1esL
1 Pas Lhe sLaLuLe or governmenL acLlon creaLed a burden on Lhe free
exerclse of
rellglon?
2 ls Lhere a sufflclenLly compelllng sLaLe lnLeresL Lo [usLlfy Lhls
lnfrlngemenL of
rellglous llberLy?
3 Pas Lhe sLaLe ln achlevlng lLs leglLlmaLe purposes used Lhe leasL
lnLruslve means
posslble so LhaL Lhe free exerclse ls noL lnfrlnged any more Lhan necessary
Lo
achleve Lhe leglLlmaLe goal of Lhe sLaLe? %strodo vs scritor M No P
02
151 lune 22 200)
bro/inoq vs uivision 5uperintendent 219 5 25 Lo compel sLudenLs
Lo Lake
parL ln a flag ceremony when lL ls agalnsL Lhelr rellglous bellefs wlll vlolaLe
Lhelr rellglous
freedom eLlLloners have Lhe rlghL Lo refuse Lo saluLe Lo Lhe hlllpplne
flag on accounL
of Lhelr rellglous freedom
lq/esio ni risto vs 259 5 529 Lhe lnC's posLulaLe LhaL lLs rellglous
freedom
ls per se beyond revlew of Lhe M18C8 should be re[ecLed lLs publlc
broadcasL on 1v of
lLs rellglous programs brlngs lL ouL of Lhe bosom of lnLernal bellef
1elevlslon ls a
medlum LhaL reaches even Lhe eyes and ears of chlldren 1he exerclse of
rellglous
freedom can be regulaLed by Lhe SLaLe when lL wlll brlng abouL Lhe clear
and presenL
danger of a subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe ls duLybound Lo prevenL le
serlous
deLrlmenL Lo Lhe more overrldlng lnLeresL of publlc healLh publlc morals
or publlc
welfare A lolssez folte pollcy on Lhe exerclse of rellglon can be seducLlve
Lo Lhe llberal
28


mlnd buL hlsLory counsels Lhe CourL agalnsL lLs bllnd adopLlon as rellglon ls
and
loqe 907/12/2008 soyr
90
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
conLlnues Lo be a volaLlle area of concern ln our socleLy Loday lor sure
we shall
conLlnue Lo sub[ecL any acL plnchlng Lhe space for Lhe free exerclse of
rellglon Lo a
helghLened scruLlny buL we shall noL leave lLs raLlonal exerclse Lo Lhe
lrraLlonallLy of a
man lor when rellglon dlvldes and lLs exerclse desLroys Lhe SLaLe should
noL sLand
sLlll"
@oruc vs 8isop ue/o rut 6 No 144801 Morc 10 2005
expulslon/excommunlcaLlon of members of a rellglous
lnsLlLuLlon/organlzaLlon ls a maLLer
besL lefL Lo Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe offlclals and Lhe laws and canons of sald
lnsLlLuLlon/organlzaLlon lL ls noL for Lhe courLs Lo exerclse conLrol over
church auLhorlLles
ln Lhe performance of Lhelr dlscreLlonary and offlclal funcLlons 8aLher lL
ls for Lhe
members of Lhe rellglous lnsLlLuLlon/organlzaLlon Lo conform Lo [usL
church regulaLlons
ke||g|ous 1ests
1he consLlLuLlonal prohlblLlon agalnsL rellglous LesLs ls almed agalnsL
clandesLlne
aLLempLs on Lhe parL of Lhe governmenL Lo prevenL a person from
exerclslng hls clvll or
pollLlcal rlghLs because of hls rellglous bellefs
Sec 6 Art|c|e III
@e /iberty of obode ond of conqinq te some witin te /imits
prescribed by /ow
so// not be impoired except upon /owfu/ order of te court Neiter so//
te riqt
to trove/ be impoired except in te interest of notiono/ security pub/ic
sofety or
pub/ic eo/t os moy be provided by /ow
L|berty of Abode and 1rave|
1he purpose of Lhe guaranLy ls Lo furLher emphaslze Lhe lndlvldual's
llberLy as
safeguarded ln general Lerms by Lhe due process clause LlberLy under
LhaL clause
lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo choose one's resldence Lo leave lL whenever he
pleases and Lo
Lravel where he wllls
L|m|tat|on on L|berty of Abode upon Lawful order of Lhe courL
kestr|ct|ons on k|ght to 1rave|
1 lnLeresL of naLlonal securlLy
2 ubllc safeLy
3 ubllc healLh or
4 Any person on ball
ln ounco vs 5o/otor 82 Pi/ 851 a mald has Lhe rlghL Lo Lransfer Lo
anoLher
resldence even lf she had noL yeL pald Lhe amounL advanced for her
LransporLaLlon from
Lhe provlnce by an employmenL agency whlch was Lhen effecLlvely
deLalnlng her
loqe 917/12/2008 soyr
91
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
vi//ovicencio vs Lukbon l9 Pi/ 778 Lhe Mayor of Manlla was noL
susLalned by Lhe
SC when he deporLed some 170 women of lllrepuLe Lo uavao for Lhe
admlLLedly
commendable purpose of rlddlng Lhe clLy for serlous moral and healLh
problems 1hese
women are neverLheless noL chaLLels buL hlllpplne clLlzens proLecLed by
Lhe same
consLlLuLlonal guaranLees as are oLher clLlzensLo change Lhelr domlclle
from Manlla Lo
anoLher locallLy
ubi vs 8oord of Mindoro l9 Pi/ 0 Lhe respondenLs were [usLlfled ln
requlrlng Lhe
members of cerLaln nonChrlsLlan Lrlbes Lo reslde ln a reservaLlon for
Lhelr beLLer
educaLlon advancemenL and proLecLlon 1he measure was held Lo be a
leglLlmaLe
exerclse of pollce power
Lorento vs uirector of neo/t 50 Pi/ 595 healLh offlcers may resLrlcL
access Lo
conLamlnaLed areas and also quaranLlne Lhose already exposed Lo Lhe
dlsease soughL
Lo be conLalned
2eme/ vs usk l81 u5 1 Lhe SecreLary of SLaLe may regulaLe or even
prohlblL Lhe
Lravel of clLlzens Lo hosLlle counLrles Lo prevenL posslble lnLernaLlonal
mlsundersLandlng
and confllcL
Sect|on 26 of nAS of 2007cases where evldence of gullL ls noL sLrong
and Lhe
person charged wlLh Lhe crlme of Lerrorlsm as Lhereln deflned ls enLlLled
Lo ball and lf
granLed Lhe same Lhe courL upon appllcaLlon by Lhe prosecuLor shall
llmlL Lhe rlghL Lo
Lravel of Lhe accused Lo wlLhln Lhe munlclpallLy or clLy where he resldes or
where Lhe
case ls pendlng ln Lhe lnLeresL of naLlonal securlLy and publlc safeLy
Sec 7 Art|c|e III
@e riqt of te peop/e to informotion on motters of pub/ic concerned
so// be
recoqnited ccess to officio/ records ond to documents ond popers
pertoininq
to officio/ octs tronsoctions or decisions os we// os to qovernment
reseorc
doto used os bosis for po/icy deve/opment so// be offorded te cititens
subject
to suc /imitotions os moy be provided by /ow
k|ght of the eop|e to Informat|on on Matters of ub||c Concern
1he clLlzen has a rlghL Lo know whaL ls golng on ln Lhe counLry and ln hls
loqe 927/12/2008 soyr
92
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
governmenL so he can express hls vlews Lhereon knowledgeably and
lnLelllgenLly Cne
cannoL quesLlon Lhe exLravagance of Lhe governmenL for example lf ls
denled
examlnaLlon of offlclal vouchers A clLlzen may noL expose anomaly lf
Lhose responslble
for lL may valldly prevenL hlm from lnvesLlgaLlng Lhelr acLlvlLles ln Lhe
lnLeresL of LruLh
and falrness Lhe clLlzen should noL be made Lo guess only aL whaL ls belng
done by
publlc funcLlonarles and Lo base hls vlews and concluslons on mere
rumors halfLruLhs
con[ecLures and even canards
29


8ecognlzed resLrlcLlons
1 Nat|ona| secur|ty matters and |nte|||gence |nformat|onLhls
[urlsdlcLlon
recognlzes Lhe common law holdlng LhaL Lhere ls a governmenLal prlvllege
agalnsL publlc dlsclosure wlLh respecL Lo sLaLe secreLs regardlng mlllLary
dlplomaLlc and oLher naLlonal securlLy maLLers
2 1rade or |ndustr|a| secrets(pursuanL Lo Lhe lnLellecLual roperLy
Code 8A
8293 and oLher relaLed laws and banklng LransacLlonspursuanL Lo Lhe
Secrecy
of 8ank ueposlLs AcL 8A 1403)
3 Cr|m|na| matters such as Lhose relaLlng Lo Lhe apprehenslon Lhe
prosecuLlon
and Lhe deLenLlon of crlmlnals whlch courLs may noL lnqulre lnLo prlor Lo
such
arresL deLenLlon and prosecuLlon and
4 Cther conf|dent|a| |nformat|on 1he LLhlcal SLandards AcL furLher
prohlblLs
publlc offlclals and employees from uslng or dlvulglng confldenLlal or
classlfled
lnformaLlon Lo Lhe publlc" SecLlon 7 (c) 8A 6713 CLher acknowledged
llmlLaLlons Lo lnformaLlon access lnclude dlplomaLlc correspondence
closed door
CablneL meeLlngs and execuLlve sesslons of elLher Pouse of congress as
well as
Lhe lnLernal dellberaLlons of Lhe SC %ovet vs P66 299 5 744)
8lghLs guaranLeed
1 8lghL Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc concern and
2 Corollary rlghL of access Lo offlclal records and documenLs
8 7941 vs OML 6 Nos 177271 ond 177l14 Moy 4 2007
Lhe rlghL Lo
lnformaLlon ls a publlc rlghL where Lhe real parLles ln lnLeresL are Lhe
publlc or Lhe
clLlzens Lo be preclse 1he people's rlghL Lo know ls llmlLed to mottets of
pobllc cooceto
and ls furLher sub[ecL Lo such llmlLaLlon as may be provlded by law
Slmllarly Lhe pollcy
of full dlsclosure ls conflned Lo LransacLlons lnvolvlng publlc lnLeresL' and
ls sub[ecL Lo
reasonable condlLlons prescrlbed by law
vo/monte vs 8e/monte lr 170 5o 25Lhe lnformaLlon soughL musL
be maLLers
of publlc concern" access Lo whlch may be llmlLed by law 1he
lnformaLlon soughL by
peLlLloners ls Lhe LruLh of reporLs LhaL cerLaln Members of Lhe 8aLasan
ambansa
loqe 9J7/12/2008 soyr
93
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
belonglng Lo Lhe opposlLlon were able Lo secure 'clean' loans from Lhe
CSlS lmmedlaLely
before Lhe lebruary 7 1986 elecLlon Lhrough Lhe lnLercesslon of Lhe
former llrsL Lady
lmelda Marcos x x x 1he publlc naLure of Lhe loanable funds of Lhe CSlS
and Lhe publlc
offlce held by Lhe alleged borrowers make Lhe lnformaLlon soughL clearly
a maLLer of
publlc lnLeresL and concern
Leqospi vs ivi/ 5ervice ommission Lhe SC afflrmed Lhe rlghL of Lhe
peLlLloner Lo
secure from Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon lnformaLlon regardlng Lhe clvll
servlce
ellglblllLy of cerLaln persons employed ln Lhe healLh deparLmenL of Lhe
Cebu ClLy
governmenL
Sec 8 Art|c|e III
@e riqt of te peop/e inc/udinq tose emp/oyed in te pub/ic ond
privote
sectors to form unions ossociotions or societies for purposes not
controry to
/ow so// not be obridqed
k|ght to Iorm assoc|at|onsshall noL be lmpalred wlLhouL due process of
law
guaranLees Lhe rlghL not Lo [oln an assoclaLlon %5to /oro nomeowners
ssociotion
vs 6oston 6 No 14191 lonuory 2l 2002)
1hls rlghL ls especlally meanlngful ln a free socleLy because a man ls by
naLure
gregarlous Pls dlsposlLlon Lo mlx wlLh oLhers of Lhe same persuaslons
lnLeresLs or
ob[ecLlves ls guaranLeed by Lhls provlslon lL also expressly guaranLees Lo
Lhose
employed ln Lhe publlc and prlvaLe secLors Lhe rlghL Lo form unlons
1hls rlghL ls avallable also Lo Lhose ln Lhe governmenL secLors
lL ls a seLLled ln [urlsprudence LhaL ln general workers ln Lhe publlc
secLors do
noL en[oy Lhe rlghL Lo sLrlke 1he general rule ln Lhe pasL and up Lo presenL
ls LhaL Lhe
'Lerms and condlLlons of employmenL ln Lhe CovernmenL lncludlng any
pollLlcal
subdlvlslon or lnsLrumenLallLy Lhereof are governed by law' x x x Slnce
Lhe Lerms and
condlLlons of governmenL employmenL are flxed by law governmenL
workers cannoL use
Lhe same weapons employed by Lhe workers ln Lhe prlvaLe secLor Lo
secure concesslons
from Lhelr employers 1he prlnclple behlnd labor unlonlsm ln prlvaLe
lndusLry ls LhaL
lndusLrlal peace cannoL be secured Lhrough compulslon by law 8elaLlons
beLween
prlvaLe employers and Lhelr employees resL on an essenLlally volunLary
basls x x x ln
governmenL employmenL however lL ls Lhe leglslaLure and where
properly glven
delegaLed power Lhe admlnlsLraLlve heads of governmenL whlch flx Lhe
Lerms and
condlLlons of employmenL And Lhls ls effecLed Lhrough sLaLuLes or
admlnlsLraLlve
clrculars rules and regulaLlons noL Lhrough collecLlve bargalnlng
agreemenLs %//ionce
of oncerned 6overnment Jorkers vs Ministry of Lobor ond
mp/oyment 124
5 1)
ln Lhe case of locinto vs 281 5 57 Lhe SC held LhaL peLlLloners
were
loqe 947/12/2008 soyr
94
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
noL penallzed for Lhe exerclse of Lhelr rlghL Lo assemble peacefully and Lo
peLlLlon Lhe
governmenL for a redress of grlevances 8aLher Lhe Clvll Servlce
Commlsslon found
Lhem gullLy of conducL pre[udlclal Lo Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe servlce for
havlng absenLed
Lhemselves wlLhouL proper auLhorlLy from Lhelr school durlng regular
school days ln
order Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe mass proLesL Lhelr absence lnelucLably
resulLlng ln Lhe nonholdlng
of classes and ln Lhe deprlvaLlon of sLudenLs of educaLlon for whlch Lhey
were
30


responslble Pad peLlLloners avalled Lhemselves of Lhelr free Llmerecess
afLer
classes weekends or holldaysLo dramaLlze Lhelr grlevances and Lo
dlalogue wlLh Lhe
proper auLhorlLles wlLhln Lhe bounds of law no onenoL Lhe uLCS Lhe
CSC or even
Lhe SCcould have held Lhem llable for Lhe valld exerclse of Lhelr
consLlLuLlonally
guaranLeed rlghLs As lL was Lhe Lemporary sLoppage of classes resulLlng
from Lhelr
acLlvlLy necessarlly dlsrupLed publlc servlces Lhe very evll soughL Lo be
foresLalled by
Lhe prohlblLlon agalnsL sLrlkes by governmenL workers 1helr acL by Lhelr
naLure was
en[olned by Lhe Clvll Servlce Law rules and regulaLlons for whlch Lhey
musL Lherefore
be made answerable
65l5 vs kopisonon nq mqo Monqqoqowo so 65l5 6 No 1701l2
uecember
200 lL was agalnsL Lhe backdrop of Lhe provlslons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
LhaL Lhe CourL
resolved LhaL employees ln Lhe publlc servlce may noL engage ln sLrlkes or
ln concerLed
and unauLhorlzed sLoppage of work LhaL Lhe rlghL of governmenL
employees Lo organlze
ls llmlLed Lo Lhe formaLlon of unlons or assoclaLlons wlLhouL lncludlng Lhe
rlghL Lo sLrlke
lL may be as Lhe appellaLe courL urged LhaL Lhe freedom of expresslon
and assembly
and Lhe rlghL Lo peLlLlon Lhe governmenL for a redress of grlevances sLand
on a level
hlgher Lhan economlc and oLher llberLles
Sec 9 Art|c|e III
Privote property so// not be token for pub/ic use witout just
compensotion
(See dlscusslons under LmlnenL uomaln)
Sec 10 Art|c|e III
No /ow impoirinq te ob/iqotion of controct so// be possed
1he freedom Lo conLracL ls noL absoluLe all conLracLs and all rlghLs are
sub[ecL Lo
Lhe pollce power of Lhe SLaLe and noL only may regulaLlons whlch affecL
Lhem be
esLabllshed by Lhe SLaLe buL all such regulaLlons musL be sub[ecL Lo
change from Llme Lo
Llme as Lhe general wellbelng of Lhe communlLy may requlre or Lhe
clrcumsLances may
change or as experlence may demonsLraLe Lhe necesslLy
1he purpose of Lhe lmpalrmenL clause ls Lo safeguard Lhe lnLegrlLy of valld
conLracLual agreemenLs agalnsL unwarranLed lnLerference by Lhe SLaLe As
a rule Lhey
should be respecLed by Lhe leglslaLure and noL Lampered wlLh by
subsequenL laws LhaL
wlll change Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe parLles or modlfy Lhelr rlghLs and
obllgaLlons 1he wlll of
loqe 957/12/2008 soyr
93
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhe obllgor and Lhe obllgee musL be observed Lhe obllgaLlon of Lhelr
conLracL musL noL
be lmpalred
Powever Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe lmpalrmenL clause ls noL absoluLe 1here
are
lnsLances when conLracLs valld aL Lhe Llme of Lhelr concluslon may
become lnvalld or
some of Lhelr provlslons may be rendered lnoperaLlve or lllegal by vlrLue
of supervenlng
leglslaLlon
LlmlLaLlons
1 ollce powerprevalls over conLracLs
2 LmlnenL domalnmay lmpalr obllgaLlon of conLracLs and
3 1axaLloncannoL lmpalr obllgaLlon of conLracLs
Impa|rmentanyLhlng LhaL dlmlnlshes Lhe efflcacy of a conLracL
1here ls lmpalrmenL when Lhere ls change ln Lhe Lerms of a legal conLracL
beLween parLles elLher ln Lhe Llme or mode of performance or lmposes
new condlLlons
or dlspenses wlLh Lhose expressed or auLhorlzes for lLs saLlsfacLlon
someLhlng dlfferenL
from LhaL provlded ln lLs Lerms %/emons vs No/tinq No 17959 lonuory
24 1922)
non neerson /voret vs PlOP esources lnc 6 No 1224l
November
29 200 ln unequlvocal Lerms Lhe SC have conslsLenLly held LhaL such
llcenses
concernlng Lhe harvesLlng of Llmber ln Lhe counLry's foresLs cannoL be
consldered
conLracLs LhaL would blnd Lhe CovernmenL regardless of changes ln pollcy
and Lhe
demands of publlc lnLeresL and welfare Slnce Llmber llcenses are noL
conLracLs Lhe
nonlmpalrmenL clause cannoL be lnvoked
Sec 11 Art|c|e III
ree occess to te courts ond quosijudicio/ bodies ond odequote /eqo/
ossistonce so// not be denied to ony person by reoson of poverty
lnsplred by L soclal [usLlce pollcy and covered by Lhe equal proLecLlon
clause Lhls
rule has been lmplemenLed by several provlslons of Lhe 8ules of CourL ln
favor of Lhe
pauper llLlganL 1he l8 provldes deservlng lndlgenLs wlLh free legal ald
lncludlng
represenLaLlon ln courL and slmllar servlces avallable from Lhe uC! Lo
llLlganLs who
cannoL afford reLalned counsel llke Lhe accused ln a crlmlnal case who can
ask for Lhe
asslsLance of counsel Je offlclo 1here are also prlvaLe legal asslsLance
organlzaLlons
now funcLlonlng for Lhe beneflL of penurlous cllenLs who oLherwlse mlghL
be unable Lo
resorL Lo Lhe courLs of [usLlce because only of Lhelr mlsforLune of belng
poor 1hls
provlslon makes Lhem Lhe equal of Lhe rlch before Lhe law
Sec 12 Art|c|e III
(1) ny person under investiqotion for te commission of on offense so//
ove te riqt to be informed of is riqt to remoin si/ent ond to ove o
loqe 97/12/2008 soyr
96
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
competent ond independent counse/ preferob/y of is own coice lf te
person connot offord te services of counse/ e must be provided wit
one @ese riqts connot be woived except in writinq ond in te presence
of counse/
%2) No torture force vio/ence treot intimidotion or ony oter meons
wic
vitiote te free wi// so// be used oqoinst im 5ecret detention p/oces
so/itory
incommunicodo or oter simi/or forms of detention ore proibited
%l) ny confession or odmission obtoined in vio/otion of tis or 5ection 17
ereof
so// be inodmissib/e in evidence oqoinst im
31


%4) @e /ow so// provide for peno/ ond civi/ sonctions for vio/otions of
tis
section os we// os compensotion to ond reobi/itotion of victims of
torture or
simi/or proctices ond teir fomi/ies
k|ghts of an Accused under Custod|a| Invest|gat|on
rLxlsL only ln cusLodlal lnLerrogaLlon
rAvallable when Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon ls no longer a general lnqulry lnLo an
unsolved crlme
buL has begun Lo focus on a parLlcular suspecL Lhe suspecL has been Laken
lnLo pollce
cusLody Lhe pollce carry ouL a process of lnLerrogaLlon LhaL Lend Lo ellclL
lncrlmlnaLlng
sLaLemenLs
Custod|a| Invest|gat|on
Any quesLlonlng lnlLlaLed by law enforcemenL offlcers afLer a person has
been
Laken lnLo cusLody or oLherwlse deprlved of hls freedom of acLlon ln any
slgnlflcanL way
lL shall lnclude Lhe pracLlce of lssulng lnvlLaLlon" Lo a person who ls
lnvesLlgaLed
ln connecLlon wlLh an offense he ls suspecLed Lo have commlLLed wlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo
Lhe llablllLy of Lhe lnvlLlng" offlcer for any vlolaLlon of Lhe law (kA 7438)
Peop/e vs Luqod 6 No 1l25l ebruory 21 2001 Lhe accused should
have been enLlLled Lo Mlranda rlghLs because even assumlng LhaL he was
noL yeL under
lnLerrogaLlon aL Lhe Llme he was broughL Lo Lhe pollce sLaLlon hls
confesslon was ellclLed
by a pollce offlcer who promlsed Lo help hlm lf he Lold Lhe LruLh
lurLhermore when he
allegedly polnLed ouL Lhe body of Lhe vlcLlm Lhe aLmosphere was hlghly
lnLlmldaLlng and
noL conduclve Lo a sponLaneous response as Lhe whole pollce force and
nearly 100
Lownspeople escorLed hlm Lhere noL havlng Lhe beneflL of counsel and
noL havlng been
lnformed of hls rlghLs Lhe confesslon ls lnadmlsslble
M|randa r|ghts
%Mirondo vs ritono l84 u5 4l)
x x x 1he prosecuLlon may noL use sLaLemenLs wheLher exculpaLory or
lnculpaLory
sLemmlng from cusLodlal lnLerrogaLlon of Lhe defendanL unless lL
demonsLraLes Lhe use of
loqe 977/12/2008 soyr
97
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
procedural safeguards effecLlve Lo secure Lhe prlvllege agalnsL self
lncrlmlnaLlons 8y cusLodlal
lnLerrogaLlon lL means quesLlonlng lnlLlaLed by law enforcemenL offlcers
afLer a person has been
Laken lnLo cusLody or oLherwlse deprlved of hls freedom of acLlon ln any
slgnlflcanL way As for
Lhe procedural safeguards Lo be employed unless oLher fully effecLlve
means are devlsed Lo
lnformed accusedpersons of Lhelr rlghL of sllence and Lo assure a
conLlnuous opporLunlLy Lo
exerclse lL Lhe followlng measures are requlred rlor Lo any quesLlonlng
Lhe person musL be
warned LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo remaln sllenL LhaL any sLaLemenL he does
make may be used as
evldence agalnsL hlm and LhaL he has a rlghL Lo Lhe presence of an
aLLorney elLher reLalned or
appolnLed 1he defendanL may walve effecLuaLlons of Lhese rlghLs
provlded Lhe walver ls made
volunLarlly knowlngly and lnLelllgenLly lf however he lndlcaLes ln any
manner and aL any sLage
of Lhe process LhaL he wlshes Lo consulL wlLh an aLLorney before speaklng
Lhere can be no
quesLlonlng Llkewlse lf Lhe lndlvldual ls alone and lndlcaLes ln any
manner LhaL he does noL
wlsh Lo be lnLerrogaLed Lhe pollce may noL quesLlon hlm 1he mere facL
LhaL he may have
answered some quesLlons or volunLeered some sLaLemenLs on hls own
does noL deprlve hlm of
Lhe rlghL Lo refraln from answerlng any furLher lnqulrles unLll he has
consulLed wlLh an aLLorney
and LhereafLer consenLs Lo be quesLloned
rApplles only from Lhe momenL Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer beglns Lo ask
quesLlons for Lhe
purpose of ellclLlng admlsslons confesslons or any lnformaLlon from Lhe
accused
Peop/e vs 8o/o/oy 6 No 140740 pri/ 12 2002 lL was held LhaL Lhls
guaranLee
does noL apply Lo sponLaneous sLaLemenL noL ellclLed Lhrough
quesLlonlng by Lhe
auLhorlLles buL glven ln an ordlnary manner whereby Lhe suspecL orally
admlLLed havlng
commlLLed Lhe offense nelLher can lL apply Lo admlsslons or confesslons
made by a
suspecL before he was placed under cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon ln Lhls case
Lhe narraLlon
before Lhe 8arangay CapLaln pr|or Lo cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon was
admlsslble ln
evldence buL noL Lhe admlsslons made before !udge ulcon lnasmuch as
Lhe
quesLlonlng by Lhe [udge was done after Lhe suspecL had been arresLed
and such
quesLlonlng already consLlLuLed cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon
k|ghts guaranteed
1 8lghL Lo remaln sllenL
2 8lghL Lo have a compeLenL and lndependenL counsel preferably of hls
own cholce
aL all sLages of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon
Independent and competent counse|wllllng Lo safeguard Lhe
consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of
Lhe accused
3 8lghL Lo be lnformed of such rlghLs
kat|ona|e
a Lo make hlm aware of lL
b Lo overcome Lhe lnherenL pressure o Lhe lnLerrogaLlng aLmosphere and
c Lo show Lhe lndlvldual LhaL hls lnLerrogaLors are prepared Lo recognlze
hls
prlvllege should he choose Lo lnvoke lL
4 8lghL Lo be provlded wlLh counsel lf Lhe person cannoL afford one
r1hese rlghLs cannoL be walves excepL ln wrlLlng and ln Lhe presence of
counsel lL ls noL
requlred ln a pollcellne up as Lhe laLLer ls noL parL of a cusLodlal lnquesL
loqe 987/12/2008 soyr
98
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 no LorLure force eLc whlch vlLlaLe free wlll shall be used
6 SecreL deLenLlon places are prohlblLed and
7 Confesslon/admlsslons obLalned ln vlolaLlon of rlghLs are lnadmlsslble ln
evldence
Ways of ldenLlfylng Lhe suspecLs uurlng CusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon
1 Showups (outofcourt |dent|f|cat|on)where Lhe suspecL alone ls
broughL face
Lo face wlLh Lhe wlLness for ldenLlflcaLlon
Peop/e vs scordio/ 6 Nos 1l89l4l5 lonuory 1 2002 Lhe accused
32


havlng become Lhe focus of aLLenLlon by Lhe pollce afLer he had been
polnLed Lo
by a cerLaln 8amle as Lhe posslble perpeLraLor of Lhe crlme lL was held
LhaL when
Lhe ouLofcourL ldenLlflcaLlon was conducLed by Lhe pollce Lhe accused
was
already under cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon
2 Mug shotswhere phoLographs are shown Lo Lhe wlLness Lo ldenLlfy
Lhe
suspecL and
3 o||ce L|ne upswhere a wlLness ldenLlfles Lhe suspecL from a group of
persons llned up for Lhe purpose lL ls noL consldered a parL of any
cusLodlal
lnquesL because lL ls conducLed before LhaL sLage of lnvesLlgaLlon ls
reached
%Peop/e vs 8rovo 6 No 1l552 November 22 1999) 1he process has
noL yeL shlfLed from Lhe lnvesLlgaLory Lo Lhe accusaLory sLage and lL ls
usually Lhe
wlLness or Lhe complalnanL who ls lnLerrogaLed and who glves a
sLaLemenL ln Lhe
course of Lhe llneup %Peop/e vs mestuto lu/y 12 2001)
lacLors ln 8esolvlng Lhe AdmlsslblllLy of and 8elylng on CuLofCourL
ldenLlflcaLlon of
SuspecLs 1C1ALI1 CI CIkCUMS1ANCLS 1LS1
1 1he wlLness' opporLunlLy Lo vlew Lhe crlmlnal aL Lhe Llme of Lhe crlme
2 1he wlLness' degree of aLLenLlon aL LhaL Llme
3 1he accuracy of any prlor descrlpLlon glven by Lhe wlLness
4 1he level of cerLalnLy demonsLraLed by Lhe wlLness aL Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon
3 1he lengLh of Llme beLween Lhe crlme and Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon and
6 1he suggesLlveness of Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon procedure
1wo (2) klnds of lnvolunLary or Coerced Confesslons
1 1hose whlch are Lhe producL of 3rd degree meLhods such as LorLure
force
vlolence LhreaL lnLlmldaLlon whlch are dealL wlLh ln paragraph 2 of
SecLlon 12
and
2 1hose whlch are glven wlLhouL Lhe beneflL of Mlranda warnlngs
Lxtra[ud|c|a| Confess|onsare presumed volunLary and ln Lhe absence
of
concluslve evldence showlng Lhe declaranL's consenL ln execuLlng Lhe
same has been
vlLlaLed such confesslon wlll be susLalned
1o be admlsslble lL musL be
1 volunLary
2 Made wlLh Lhe asslsLance of compeLenL and lndependenL counsel
loqe 997/12/2008 soyr
99
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 Lxpress and
4 ln wrlLlng
Invest|gat|ons not cons|dered custod|a| |nterrogat|on
1 1hose conducLed by an audlL examlner
2 1hose conducLed by Lhe CourL AdmlnlsLraLor
3 1hose conducLed by Lhe employer
rlor Lhe reason LhaL Lhese people are noL law enforcemenL offlcers
Powever ln Lhe case of Peop/e vs 5o/onqo 6 No 1l11l1 lune 21
2001 afLer an
audlL Lhe accused was summoned Lo appear before Lhe AsslsLanL
AccounLanL of
MeLro8ank and ln Lhe course of Lhe lnLervlew accused admlLLed havlng
lssued Lhe
sub[ecL cashler's checks wlLhouL any leglLlmaLe LransacLlon Lhe wrlLLen
confesslon was
held admlsslble ln evldence lnasmuch as Lhe lnLervlew dld noL consLlLuLe
cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlon
Lodiono vs Peop/e 6 No 14429l uecember 24 2002 Lhe counLer
affldavlL
submlLLed by Lhe respondenL durlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls
admlsslble because
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls noL parL of cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon 1he
lnLerrogaLlon by Lhe
pollce lf any would already have been ended aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng of
Lhe crlmlnal case
ln courL or ln Lhe publlc prosecuLor's offlce
Spontaneous statementsLhose ellclLed Lhrough quesLlonlng by law
enforcemenL
offlcers buL glven ln an ordlnary manner where Lhe appellanL verbally
admlLs Lo havlng
commlLLed Lhe offense are admlsslble %Peop/e vs 6ui//ermo 6 No
14778
lonuory 20 2004)
WAIVLk
lL musL be ln wrlLlng and made ln Lhe presence of Lhe counsel 1he burden
of
provlng LhaL Lhere was a valld walver resLs on Lhe prosecuLlon 1he
presumpLlon of
offlclal duLy has been regularly performed cannoL prevall over Lhe
presumpLlon of
lnnocence
WhaL may be walved?
1 8lghL Lo remaln sllenL
2 8lghL Lo counsel
Lxc|us|onary ku|e
Confesslon or admlsslon obLalned ln vlolaLlon of SecLlons 12 and 17 of
ArLlcle lll
shall be lnadmlsslble ln evldence
Iru|t of the po|sonous treeonce Lhe prlmary source ls shown Lo have
been lawfully
obLalned any secondary or derlvaLlve evldence derlved from lL ls
lnadmlsslble
Lvldence lllegally obLalned by Lhe SLaLe should noL be used Lo galn oLher
loqe 1007/12/2008 soyr
100
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
evldence because Lhe orlglnally obLalned evldence LalnLs all evldence
subsequenLly
obLalned
Sec 13 Art|c|e III
// persons except tose corqed wit offenses punisob/e by rec/usion
perpetuo wen evidence of qui/t is stronq so// before conviction be
boi/ob/e by
sufficient sureties or be re/eosed or recoqnitonce os moy be provided by
/ow
@e riqt to boi/ so// not be impoired even wen te privi/eqe of te writ
of
obeos corpus is suspended xcessive boi/ so// not be required
k|ght to 8a||
8a||Lhe securlLy glven for Lhe release of a person ln cusLody of Lhe law
furnlshed by
hlm or a bondsman condlLloned upon hls appearance before any courL as
may be
requlred
r 1he rlghL Lo ball may be lnvoked by any person once deLenLlon
commences even
lf no formal charges have yeL Lo be flled
r lL can avalled of by a person who ls ln cusLody of law or oLherwlse
deprlved of hls
llberLy
33


r Suspenslon of Lhe wrlL of Lhe prlvllege of obeos cotpos does noL
suspend Lhe
rlghL Lo ball
r Lven when Lhe accused has prevlously [umped ball sLlll he cannoL be
denled ball
before convlcLlon lf lL ls a maLLer of rlghL 1he remedy ls Lo lncrease Lhe
amounL of
ball
r 8lghL Lo ball has noL been recognlzed and ls noL avallable Lo Lhe mlllLary
SLandards for flxlng amounL of ball
1 llnanclal ablllLy of Lhe accused
2 naLure and clrcumsLances of Lhe offense
3 enalLy for Lhe offense charged
4 CharacLer and repuLaLlon of Lhe accused
3 Age and healLh of Lhe accused
6 WelghL of evldence agalnsL Lhe accused
7 robablllLy of appearance aL Lrlal
8 lorfelLure of oLher bonds by hlm
9 Pe was a fuglLlve from [usLlce when arresLed and
10endency of oLher cases where he ls also under ball
8a|| as a matter of r|ght
All persons ln cusLody shall be admlLLed Lo ball as a maLLer of rlghL wlLh
sufflclenL
sureLles or be released on recognlzance as prescrlbed by law
loqe 1017/12/2008 soyr
101
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 8efore or afLer convlcLlon by Lhe M1C and
2 8 efore conv|ct|on by Lhe 81C of an offense noL punlshable by deaLh
recluslon
perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL
3 1he evldence of gullL ls noL sLrong
8a|| when d|scret|onary
1 U pon conv|ct|on by Lhe 81C of an offense noL punlshable by deaLh
recluslon
perpeLua or llfe lmprlsonmenL Lhe courL on appllcaLlon may admlL Lhe
accused
Lo ball
2 1he courL ln lLs dlscreLlon may allow Lhe accused Lo conLlnue on
provlslonal
llberLy afLer Lhe same ball bond durlng Lhe perlod Lo appeal sub[ecL Lo Lhe
consenL
of Lhe bondsman
3 lf Lhe courL lmposed a penalLy of lmprlsonmenL exceed|ng 6 years but
not more
than 20 years Lhe accused shall be denled ball or hls ball prevlously
granLed
shall be cancelled upon showlng by Lhe followlng or oLher slmllar
clrcumsLances
a 1haL Lhe accused ls a recldlvlsL quaslrecldlvlsL or hablLual dellnquenL
or
has commlLLed Lhe crlme aggravaLed by Lhe clrcumsLance of teltetocloo
b 1haL Lhe accused ls found Lo have prevlously escaped from legal
conflnemenL evaded senLence or has vlolaLed Lhe condlLlons of hls ball
wlLhouL valld [usLlflcaLlon
c 1haL Lhe accused commlLLed Lhe offense whlle on probaLlon parole or
under condlLlonal pardon
d 1haL Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe accused or hls case lndlcaLes Lhe
probablllLy
of fllghL lf released on ball or
e 1haL Lhere ls undue rlsk LhaL durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe appeal Lhe
accused may commlL anoLher crlme
Jeter boi/ is o motter of riqt or discretionreasonable noLlce of
hearlng ls
requlred Lo be glven Lo Lhe prosecuLor or aL leasL he musL be asked for hls
recommendaLlon because ln flxlng Lhe amounL of ball Lhe [udge ls
requlred Lo Lake lnLo
accounL a number of facLors
When ba|| sha|| be den|ed
r no person regardless of Lhe sLage of Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlon shall be
admlLLed
Lo ball lf
a Charged wlLh caplLal offense or an offense punlshable by recluslon
perpeLua
or llfe lmprlsonmenL and
b Lvldence of gullL ls sLrong
r When Lhe accused ls charged wlLh an offense punlshable by recluslon
perpeLua
or hlgher a hearlng on Lhe moLlon for ball musL be conducLed by Lhe
[udge Lo
deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhe evldence of gullL ls sLrong
loqe 1027/12/2008 soyr
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r WlLhouL a hearlng Lhe [udge could noL posslbly asses Lhe welghL of Lhe
evldence
agalnsL Lhe accused before granLlng Lhe laLLer's appllcaLlon for ball
%ee te coses of Covetomeot of uA vs noo lotqoooo ooJ
Covetomeot of nooqkooq vs IoJqe Olollo%
Sec 14 Art|c|e III
%1) No person so// be e/d to onswer for o crimino/ offense witout due
process
of /ow
(2) ln o// crimino/ prosecutions te occused so// be presumed innocent
unti/ te
controry is proved ond so// enjoy te riqt to be eord by imse/f ond
counse/ to be informed of te noture ond couse of te occusotion
oqoinst
im to ove o speedy importio/ ond pub/ic trio/ to meet te witnesses
foce to
foce ond to ove compu/sory process to secure te ottendonce of
witnesses
ond te production of evidence in is beo/f nowever ofter
orroiqnment trio/
moy proceed notwitstondinq te obsence of te occused provided tot
e
os been du/y notified ond is foi/ure to oppeor is unjustifiob/e
k|ghts of the Accused
1 Crlmlnal due process
a CpporLunlLy Lo be heard ln courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon
b 1he accused musL proceed agalnsL under orderly processes of law
c Pe musL be glven noLlce and opporLunlLy Lo be heard and
d 1he [udgmenL rendered was wlLhln Lhe auLhorlLy of a consLlLuLlonal law
2 resumpLlon of lnnocence
Lvery clrcumsLance favorlng Lhe lnnocence of Lhe accused musL be Laken
lnLo accounL 1he proof agalnsL hlm musL noL be permlLLed Lo sway
[udgmenL and Lhe presumpLlon LhaL offlclal duLy was regularly performed
cannoL by lLself prevall over Lhe consLlLuLlonal presumpLlon of lnnocence
3 8lghL Lo be heard by hlmself and counsel
4 8lghL Lo be lnformed of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL
hlm
Cb[ect|ves
a 1o furnlsh Lhe accused wlLh such a descrlpLlon of Lhe charge agalnsL hlm
as wlll enable hlm Lo make Lhe defense
b 1o avall hlmself of hls convlcLlon or acqulLLal for proLecLlon agalnsL a
furLher prosecuLlon for Lhe same cause and
c 1o lnform Lhe courL of Lhe facLs alleged so LhaL lL may declde wheLher
Lhey
are sufflclenL ln law Lo supporL a convlcLlon lf one should be had
loqe 10J7/12/2008 soyr
34


103
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ruescrlpLlon noL deslgnaLlon of Lhe offense ls conLrolllng
Vo|dforVagueness ku|eLhe accused ls denled Lhe rlghL Lo be lnformed
of Lhe
charge agalnsL hlm and Lo due process as well where Lhe sLaLuLe lLself ls
couched ln such lndeflnlLe language LhaL lL ls noL posslble for men of
ordlnary
lnLelllgence Lo deLermlne Lherefrom whaL acLs or omlsslons are punlshed
and
hence shall be avolded
strodo vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 14850 November 19 2001 every
leglslaLlve measure ls presumed consLlLuLlonal eLlLloner falled Lo
dlscharge Lhe
burden Lo overcome Lhe presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy
3 8lghL Lo speedy lmparLlal and publlc Lrlal
Impart|a|Lhe [udge musL noL be blas and noL moLlvaLed by mallce or bad
falLh
6 8lghL Lo meeL wlLness face Lo face
WlLnesses noL submlLLed for crossexamlnaLlon are noL admlsslble as
evldence
Powever rlghL Lo crossexamlnaLlon may be walved
7 8lghL Lo compulsory process Lo secure aLLendance of wlLnesses and
producLlon
of evldence
8 1rlal ln AbsenLla
r AfLer arralgnmenL
r uue noLlce and
r Absence ls un[usLlfled
|ea of gu||t to a cap|ta| offense
1 1here musL be searchlng lnqulry lnLo Lhe volunLarlness of Lhe plea and
Lhe full
comprehenslon of Lhe consequences Lhereof
2 resenLaLlon of evldence Lo prove Lhe gullL of Lhe accused and Lhe
preclse degree
of hls culpablllLy
3 1he accused musL be asked lf he deslre Lo presenL evldence on hls
behalf and
allow hlm Lo do so lf he so deslres
Sec 1S Art|c|e III
@e privi/eqe of te writ of obeos corpus so// not be suspended except
in coses
of invosion or rebe//ion wen te pub/ic sofety requires
(ke|ate th|s to Sect|on 18 Art|c|e VII)
loqe 1047/12/2008 soyr
104
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Wr|t of habeas corpus
A wrlL lssued by Lhe courL dlrecLed Lo a person deLalnlng anoLher
commandlng
hlm Lo produce Lhe body of Lhe prlsoner aL deslgnaLed Llme and place
wlLh Lhe day and
cause of hls capLure and deLenLlon Lo do Lo submlL Lo and Lo recelve
whaLever courL or
[udge awardlng wrlL shall conslder ln hls behalf
lL lles only where Lhe resLralnL of a person's llberLy has been [udlclally
ad[udged Lo
be lllegal or unlawful
A peLlLlon for obeos cotpos wlll be glven due course only lf lL shows LhaL
peLlLloner ls belng deLalned or resLralned of hls llberLy unlawfully A
resLrlcLlve cusLody
and monlLorlng of movemenLs or whereabouLs of pollce offlcers under
lnvesLlgaLlon by
Lhelr superlors ls noL a form of lllegal deLenLlon or resLralnL of llberLy
%5P02 Mono/o vs
PNP ief o/deron 6 No 178920 October 15 2007)
Sec 16 Art|c|e III
// persons so// ove te riqt to o speedy disposition of teir coses
before o//
judicio/ quosijudicio/ or odministrotive bodies
nriquet vs Office of te Ombudsmon 6 No 1749020 ebruory 15
2008
Lhls rlghL llke Lhe rlghL Lo a speedy Lrlal ls deemed vlolaLed when Lhe
proceedlngs are
aLLended by vexaLlous caprlclous and oppresslve delays
1he concepL of speedy dlsposlLlon of cases ls relaLlve or flexlble A slmple
maLhemaLlcal compuLaLlon of Lhe Llme lnvolved ls lnsufflclenL 1he facLs
and
clrcumsLances pecullar Lo each case musL be examlned ln ascerLalnlng
wheLher Lhe
rlghL Lo a speedy dlsposlLlon of cases has been vlolaLed Lhe followlng
facLors musL be
consldered
1 1he lengLh of delay
2 1he reasons for Lhe delay
3 1he asserLlon or fallure Lo asserL such rlghL by Lhe accused and
4 1he pre[udlce caused by Lhe delay %@i/endo vs Ombudsmon ond
5ondiqonboyon 6 No 15975 5eptember 1l 2007)
Sec 17 Art|c|e III
No person so// be compe//ed to be o witness oqoinst imse/f
k|ght aga|nst se|f|ncr|m|nat|on
AvallablllLy
rnoL only ln crlmlnal prosecuLlons buL also ln all oLher governmenL
proceedlngs
loqe 1057/12/2008 soyr
103
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lncludlng clvll acLlons and admlnlsLraLlve or leglslaLlve lnvesLlgaLlons
rMay be clalmed noL only by accused buL by any wlLness Lo whom an
lncrlmlnaLlng quesLlon ls addressed
Scope
lL applles only agalnsL LesLlmonlal compulslon and producLlon of
documenLs
papers and chaLLels ln courL except when books of accounL are Lo be
examlned ln
exerclse of power of LaxaLlon and pollce power
1wo (2) Lypes of lmmunlLy SLaLuLes
1 @toosoctloool lmmoolty tototeLesLlmony of any person or whose
possesslon
of documenLs or oLher evldence necessary or convenlenL Lo deLermlne Lhe
LruLh ln
any lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed ls lmmune from crlmlnal prosecuLlon for an
offense
Lo whlch such compelled LesLlmony relaLes and
2 use lmmoolty tototeprohlblLs Lhe use of a wlLness' compelled
LesLlmony and
lLs frulLs ln any manner ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe crlmlnal prosecuLlon of Lhe
wlLness
Sec 18 Art|c|e III
%1) No person so// be detoined so/e/y by reoson of is po/itico/ be/iefs
ond
ospirotions
%2) No invo/untory servitude in ony form so// exist except os o
punisment for o
crime wereof te porty so// ove been du/y convicted
k|ght aga|nst Invo|untary Serv|tude
33


lL ls a condlLlon where one ls compelled by force coerclon or
lmprlsonmenL and
agalnsL hls wlll Lo labor for anoLher wheLher he ls pald or noL
Genera| ku|e no lnvolunLary servlLude shall exlsL
Lxcept|ons
1 As punlshmenL for a crlme whereof one has been duly convlcLed
2 Servlce ln defense of Lhe SLaLe
3 naval enllsLmenL
4 losse commltotos
3 8eLurn Lo work order ln lndusLrles affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL and
6 lottlo potestos
Sec 19 Art|c|e III
%1) xcessive fines so// not be imposed nor crue/ deqrodinq or inumon
punisment inf/icted Neiter so// deot peno/ty be imposed un/ess for
compe//inq reosons invo/vinq einous crimes te onqress ereofter
loqe 107/12/2008 soyr
106
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
provides for it ny deot peno/ty o/reody imposed so// be reduced to
rec/usion perpetuo
%2) @e emp/oyment of pysico/ psyco/oqico/ or deqrodinq punisment
oqoinst
ony prisoner or detoinee or te use of substondord or inodequote peno/
foci/ities under subumon conditions so// be deo/t wit by /ow
roh|b|ted un|shments
Mere severlLy does noL consLlLuLe cruel or unusual punlshmenL 1o vlolaLe
consLlLuLlonal guaranLee penalLy musL be flagranL and plalnly oppresslve
dlsproporLlonaLe Lo naLure of offense as Lo shock senses of communlLy
Sec 20 Art|c|e III
No person so// be imprisoned for debt or nonpoyment of o po// tox
Coverage
1 uebLany clvll obllgaLlon arlslng from conLracL
2 oll Laxa speclflc sum levled upon any person belonglng Lo a cerLaln
class
wlLhouL regard Lo properLy or occupaLlon
rA Lax ls noL a debL slnce lL ls an obllgaLlon arlslng from law hence lLs non
paymenL
may be valldly punlshed wlLh lmprlsonmenL
Sec 21 Art|c|e III
No person so// be twice put in jeopordy of punisment for te some
offense lf
on oct is punised by o /ow ond on ordinonce conviction or ocquitto/
under eiter
so// constitute o bor to onoter prosecution for te some oct
k|ght aga|nst Doub|e Ieopardy
8equlslLes
1 A valld complalnL or lnformaLlon
2 llled before compeLenL courL
3 1o whlch defendanL has pleaded and
4 uefendanL was prevlously acqulLLed or convlcLed or Lhe case dlsmlssed
or
oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL hls express consenL
1wo (2) Lypes
1 no person shall be Lwlce puL ln [eopardy of punlshmenL for Lhe same
offense
2 lf an acL ls punlshed by a law and an ordlnance convlcLlon or acqulLLal
under
elLher shall consLlLuLe a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe same acL
1o subsLanLlaLe a clalm of double [eopardy Lhe followlng musL be proven
1 A flrsL [eopardy musL have aLLached prlor Lo Lhe second
2 1he second [eopardy musL be for Lhe same offense or Lhe second
offense
lncludes or ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense charged ln Lhe flrsL
loqe 1077/12/2008 soyr
107
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lnformaLlon or ls an aLLempL Lo commlL Lhe same or ls a frusLraLlon
Lhereof
Lega| Ieopardy Attaches Cn|y
1 upon a valld lndlcLmenL
2 8efore a compeLenL courL
3 AfLer arralgnmenL
4 When a valld plea has been enLered and
3 1he case was dlsmlssed or oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL Lhe express
consenL of
Lhe accused
Genera| ku|e ulsmlssal of acLlon when made aL Lhe lnsLance of Lhe
accused does noL
puL Lhe accused ln flrsL [eopardy
Lxcept|ons
1 When ground for dlsmlssal ls lnsufflclency of evldence or
2 When Lhe proceedlngs have been unreasonably prolonged as Lo vlolaLe
Lhe rlghL
of Lhe accused of a speedy Lrlal
Cr|mes covered
1 Same offense or aLLempL Lo commlL or frusLraLlon Lhereof or for any
offense
whlch necessarlly lncludes or ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe offense charged
ln
orlglnal complalnL or lnformaLlon and
2 When an acL ls punlshable by a law and an ordlnance convlcLlon or
acqulLLal
under elLher shall bar anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe same acL
Doctr|ne of Superven|ng LventprosecuLlon for anoLher offense lf
subsequenL
developmenL changes Lhe characLer of Lhe flrsL lndlcLmenL under whlch he
may have
already been charged or convlcLed
ConvlcLlon of accused shall noL bar anoLher prosecuLlon for an offense
whlch
necessarlly lncludes Lhe offense orlglnally charged when
1 Craver offense developed due Lo supervenlng facLs arlslng from Lhe
same acL
or omlsslon
2 lacLs consLlLuLlng graver offense arose or dlscovered only afLer flllng of
former complalnL or lnformaLlon and
3 lea of gullLy Lo lesser offense was made wlLhouL Lhe consenL of
prosecuLor or
offended parLy
obo vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 19509 lune 1 200 for double
[eopardy Lo
aLLach Lhe case agalnsL Lhe accused musL have been dlsmlssed or
oLherwlse
LermlnaLed wlLhouL hls express consenL by a courL of compeLenL
[urlsdlcLlon upon a valld
lnformaLlon sufflclenL ln form and subsLance and Lhe accused pleaded Lo
Lhe sald
charge
loqe 1087/12/2008 soyr
108
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Peop/e vs Per/ito l @rio@irono et o/ 6 No 1l010 lu/y 15 200
afLer Lrlal on
Lhe merlLs an acqulLLal ls lmmedlaLely flnal and cannoL be appealed on
Lhe ground of
36


double [eopardy 1he only excepLlon where double [eopardy cannoL be
lnvoked ls where
Lhere ls flndlng of mlsLrlal resulLlng ln a denlal of due process
Sec 22 Art|c|e III
No expost focto /ow or bi// of ottoinder so// be enocted
k|ght aga|nst xPost octo Law and 8||| of Atta|nder
xPost octo Law
1he equlvalenL of Lhe lmpalrmenL clause ln crlmlnal maLLers ls Lhe
prohlblLlon
agalnsL Lhe passage of Lhe ex post focto law 1hls ls because Lhe ex post
focto law llke
Lhe law lmpalrlng Lhe obllgaLlon of Lhe conLracLs operaLes reLroacLlvely Lo
affecL
anLecedenL acLs A law can never be consldered ex post focto as long as lL
operaLes
prospecLlvely slnce lLs sLrucLures would cover only offenses commlLLed
after and noL
before lLs enacLmenL 8aslcally an ex post focto law ls one LhaL would
make a prevlous
acL crlmlnal alLhough lL was noL so aL Lhe Llme lL was commlLLed
klnds
1 Law crlmlnallzlng acL done before lLs passage
rLxample A law passed ln 1990 ralslng Lhe age of seducLlon from 18 Lo 23
years effecLlve 1980
2 Law aggravaLlng penalLy for crlme commlLLed before passage
rLxample A law passed ln 2000 deslgnaLlng Lhe crlme of homlclde
Lhrough
reckless lmprudence as murder effecLlve 1990
3 Law LhaL changes punlshmenL and lnfllcLs greaLer or more severe
punlshmenL
Lhan Lhe law annexed Lo Lhe crlme when commlLLed
rLxample A law passed ln 2000 lncreaslng Lhe penalLy for llbel from
ptlsloo
cotteccloool Lo ptlsloo moyot effecLlve 1990
4 Law alLerlng legal rules of evldence and recelves less or dlfferenL
LesLlmony Lhan
law requlred aL Lhe Llme of commlsslon ln order Lo convlcL accused
rLxample A law passed ln 2000 requlrlng for convlcLlon merely
preponderance
of evldence lnsLead of proof beyond reasonable doubL effecLlve 1990
3 Law assumlng Lo regulaLe clvll rlghLs and remedles only ln effecL
lmposes a
penalLy of deprlvaLlon of rlghL for someLhlng whlch when done was lawful
and
rLxample A law passed ln 2000 deprlvlng professlonals of Lhe rlghL Lo
pracLlce
for fallure or refusal Lo voLe effecLlve 1990
6 Law deprlvlng accused of some lawful proLecLlon Lo whlch he had been
enLlLled
such a proLecLlon of a former convlcLlon or acqulLLal or of a proclamaLlon
of
amnesLy
loqe 1097/12/2008 soyr
109
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rLxample A law passed ln 2000 lengLhenlng Lhe perlod for prescrlpLlon of
blackmall from 3 Lo 10 years effecLlve 1990
CharacLerlsLlcs
1 lL refers Lo crlmlnal maLLers
2 lL ls reLroacLlve ln appllcaLlon and
3 lL works Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe accused
ln Lhe case of u5 vs 6omet o/one/ 12 Pi/ 279 an lnformaLlon for
adulLery
flled by Lhe prosecuLor was dlsmlssed by Lhe SC on Lhe ground LhaL aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe
alleged commlsslon of Lhe offense prosecuLlon could be commenced only
on complalnL
of Lhe offended spouse lL was held LhaL Lhe amendaLory law permlLLlng
Lhe prosecuLor Lo
lnlLlaLe Lhe charge was ex post focto
8||| of Atta|nder
% lL ls a leglslaLlve acL LhaL lnfllcLs punlshmenL wlLhouL Lrlal
% lL ls a leglslaLlve declaraLlon of gullL
% LssenLlal
1 SpeclflcaLlon of cerLaln lndlvlduals or a group of lndlvlduals
2 1he lmposlLlon of a punlshmenL penal or oLherwlse and
3 Lack of [udlclal Lrlal
lL subsLlLuLe leglslaLlve flaL for a [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of gullL 1hus lL ls
only
when a sLaLuLe applles elLher Lo named lndlvlduals or Lo easlly
ascerLalnable members
of a group ln such a way as Lo lnfllcL punlshmenL on Lhem wlLhouL [udlclal
Lrlal LhaL lL
becomes a blll of aLLalnder
Art|c|e IV
CI1I2LNSnI
C|t|zensh|p ls membershlp ln a pollLlcal communlLy whlch ls personal and
more
or less permanenL ln characLer
Nat|ona||ty ls membershlp ln any class or form of pollLlcal communlLy
1hus
naLlonals may be clLlzens lf member of a democraLlc communlLy or
sub[ecLs lf
members of a monarchlal communlLy lL does noL necessarlly lnclude Lhe
rlghL or
prlvllege of exerclslng pollLlcal and clvll rlghLs
Usua| modes of acqu|r|ng c|t|zensh|p
a 8y 8lrLh
l !us sangulnlsby blood
loqe 1107/12/2008 soyr
110
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ll !us sollby blrLh
b 8y naLurallzaLlon
c 8y Marrlage
1he hlllpplne law on clLlzenshlp adheres Lo Lhe prlnclple of lu5
5N6ulNl5
1hereunder a chlld follows Lhe naLlonallLy or clLlzenshlp of Lhe parenLs
regardless of Lhe
place of hls blrLh as opposed Lo Lhe docLrlne of lu5 5OLl whlch
deLermlnes Lhe
naLlonallLy or clLlzenshlp on Lhe basls of place of blrLh %vo//es vs
OML ll7
5 54l)
Modes (by b|rth) app||ed |n the h|||pp|nes
A 8 efore Lhe adopLlon of Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon
| Ios ooqolols All lnhablLanLs of Lhe lslands who were Spanlsh sub[ecLs
on
Aprll 11 1899 and resldlng ln Lhe lslands who dld noL declare Lhelr
lnLenLlon of preservlng Spanlsh naLlonallLy beLween sald daLe and CcLober
11 1900 were declared clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes Sec 4 hlllpplne 8lll
of 1902 Sec 2 !ones Law of 1916 and Lhelr chlldren born afLer Aprll 11
1899 (en mosse I|||p|n|zat|on)
|| Ios oll 1hose declared as llllplno clLlzens by Lhe courLs are recognlzed
as such Loday noL because of Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe jos soll prlnclple buL
prlnclpally because of Lhe docLrlne of tes joJlcoto
8 A fLer Lhe adopLlon of Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon Cnly Lhe Ios ooqolols
docLrlne
Sect|on 1 Art|c|e IV 1he followlng are clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
37


1 1hose who are clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes aL Lhe Llme of Lhe adopLlon of
Lhls
ConsLlLuLlon (lebruary 2 1987)
2 1hose whose faLhers or moLhers are clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes %jos
sooqolols%
3 1hose born before !anuary 17 1973 of llllplno moLhers who elecL
hlllpplne
clLlzenshlp upon reachlng Lhe age of ma[orlLy
4 1hose who are naLurallzed ln accordance wlLh law
Sect|on 2 Art|c|e IV Natura|born c|t|zens are Lhose who are clLlzens of
Lhe
hlllpplnes from blrLh wlLhouL havlng Lo perform any acL Lo acqulre or
perfecL Lhelr
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp 1hose who elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ln accordance
wlLh
paragraph (3) SecLlon 1 hereof shall be deemed naLuralborn clLlzens
kosolloJ bosco lopez wos boto oo Moy 1 19J4 lo Aosttollo to spooses
@elesfoto bosco o lllploo cltlzeo ooJ ootlve of uoet comotloes -otte
ooJ @eteso
Motpoez oo Aosttolloo ls se o lllploo cltlzeo ooJ tetefote poollfleJ to
too fot
Covetoot of et ptovloce?
loqe 1117/12/2008 soyr
111
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rPlsLorlcally she was born a year before Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon Look lnLo
effecL
and aL LhaL Llme whaL served as Lhe ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe hlllpplnes were
Lhe organlc
acLs by whlch Lhe uS governed Lhe counLry 1hese were Lhe hlllpplne 8lll
of !uly 1
1902 and Lhe hlllpplne AuLonomy AcL of AugusL 29 1916 also known as
Lhe !ones
Law
1hese laws deflned who were deemed Lo be clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplne
lslands
xxx under boLh organlc acLs all lnhablLanLs of Lhe hlllpplnes who were
Spanlsh
sub[ecLs on Aprll 11 1899 and reslded Lhereln lncludlng Lhelr chlldren are
deemed Lo be
hlllpplne clLlzens rlvaLe respondenL's faLher 1elesforo was born on
!anuary 3 1879
ln uaeL Camarlnes norLe a facL duly evldenced by a cerLlfled Lrue copy of
an enLry ln
Lhe reglsLry of 8lrLhs 1hus under Lhe hlllpplne 8lll of 1902 and Lhe !ones
Law
1elesforo ?basco was deemed Lo be a hlllpplne clLlzen 8y vlrLue of Lhe
same laws
whlch were Lhe law ln force aL Lhe Llme of her blrLh 8osallnd ?basco
Lopez ls llkewlse a
clLlzen of Lhe hlllpplnes
1he slgnlng lnLo law of Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon has esLabllshed Lhe prlnclple
of jos
sooqolols as basls for Lhe acqulslLlon of hlllpplne clLlzenshlp xxx 1hls
prlnclple confers
clLlzenshlp by vlrLue of blood relaLlonshlp lL was subsequenLly reLalned
under Lhe 1973
and 1987 ConsLlLuLlons
1hus hereln prlvaLe respondenL 8osallnd ?basco Lopez ls a llllplno
clLlzen
havlng been born Lo a llllplno faLher 1he facL of her belng born ln
AusLralla ls noL
LanLamounL Lo her loslng her hlllpplne clLlzenshlp lf AusLralla follows Lhe
prlnclple of
jos soll Lhen aL mosL prlvaLe respondenL can also clalm AusLrallan
clLlzenshlp resulLlng
Lo her possesslon of dual clLlzenshlp %vo//es vs OML ll7 5 54l
uqust
9 2000)
Morio leonette @ecson vs OML 6 No 114l4 Morc l 2004 (on
Lhe
conLroversy surroundlng Lhe clLlzenshlp of l!) 1he CourL Look noLe of
Lhe facL LhaL
Lorenzo ou (grandfaLher of l!) who dled ln 1934 aL Lhe age of 84 years
of age
would have been born someLlme ln 1870 when Lhe hlllpplnes was under
Lhe Spanlsh
rule and LhaL San Carlos pangaslnan hls place of resldence upon hls
deaLh ln 1934 ln
Lhe absence of any oLher evldence could have well been hls place of
resldence before
deaLh such LhaL Lorenzo ou would have beneflLed from Lhe eo mosse
llllplnlzaLlon"
LhaL Lhe hlllpplne 8lll of 1902 effecLed 1haL llllplno clLlzenshlp of
Lorenzo ou lf
acqulred would Lhereby exLend Lo hls son Allan l oe (faLher of l!) 1he
193S
Const|tut|on dur|ng wh|ch reg|me II has seen f|rst ||ght confers
c|t|zensh|p to
a|| persons whose fathers are I|||p|no c|t|zens regard|ess of whether such
ch||dren are |eg|t|mate or |||eg|t|mate
Marr|age by I|||p|no to an a||en "cltlzeos of te llllpploes wo motty
olleos soll
tetolo telt cltlzeoslp ooless by telt oct ot omlssloo tey ote JeemeJ
ooJet te low
to ove teooooceJ lt Sec4 ArL lv
loqe 1127/12/2008 soyr
112
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
e pp/icotion for dmission to te Pi/ippine 8or vicente u inq 8or
Motter
No 914 October 1 1999 vlcenLe Chlng a leglLlmaLe chlld havlng been
born on
Aprll 11 1964 of llllplno moLher and an allen faLher was already 33 years
old when he
complled wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of CA 623 on !une 13 1999 or over 14
years afLer he
had reached Lhe age of ma[orlLy 8y any reasonable yardsLlck Chlng's
elecLlon was
clearly beyond Lhe allowable perlod wlLhln whlch Lo exerclse Lhe prlvllege
All hls acLs
(passlng Lhe CA and 8ar Lxams) cannoL vesL ln hlm clLlzenshlp as Lhe law
glves hlm
Lhe requlremenL for elecLlon of llllplno clLlzenshlp whlch he dld noL
comply wlLh (Pe was
noL allowed Lo Lake Lhe Lawyer's CaLh)
1he proper perlod for elecLlng hlllpplne clLlzenshlp was ln Lurn based on
Lhe
pronouncemenLs of Lhe ueparLmenL of SLaLe of Lhe uS governmenL Lo Lhe
effecL LhaL Lhe
elecLlon should be made wlLhln a reasonable Llme" afLer aLLalnlng Lhe
age of ma[orlLy
1he phrase reasonable Llme" has been lnLerpreLed Lo mean LhaL Lhe
elecLlon should be
made wlLhln Lhree (3) years from reachlng Lhe age of ma[orlLy except
when Lhere ls
[usLlflable reason Lo delay
1he span of 14 years LhaL lapsed from Lhe Llme he reached 21 unLll he
flnally
38


expressed hls lnLenLlon Lo elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ls clearly way
beyond Lhe
conLemplaLlon of Lhe requlremenL of elecLlng upon reachlng Lhe age of
ma[orlLy"
(lf hls parenLs were noL marrled he wlll follow Lhe clLlzenshlp of hls
moLher and he need noL elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp )rr
orom provision 1hose born ln Lhe hlllpplnes of forelgn parenLs who
before Lhe
adopLlon of Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon had been elecLed Lo publlc offlce ln Lhe
lslands are
consldered clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes ln ionqbion vs de Leon Lhe SC
held LhaL Lhe
rlghL acqulred by vlrLue of Lhls provlslon ls Lransmlsslble
8e 1973 ConsLlLuLlon @ose wose motets ote cltlzeos of te llllpploes
rovlslon ls
prospecLlve ln appllcaLlon Lo beneflL only Lhose born on or afLer !anuary
17 1973 (daLe
of effecLlvlLy of 1973 ConsLlLuLlon)
r lf born before !anuary 17 1973 of llllplno moLhers Lhe person musL
elecL hlllpplne
clLlzenshlp upon reachlng Lhe age of ma[orlLy W|th|n reasonab|e t|me3
years except
when Lhere ls [usLlflable reason Lo delay
rocedure for e|ect|on of h|||pp|ne c|t|zensh|p
1 LlecLlon ls expressed |n a statement Lo be s|gned and sworn Lo by Lhe
parLy
concerned before any offlclal auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs
2 SLaLemenL Lo be f||ed wlLh Lhe nearesL Clvll 8eglsLry accompan|ed w|th
the
Cath of A||eg|ance Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe
hlllpplnes
Sec 1 CA 623
@ose wose fotets ot motets ote cltlzeos of te llllpploes
rospecLlve
appllcaLlon conslsLenL wlLh Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon
loqe 11J7/12/2008 soyr
113
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r1he rlghL Lo elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ls an lnchoaLe rlghL durlng hls
mlnorlLy Lhe
chlld ls an allen vi//oermoso vs ommissioner of lmmiqrotion 80 Pi/
541
r1he consLlLuLlonal and sLaLuLory requlremenLs of elecLlng llllplno
clLlzenshlp apply only
Lo leglLlmaLe chlldren ln epub/ic vs u/e Lim 6 No 15l88l lonuory
1l 2004
lL was held LhaL Lhe respondenL who was concededly an llleglLlmaLe chlld
conslderlng
LhaL her Chlnese faLher and llllplno moLher were never marrled ls noL
requlred Lo
comply wlLh sald consLlLuLlonal and sLaLuLory requlremenLs 8elng an
llleglLlmaLe chlld of
a llllplno moLher respondenL became a llllplno upon blrLh 8ecord shows
LhaL
respondenL elecLed llllplno clLlzenshlp when she reached Lhe age of
ma[orlLy She
reglsLered as a voLer ln Mlsamls CrlenLal when she was 18 years old @e
exetclse of
te tlqt of sofftoqe ooJ te pottlclpotloo lo electloo exetclses coostltote o
posltlve oct
of electloq llllpploe cltlzeoslp
Natura||zed c|t|zens are Lhose who have become llllplno clLlzens Lhrough
naLurallzaLlon generally under CA no 473 oLherwlse known as Lhe
8evlsed
naLurallzaLlon Law whlch repealed Lhe former naLurallzaLlon Law (AcL no
2927) and
by 8A 330
1o be naLurallzed an appllcanL has Lo prove LhaL he possesses all Lhe
quallflcaLlons and
none of Lhe dlsquallflcaLlons provlded by law Lo become a llllplno clLlzen
1he declslon
granLlng hlllpplne clLlzenshlp becomes execuLor only afLer 2 years from
lLs
promulgaLlon when Lhe courL ls saLlsfled LhaL durlng Lhe lnLervenlng
perlod Lhe appllcanL
1 Pas noL lefL Lhe hlllpplnes
2 Pas dedlcaLed hlmself Lo a lawful calllng or professlon
3 Pas noL been convlcLed of any offense or vlolaLlon of governmenL
promulgaLed rules or
4 Pas noL commlLLed any acL pre[udlclal Lo Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe naLlon or
conLrary
Lo any governmenL announced pollcles Sec 1 8A 330 %8enqton lll vs
n@ 6 No 142840 moy 7 2001)
ua||f|cat|ons that must be possessed by an app||cant
1 Pe musL be noL less Lhan 21 years of age on Lhe day of Lhe hearlng of
peLlLlon
2 Pe musL have reslded ln Lhe hlllpplnes for a conLlnuous perlod of noL
less Lhan
10 years may be reduced Lo 3 years lf
a he honorably held offlce ln CovernmenL
b Pe esLabllshed a new lndusLry or lnLroduced a useful lnvenLlon ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
c Pe ls marrled Lo a llllplno woman
d Pas been engaged as a Leacher ln Lhe hlllpplnes (ln a publlc or prlvaLe
school noL esLabllshed for Lhe excluslve lnsLrucLlon of persons of a
parLlcular naLlonallLy or race) or ln any of Lhe branches of educaLlon or
lndusLry for a perlod of noL less Lhan 2 year or
loqe 1147/12/2008 soyr
114
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
e Pe was born ln Lhe hlllpplnes
3 Pe musL be of CMC and belleves ln Lhe prlnclples underlylng Lhe
hlllpplne
ConsLlLuLlon and musL have conducLed hlmself ln a proper and
lrreproachable
manner durlng Lhe enLlre perlod of hls resldence ln Lhe hlllpplnes ln hls
relaLlon
wlLh Lhe consLlLuLed governmenL as well as wlLh Lhe communlLy ln whlch
he ls
llvlng
4 Pe musL own real esLaLe ln Lhe hlllpplnes worLh noL less Lhan
300000
hlllpplne currency or musL have some known lucraLlve Lrade professlon
or
lawful occupaLlon
3 Pe musL be able Lo wrlLe and speak Lngllsh or Spanlsh and any of Lhe
prlnclpal
languages and
6 Pe musL have enrolled hls mlnor chlldren of school age ln any of Lhe
publlc
schools or prlvaLe schools recognlzed by Lhe 8ureau of prlvaLe Schools of
Lhe
hlllpplnes where hlllpplne hlsLory governmenL and clvlc are LaughL or
prescrlbed as parL of Lhe school currlculum durlng Lhe enLlre perlod of Lhe
resldence ln Lhe hlllpplnes requlred of hlm prlor Lo Lhe hearlng of hls
peLlLlon for
naLurallzaLlon as llllplno clLlzen %8enqton lll vs n@ 6 No 142840
moy
7 2001)
39


D|squa||f|cat|ons
1 1hose opposed Lo organlzed governmenL or afflllaLed wlLh any
assoclaLlon or
group of persons who uphold and Leach docLrlnes opposlng all organlzed
governmenLs
2 1hose defendlng or Leachlng Lhe necesslLy or proprleLy of vlolence
personal
assaulL or assasslnaLlon for Lhe success of predomlnance of Lhelr ldeas
3 olygamlsLs or bellevers of polygamy
4 1hose convlcLed of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude
3 1hose sufferlng from menLal allenaLlon or lncurable conLaglous dlsease
6 1hose who durlng Lhe perlod of Lhelr resldence ln Lhe hlllpplnes have
noL
mlngled soclally wlLh Lhe llllplnos or who have noL evlnced a slncere
deslre Lo
learn and embrace Lhe cusLoms LradlLlons and ldeals of llllplnos
7 1hose clLlzens or sub[ecLs of naLlons wlLh whom Lhe hlllpplnes ls aL
war durlng
Lhe perlod of such war
8 1hose clLlzens or sub[ecLs of a forelgn counLry whose laws do noL granL
llllplnos
Lhe rlghL Lo become naLurallzed clLlzens or sub[ecLs Lhereof
rocedure
1 llllng of declaraLlon of lnLenLlon 1 year prlor Lo Lhe flllng of Lhe eLlLlon
wlLh Lhe
CSC
ersons exempt from f|||ng dec|arat|on of |ntent|on
a 1hose born ln Lhe hlllpplnes and recelved Lhelr prlmary and secondary
educaLlon ln publlc or prlvaLe schools recognlzed by Lhe CovernmenL and
noL llmlLed Lo any race or naLlonallLy
loqe 1157/12/2008 soyr
113
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
b 1hose reslded ln Lhe hlllpplnes for 30 years or more before Lhe flllng of
Lhe peLlLlon and enrolled Lhelr chlldren ln elemenLary and PS recognlzed
by Lhe governmenL and noL llmlLed Lo any race or naLlonallLy
c 1hose wldows and mlnor chlldren of allens who have declared Lhelr
lnLenLlon Lo become clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes and dle before Lhey are
acLually naLurallzed
2 llllng of Lhe eLlLlon accompanled by Lhe affldavlL of 2 credlble
persons clLlzens
of Lhe hlllpplnes who personally know Lhe peLlLloner as characLer
wlLness
3 ubllcaLlon of Lhe eLlLlon ln Lhe CC or ln a newspaper of general
clrculaLlon
once a week for 3 consecuLlve weeks lallure Lo comply ls faLal %Po o 8i
vs
epub/ic 205 5 400)
4 AcLual resldence ln Lhe hlllpplnes durlng Lhe enLlre proceedlngs
3 Pearlng of Lhe eLlLlon
6 romulgaLlon of Lhe declslon
7 Pearlng afLer 2 years uurlng Lhe 2year probaLlon perlod appllcanL has
a noL lefL Lhe hlllpplnes
b uedlcaLed hlmself conLlnuously Lo a lawful calllng or professlon
c noL been convlcLed of any offense or vlolaLlon of rules and
d noL commlLLed an acL pre[udlclal Lo Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe naLlon or
conLrary Lo any
governmenLannounced pollcles
8 CaLh Laklng and lssuance of CerLlflcaLe of naLurallzaLlon
Modes of Natura||zat|on
1 u l8LC1 Lhrough
d !udlclal or admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs eg kA 9139 1he Adm|n|strat|ve
Natura||zat|on Law of 2000granLs hlllpplne clLlzenshlp Lo allens born
and resldlng ln Lhe hlllpplnes
e Speclal acL of leglslaLure Lhls ls dlscreLlonary on Congress usually
conferred on an allen who has made an ouLsLandlng conLrlbuLlon Lo Lhe
counLry
f CollecLlve change of naLlonallLy as a resulL of cessaLlon or sub[ugaLlon
g Some cases by adopLlon of orphan mlnors as naLlonals of Lhe SLaLe
where Lhey are born
2 u L8lvA1lvLClLlzenshlp conferred on
a Wlfe of naLurallzed husband
b Mlnor chlldren of naLurallzed person
c Allen woman upon marrlage Lo a naLlonal
loqe 117/12/2008 soyr
116
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
dison 5o vs P 6 No 1700l lonuory 29 2007naLurallzaLlon
slgnlfles Lhe
acL of formally adopLlng a forelgner lnLo Lhe pollLlcal body of a naLlon by
cloLhlng hlm or
her wlLh prlvlleges of a clLlzen under currenL and exlsLlng laws Lhere are
3 ways by
whlch an allen may become a clLlzen by naLurallzaLlon
a AdmlnlsLraLlve naLurallzaLlon pursuanL Lo 8A 9139
b !udlclal naLurallzaLlon pursuanL Lo CA no 473 as amendedcovers all
allens
regardless of class and
c LeglslaLlve naLurallzaLlon ln Lhe form of a law enacLed by Congress
besLowlng
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp Lo an allen
lL ls Lhe burden of Lhe appllcanL Lo prove noL only hls own good moral
characLer
buL also Lhe good moral characLer of hls/her wlLnesses who musL be
credlble persons
A naLurallzaLlon proceedlng ls noLa [udlclal adversary proceedlng and Lhe
declslon
rendered Lhereln does noL consLlLuLe res [udlcaLa A cerLlflcaLe of
naLurallzaLlon may be
cancelled lf lL ls subsequenLly dlscovered LhaL Lhe appllcanL obLalned lL by
mlsleadlnLg
Lhe courL upon any maLerlal facL
kA 9139noL all allens may avall of Lhls remedy Cnly naLlve born allens
who have
been resldlng here ln Lhe hlllpplnes all Lhelr llves who never saw any
oLher counLry
and all along LhoughL LhaL Lhey were llllplnos who have demonsLraLed
love and loyalLy
Lo Lhe hlllpplnes and afflnlLy Lo Lhe cusLoms and LradlLlons of Lhe
llllplnos
Natura||zat|on kepatr|at|on
mode for boLh acqulslLlon and
reacqulslLlon of clLlzenshlp
governed by CA 473 (for acqulslLlon) and
CA 63 (for reacqulslLlon)
conslsLs a lengLhy process
mode for reacqulslLlon for Lhose who losL
Lhelr clLlzenshlp
governed by varlous sLaLuLes
conslsLs of Laklng of an oaLh of alleglance
Lo Lhe 8 and reglsLerlng sald oaLh ln Lhe
LC8 of Lhe place where Lhe person
concerned resldes or lasL reslded
Lffects of Natura||zat|on
1 vesLs clLlzenshlp on wlfe lf she herself may be lawfully naLurallzed (She
need noL
go Lhrough Lhe naLurallzaLlon process lf she doesn'L suffer from any
dlsquallflcaLlon no need Lo
prove Lhe quallflcaLlons)
2 Mlnor chlldren born ln Lhe hlllpplnes before Lhe naLurallzaLlon shall be
40


consldered clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
3 Mlnor chlldren born ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes who were resldlng ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
aL Lhe Llme of naLurallzaLlon shall be consldered llllplno clLlzens
4 Mlnor chlldren born ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes before parenL's
naLurallzaLlon shall be
consldered llllplno clLlzens only durlng mlnorlLy unless Lhey begln Lo
reslde
permanenLly ln Lhe hlllpplnes
3 Chlld born ouLslde Lhe hlllpplnes afLer parenL's naLurallzaLlon shall be
loqe 1177/12/2008 soyr
117
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
consldered llllplno clLlzen provlded LhaL he reglsLers as such before any
hlllpplne consulaLe wlLhln one year afLer aLLalnlng ma[orlLy age and
Lakes hls
oaLh of alleglance
Denatura||zat|on
Crounds
1 naLurallzaLlon cerLlflcaLe was obLalned fraudulenLly or lllegally
2 WlLhln 3 years he reLurns Lo hls naLlve counLry or Lo some forelgn
counLry and
esLabllshes resldence Lhere
rrlma lacle evldence of lnLenL Lo Lake up resldence
a naLlve counLry 1year sLay
b lorelgn counLry 2year sLay
3 eLlLlon was made on an lnvalld declaraLlon of lnLenL
4 Mlnor chlldren falled Lo graduaLe Lhrough Lhe faulL of Lhe parenLs elLher
by
neglecLlng Lo supporL Lhem or by Lransferrlng Lhem Lo anoLher school
3 Allowed hlmself Lo be used as a dummy
ln epub/ic vs 6uy 115 5 244 alLhough mlsconducL was commlLLed
afLer Lhe 2
year probaLlonary perlod convlcLlon of per[ury and rape was held Lo be
valld ground for
denaLurallzaLlon
Lffects of Denatura||zat|on
1 lf Lhe ground affecLs Lhe lnLrlnslc valldlLy of Lhe proceedlngs
denaLurallzaLlon
shall dlvesL Lhe wlfe and chlldren of Lhelr derlvaLlve naLurallzaLlon
2 lf Lhe ground was personal Lo Lhe denaLurallzed person hls wlfe and
chlldren
shall reLaln Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp
o||cy aga|nst Dua| A||eg|ance uool olleqlooce of cltlzeos ls lolmlcol to
te ootloool
lotetest ooJ soll be Jeolt wlt by low ec 5 Att lI
1he phrase dual clLlzenshlp" ln 8A 7160 SecLlon 40(d) LCC musL be
undersLood as referrlng Lo dual alleglance" ConsequenLly persons wlLh
mere dual
clLlzenshlp do noL fall under Lhls dlsquallflcaLlon unllke Lhose wlLh dual
alleglance who
musL be sub[ecL Lo sLrlcL process wlLh respecL Lo Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhelr
sLaLus for
candldaLes wlLh dual clLlzenshlp lL should sufflce lf upon flllng of Lhelr
CerLlflcaLes of
Candldacy (CCC) Lhey elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp Lo LermlnaLe Lhelr sLaLus
as persons
wlLh dual clLlzenshlp conslderlng LhaL Lhelr condlLlon ls Lhe unavoldable
consequence of
confllcLlng laws of dlfferenL sLaLes
8y elecLlng hlllpplne clLlzenshlp such candldaLes aL Lhe same Llme
forswear
alleglance Lo Lhe oLher counLry of whlch Lhey are also clLlzens and Lhereby
LermlnaLe
Lhelr sLaLus as dual clLlzens lt moy be tot ftom te polot of vlew of te
fotelqo stote
loqe 1187/12/2008 soyr
118
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ooJ of lts lows soc oo loJlvlJool os oot effectlvely teooooceJ ls fotelqo
cltlzeoslp
@ot ls of oo momeot
r1he flllng of a CCC sufflces Lo renounce forelgn clLlzenshlp effecLlvely
removlng
any dlsquallflcaLlon as dual clLlzen 1hls ls so because ln Lhe CCC one
declares LhaL he
ls a llllplno clLlzen and LhaL he wlll supporL and defend Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
and wlll malnLaln
Lrue falLh and alleglance Lo Lhe same Such declaraLlon under oaLh
operaLes as an
effecLlve renunclaLlon of forelgn clLlzenshlp ln Lhls case Lhe CourL
adopLed Lhe llberal
lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe rule Manzano ls noL really prohlblLed Lo run due Lo
dual clLlzenshlp
uual alleglance ls Lhe one prohlblLed uual clLlzenshlp referred Lo under
SecLlon 40 (d)
of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code refers Lo dual alleglance under SecLlon 3 of
ArLlcle lv of
Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlonMercodo vs Montono l07 5 l0 Moy 2
1999
Sect|on S Art|c|e IVuool olleqlooce of cltlzeos ls lolmlcol to te ootloool
lotetest ooJ
soll be Jeolt wlt by low
r1hls secLlon ls noL a selfexecuLlng law lL needs an lmplemenLlng law
Sect|on 40 (d) LGCuisquo/ificotions@e followloq petsoos ote
JlspoollfleJ ftom
toooloq ftom ooy electlve locol electloo
x x x
%J% @ose wlt Jool cltlzeoslp
x x x
r1he provlslon prohlblLs dual clLlzenshlp buL Lhe Supreme CourL ruled LhaL
lL refers Lo
prohlblLlon on dual alleglance
Doctr|ne of INDLLI8LL ALLLGIANCL an lndlvldual may be compelled Lo
reLaln hls
orlglnal naLlonallLy even lf he has already renounced or forfelLed lL under
Lhe laws of Lhe
second SLaLe whose naLlonallLy he has acqulred
Dua| C|t|zensh|p Dua| A||eg|ance
rarlses as a resulL of Lhe concurrenL
appllcaLlon of Lhe dlfferenL laws of 2 or
more sLaLes a person ls slmulLaneously
consldered as a naLlonal of sald sLaLes
rlnvolunLary
rrefers Lo a slLuaLlon ln whlch a person
slmulLaneously owes by some poslLlve
acL loyalLy Lo 2 or more sLaLes
rvolunLary
o/i/unq vs uotumononq 6 No 1089 Moy 11 2007 whaL 8A 9223
does ls
allow dual clLlzenshlp Lo naLuralborn clLlzens who have losL Lhelr
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp
by reason of Lhelr naLurallzaLlon as clLlzens of a forelgn counLry Cn lLs
face lL does noL
recognlze dual alleglance 8y swearlng Lo Lhe supreme auLhorlLy of Lhe
8epubllc Lhe
person lmpllclLly renounces lLs forelgn clLlzenshlp lalnly from SecLlon 3
8A 9223
41


sLayed clear ouL of Lhe problem of dual alleglance and shlfLed Lhe burden
of confronLlng
loqe 1197/12/2008 soyr
119
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhe lssue of wheLher or noL Lhere ls dual alleglance Lo Lhe concerned
forelgn counLry
WhaL happens Lo Lhe oLher clLlzenshlp was noL made a concern of 8A
9223
Instances when a c|t|zen of the h|||pp|nes may possess dua| c|t|zensh|p
1 1hose born of llllplno faLhers and/or moLhers ln forelgn counLrles whlch
follow
Lhe prlnclple of jos soll
2 1hose born ln Lhe hlllpplnes of llllplno moLhers and allen faLhers lf by
Lhe laws
of Lhelr faLher's counLry such chlldren are clLlzens of LhaL counLry
3 1hose who marry allens lf by Lhe laws of Lhe laLLer's counLry Lhe former
are
consldered clLlzens unless by Lhelr acL or omlsslon Lhey are deemed Lo
have
renounced hlllpplne clLlzenshlp Mercodo vs Montono l07 5 l0
Moy
2 1999
es judicoto |n cases |nvo|v|ng c|t|zensh|p
Ceneral 8ule lL does noL apply Lo quesLlons of clLlzenshlp
LxcepLlon ln 8urco vs epub/ic 51 5 248 an excepLlon Lo Lhe general
rule was
recognlzed provlded Lhe followlng musL be presenL
1 A person's clLlzenshlp be ralsed as a maLerlal lssue ln a conLroversy
where
sald person ls a parLy
2 1he SollclLor general or hls auLhorlzed represenLaLlve Look acLlve parL ln
Lhe
resoluLlon Lhereof and
3 1he flndlng on clLlzenshlp ls afflrmed by SC
AlLhough Lhe C8 was seL forLh ln Lhe case of Moy o llm oo Lhe case dld
noL
foreclose Lhe welghL of prlor rullngs on clLlzenshlp lL elucldaLed LhaL
rellance may
somehow be placed on Lhese anLecedenL offlclal flndlngs Lhough noL
really blndlng Lo
make Lhe efforL easler or slmpler %vo//es vs OML ll7 5 54l
uqust 9
2000)
Loss and keacqu|s|t|on of h|||pp|ne C|t|zensh|p
A Loss of c|t|zensh|p
1 8y natura||zat|on |n a fore|gn country %rivo/do vs OML 174 5
245% Powever Lhls was modlfled by kA 922SAn Act Mak|ng the
C|t|zensh|p
of h|||pp|ne C|t|zens Who Acqu|re Iore|gn C|t|zensh|p ermanent
SepLember 13 2003 whlch declares Lhe pollcy of Lhe SLaLe LhaL all
hlllpplne
clLlzens who become clLlzens of anoLher counLry shall be deemed Lo have
losL
Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp under Lhe condlLlons of Lhls AcL
r 1hey may reacqulre hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by Laklng Lhe oaLh of
alleglance
r 1hose llllplno clLlzens who afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy of 8A 9223 become
clLlzens of a forelgn counLry may reacqulre hlllpplne clLlzenshlp upon
Laklng Lhe oaLh of alleglance
r unmarrled chlld wheLher leglLlmaLe llleglLlmaLe or adopLed below 18
years of age of Lhose who reacqulre Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp upon Lhe
loqe 1207/12/2008 soyr
120
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
effecLlvlLy of 8A 9223 shall be deemed clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
r 1hose who reacqulre or reLaln hlllpplne clLlzenshlp under Lhls AcL shall
en[oy full clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs and be sub[ecL Lo all aLLendanL llablllLles
and responslblllLles under exlsLlng laws of Lhe hlllpplnes and Lhe
followlng
condlLlons
o MeeL Lhe requlremenLs of 8A 9189 1he Cverseas AbsenLee voLlng
AcL of 2003 and oLher exlsLlng laws
o lor Lhose seeklng elecLlve publlc offlce and appolnLlve offlce meeL
Lhe quallflcaLlons make personal and sworn renunclaLlon
subscrlbe and swear Lo an oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe 8
o lor Lhose lnLendlng Lo pracLlce Lhelr professlon apply wlLh Lhe
proper auLhorlLy for a llcense or permlL Lo engage ln such pracLlce
2 8y express renunc|at|on of c|t|zensh|p
r Consclous volunLary and lnLelllgenL renunclaLlon
Lobo vs OML 17 5 1 Labo losL llllplno clLlzenshlp because
he expressly renounced alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplnes when he applled for
AusLrallan clLlzenshlp
r Lxpress renunclaLlon means a renunclaLlon made known dlsLlncLly and
expllclLly and noL lefL Lo lnference or lmpllcaLlon
r Mere reglsLraLlon of allen ln 8lu and mere possesslon of forelgn
passporL
do noL consLlLuLe effecLlve renunclaLlon %vo//es vs OML)
r ln Ji//ie u vs uefensor5ontioqo 19 5 l4 obLalnlng a
orLuguese passporL and slgnlng commerclal documenLs as a orLuguese
were consLrued as renunclaLlon of hlllpplne clLlzenshlp
3 8y subscr|b|ng to an oath of a||eg|ance Lo supporL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or
laws of a
forelgn counLry upon aLLalnlng Lhe age of 21 provlded however LhaL a
llllplno
may noL dlvesL hlmself of hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ln Lhls manner whlle 8 |s
at war
w|th any country an appllcaLlon of Lhe prlnclple of lndellble
Alleglanceby
vlrLue of 8A 9223
4 8y render|ng serv|ce to or accept|ng comm|ss|on |n the armed forces
of a
fore|gn country LkCL1
r lf 8 has a defenslve and/or offenslve pacL of alllance wlLh Lhe sald
forelgn counLry and
r 1he sald forelgn counLry malnLalns armed forces ln hlllpplne LerrlLory
wlLh
Lhe consenL of 8
3 8y cance||at|on of the cert|f|cate of natura||zat|on
6 8y hav|ng been dec|ared by competent author|ty a deserter of the
loqe 1217/12/2008 soyr
121
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
h|||pp|ne armed forces |n t|me of war UNLLSS subsequenLly a plenary
pardon or amnesLy has been granLed
8 keacqu|s|t|on of c|t|zensh|p
1 under 8A 9223 by Laklng an oaLh of alleglance
2 8y naLurallzaLlon
3 8y repaLrlaLlon
4 8y dlrecL acL of Congress
Lffect of repatr|at|on
lL allows Lhe person Lo recover or reLurn Lo hls orlglnal sLaLus before he
losL hls
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp 1hus Lhe respondenL a former naLuralborn llllplno
clLlzen who
42


losL hls hlllpplne clLlzenshlp when he enllsLed ln Lhe uS Marlne Corps
was deemed Lo
have recovered hls naLuralborn sLaLus when he reacqulred llllplno
clLlzenshlp Lhrough
repaLrlaLlon %8enqton lll vs n@ 6 No 142840 Moy 7 2001)
loevonie re//ono @oboso vs 6 No 12579l uqust 29 200 Lhe
only
persons enLlLled Lo repaLrlaLlon under 8A 8171 are Lhe followlng a)
llllplno women who
losL Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by marrlage Lo allens and b) naLuralborn
llllplnos
lncludlng Lhelr mlnor chlldren who losL Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp on
accounL of pollLlcal
or economlc necesslLy
loqe 1227/12/2008 soyr
122
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e V
S U I I k A G L
Sect|on 1
5uffroqe moy be exercised by o// cititens of te Pi/ippines not oterwise
disquo/ified by /ow wo ore ot /eost eiqteen %18) yeors of oqe ond wo
so//
ove resided in te Pi/ippines for ot /eost one yeor ond in te p/oce
werein tey
propose to vote for ot /eost six monts immediote/y precedinq te
e/ection No
/iterocy property or oter substontive requirement so// be imposed on
te
exercise of suffroqe
Sect|on 2
@e onqress so// provide o system for securinq te secrecy ond sonctity
of te
bo//ots os we// os o system for obsentee votinq by quo/ified i/ipinos
obrood
@e onqress so// o/so desiqn o procedure for te disob/ed ond
i//iterotes to
vote witout te ossistonce of oter persons unti/ ten tey so// be
o//owed to
vote under existinq /ows ond suc ru/es os te ommission on /ections
moy
promu/qote to protect te secrecy of te bo//ot
k|ght of Suffrage
8lghL Lo voLe ln elecLlon of offlcers chosen by people and ln Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of
quesLlons submlLLed Lo people
loqe 12J7/12/2008 soyr
123
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
LLLC1ICNls Lhe embodlmenL of Lhe popular wlll Lhe expresslon of Lhe
soverelgn
power of Lhe people
lL ls Lhe means by whlch Lhe people choose Lhelr offlclals for a deflnlLe and
flxed
perlod and Lo whom Lhey enLrusL for Lhe Llme belng Lhe exerclse of Lhe
powers of
governmenL
klnds
1 8LCuLA8 LLLC1lCnrefers Lo an elecLlon parLlclpaLed ln by Lhose who
possess Lhe rlghL of suffrage and noL dlsquallfled by law and who are
reglsLered
voLers lL ls Lhe elecLlon of offlcers elLher naLlonwlde or ln cerLaln
subdlvlslons
Lhereof afLer explraLlon of full Lerm of Lhe former members
a n aLlonal LlecLlon
l for resldenL and vevery 6 years
ll for SenaLorsevery 3 years
Poros vs OML 6 No 12l19 November 4 199 Lhe Sk LlecLlon
ls
noL a regular elecLlon because Lhe laLLer ls parLlclpaLed ln by youLh wlLh
ages ranglng
from 1318 as per 8A 9164 some of whom are noL quallfled voLers Lo
elecL local or
naLlonal elecLlve offlclals
b L ocal LlecLlons
l lor Members of PC8
ll arLyLlsL 8epresenLaLlves
lll rovlnclal Cfflclals Lvery 3 years from Lhe
2nd
lv ClLy Cfflclals Monday of May 1992
v Munlclpal Cfflclals
c 8 arangay LlecLlonsevery 3 years afLer !uly 2002 Lo be held on Lhe lasL
Monday of CcLober synchronlzed wlLh Lhe Sk elecLlons
d A 88M LlecLlons
l lor 8eglonal Covernor
ll 8eglonal vlce Covernor Lvery 3 years from March 1993
lll 8eglonal Assemblymen
e S angggunlang kabaLaan (Sk) LlecLlons every 3 years afLer !uly 2002 Lo
be held on Lhe lasL Monday of CcLober synchronlzed wlLh Lhe 8arangay
elecLlons
loqe 1247/12/2008 soyr
124
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2 SLClAL LLLC1lCnwhen Lhere ls a fallure of elecLlon on Lhe scheduled
daLe
of regular elecLlon ln a parLlcular place or whlch ls conducLed Lo flll up
cerLaln
vacancles as provlded by law 1hls ls belng held Lo flll any vacancy ln an
offlce
before Lhe explraLlon of Lhe full Lerm for whlch Lhe lncumbenL was
elecLed
a leblsclLeelecLoral process by whlch an lnlLlaLlve on Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ls
approved or re[ecLed by Lhe people
b l nlLlaLlvepower of Lhe people Lo propose amendmenLs Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
or Lo propose and enacL leglslaLlons Lhrough elecLlon called for Lhe
purpose
l lnlLlaLlve on Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ll lnlLlaLlve on SLaLuLes
lll lnlLlaLlve on Local LeglslaLlon
c 8 eferendumpower of Lhe elecLoraLe Lo approve or re[ecL a plece of
leglslaLlon Lhrough an elecLlon called for Lhe purpose
l 8eferendum on SLaLuLes
ll 8eferendum on Local Laws
d 8 ecallmode of removal of an elecLlve publlc offlcer by Lhe people
before
Lhe end of hls Lerm of offlce
Components
r Cholce or selecLlon of candldaLes Lo publlc offlce by popular voLe
r ConducL of Lhe polls
r LlsLlng of voLers
r Poldlng of elecLoral campalgn
r AcL of casLlng and recelvlng Lhe balloLs from Lhe voLers
r CounLlng he balloLs
r Maklng elecLlon reLurns
43


r roclalmlng Lhe wlnnlng candldaLes
CCMMISSICN CN LLLC1ICN (CCMLLLC)
1he CCMLLLC ls an lndependenL consLlLuLlonal body charged wlLh Lhe
excluslve
power Lo admlnlsLer and enforce laws and regulaLlons relaLlve Lo Lhe
conducL of
elecLlons and oLher pollLlcal exerclses such as pleblsclLes lnlLlaLlves
referenda and
recalls
loqe 1257/12/2008 soyr
123
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he perlodlc pollLlcal exerclses glve meanlng Lo Lhe declaraLlon ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon LhaL soverelgnLy resldes ln Lhe people and all governmenL
auLhorlLy
emanaLes from Lhem"
owers and luncLlons
1 Lnforce and admlnlsLer all laws and regulaLlons relaLlve Lo Lhe conducL
of an
elecLlon pleblsclLe referendum lnlLlaLlve and recall
2 Lxerclse
a Lxc|us|ve or|g|na| [ur|sd|ct|on over all conLesLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons
reLurns and quallflcaLlons of all elecLlve provlnclal and clLy offlclals
b Appe||ate [ur|sd|ct|on over all conLesLs lnvolvlng
l LlecLlve munlclpal offlclals declded by Lhe Lrlal courLs of general
[urlsdlcLlon
ll LlecLlve barangay offlclals declded by Lhe Lrlal courLs of llmlLed
[urlsdlcLlon
rueclslons flnal orders or rullng of Lhe CCMLLLC on elecLlon conLesLs
lnvolvlng elecLlve munlclpal and barangay offlces shall be f|na| and
executory
and not appea|ab|e
3 ueclde excepL Lhose lnvolvlng Lhe rlghL Lo voLe all quesLlons affecLlng
elecLlons
lncludlng deLermlnaLlon of Lhe number and locaLlon of polllng places
appolnLmenL
of elecLlon offlclals and lnspecLors and reglsLraLlon of voLers
4 uepuLlze wlLh Lhe concurrence of Lhe resldenL law enforcemenL
agencles and
lnsLrumenLallLles of Lhe governmenL lncludlng Lhe Al for Lhe excluslve
purpose
of ensurlng free orderly honesL peaceful and credlble elecLlons
3 8eglsLraLlon of pollLlcal parLles organlzaLlon or coallLlon/accredlLaLlon
of clLlzens'
arms of Lhe CCMLLLC
6 llle upon verlfled complalnL or on lLs own lnlLlaLlve peLlLlons ln courL
for Lhe
lncluslon or excluslon of voLers lnvesLlgaLe and where approprlaLe
prosecuLe
cases for vlolaLlons of elecLlon laws lncludlng acLs or omlsslons
consLlLuLlng
elecLlon frauds offenses and malpracLlces
7 8ecommend Lo Congress effecLlve measures Lo mlnlmlze elecLlon
spendlng
lncludlng llmlLaLlon of places where propaganda maLerlals shall be posLed
and Lo
prevenL and penallze all forms of elecLlon frauds offenses malpracLlces
and
nulsance candldacles
loqe 127/12/2008 soyr
126
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
8 8ecommend Lo Lhe resldenL Lhe removal of any offlcer or employee lL
has
depuLlzed or Lhe lmposlLlon of any oLher dlsclpllnary acLlon for vlolaLlon
or
dlsregard of or dlsobedlence Lo lL
9 SubmlL Lo Lhe resldenL and Congress a comprehenslve reporL on Lhe
conducL of
each elecLlon pleblsclLes lnlLlaLlve referendum or recall
CLI1ICAL Ak1
A pollLlcal parLy ls any organlzed group of clLlzens advocaLlng an ldeology
or
plaLform prlnclples and pollcles for Lhe general conducL of governmenL
and whlch as
Lhe mosL lmmedlaLe means of securlng Lhelr adopLlon regularly
nomlnaLes and supporLs
cerLaln of lLs leaders and members as candldaLe ln publlc offlce
1o acqulre [urldlcal personallLy and Lo enLlLle lL Lo rlghLs and prlvlleges
granLed Lo
pollLlcal arLles lL musL be reglsLered wlLh CCMLLLC
artyL|st System Act (kA 7941)
(See ulscusslons under Lhe LeglslaLlve ueparLmenL)
VC1LkS
CuallflcaLlons
1 llllplno clLlzen
2 AL leasL 18 years of age on Lhe day of Lhe elecLlon
3 8esldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes for aL leasL one year lmmedlaLely before Lhe
elecLlon
4 8esldenL of Lhe clLy/munlclpallLy whereln he proposes Lo voLe for aL
leasL 6
monLhs lmmedlaLely precedlng Lhe elecLlon
3 noL oLherwlse dlsquallfled by law
8equlslLes of AcqulslLlon of uomlclle by Cholce
1 8esldence or bodlly presence ln Lhe new locallLy
2 An lnLenLlon Lo remaln Lhere and
3 An lnLenLlon Lo abandon Lhe old resldence
quino vs OML 248 5 400 Lhe meanlng and purpose of
resldency
requlremenLLhe place where a parLy acLually or consLrucLlvely has hls
permanenL
home where he no maLLer where he may be found aL any glven Llme
evenLually
lnLends Lo reLurn and remaln le hls domlclle ls LhaL Lo whlch Lhe
consLlLuLlon refers
when lL speaks of resldence for Lhe purposes of elecLlon law
loqe 1277/12/2008 soyr
127
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ln Morcito Mombo Peret vs OML 6 No 1ll944 October 28
1999 Lhe facL
LhaL a person ls reglsLered as a voLer ln one dlsLrlcL ls noL proof LhaL he ls
noL domlclled
ln anoLher dlsLrlcL 1hus ln oypon vs uirino Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe
reglsLraLlon of a
voLer ln a place oLher Lhan hls resldence of orlgln ls noL sufflclenL Lo
conslder hlm Lo
have abandoned or losL hls resldence
ulsquallflcaLlons
1 SenLence by flnal [udgmenL Lo suffer lmprlsonmenL for noL less Lhan one
year
unless pardoned or granLed amnesLy buL rlghL ls reacqulred before
explraLlon of
3 years afLer servlce of senLence
2 ConvlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL of any of Lhe followlng crlmes
a Crlme lnvolvlng dlsloyalLy Lo Lhe governmenL
44


b any crlme agalnsL naLlonal securlLy
c llrearms laws
8uL rlghL ls reacqulred before explraLlon of 3 years afLer servlce of
senLence
3 lnsanlLy or lncompeLence declared by compeLenL auLhorlLy (Sect|on 18
CLC)
kLGIS1kA1ICN
lL refers Lo Lhe acL of accompllshlng and flllng a sworn appllcaLlon for
reglsLraLlon
by a quallfled voLer before Lhe elecLlon offlcer of Lhe clLy or munlclpallLy
whereln he
resldes and lncludlng Lhe same ln Lhe book of reglsLered voLers upon
approval of Lhe
LlecLlon 8eglsLraLlon 8oard (L88)
8eglsLraLlon does noL confer Lhe rlghL Lo voLe lL ls buL a condlLlon
precedenL Lo
Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL 8eglsLraLlon ls a regulaLlon noL a quallflcaLlon
%ro vs bono 52
Pi/ l80)
voters eqistrotion ct of 199 % 8189)6enero/ eqistrotion of
voters
Cont|nu|ng keg|strat|onLhe personal flllng of appllcaLlon of reglsLraLlon
of voLers
shall be conducLed dally ln Lhe offlce of Lhe LlecLlon Cfflcer durlng regular
offlce hours
8eglsLraLlon shall be conducLed everyday excepL 120 days before a regular
elecLlon and
90 days before elecLlon (Sec 8 8A 8189)
loqe 1287/12/2008 soyr
128
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ln Lhe case of kboyon out vs OML 6 No 1470 Morc 2
2001 Lhe SC upheld Lhe CCMLLLC's denlal of Lhe requesL for Lwo (2)
addlLlonal
reglsLraLlon days ln order Lo enfranchlse more Lhan 4 mllllon youLh who
falled Lo reglsLer
on or before uecember 27 2000 lL ls an accepLed docLrlne ln
admlnlsLraLlve law LhaL
Lhe deLermlnaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve agencles as Lo Lhe operaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon and
appllcaLlon of law ls accorded greaL welghL conslderlng LhaL Lhese
speclallzed
governmenL bodles are by Lhelr naLure and funcLlons ln Lhe besL poslLlon
Lo know whaL
Lhey can posslbly do or noL do under prevalllng clrcumsLances
et|t|on for Inc|us|on (Sec 34 8A 8189) and Lxc|us|on (Sec 33 8A 8189)
of Voters |n
the L|st
1 Iur|sd|ct|on
a M1Corlglnal and excluslve
b k1CappellaLe [urlsdlcLlon
c SCappellaLe [urlsdlcLlon over 81C on quesLlon of law
2 et|t|oner
a Inc|us|on
r rlvaLe person whose appllcaLlon was dlsapproved by Lhe L88 or
whose name was sLrlcken ouL from Lhe llsL of voLers
r CCMLLLC
b Lxc|us|on
r Any reglsLered voLer ln Lhe clLy or munlclpallLy
r 8epresenLaLlve of pollLlcal parLy
r LlecLlon offlcer
r CCMLLLC
3 er|od of I|||ng
a Inc|us|onany day excepL 103 days before regular elecLlon or 73 days
before a speclal elecLlon
b Lxc|us|onanyLlme excepL 100 days before a regular elecLlon or 63
days
before a speclal elecLlon
Annu|ment of 8ook of Voters
1 upon verlfled complalnL of any voLer elecLlon offlcer or reglsLered
pollLlcal parLy
or moLu proprlo Lhe CCMLLLC may annul Lhe llsL of voLers whlch was noL
prepared ln accordance wlLh 8A 8189 or whose preparaLlon was affecLed
wlLh
fraud brlbery forgery lmpersonaLlon lnLlmldaLlon force or oLher slmllar
lrregularlLy or ls sLaLlsLlcally lmprobable
2 no llsL of voLers shall be annulled 90 days before an elecLlon
loqe 1297/12/2008 soyr
129
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ututo/um vs OML 181 5 ll5 annulmenL of Lhe llsL of voLers
shall
noL consLlLuLe a ground for a preproclamaLlon conLesL
Cverseas Absentee Vot|ng Act of 2003 (kA 9189)
Absentee Vot|ngprocess by whlch quallfled clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
abroad
exerclse Lhelr rlghL Lo voLe pursuanL Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal mandaLe LhaL
Congress shall
provlde a sysLem for absenLee voLlng by quallfled llllplnos abroad(Sec 3a
8A 9189
and SecLlon 2 ArLlcle v of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon)
rlL ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe 6monLh/1year resldency requlremenL
Cverseas Absentee VoterclLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes who ls quallfled Lo
reglsLer and
voLe under Lhls AcL noL oLherwlse dlsquallfled by law who ls abroad on
Lhe day of
elecLlon
Coverage All clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes abroad who are noL oLherwlse
dlsquallfled by
law aL leasL 18 years of age on Lhe day of elecLlons may voLe for
resldenL v
SenaLors and arLyLlsL 8epresenLaLlves (Sec 4)
D|squa||f|cat|ons
1 1hose who have losL Lhelr llllplno clLlzenshlp ln accordance wlLh
hlllpplne laws
2 1hose who have expressly renounces Lhelr hlllpplne clLlzenshlp and
who have
pledged Lhelr alleglance Lo a forelgn counLry
3 1hose who have commlLLed and are convlcLed ln a flnal [udgmenL by a
courL or
Lrlbunal of an offense punlshable by lmprlsonmenL of noL less Lhan 1 year
lncludlng Lhose who have commlLLed and been found gullLy of dlsloyalLy
such
dlsablllLy noL havlng been removed by plenary pardon or amnesLy
rovlded
however LhaL any person dlsquallfled Lo voLe under Lhls subsecLlon shall
auLomaLlcally acqulre Lhe rlghL Lo voLe upon explraLlon of 3 years afLer
servlce of
senLence
4 An lmmlgranL or a permanenL resldenL who ls recognlzed as such ln Lhe
hosL
counLry unless he execuLes upon reglsLraLlon an affldavlL for Lhe purpose
by Lhe
loqe 1J07/12/2008 soyr
130
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
43


CCMLLLC declarlng LhaL he shall resume acLual physlcal resldence noL
laLer
Lhan 3 years from approval of hls reglsLraLlon Such affldavlL shall also
sLaLe LhaL
he has noL applled for clLlzenshlp ln anoLher counLry and
3 Any clLlzen of Lhe hlllpplnes abroad prevlously declared lnsane or
lncompeLenL
by compeLenL auLhorlLy ln Lhe hlllpplnes or abroad as verlfled by
hlllpplne
embassles consulaLe or forelgn servlce esLabllshmenL concerned
kequ|rements for reg|strat|on
1 valld passporL
2 Accompllshed reglsLraLlon form conLalnlng Lhe followlng lnformaLlon
a LasL known resldence of Lhe appllcanL ln Lhe hlllpplnes before leavlng
for
abroad
b Address of appllcanL abroad or forwardlng address ln Lhe case of
seafarers
c Where voLlng by mall ls allowed Lhe appllcanL's malllng address ouLslde
Lhe hlllpplnes and
d name and address of appllcanL's auLhorlzed represenLaLlve ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
rln case of lmmlgranLs and permanenL resldenLs noL oLherwlse
dlsquallfled Lo voLe an
affldavlL declarlng Lhe lnLenLlon Lo resume acLual physlcal permanenL
resldence ln Lhe
hlllpplnes noL laLer Lhan 3 years afLer approval of hls reglsLraLlon
Moko/into/ vs OML 6 No 15701l lu/y 10 200l SecLlon 183 of
8A
9189 lnsofar as lL granLs sweeplng auLhorlLy Lo Lhe CCMLLLC Lo proclalm
all wlnnlng
candldaLes lL ls unconsLlLuLlonal as lL ls repugnanL Lo SecLlon 4 of ArLlcle
vll of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon whlch vesL ln Congress Lhe auLhorlLy Lo proclalm Lhe wlnnlng
resldenLlal
or vlceresldenLlal candldaLes
CANDIDA1LS
CuALlllCA1lCnSconLlnulng requlremenLs and musL be possessed for
Lhe duraLlon of
Lhe offlcer's acLlve Lenure Cnce any of Lhe requlred quallflcaLlon ls losL
hls LlLle Lo Lhe
offlce may be seasonably changed %rivo/do vs OML 174 5 245)
ulSCuALlllLu CAnuluA1LS
under Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code (8 881)
1 Any person declared by compeLenL auLhorlLy as lnsane or lncompeLenL
kemova| of D declaraLlon of removal of uC by compeLenL auLhorlLy
loqe 1J17/12/2008 soyr
131
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2 Any person senLenced by flnal [udgmenL for any of Lhe followlng
offenses
a Subverslon lnsurrecLlon or rebelllon
b Cffense for whlch he was senLenced Lo penalLy of more Lhan 18 monLhs
c Crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude
vi//ober vs OML 6 No 148l2 November 15 2001 vlolaLlon of
8
22 ls a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude because Lhe accused knows aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe
lssuance of Lhe check LhaL he does noL have sufflclenL funds ln or credlL
wlLh Lhe
drawee bank for Lhe paymenL of Lhe check ln full upon presenLmenL A
convlcLlon Lhereof
shows LhaL Lhe accused ls gullLy of decelL and cerLalnly relaLes Lo and
affecLs Lhe good
moral characLer of Lhe person
ue/o @orre vs OML 258 5 48l vlolaLlon of Lhe AnLllenclng Law
lnvolves moral LurplLude and Lhe only legal effecL of probaLlon ls Lo
suspend Lhe
lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe senLence 1hus Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon sLlll subslsLs
kemova| of D plenary pardon amnesLy lapse of 3 years afLer servlce of
senLence
3 A permanenL resldenL Lo or lmmlgranL Lo a forelgn counLry unless he
walves such
sLaLus (CLC Sect|ons 12 and 68)
ln Lhe case of oosi vs OML 191 5 229 Lhe SC sald LhaL a green
card" ls ample proof LhaL Lhe holder Lhereof ls a permanenL resldenL of or
lmmlgranL Lo
Lhe unlLed SLaLes
4 Cne who has vlolaLed provlslons on
a Campalgn perlod
b 8emoval desLrucLlon of lawful elecLlon propaganda
c rohlblLed forms of propaganda
d 8egulaLlon of propaganda Lhrough mass medla and
e LlecLlon offenses
ln Ponqkot Loquno vs OML 6 No 148075 ebruory 4 2002 Lhe
acLs of Laguna Covernor Lazaro ln orderlng Lhe purchase of Lrophles
baskeLballs
volleyballs chessboard seLs and Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of medals and plns Lo
varlous schools
dld noL consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of SecLlon 80 on premaLure campalgnlng
8espondenL
Lazaro was noL ln any way dlrecLly or lndlrecLly sollclLlng voLes she was
merely
loqe 1J27/12/2008 soyr
132
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
performlng Lhe duLles and Lasks lmposed upon her by law whlch duLles
she had sworn
Lo perform as Covernor of Laguna
odi//o vs ue venecio 6 No 15005 uecember 10 2002 when a
candldaLe has noL yeL been dlsquallfled by flnal [udgmenL durlng Lhe
elecLlon day and
was voLed for Lhe voLes casL ln hls favor cannoL be declared sLray 1o do
so would
amounL Lo dlsenfranchlslng Lhe elecLoraLe ln whom soverelgnLy resldes
u nder Local CovernmenL Code ( kA 7160)
1 1hose senLenced by flnal [udgmenL for an offense lnvolvlng moral
LurplLude or an
offense punlshable by lmprlsonmenL for aL leasL 1 year wlLhln 2 years
afLer
servlce of senLence
2 1hose removed from offlce as a resulL of an admlnlsLraLlve case
eyes vs OML 254 5 514 Lhe Mayor who had been ordered
removed from offlce by Lhe Sanggunlang anlalawlgan was dlsquallfled
even as he
alleged LhaL Lhe declslon was noL yeL flnal because he had noL yeL recelved
a copy of Lhe
declslon lnasmuch as lL was shown LhaL he merely refused Lo accepL
dellvery of Lhe
copy of Lhe declslon
3 1hose convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL for vlolaLlng Lhe oaLh of alleglance Lo
Lhe
8epubllc
4 1hose wlLh dual clLlzenshlp
(See Lhe case of Mercodo vs Montono and vo//es vs OML)
3 luglLlves from [usLlce ln crlmlnal or nonpollLlcal cases here or abroad
A fuglLlve from [usLlce lncludes noL only Lhose who flee afLer convlcLlon Lo
avold
punlshmenL buL llkewlse Lhose who afLer belng charged flee Lo avold
prosecuLlon ln
46


Lhe case of odriquet vs OML 6 No 120099 lu/y 24 199
peLlLloner
cannoL be consldered a fuglLlve from [usLlce because hls arrlval ln Lhe
hlllpplnes from
Lhe uS preceded Lhe flllng of Lhe felony complalnL ln LA CourL and Lhe
lssuance of Lhe
arresL warranL by Lhe same forelgn courL by almosL 3 monLhs
6 ermanenL resldenLs ln forelgn counLry or Lhose who have acqulred Lhe
rlghL Lo
reslde abroad and conLlnue Lo avall of Lhe same rlghL afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy
of Lhls
Code
See oosi vs OML 191 5 229
7 1he lnsane or feeblemlnded (Sec 40 LGC)
loqe 1JJ7/12/2008 soyr
133
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
u nder 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code ( LC 292)
1 LccleslasLlcs
2 ersons recelvlng compensaLlon from provlnclal or munlclpal funds and
3 ConLracLors for publlc works of Lhe munlclpallLy
u nder Lhe Lone CandldaLe Law ( kA 829S)
1 Any elecLlve offlclals who has reslgned from hls offlce by accepLlng an
appolnLlve
offlce or for whaLever reason whlch he prevlously occupled buL has caused
Lo
become vacanL due Lo hls reslgnaLlon and
2 Any person who dlrecLly or lndlrecLly coerces brlbes LhreaLens
harasses
lnLlmldaLes or acLually causes lnfllcLs or produces any vlolence ln[ury
punlshmenL LorLure damage loss or dlsadvanLage Lo any person or
persons
asplrlng Lo become a candldaLe or LhaL of Lhe lmmedlaLe member of hls
famlly
hls honor or properLy LhaL ls meanL Lo ellmlnaLe all oLher poLenLlal
candldaLes
Ocompo vs respo 6 No 1584 lune 15 2004 Lhere musL be flnal
[udgmenL
before Lhe elecLlon ln order LhaL Lhe voLes of a dlsquallfled candldaLe can
be consldered
sLray
1he subsequenL dlsquallflcaLlon of a candldaLe who obLalned Lhe hlghesL
number
of voLes does noL enLlLle Lhe candldaLe who garnered Lhe second hlghesL
number of
voLes Lo be declared Lhe wlnner
ertificote of ondidocy %O)
8ules
1 no person shall be elecLed lnLo publlc offlce unless he flles hls CCC
wlLhln Lhe
prescrlbed perlod
2 no person shall be ellglble for more Lhan one offlce lf he flles for more
Lhan one
poslLlon he shall noL be ellglble for all unless he cancels all and reLalns
one
3 1he CCC shall be flled by Lhe candldaLe personally or by hls duly
auLhorlzed
represenLaLlve
4 upon flllng an lndlvldual becomes a candldaLe he ls already covered by
Lhe
rules resLrlcLlons and processes lnvolvlng candldaLes (Sect|on 73 CLC)
LffecLs of llllng CCC
loqe 1J47/12/2008 soyr
134
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
CandldaLes holdlng appolnLlve offlce or poslLlon shall be consldered lpso
facLo
reslgned from hls offlce (Sec 66 CLC)
CandldaLes holdlng elecLlve offlce shall not be consldered reslgned from
hls
offlce (Sec 67 of CLC repea|ed by Sect|on 14 of kA 9006)
Iorma| defects |n the CCCLhe elecLlon of a candldaLe cannoL be
annulled on Lhe
sole ground of formal defecLs ln hls CCC such as lack of Lhe requlred oaLh
%ue
6utmon vs 8oord of onvossers 48 Pi/ 211)
uuLy Lo recelve CCC mlnlsLerlal duLy of Lhe CCMLLLC
When a candldaLe flles hls CCC Lhe CCMLLLC has a mlnlsLerlal duLy Lo
recelve
and acknowledge lLs recelpL pursuanL Lo SecLlon 76 of Lhe LlecLlon Code
1he
CCMLLLC may noL by lLself wlLhouL Lhe proper proceedlngs deny due
course Lo or
cancel a CCC flled ln due form %Luno vs OML 6 No 1598l pri/
24
2007)
bcede vs lmperio/ 10l Pi/ 1l Lhe CCMLLLC has no dlscreLlon Lo glve
or
noL Lo glve due course Lo a CCC flled ln due form Whlle lL may look lnLo
paLenL defecLs
ln Lhe CCC lL may noL go lnLo maLLers noL appearlng on Lhelr face
Lxcept|ons
1 nulsance candldaLes
2 eLlLlon Lo deny due course or Lo cancel a CCCSec 78 of Lhe CLC
3 llllng of a dlsquallflcaLlon case on any of Lhe grounds enumeraLed ln
SecLlon
68 CLC
Where Lhe declslon of Lhe CCMLLLC dlsquallfylng Lhe candldaLe ls noL yeL
flnal
and execuLory on elecLlon day Lhe 8oard of LlecLlon lnspecLors (8Ll) ln
Lhe exerclse of
lLs mlnlsLerlal duLy ls under obllgaLlon Lo counL and Lally Lhe voLes caLs ln
favor of Lhe
candldaLe %Popondoyon vs OML 6 No 147909 pri/ 1 2002)
ipriono vs OML 6 No 1588l0 uqust 10 2004 Lhe CCMLLLC
may noL by lLself wlLhouL proper proceedlngs deny due course Lo or
cancel a CCC flled
ln due form SecLlon 78 of CLC whlch LreaLs of a peLlLlon Lo deny due
course Lo or
cancel a CCC on Lhe ground LhaL any maLerlal represenLaLlon Lhereln ls
false requlres
LhaL Lhe candldaLe musL be noLlfled of Lhe peLlLlon agalnsL hlm and he
should be glven
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo presenL evldence ln hls behalf
loqe 1J57/12/2008 soyr
133
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
LffecLs of llllng 1wo (2) CCC
llllng of Lwo CCC for dlfferenL offlces renders lnellglblllLy for elLher
poslLlon (Sect|on 73
CLC)
Death D|squa||f|cat|on and W|thdrawa|
lf afLer Lhe lasL day of flllng of Lhe CCC an offlclal candldaLe of a reglsLered
or
accredlLed pollLlcal parLy dles wlLhdraws or ls dlsquallfled for any cause
only a person
47


belonglng Lo and cerLlfled by Lhe same pollLlcal parLy may flle a CCC Lo
replace Lhe
candldaLe who dled wlLhdrew or was dlsquallfled (Sect|on 77 CLC)
1he concepL of a subsLlLuLe presupposes Lhe exlsLence of Lhe person Lo be
subsLlLuLed lor how can a person Lake Lhe place of somebody who does
noL exlsL or
who never was 1he exlsLence of a valld CCC seasonably flled ls a requlslLe
slne qua
non 1here was no valld subsLlLuLlon 1he exlsLence of a valld CCC
seasonably flled ls a
requlslLe slne qua non lL ls as lf he was noL a candldaLe he may noL be
subsLlLuLed
Abaya was noL proclalmed %Mirondo vs boyo 6 No 1ll51 lu/y 28
1999)
Doctr|ne of the ke[ect|on of the Second |acer
Labo doctr|neLhe dlsquallflcaLlon of Lhe elecLed candldaLe does noL
enLlLle Lhe
candldaLe who obLalned Lhe 2nd hlghesL number of voLes Lo occupy Lhe
offlce vacaLed as
a resulL of Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon %Lobo vs OML 17 5 1)
/bono vs OML 6 No 1ll02 lu/y 2l 2004 Lhe lnellglblllLy of a
candldaLe recelvlng ma[orlLy voLes does noL enLlLle Lhe ellglble candldaLe
recelvlng Lhe
nexL hlghesL number of voLes Lo be declared elecLed 1o slmpllsLlcally
assume LhaL Lhe
second placer would have recelved Lhe oLher voLes would be Lo subsLlLuLe
our [udgmenL
for Lhe mlnd of Lhe voLer 1he second placer ls [usL LhaL a second placer
Pe losL ln Lhe
elecLlon
Lxcept|ons A second placer may posslbly be declared elecLed when Lhe
followlng condlLlons are meL
1 1he one who obLalned Lhe hlghesL number of voLes ls dlsquallfled and
2 1he elecLoraLe ls fully aware ln facL and ln law of Lhe candldaLe's
dlsquallflcaLlon so as Lo brlng such awareness wlLhln Lhe realm of
noLorleLy
buL would noneLheless casL Lhelr voLes ln favor of Lhe lnellglble candldaLe
%6reqo vs OML 6 No 125955 lune 19 1997)
loqe 1J7/12/2008 soyr
136
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ln r oyot vs OML 6 Nos 1l77 ond 157l pri/ 24 2007
Lhe
law expressly declares LhaL a candldaLe dlsquallfled by flnal [udgmenL
before an elecLlon
cannoL be voLed for and voLes casL for hlm shall noL be counLed 1hls ls a
mandaLory
provlslon of law under SecLlon 6 of 8A 6646 Lhe LlecLoral 8eforms Law of
1987 1he
SC dld noL apply Lhls docLrlne of Lhe re[ecLlon of second placer whlch
Lrlggers Lhe rule on
successlon 1here was no second placer because allleng ls noL a second
placer buL
Lhe only placer 1here ls only one candldaLe
W|thdrawa| of the CCCshall effecL Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon of Lhe candldaLe
Lo be elecLed
for Lhe poslLlon %coin vs onejo 81 Pi/ 77l)
1he wlLhdrawal of Lhe wlLhdrawal for Lhe purpose of revlvlng Lhe CCC
musL be
made wlLhln Lhe perlod provlded by law for Lhe flllng of CCC %Monso/e vs
Nico 8l
Pi/ 758)
1he affldavlL of wlLhdrawal can be flled dlrecLly wlLh Lhe maln offlce of Lhe
CCMLLLC Lhe offlce of Lhe 8eglonal LlecLlon ulrecLor concerned offlce of
Lhe
provlnclal elecLlon supervlsor of Lhe provlnce Lo whlch Lhe munlclpallLy
belongs or Lhe
offlce of Lhe munlclpal elecLlon offlcer of Lhe munlclpallLy
Nu|sance Cand|dates
1hey are candldaLes who have no bona flde lnLenLlon Lo run for Lhe offlce
for
whlch Lhe CCC has been flled and would Lhus prevenL a falLhful elecLlon
CCMLLLC may refuse Lo glve due course Lo or cancel a CCC of a nulsance
candldaLe 1hls can be done moLu proprlo or upon verlfled peLlLlon of an
lnLeresLed
parLy
1here should be a showlng LhaL
1 1he CCC has been flled Lo puL Lhe elecLlon process ln mockery/dlspuLe
2 1he lnLenL for flllng ls Lo cause confuslon among Lhe voLers by Lhe
slmllarlLy of
Lhe names of Lhe reglsLered candldaLes
3 1here are oLher clrcumsLances whlch clearly demonsLraLe LhaL Lhe
candldaLe
has no bona flde lnLenLlon Lo run for Lhe offlce
6orcio vs OML 6 No 1211l9 lu/y 12 199 proclamaLlon of Lhe
wlnnlng candldaLe renders mooL and academlc a moLlon for
reconslderaLlon flled by a
candldaLe who had been earller declared by Lhe CCMLLLC as nulsance
candldaLe
loqe 1J77/12/2008 soyr
137
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
et|t|on to Deny Due Course to or Cance| CCC (Sec 78 CLC)a verlfled
peLlLlon
seeklng Lo deny due course or Lo cancel a CCC may be fleld by any person
excluslvely
on Lhe ground LhaL any maLerlal represenLaLlon conLalned Lhereln as
requlred ln SecLlon
74 hereof ls false 1he peLlLlon may be flled aL any Llme noL laLer Lhan 23
days from Lhe
Llme of flllng Lhe CCC and shall be declded afLer due noLlce and hearlng
noL laLer Lhan
13 days before Lhe elecLlon
r!urlsdlcLlon over a peLlLlon Lo cancel a CCC lles wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC ln
dlvlslon not
wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC en banc %6orvido vs 5o/es 6 No 122872
5eptember 10
1997)
5o/cedo vs OML 6 No 1l588 uqust 1 1999 maLerlal
mlsrepresenLaLlon conLemplaLed ln SecLlon 78 CLC refers Lo quallflcaLlons
for elecLlve
offlce Aslde from LhaL false represenLaLlon musL conslsL of a dellberaLe
aLLempL Lo
mlslead mlslnform or hlde a facL whlch would oLherwlse render a
candldaLe lnellglble lL
musL be made wlLh an lnLenLlon Lo decelve Lhe elecLoraLe as Lo one's
quallflcaLlons for
publlc offlce 1he use of surname when noL lnLended Lo mlslead or
decelve Lhe publlc
as Lo one's ldenLlLy ls noL wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhe provlslon
Lone ondidote Low % 8295)
upon explraLlon of Lhe deadllne for flllng of CCC ln a speclal elecLlon
called Lo flll
a vacancy ln an elecLlve poslLlon oLher LhaL for resldenL and v when
Lhere ls only one
quallfled candldaLe for such poslLlon Lhe lone candldaLe3 shall be
proclalmed elecLed Lo
Lhe poslLlon by proper proclalmlng body of Lhe CCMLLLC wlLhouL holdlng
Lhe speclal
48


elecLlon upon cerLlflcaLlon by Lhe CCMLLLC LhaL he ls Lhe only candldaLe
for Lhe offlce
and ls Lhereby deemed elecLed
1he lone candldaLe so proclalmed shall assume offlce noL earller Lhan Lhe
scheduled elecLlon day ln Lhe absence of any lawful ground Lo deny due
course or
cancel Lhe CCC ln order Lo prevenL such proclamaLlon as provlded for
under SecLlon 69
and 78 of CLC
Loonq vs OML 21 5 70 Lhe peLlLlon for cancellaLlon of Lhe
CCC of
Loong for alleged mlsrepresenLaLlon as Lo hls age flled by uLuLalum
beyond Lhe 23day
perlod from Lhe lasL day for flllng CCC cannoL be glven due course nelLher
can lL be
LreaLed as quo warranLo peLlLlon slnce Lhere has been no proclamaLlon
yeL
1he evldenL purpose of Lhe law ln requlrlng Lhe flllng of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of
candldacy and ln flxlng Lhe Llme llmlL Lherefor are
loqe 1J87/12/2008 soyr
138
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 1o enable Lhe voLers Lo know aL leasL 60 days before Lhe regular
elecLlon Lhe
candldaLes among whom Lhey are Lo make Lhe cholce and
2 1o avold confuslon and lnconvenlence ln Lhe LabulaLlon of Lhe voLes
caLs lor lf
Lhe law dld noL conflne Lhe cholce or elecLlon by Lhe voLers Lo Lhe duly
reglsLered
candldaLes Lhere mlghL be as many persons voLed for as Lhere are voLers
and
voLes mlghL be casL even for unknown or flcLlLlous persons as a mark Lo
ldenLlfy
Lhe voLes ln favor of a candldaLe for anoLher offlce ln Lhe same elecLlon
%Mirondo
vs boyo 6 No 1ll51 lu/y 28 1999)
CAMAIGN
LlecLlon and Campalgn erlods (Sec 3 CLC)
LlecLlon perlod beglns 90 days before Lhe day of elecLlon and ends 30 days
LhereafLerperlod of Llme wlLh respecL Lo a scheduled daLe of elecLlon
when Lhe conducL
of cerLaln pollLlcal acLlvlLles are regulaLed by elecLlon laws and Lhe
vlolaLlon of whlch
consLlLuLes elecLlon offense sub[ecL Lo penalLles
Campalgn erlods
1 resldenL and v90 days before Lhe day of elecLlon
2 Members of Congress SenaLorlal rovlnclal and ClLy/Munlclpal43
days
3 8arangay LlecLlon13 days
4 Speclal LlecLlon43 days (SecLlon 3 paragraph 2 ArLlcle vlll)
r1he campalgn perlod shall no lnclude Lhe day before and Lhe day of the
e|ect|on
rerlod of Llme wlLhln Lhe elecLlon perlod speclfled by law when bona flde
candldaLes
can legally conducL campalgn acLlvlLles and oLher elecLlon propaganda ln
relaLlon Lo Lhe
scheduled daLe of elecLlon
oir /ection ct of 2001 % 900)
Lawfu| L|ect|on ropaganda
1 WrlLLen/prlnLed maLerlals whlch does noL exceed 8 Z lnches x 14 lnches
2 PandwrlLLen/prlnLed leLLers
3 osLers noL exceedlng 2x3 feeL
4 rlnL ads
r1/4 page ln broadsheeLs and Z page for Lablolds publlshed 3x a week per
newspaper durlng Lhe campalgn perlod
3 8roadcasL ads on 1v and radlo
loqe 1J97/12/2008 soyr
139
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
a naLlonal poslLlons120 mlns for 1v 180 mlns for radlo
b Local poslLlons60 mlns for 1v 90 mlns for radlo
(See Lhe cases of lll vs cOMlc Ck -o 11994 Moy 22 1995 ooJ
@l8Al vs
cOMlc Ck -o 1J2922 Aptll 21 1998poqe 45 of tls tevlew
ootes%paymenL of [usL
compensaLlon ls now expressly provlded under SecLlon 7 of 8A 9006
paymenL of [usL
compensaLlon ls noL necessary slnce lL ls a valld exerclse of pollce power
roh|b|ted Campa|gn
1 ubllc exhlblLlon of movle clnemaLograph or documenLary porLraylng
Lhe llfe or
blography of a candldaLe durlng Lhe campalgn perlod
2 ubllc exhlblLlon of a movle clnemaLograph or documenLary porLrayed
by an
acLor or medla personallLy who ls hlmself a candldaLe
3 use of alrLlme for campalgn of a medla pracLlLloner who ls offlclal of any
parLy or
member of Lhe campalgn sLaff of a candldaLe of pollLlcal parLy
L|m|tat|on on Lxpenses
CandldaLes
1 resldenL and v10/voLer
2 CLher candldaLe wlLh parLy3/voLer
3 CLher candldaLe wlLhouL parLy3/voLer
Statement of Contr|but|on and Lxpenses
Lvery candldaLe and Lreasurer of a pollLlcal parLy shall wlLhln 30 days
afLer Lhe
day of elecLlon flle wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC Lhe full Lrue and lLemlzed
sLaLemenL of all
conLrlbuLlon and expendlLures ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe elecLlon
L|ect|on Surveys
Sec S4 of kA 9006surveys affecLlng naLlonal candldaLes shall noL be
publlshed wlLhln 13 days before an elecLlon and surveys affecLlng local
candldaLes shall
noL be publlshed 7 days before an elecLlon 1hls secLlon was declared
unconsLlLuLlonal
ln Lhe case of 5ocio/ Jeoter 5totion vs OML 6 No 147571 Moy
5 2001
for lL vlolaLed Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of speech expresslon and Lhe
press
8easons
1 lL lmposes a prlor resLralnL on Lhe freedom of expresslon
2 lL ls dlrecL and LoLal suppresslon of a caLegory of expresslon even
Lhough such
suppresslon ls only for a llmlLed perlod
3 1he governmenL lnLeresL soughL Lo be promoLed can be achleved by
means oLher
Lhan Lhe suppresslon of freedom of expresslon
loqe 1407/12/2008 soyr
140
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Subst|tut|on of Cand|dates
ln case of valld subsLlLuLlon afLer Lhe offlclal balloLs have been prlnLed Lhe
voLes
casL for Lhe subsLlLuLed candldaLes shall be consldered as sLray voLes buL
shall noL
49


lnvalldaLe Lhe whole balloL 1hls rule shall noL apply lf Lhe subsLlLuLe
candldaLe ls of Lhe
same famlly name (Sect|on 12 kA 9006) ee te cose of looo vs
cOMlc
A dlsquallfled candldaLe may only be subsLlLuLed lf he had a valld
cerLlflcaLe of
candldacy ln Lhe flrsL place because lf Lhe dlsquallfled candldaLe dld noL
have a valld
and seasonably flled CCC he ls and was noL a candldaLe aL all lf a person
was noL a
candldaLe he cannoL be subsLlLuLed under SecLlon 77 of Lhe CLC
%Mirondo vs boyo
6 No 1ll51 lu/y 28 1999)
ku|e Aga|nst remature Campa|gn|ng
1he use of lawful elecLlon propaganda ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe supervlslon and
regulaLlon of Lhe CCMLLLC ln order Lo prevenL premaLure campalgnlng
and Lo equallze
as much as pracLlcable Lhe slLuaLlon of all candldaLes by prevenLlng
popular and rlch
candldaLes from galnlng undue advanLage ln exposure and publlclLy on
accounL of Lhelr
resources and popularlLy
ovet vs OML 6 No 12777 uqust l1 2004 all propaganda
maLerlals
lncludlng adverLlsemenLs on prlnL ln radlo or on Lelevlslon showlng lmage
or
menLlonlng Lhe name of a person who subsequenL Lo Lhe placemenL or
dlsplay Lhereof
becomes a candldaLe for publlc offlce be lmmedlaLely removed
oLherwlse Lhls shall be
presumed as premaLure campalgnlng ln vlolaLlon of SecLlon 80 of Lhe CLC
CAS1ING CI VC1LS
(8ead SecLlons 190198 of CLC)
osLponemenL of LlecLlon (Sec 3 CLC)
Causes
1 vlolence
2 1errorlsm
3 Loss or desLrucLlon of elecLlon paraphernalla or records
4 lorce ma[eure
3 CLher analogous causes
CCMLLLC can posLpone Lhe elecLlon
loqe 1417/12/2008 soyr
141
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 MoLu proprlo or
2 upon a verlfled peLlLlon by any lnLeresLed parLy afLer due noLlce and
hearlng
CCMLLLC shall call for Lhe holdlng of Lhe elecLlon on a daLe reasonably
close Lo Lhe
daLe of Lhe elecLlon noL held suspended or whlch resulLed ln a fallure Lo
elecL buL noL
laLer Lhan 30 days afLer Lhe cessaLlon of Lhe cause for such posLponemenL
or
suspenslon of Lhe elecLlon or fallure Lo elecL
Ia||ure of L|ect|on (Sect|on 6 CLC)
recondlLlons for declarlng fallure of elecLlons
1 no voLlng has been held or elecLlon has been suspended before Lhe
hour
flxed by law for Lhe closlng of Lhe voLlng ln any preclncL because of
a lorce ma[eure
b vlolence
c 1errorlsm
d lraud
e CLher analogous cases
2 voLes noL casL are sufflclenL Lo affecL Lhe resulLs of Lhe elecLlons %@on
vs
OML 6 Nos 1485757 uecember 10 200l)
CCMLLLC shall call for Lhe holdlng or conLlnuaLlon of Lhe elecLlon noL
held
suspended or whlch resulLed ln a fallure Lo elecL on a daLe reasonably
close Lo Lhe daLe
of Lhe elecLlon noL held suspended or whlch resulLed ln a fallure Lo elecL
buL noL laLer
Lhan 30 days afLer Lhe cessaLlon of Lhe cause of such posLponemenL or
suspenslon of
Lhe elecLlon or fallure Lo elecL
1he cause for Lhe declaraLlon of a fallure of elecLlon may occur before or
afLer Lhe
casLlng of voLes or on Lhe day of Lhe elecLlon (8A 7166 Synchronlzed
naLlonal and
Local LlecLlons AcL)
1he posLponemenL declaraLlon of a fallure of elecLlon and Lhe calllng of
speclal
elecLlons shall be declded by Lhe CCMLLLC slLLlng en banc by a ma[orlLy
voLe of lLs
members (Sect|on 4 kA 7166 Synchron|zed Nat|ona| and Loca| L|ect|ons
Act)
8otobor vs OML 6 No 10428 lu/y 21 2004 Lhe power Lo
declare
a fallure of elecLlon ls vesLed excluslvely upon Lhe CCMLLLC x x x 1here ls
fallure of
elecLlon only when Lhe wlll of Lhe elecLoraLe has been muLed and cannoL
be ascerLalned
Loonq vs OML Lhe peLlLlon for annulmenL of elecLlon resulLs or Lo
declare
fallure of elecLlon ln arang Sulu on Lhe ground of S1A1IS1ICAL
IMkC8A8ILI1
loqe 1427/12/2008 soyr
142
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
and masslve fraud was granLed by Lhe CCMLLLC Lven before Lhe
Lechnlcal
examlnaLlon of elecLlon documenLs was conducLed Lhe cCMLLLC already
observed
badges of fraud [usL by looklng aL Lhe elecLlon resulLs ln arang
neverLheless Lhe
CCMLLLC dlsmlssed Lhe peLlLlon for annulmenL of elecLlon resulLs or Lo
declare fallure
of elecLlons ln Lhe munlclpallLles of 1apul angllma LsLlno aLa Slasl and
kallnggalang Calauag 1he dlsmlssal was on Lhe ground of unLlmellness of
Lhe peLlLlon
desplLe a flndlng LhaL Lhe same badges of fraud evldenL from Lhe resulLs of
Lhe elecLlon
based on Lhe cerLlflcaLes of canvass of voLes ln arang are also evldenL ln
Lhe elecLlon
resulLs of Lhe flve (3) menLloned munlclpallLles 1he SC ruled LhaL Lhe
CCMLLLC
commlLLed grave abused of dlscreLlon ln dlsmlsslng Lhe peLlLlon as Lhere ls
no law whlch
provldes a reglemenLary perlod Lo flle annulmenL of elecLlons when Lhere
ls yeL no
proclamaLlon 1he elecLlon resulLed ln a fallure Lo elecL on accounL of
fraud Accordlngly
Lhe CourL ordered Lhe CCMLLLC Lo relnsLaLe Lhe aforesald peLlLlon
8onoqo lr vs OML ll 5 701 Lhe clrcumsLances ln Lhe above
case are noL presenL ln Lhls case so LhaL rellance ln loooq by peLlLloner
8anaga ls
mlsplaced A prayer Lo declare fallure of elecLlon and a prayer Lo annul Lhe
elecLlon
30


resulLs are acLually of Lhe same naLure WheLher an acLlon ls for Lhe
declaraLlon of
fallure of elecLlons or for annulmenL of elecLlon resulLs based on
allegaLlons of fraud
Lerrorlsm vlolence or analogous cases Lhe CLC denomlnaLes Lhem
slmllarly
et|t|on to Dec|are Ia||ure of L|ect|on L|ect|on rotest
rA speclal acLlon under 8ule 26 Comelec
8ules of rocedure
ruockeL number sLarLs wlLh SA
rAn Ln 8anc declslon of Lhe CCMLLLC ln
a speclal acLlon becomes flnal and
execuLory afLer 3 days from promulgaLlon
unless resLralned by Lhe SC
rAn ordlnary acLlon under 8ule 20
Comelec 8ules of rocedure
ruockeL number sLarLs wlLh LC
rLn 8anc declslon of Lhe CCMLLLC ln an
ordlnary acLlon becomes flnal and
execuLory wlLhln 30 days from lLs
promulgaLlon
CCUN1ING CI VC1LS
loqe 14J7/12/2008 soyr
143
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r|nc|p|e of 8a||ot SecrecyvoLers are prohlblLed from exhlblLlng Lhe
conLenLs of Lhelr
offlclal balloLs Lo oLher persons from maklng coples Lhereof or from
puLLlng
dlsLlngulshlng marks Lhereon so as Lo be ldenLlfled 1he reason behlnd Lhls
ls Lo avold
voLe buylng Lhrough voLer ldenLlflcaLlon
ku|es for the Apprec|at|on of 8a||ots (Sect|on 211 CLC)a funcLlon of
Lhe 8oard
of LlecLlon lnspecLors
ln readlng and appreclaLlon of balloLs every balloL shall be presumed valld
unless
Lhere ls clear and good reason Lo [usLlfy lLs re[ecLlon ln Lhe appreclaLlon of
Lhe balloLs
Lhe ob[ecL should be Lo ascerLaln and carry lnLo effecL Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe
voLer lf lL could
be deLermlned wlLh reasonable cerLalnLy %erin vs 6onto/es 5l 5
2l7)
A balloL whlch has been casL carrles Lhe presumpLlon LhaL lL reflecLs Lhe
wlll of Lhe
voLer And Lhe purpose of Lhe elecLlon law ls Lo glve effecL raLher Lhan
frusLraLe LhaL wlll
lor Lhls reason exLreme cauLlon should be observed before a balloL ls
lnvalldaLed and
doubLs are Lo be resolved ln favor of Lhelr valldlLy
1 Where on|y f|rst name or surname |s wr|ttenLhe voLe for such
candldaLe ls
valld lf Lhere ls no oLher wlLh Lhe same name or surname for Lhe same
offlce
6ontoqo vs 5eo 7 5 741 where Lhere are 2 or more candldaLes
havlng
Lhe same flrsL name or Lhe same surname wrlLlng only Lhe flrsL name or
Lhe surname ls
noL a valld voLe for elLher of Lhe candldaLes ln order LhaL hls voLe may be
counLed Lhe
voLer should add Lhe correcL name surname or mlddle lnlLlal LhaL wlll
ldenLlfy Lhe
candldaLe for whom he ls voLlng
2 Where on|y f|rst name |s surname of another or where |ncumbent's
fu||
name f|rst name or surname |s same as anotherLhe flrsL parL of Lhe
rule Lhe
voLe ls counLed ln favor of Lhe candldaLe whose surname corresponds Lo
Lhe
word 1he second parL refers Lo a slLuaLlon where Lhere are 2 or more
candldaLes
one of whom ls an lncumbenL or reelecLlonlsL whose full name flrsL
name or
surname ls Lhe same as Lhe full name flrsL name or surname of Lhe oLher
candldaLe or candldaLes
Lxample Lhe lncumbenL's name ls Iose Santos whlle Lhe oLher's
candldaLe's name
ls Iose Santos or Iose Cruz or kona|do Santos A voLe for !ose SanLos wlll
be
loqe 1447/12/2008 soyr
144
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
counLed for Lhe lncumbenL candldaLe a voLe for !ose wlll be counLed ln
favor of Lhe
lncumbenL or a voLe for SanLos wlll be counLed ln favor of Lhe lncumbenL
candldaLe
3 Where cand|date |s a woman us|ng her ma|den or marr|ed surname or
both
wh|ch |s same surname of |ncumbenta balloL bearlng only such
surname
shall be counLed ln favor of Lhe candldaLe who ls an lncumbenL Where
none of
Lhe candldaLes ls an lncumbenL a balloL bearlng only such surname
cannoL be
counLed for any of Lhem
Where a balloL conLalns only Lhe malden surname of a candldaLe and
Lhere ls
anoLher candldaLe bearlng Lhe same surname such balloL shall be counLed
ln her favor
%onuiOmeqo vs 5omson 9 5 49l)
4 Where 2 or more words are surnames of 2 or more cand|dateswhen
2 or
more words are wrlLLen on Lhe same llne on Lhe balloL all of whlch are Lhe
surnames of 2 or more candldaLes Lhe same shall not be counLed for any
of
Lhem
Lxcept|ons
a unless one ls a surname of an lncumbenL ln whlch case lL shall be
counLed ln favor of Lhe laLLer
b lf Lhe word or words wrlLLen on Lhe approprlaLe blank on Lhe balloL ls
Lhe
ldenLlcal name or surname or full name as Lhe case may be of 2 or more
candldaLes for Lhe same offlce none of whom ls an lncumbenL Lhe voLe
shall be counLed ln favor of Lhe candldaLe Lo whose LlckeL all Lhe oLher
candldaLes voLed for ln Lhe same balloL for Lhe same consLlLuency belongs
c When 2 or more words are wrlLLen on dlfferenL llnes on Lhe balloL all of
whlch are Lhe surnames of 2 or more candldaLes bearlng Lhe same
surname for an offlce for whlch Lhe law auLhorlzes Lhe elecLlon of more
Lhan one and Lhere are Lhe same number of surnames wrlLLen as Lhere are
candldaLes wlLh LhaL surname Lhe voLe shall be counLed ln favor of all
candldaLes bearlng Lhe surname
3 Where s|ng|e word |s f|rst name of cand|date and surname of h|s
opponent
Lhe voLe shall be counLed ln favor of Lhe laLLer (surname of Lhe
opponenL)
%orpus vs lboy 84 Pi/ 184)
6 Where 2 words are wr|tten one of wh|ch |s the f|rst name of the
cand|date
and the other |s the surname of h|s opponentLhe voLe shall noL be
counLed
31


for elLher
loqe 1457/12/2008 soyr
143
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
7 Idem sonama name or surname lncorrecLly wrlLLen whlch when
read has a
sound slmllar Lo Lhe name or surname of a candldaLe when correcLly
wrlLLen shall
be counLed ln hls favor lL ls based on Lhe prlnclple LhaL Lhe mlsspelllng of
a name
or lack of sklll ln wrlLlng lL should noL be Laken as a ground for re[ecLlng
Lhe voLes
apparenLly lnLended for a candldaLe so long as Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe voLer
appears
Lo be clear 1hls rule ls llberally consLrued
8 kepet|t|on of names |n 2 or more ||newhen Lhe name of a candldaLe
appears
ln a space of Lhe balloL for an offlce whlch he ls a candldaLe and ln anoLher
space
for whlch he ls noL a candldaLe lL shall be counLed ln hls favor for Lhe
offlce for
whlch he ls a candldaLe and Lhe voLe for Lhe offlce for whlch he ls noL a
candldaLe
shall be consldered as sLray excepL when lL ls used as a means Lo ldenLlfy
Lhe
voLer ln whlch case Lhe whole balloL shall be vold
9 Lrroneous |n|t|a|Lhe erroneous lnlLlal of Lhe flrsL name accompanled
by Lhe
correcL surname of a candldaLe or Lhe erroneous lnlLlal of Lhe surname
accompanled by Lhe correcL flrsL name of a candldaLe shall noL annul Lhe
voLe ln
hls favor
10ref|xes or suff|xesballoLs conLalnlng preflxes such as Sr" Mr"
uaLu"
Pon" uon" or sufflxes !r" ll" are valld 1he use of Lhese preflxes
does noL
lnvalldaLe Lhe balloL Lhe voLe ls counLed ln favor of Lhe candldaLe whose
name ls
wlLh a preflx Lhe rule does noL apply where Lhe preflxes are used as
ldenLlfylng
marks
11Use of n|cknames and appe||at|onslf accompanled by Lhe flrsL name
or
surname of Lhe candldaLe does noL annul such voLe excepL when Lhey
are used
as a means Lo ldenLlfy Lhe voLer ln whlch case Lhe whole balloL ls lnvalld
Powever lf Lhe nlckname used ls unaccompanled by Lhe name or surname
of a
candldaLe and lL ls Lhe one by whlch he ls generally or popularly known ln
Lhe
locallLy Lhe name shall be counLed ln favor of sald candldaLe lf Lhere ls no
oLher
candldaLe for Lhe same offlce wlLh Lhe same nlckname
12Descr|pt|o ersonaelL does noL lnvalldaLe Lhe balloL
13Vote |n favor of d|squa||f|ed cand|datelL shall be consldered as sLray
voLe
and shall noL be counLed buL lL shall noL lnvalldaLe Lhe balloL
loqe 147/12/2008 soyr
146
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
/fonso vs OML 2l2 5 777 a voLe ln favor of a candldaLe
who dled [usL before Lhe elecLlon and was accordlngly subsLlLuLed by hls
daughLer
ls a sLray voLe and cannoL be counLed ln favor of Lhe laLLer Powever a
voLe casL
wlLh only Lhe famlly name can be counLed ln favor of Lhe daughLer who
bears
such name
Cert|f|cate of Votes
8o/indonq vs OML 27 5 57 Lhe CerLlflcaLe of voLes (Cv) ls
evldenced noL only of Lamperlng alLeraLlon falslflcaLlon or any oLher
anomaly ln Lhe
preparaLlon of Lhe elecLlon reLurns buL also of Lhe voLes obLalned by Lhe
candldaLes
6oroy vs OML 21 5 222 Lhe Cv can never be a valld basls for
canvass lL can only be evldence Lo prove Lamperlng alLeraLlon
falslflcaLlon or any oLher
anomaly ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe elecLlon reLurns concerned when duly
auLhenLlcaLed
A Cv does noL consLlLuLe sufflclenL evldence of Lhe Lrue and genulne
resulLs of Lhe
elecLlons only elecLlon reLurns are ln llke manner nelLher ls Lhe Lally
board sufflclenL
evldence of Lhe real resulLs of Lhe elecLlon
CANVASSING
Canvasslng 8odles
1 Congressfor resldenL and v
2 CCMLLLCSenaLors and 8eglonal Cfflclals
3 rovlnclal 8oard of Canvassersfor Congressmen Munlclpal Cfflclals
4 ulsLrlcL 8oard of CanvassersCongressmen Munlclpal offlclals
3 ClLy and Munlclpal 8CCCongressmen ClLy and Munlclpal offlclals
6 8arangay 8oard of Canvassers8arangay offlclals
CCMLLLC has dlrecL conLrol and supervlslon over Lhe 8oard of Canvassers
excepL Congress lL may moLu proprlo relleve aL any Llme and subsLlLuLe
any member of
Lhe board of canvassers (Sect|on 227 CLC)
roh|b|ted ke|at|onsh|p 8elaLed wlLhln Lhe 4Lh clvll degree by
consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
Lo any of Lhe candldaLes whose voLes wlll be canvassed by Lhe 8oard or Lo
any member
of Lhe same 8oard
qujetos vs 21 5 17 peLlLloners members of Lhe 8oard of
Canvassers
who proclalmed as Lhe 8Lh wlnnlng candldaLe one who dld noL obLaln Lhe
8Lh hlghesL
number of voLes may be crlmlnally prosecuLed for vlolaLlon of SecLlon 231
of Lhe CLC
fallure Lo proclalm Lhe wlnnlng candldaLe
loqe 1477/12/2008 soyr
147
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
kLkCCLAMA1ICN CCN1kCVLkSSect|on 241 CLC
Any quesLlon perLalnlng Lo or affecLlng Lhe proceedlngs of Lhe board of
canvassers whlch may be ralsed by any candldaLe or by any reglsLered
pollLlcal parLy or
coallLlon of pollLlcal parLles before Lhe board or dlrecLly wlLh Lhe
Commlsslon or any
maLLers ralsed under SecLlons 233 234 233 and 236 ln relaLlon Lo Lhe
preparaLlon
Lransmlsslon recelpL cusLody and appreclaLlon of Lhe elecLlon reLurns
%8ondo/o vs
OML 6 No 159l9 Morc l 2004)
CCMLLLC shall have excluslve [urlsdlcLlon over all preproclamaLlon
conLroversles (Sect|on 242 CLC)
8e/oc vs OML 6 No 145802 pri/ 24 2001 SecLlon 241 of Lhe
CLC
32


provldes LhaL a preproclamaLlon conLroversy refers Lo any quesLlon
perLalnlng Lo or
affecLlng Lhe proceedlngs of Lhe 8oard of Canvassers whlch may be ralsed
by any
candldaLe or by any reglsLered pollLlcal parLy or coallLlon of pollLlcal
parLles before Lhe
8oard or dlrecLly wlLh Lhe CCMLLLC
ln a preproclamaLlon conLroversy Lhe CCMLLLC as a rule ls resLrlcLed Lo
an
examlnaLlon of Lhe elecLlon reLurns and ls wlLhouL [urlsdlcLlon Lo go
beyond or behlnd
Lhem and lnvesLlgaLe elecLlon lrregularlLles
r1he pollcy conslderaLlon underlylng Lhe dellmlLaLlon of boLh subsLanLlve
ground
and procedure ls Lhe pollcy Lo deLermlne as qulckly as posslble Lhe resulL
of Lhe elecLlon
on Lhe basls of Lhe canvass
lL ls for Lhls reason LhaL preproclamaLlon conLroversles are mandaLed by
law Lo
be summarlly dlsposed of
lssues LhaL may be ralsed ln preproclamaLlon conLroversy
1 lllegal composlLlon or proceedlngs of Lhe board of canvassers
2 1he canvassed elecLlon reLurns (L8) are lncompleLe conLaln maLerlal
defecLs
appear Lo be Lampered wlLh or falslfled or conLaln dlscrepancles ln Lhe
same
reLurns or ln auLhenLlc coples Lhereof
loqe 1487/12/2008 soyr
148
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 1he L8s were prepared under duress LhreaLs coerclon or lnLlmldaLlon
or Lhey
are obvlously manufacLure or noL auLhenLlc
4 When subsLlLuLe and fraudulenL reLurns ln conLroverLed polllng places
were
canvassed Lhe resulLs of whlch maLerlally affecLed Lhe sLandlng of Lhe
aggrleved
candldaLes (Sect|on 243 CLC)
r Issues #s 2 3 and 4 are not app||cab|e to e|ect|on of res|dent V
Senators and Members of the nouse of
kepresentat|ves Cn|y #1 |s app||cab|e to them
Genera| ku|e CandldaLes and reglsLered pollLlcal parLles lnvolve ln an
elecLlon are
allowed Lo flle a preproclamaLlon cases before Lhe CCMLLLC
Lxcept|on reproclamaLlon cases are noL allowed ln elecLlons for
resldenL v
SenaLors and Members of Lhe PC8 Powever Lhls does noL preclude Lhe
auLhorlLy of
Lhe approprlaLe canvasslng body moLu proprlo or upon wrlLLen complalnL
of an lnLeresLed
person Lo correcL manlfesL errors quesLlon Lhe composlLlon or proceedlng
of Lhe board
of canvassers and Lo deLermlne Lhe auLhenLlclLy and due execuLlon of
cerLlflcaLes of
canvass as provlded ln SecLlon 30 of 8A 7166 as amended by 8A 9369
%Pimente/ lll
vs OML 6 No 17841l Morc 1l 2008)
man|fest errors"Lhe error musL appear on Lhe face of Lhe CerLlflcaLes
of Canvass or
LlecLlon 8eLurns soughL Lo be correcLed lL ls one LhaL ls vlslble Lo Lhe eye
or obvlous Lo
Lhe undersLandlng LhaL whlch ls open palpable lnconLroverLlble needlng
no evldence
Lo make lL more clear %Onoro vs OML 6 No 14894142 Morc
12 2002)
CorrecLlon of manlfesL errors has reference Lo errors ln Lhe elecLlon
reLurns ln Lhe
enLrles of Lhe sLaLemenL of voLes by preclncL per munlclpallLy or ln Lhe
cerLlflcaLe of
canvass Some of Lhe deflnlLlon glven for Lhe word manlfesL" are LhaL lL
ls evldenL Lo Lhe
eye and undersLandlng vlslble Lo Lhe eye LhaL whlch ls open palpable
and
lnconLroverLlble needlng no evldence Lo make lL more clear noL obscure
or hldden
%ue/o L/ono vs OML 6 No 152080)
spido/ vs OML 6 No 14922 October 11 2005 CCMLLLC ls
wlLh
auLhorlLy Lo annul any canvass and proclamaLlon lllegally made 1he facL
LhaL a
candldaLe lllegally proclalmed has assumed offlce ls noL a bar Lo Lhe
exerclse of such
power lL ls also Lrue LhaL as a genera| ru|e Lhe proper remedy afLer
proclamaLlon of Lhe
wlnnlng candldaLe for Lhe poslLlon conLesLed would be Lo flle a regular
elecLlon proLesL or
quo warranLo except where Lhe proclamaLlon ls null and vold Lhe
proclalmed
candldaLe's assumpLlon of offlce cannoL deprlve Lhe CCMLLLC of Lhe
power Lo declare
such proclamaLlon a nulllLy
loqe 1497/12/2008 soyr
149
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
5ondovo/ vs OML 6 No 1ll842 lonuory 2 2000 Lhe auLhorlLy
Lo rule on
peLlLlons for correcLlon of manlfesL error ls vesLed ln Lhe CCMLLLC Ln
8AnC SecLlon
7 of 8ule 27 of Lhe 1993 CCMLLLC 8ules of rocedure provldes LhaL lf Lhe
error ls
dlscovered before proclamaLlon Lhe board of canvassers may moLu
proprlo or upon
verlfled peLlLlon by any candldaLe pollLlcal parLy organlzaLlon or coallLlon
of pollLlcal
parLles afLer due noLlce and hearlng correcL Lhe errors commlLLed 1he
aggrleved parLy
may appeal Lhe declslon of Lhe board Lo Lhe CCMLLLC and sald appeal
shall be heard
and declded by Lhe CCMLLLC Ln 8AnC SecLlon 3 however of Lhe same
rule sLaLes
LhaL a peLlLlon for correcLlon of manlfesL errors may be flled dlrecLly wlLh
Lhe Commlsslon
en banc provlded LhaL such errors could noL have been dlscovered durlng
Lhe
canvasslng desplLe Lhe exerclse of due dlllgence and proclamaLlon of Lhe
wlnnlng
candldaLe had already been made
reroc|amat|on Controversy et|t|on for Ia||ure of L|ect|on
r 1here was elecLlon
rIur|sd|ct|on ulvlslon of a CCMLLLC
r Cnce proclalmed Lhe preproclamaLlon
shall be dlsmlssed
r 1here was no elecLlon
rIur|sd|ct|on CCMLLLC Ln 8anc
r
Loqumboy vs OML 1 5 175 Lhe elecLlon reLurn was an
obvlously
manufacLured reLurn 1he reLurns were palpably false as lL was lndeed
sLaLlsLlcally
33


lmprobable LhaL all Lhe elghL candldaLes of one parLy garnered all Lhe
voLes each of Lhem
recelved exacLly Lhe same number whereas all Lhe 8 candldaLes of Lhe
oLher parLy goL
preclsely noLhlng 1he Supreme CourL enunclaLed Lhe DCC1kINL CI
S1A1IS1ICAL
IMkC8A8ILI1 lL sLaLes LhaL where Lhere exlsLs unlformlLy of Lallles ln
favor of
candldaLes belonglng Lo one parLy and Lhe sysLemaLlc blanklng ouL of Lhe
opposlng
candldaLes as when all Lhe candldaLes of one parLy recelved all Lhe voLes
each of
whom exacLly Lhe same number and Lhe opposlng candldaLes goL zero
voLes Lhe
elecLlon reLurns are obvlously manufacLured conLrary Lo all sLaLlsLlcal
probablllLles and
uLLerly lmprobable and clearly lncredlble
r1he docLrlne applles only when Lhe lmprobablllLy ls shown on Lhe face of
Lhe L8 lLself
and wlLhouL regard Lo evldence ollooJe or Lo evldence ouLslde of Lhe
reLurn
loqe 1507/12/2008 soyr
130
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
S|mu|taneous rosecut|on of reroc|amat|on Controvers|es and
L|ect|on
rotests
1here ls no law or rule prohlblLlng Lhe slmulLaneous prosecuLlon or
ad[udlcaLlon of
preproclamaLlon conLroversles and elecLlon proLesLs Allowlng Lhe
slmulLaneous
prosecuLlon scenarlo may be explalned by Lhe facL LhaL preproclamaLlon
conLroversles
and elecLlon proLesLs dlffer ln Lerms of Lhe lssues lnvolved and Lhe
evldence admlsslble
ln each case and Lhe ob[ecLlve each seeks Lo achleve %@on vs OML
6 Nos
114l47 November 20 200)
|erc|ng the Ve|| of L|ect|on keturns
1he general rule ls LhaL a preproclamaLlon case before Lhe CCMLLLC ls
loglcally no longer vlable afLer a proclamaLlon has been made Powever
Lhls rule
admlLs of excepLlons as when Lhe proclamaLlon ls null and vold 1he
proclamaLlon of
peLlLloner ln Lhls case ls vold for Lhree (3) reasons 1) lL was based on a
canvass LhaL
should have been suspended wlLh respecL Lo Lhe conLesLed elecLlon
reLurns 2) lL was
done wlLhouL prlor CCMLLLC auLhorlzaLlon whlch ls requlred ln vlew of
Lhe unresolved
ob[ecLlons of 1allb Lo Lhe lncluslon of cerLaln reLurns ln Lhe canvass and 3)
lL was
predlcaLed on a canvass LhaL lncluded unslgned elecLlon reLurns lnvolvlng
such number
of voLes as wlll affecL Lhe ouLcome of Lhe elecLlon ln Lhls regard lL has
long been
recognlzed LhaL among Lhe rellefs LhaL Lhe CCMLLLC may granL ls Lo nulllfy
a
proclamaLlon or suspend Lhe effecL of one
lL ls a wellenLrenched rule ln [urlsprudence LhaL ln a preproclamaLlon
conLroversy Lhe 8oard of Canvassers and Lhe CCMLLLC are noL Lo look
beyond or
behlnd elecLlon reLurns whlch are on helr face regular and auLhenLlc
reLurns %loino/ vs
OML 6 No 174551 Morc 7 2007)
kCCLAMA1ICN
ln Lhe absence of an appeal Lhe 8oard of Canvassers shall proclalm Lhe
wlnner
LLLC1ICN CIILNSLS
roh|b|ted Acts (Sect|ons 261 262 CLC)
1 voLe buylng and voLe selllng
2 Consplracy Lo brlbe voLers
3 Wagerlng upon resulL of elecLlon
loqe 1517/12/2008 soyr
131
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
4 Coerclon of subordlnaLes
3 1hreaLs lnLlmldaLlon Lerrorlsm use of fraudulenL devlce or oLher forms
of coerclon
6 Coerclon of elecLlon offlclals and employees
7 AppolnLmenL of new employees creaLlon of new poslLlon promoLlon
glvlng of salary lncreases
8 lnLervenLlon of publlc offlcers and employees
9 undue lnfluence
10 unlawful elecLloneerlng
11 CLhers
rCood falLh ls noL a defense LlecLlon offenses are generally mala
prohlblLa roof of
crlmlnal lnLenL ls necessary Cood falLh lgnorance or lack of mallce ls noL a
defense Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe prohlblLed acL ls sufflclenL
Iur|sd|ct|on
1 lnvesLlgaLlon and prosecuLlonCCMLLLCLhe lnvesLlgaLlng offlcer
shall
resolve Lhe case wlLhln flve (3) days from submlsslon
2 1rlal and declslons
k1Cexcluslve orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon any crlmlnal acLlon or proceedlngs for
vlolaLlon of CLC
Lxcept|on offenses relaLlng Lo fallure Lo reglsLer or fallure Lo voLe (M1C)
rescr|pt|on 3 years from Lhe daLe of Lhelr commlsslon
LLLC1ICN CCN1LS1
Nature speclal summary proceedlngLo expedlLe Lhe seLLlemenL of
conLroversles
beLween candldaLes as Lo who recelve Lhe ma[orlLy of legal voLes
urpose Lo ascerLaln Lhe Lrue wlll of Lhe people
L|ect|on Laws how Construedlaws governlng elecLlon conLesLs musL be
llberally
consLrued Lo Lhe end LhaL Lhe wlll of Lhe people ln Lhe cholce of publlc
offlclals may noL
be defeaLed by mere Lechnlcal ob[ecLlons ln an elecLlon case Lhe courL
has Lhe
lmperaLlve duLy Lo ascerLaln by all means wlLhln lLs command who ls Lhe
real candldaLe
elecLed by Lhe elecLoraLe %ue/o L/ono vs OML 6 No 152080)
Cr|g|na| Lxc|us|ve Iur|sd|ct|on
1 Supreme CourL (L1)
r resldenL
r vlceresldenL
@ecson vs OML 6 No 114l4 Morc l 2004 Lhe word
conLesL" refers Lo elLher LlecLlon roLesL or Cuo WarranLo whlch are Lwo
loqe 1527/12/2008 soyr
132
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
(2) dlsLlncL posLelecLlon remedles 1hey have one ob[ecLlve le Lo unseaL
Lhe wlnnlng candldaLe
2 SenaLe LlecLoral 1rlbunal (SL1)
34


r SenaLors
3 Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves LlecLoral 1rlbunal (P8L1)
r Congressmen
4 CCMLLLC
r 8eglonal offlclals
r rovlnclal offlclals
r ClLy offlclals
3 8eglonal 1rlal CourL
r Munlclpal offlclals
6 MeLropollLan 1rlal courL Munlclpal ClrculL 1rlal CourL and Munlclpal
1rlal CourL
r 8arangay offlclals
r Sanggunlang kabaLaan
rP8L1 8ules of rocedure shall prevall over Lhe provlslons of Lhe Cmnlbus
LlecLlon
Code %Lototin vs n@ 18 5 l91)
Pimente/ lll vs OML 6 No 17841l Morc 1l 2008 Lhe SC has no
[urlsdlcLlon Lo enLerLaln a peLlLlon for cerLlorarl and mandamus on maLLers
whlch may be
Lhreshed ouL ln an elecLlon conLesL lL ls Lhe SL1 whlch has excluslve
[urlsdlcLlon Lo acL
on Lhe complalnL lnvolvlng as lL does a conLesL relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlon of
a now
member of Lhe SenaLe
Appe||ate Iur|sd|ct|on
1 lor declslons of 81C and M1Cappeal Lo CCMLLLC whose declslon
shall be
flnal and execuLor
2 lor declslons of CCMLLLCeLlLlon for 8evlew on CerLlorarl wlLh SC
wlLhln 30
days from recelpL of declslon on ground of grave abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng
Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon or vlolaLlon of due process
3 lor declslons of LlecLoral 1rlbunaleLlLlon for 8evlew on CerLlorarl
wlLh SC on
ground of grave abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or excess of
[urlsdlcLlon or
vlolaLlon of due process
AC1ICNS WnICn MA 8L IILLD
loqe 15J7/12/2008 soyr
133
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 LLLC1ICN kC1LS1flled by any candldaLe who has flled a CCC and
has
been voLed upon for Lhe same offlce on Lhe grounds of
r lraud
r 1errorlsm
r lrregularlLles or
r lllegal acLs commlLLed before durlng or afLer casLlng and counLlng of
voLes
rllled w|th|n 10 days from proclamaLlon of resulLs of elecLlon
Death of rotestantdoes noL necessarlly exLlngulsh an elecLlon proLesL
Poe vs rroyo P@ ose No 002 Morc 29 2005 Lhe wldow of Lhe
proLesLanL has no sLaLus of real parLy ln lnLeresL Lo subsLlLuLe or lnLervene
for Lhe laLLer
who dled durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe elecLlon proLesL
ue ostro vs OML 6 No 125249 ebruory 7 1997 an elecLlon
proLesL ls lmbued wlLh publlc lnLeresL whlch ralses lL onLo a plane over and
above
ordlnary clvll acLlons because lL lnvolves noL only Lhe ad[udlcaLlon of Lhe
prlvaLe lnLeresL
of Lhe rlval candldaLes buL also Lhe paramounL need of dlspelllng once and
for all Lhe
uncerLalnLy LhaL beclouds Lhe real cholce of Lhe elecLoraLe wlLh respecL Lo
who shall
dlscharge Lhe prerogaLlves of Lhe offlce wlLhln Lhelr glfL
vi//omor vs OML 6 No 1985 lu/y 21 200 Lhe flllng of an
elecLlon proLesL or a peLlLlon for quo warranLo precludes Lhe subsequenL
flllng of a preproclamaLlon
conLroversy or amounLs Lo Lhe abandonmenL of one earller flled Lhus
deprlvlng Lhe CCMLLLC of Lhe auLhorlLy Lo lnqulre lnLo and pass upon Lhe
LlLle of Lhe
proLesLee or Lhe valldlLy of hls proclamaLlon
2 UC WAkkAN1Cflled by any reglsLered voLer ln Lhe consLlLuency on
Lhe
grounds of
r lnellglblllLy or
r ulsloyalLy Lo Lhe 8epubllc
rllled w|th|n 10 days from proclamaLlon of resulLs of elecLlon
LLLC1ICN kC1LS1 UC WAkkAN1C
rA conLesL beLween Lhe defeaLed and
wlnnlng candldaLes based on grounds
of elecLlon frauds or |rregu|ar|t|es as
Lo who acLually obLalned Lhe ma[orlLy of
r8efers Lo quesLlons of d|s|oya|ty and
|ne||g|b|||ty of Lhe wlnnlng candldaLes
lL ls a proceedlng Lo unseaL Lhe
lnellglble person from offlce buL noL Lo
loqe 1547/12/2008 soyr
134
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhe legal voLes and Lherefore ls enLlLled
Lo hold Lhe offlce
rllled by flled by any candldaLe who
has flled a CCC and has been voLed
for
r A proLesLee may be ousLed and Lhe
proLesLanL may seaL ln Lhe offlce
vacaLed
lnsLall Lhe proLesLanL ln hls place
r llled by any reglsLered voLer ln Lhe
consLlLuency
r1he respondenL may be unseaLed buL
Lhe peLlLloner wlll noL be seaLed
%uumoyos lr vs OML 6 Nos 1419525l pri/ 20 2001)
uo Warranto |n L|ect|ve Cff|ce uo Warranto |n Appo|nt|ve Cff|ce
1he lssue ls Lhe ellglblllLy of Lhe offlcerelecL
Lhe courL or Lrlbunal cannoL declare
Lhe proLesLanL as havlng been elecLed
1he lssue ls Lhe legallLy of Lhe
appolnLmenL Lhe courL deLermlnes who of
Lhe parLles has legal LlLle Lo Lhe offlce
r1he perlod for flllng an elecLlon proLesL ls suspended durlng Lhe
pendency of a preproclamaLlon
conLroversy %6otco/ion vs OML 245 5 208)
CCUN1LkkC1LS1
A proLesLee may lncorporaLe ln hls answer a counLerproLesL lL ls
LanLamounL Lo a
counLerclalm ln a clvll acLlon and may be presenLed as a parL of Lhe
answer wlLhln Lhe
Llme he ls requlred Lo answer Lhe proLesL le wlLhln flve (3) days upon
recelpL of Lhe
proLesL unless a moLlon for exLenslon ls granLed ln whlch case lL musL be
flled before
Lhe explraLlon of Lhe exLended Llme
1he counLerproLesL musL be flled wlLhln Lhe perlod provlded by law
oLherwlse
Lhe forum loses lLs [urlsdlcLlon Lo enLerLaln Lhe belaLedly flled counLer
proLesL 1he perlod
33


Lo be observed ls wlLhln flve (3) days from Lhe Llme of Lhe recelpL of Lhe
copy of Lhe
proLesL 1he 3day perlod ls noL only mandatory requlremenL of Lhe law
buL also
[ur|sd|ct|ona| so LhaL Lhe courL ls ousLed Lo enLerLaln counLerproLesL
belaLedly flled
%ko vs OML 279 5 4l 5eptember 25 1997)
loqe 1557/12/2008 soyr
133
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
roncis kinq Morquet vs OML 6 No 127l18 uqust 25 1999
any
conLesL relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlon of members of Lhe Sanggunlang kabaLaan
(Sk)
lncludlng Lhe ChalrmanwheLher perLalnlng Lo Lhelr ellglblllLy or Lhe
manner of Lhelr
elecLlonls cognlzable by M1Cs MC1Cs and Me1Cs SecLlon 6 of
CCMLLLC
8esoluLlon no 2824 whlch provldes LhaL cases lnvolvlng Lhe ellglblllLy or
quallflcaLlon of
Sk candldaLes shall be declded by Lhe ClLy/Munlclpal LlecLlon Cfflcers
whose declslon
shall be flnal applles only Lo proceedlngs before Lhe elecLlon 8efore
proclamaLlon
cases concernlng Lhe ellglblllLy of Sk Cfflcers and members are cognlzable
by Lhe
LlecLlon Cfflcer 8uL afLer Lhe elecLlon and proclamaLlon Lhe same cases
become quo
warranLo cases cognlzable by M1Cs MC1Cs and Me1Cs 1he dlsLlncLlon ls
based on
Lhe prlnclple LhaL lL ls Lhe proclamaLlon whlch marks off Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe courLs from
Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of elecLlon offlclals
6ementito vs OML l5l 5 724 Morc 2001 Lhe CCMLLLC Ln
8AnC
shall declde moLlons for reconslderaLlon only for declslons" of a ulvlslon
meanlng
Lhose acLs of f|na| character 1he lnLerlocuLory order ruled by Lhe ulvlslon
of
CCMLLLC should be broughL up Lo Lhe Supreme CourL Lhru CerLlorarl
ku|e 3 Sect|on Sc of CCMLLLC ku|es of roceduresAoy motloo to
tecooslJet o Jeclsloo tesolotloo otJet ot tolloq of o ulvlsloo soll be
tesolveJ by te
commlssloo eo booc except motloos oo lotetlocototy otJets of te
Jlvlsloo wlc soll
be tesolveJ by te Jlvlsloos wlc lssoeJ te otJet
Cnly flnal orders of a ulvlslon may be ralsed before Lhe CCMLLLC en banc
ls ln
accordance wlLh Art|c|e IkC Sect|on 3 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon whlch
mandaLes LhaL only
moLlons for reconslderaLlon of flnal declslons shall be declded by Lhe
CCMLLLC en
banc
Counterrotest erroneous|y f||ed and accepted by the CCMLLLC
remedy
1 Lrase from Lhe record
2 CerLlorarl
Lxecut|on end|ng Appea|Lhe Lrlal courL may granL a moLlon for
execuLlon pendlng
appeal because Lhe mere flllng of an appeal does noL dlvesL Lhe Lrlal courL
of lLs
[urlsdlcLlon over a case and Lo resolve pendlng lncldenLs Slnce Lhe courL
and [urlsdlcLlon
Lo acL on Lhe moLlon aL Lhe Llme lL was flled LhaL [urlsdlcLlon conLlnued
unLll Lhe maLLer
was resolved and was noL losL by Lhe subsequenL acLlon of Lhe opposlng
parLy
%ddinq vs OML 24 5 502)
loqe 157/12/2008 soyr
136
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
uu/ce nn nofer vs n@ 6 No 1588ll Moy 12 2004 by Lhe very
naLure and
glven Lhe publlc lnLeresL lnvolved ln Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe resulL of an
elecLlon Lhe
conLroversles arlslng from Lhe canvasslng musL be resolved speedlly
oLherwlse Lhe wlll
of Lhe elecLoraLe wlll be frusLraLed
rocedural rules ln elecLlon cases are deslgned Lo achleve noL only a
correcL buL
also an expedlLlous deLermlnaLlon of Lhe popular wlll of Lhe elecLoraLe
Art|c|e VI
LLGISLA1IVL DLAk1MLN1
Leg|s|at|ve ower
lL ls Lhe power or compeLence of Lhe leglslaLlve Lo propose enacL ordaln
amend/alLer modlfy abrogaLe or repeal laws lL ls vesLed ln Lhe Congress
whlch shall
conslsL of a SenaLe and a Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves excepL Lo Lhe exLenL
reserved Lo
Lhe people by Lhe provlslon on lnlLlaLlve and referendum
SLNA1L nCUSL CI kLkLSLN1A1IVLS
Compos|t|on 1wenLyfour (24)
elecLed aL large by Lhe quallfled voLers
of Lhe hlllpplnes as may be provlded
by law
ua||f|cat|ons
Compos|t|on noL more Lhan 230 members
unless oLherwlse provlded by law conslsLlng
of
a D|str|ct kepresentat|ves
elecLed from leglslaLlve dlsLrlcLs
apporLloned among Lhe
loqe 1577/12/2008 soyr
137
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
a naLuralborn clLlzen of
Lhe hlllpplnes
b AL leasL LhlrLyflve (33)
years of age on Lhe day
of Lhe elecLlon
c Able Lo read and wrlLe
d 8eglsLered voLer
e 8esldenL of Lhe
hlllpplnes for noL less
Lhan 2 years lmmedlaLely
precedlng Lhe day of Lhe
elecLlon
1erm of off|ce 6 yearsshall
commence unless oLherwlse provlded
by law aL noon on Lhe 30Lh day of !une
nexL followlng Lhelr elecLlon
D|squa||f|cat|ons
a no SenaLor shall serve for
more Lhan 2 consecuLlve
Lerms volunLary
renunclaLlon of Lhe offlce for
36


any lengLh of Llme shall not
be consldered as an
lnLerrupLlon ln Lhe conLlnulLy
of hls servlce for Lhe full Lerm
for whlch he was elecLed
(Sect|on 4 Art|c|e VI)
b Cne who has been declared
by compeLenL auLhorlLy as
lnsane or lncompeLenL
c Cne who has been
senLenced by flnal [udgmenL
for
l Subverslon
ll lnsurrecLlon
lll 8ebelllon
lv Any offense for whlch
he has been senLenced
Lo a penalLy of noL more
Lhan 18 monLhs or
provlnces clLles and Lhe
MeLropollLan Manlla area (Sec
S par 1 Art|c|e VI)
b artyL|st kepresentat|ves
consLlLuLes 20 of Lhe LoLal
number of represenLaLlves
elecLed Lhrough a parLyllsL
sysLem of reglsLered naLlonal
reglonal and secLoral parLles or
organlzaLlon
c Sectora| kepresentat|ves1/2
of Lhe seaLs allocaLed Lo parLyllsL
represenLaLlves shall be fllled as
provlded by law by selecLlon or
elecLlon from Lhe
l Labor
ll easanL
lll urban poor
lv lndlgenous culLural
communlLles
v Women
vl ?ouLh and
vll Such oLher secLors as may be
provlded by law except Lhe
rellglous secLor
1erm of off|ce Lhree (3) years whlch shall
begln unless oLherwlse provlded by law aL
noon of !une 30 nexL followlng Lhelr
elecLlon
ua||f|cat|ons
1 naLuralborn clLlzen of Lhe
hlllpplnes
2 AL leasL 23 years of age on Lhe day
of Lhe elecLlon
3 Able Lo read and wrlLe
4 8eglsLered voLer ln Lhe dlsLrlcL ln
whlch he shall be elecLed except Lhe
parLyllsL represenLaLlves
3 8esldenL of Lhe dlsLrlcL for a perlod
of noL less Lhan 1 year lmmedlaLely
precedlng Lhe day of Lhe elecLlon
loqe 1587/12/2008 soyr
138
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
v A crlme lnvolvlng moral
LurplLude unless glven
plenary pardon or
granLed amnesLy
(SecLlon 12 8 881
Cmnlbus LlecLlon
Code)
L|ectora| 1r|buna| SenaLe
LlecLoral 1rlbunal (SL1)composed
of Lhree (3) Supreme CourL !usLlces
and slx (6) SenaLorsLo acL as sole
[udge of all conLesL relaLlng Lo elecLlon
reLurns and quallflcaLlons of Lhelr
respecLlve members
kemova| 1hru LxuLSlCn by
Lhe SenaLe wlLh Lhe concurrence of
LwoLhlrds (2/3) of all lLs members
(SecLlon 16 par 3 ArLlcle vl)
6 lor parLyllsL represenLaLlves or
organlzaLlons
a naLuralborn clLlzen of Lhe
hlllpplnes
b A reglsLered voLer
c A resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes
for a perlod of noL less Lhan
one (1) year lmmedlaLely
precedlng Lhe day of Lhe
elecLlon
d Able Lo read and wrlLe
e A bona flde member of Lhe
parLy or organlzaLlon whlch
he seeks Lo represenL for aL
leasL nlneLy (90) days
precedlng Lhe day of Lhe
elecLlon
f AL leasL 23 years of age on
Lhe day of Lhe elecLlon
g 1he pollLlcal parLy secLor
organlzaLlon or coallLlon musL
represenL Lhe marglnallzed
and underrepresenLed
groups
h MusL comply wlLh Lhe
declared pollcy of enabllng
llllplno clLlzens belonglng Lo
marglnallzed and
underrepresenLed secLors Lo
be elecLed Lo Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves
l 8ellglous secLor may noL be
represenLed ln Lhe parLyllsL
sysLem
[ A parLy or an organlzaLlon
musL noL be dlsquallfled
under Sec 6 8A 7941
k 1he parLy or organlzaLlon
musL noL be an ad[uncL of or
a pro[ecL organlzed or an
enLlLy funded or asslsLed by
Lhe governmenL
l 1he parLy musL noL only
comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs
loqe 1597/12/2008 soyr
139
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
of Lhe law lLs nomlnees musL
llkewlse do so
37


m noL only Lhe candldaLe parLy
or organlzaLlon musL
represenL marglnallzed and
underrepresenLed secLors so
also musL lLs nomlnees and
n 1he nomlnee musL llkewlse
be able Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe
formulaLlon and enacLmenL of
approprlaLe leglslaLlon LhaL
wlll beneflL Lhe naLlon as a
whole
Manner of Vot|ng (Sec 10 8A 7941) Lvery
voLer shall be enLlLled Lo Lwo (2) voLes (1) for
candldaLe for member of Lhe PC8 ln hls
leglslaLlve dlsLrlcL and (2) for Lhe parLy
organlzaLlons or coallLlon he wanLs
represenLed ln Lhe PC8 provlded LhaL a voLe
casL for a parLy organlzaLlons or coallLlon noL
enLlLled Lo be voLed for shall noL be counLed
D|squa||f|cat|ons
a Shall noL serve for more Lhan Lhree (3)
consecuLlve Lerms (Sec 7 ArLlcle vl)
b Cne who has been declared by
compeLenL auLhorlLy as lnsane or
lncompeLenL
c Cne who has been senLenced by flnal
[udgmenL for
l Subverslon
ll lnsurrecLlon
lll 8ebelllon
lv Any offense for whlch he
has been senLenced Lo a
penalLy of noL more Lhan
18 monLhs or
v A crlme lnvolvlng moral
LurplLude unless glven
plenary pardon or granLed
amnesLy (SecLlon 12 8
loqe 107/12/2008 soyr
160
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
881Cmnlbus LlecLlon
Code)
d Ior artyL|st kepresentat|ves
l lL ls a rellglous secL or
denomlnaLlon
organlzaLlon or
assoclaLlon organlzed for
rellglous purposes
ll lL advocaLes vlolence or
unlawful means Lo seek lLs
goal
lll lL ls a forelgn parLy or
organlzaLlon
lv lL ls recelvlng supporL from
any forelgn governmenL
forelgn pollLlcal parLy
foundaLlon organlzaLlon
wheLher dlrecLly or
Lhrough any of lLs offlcers
or members or lndlrecLly
Lhrough Lhlrd parLles for
parLlsan elecLlon
purposes
v lL vlolaLes or falls Lo
comply wlLh laws rules or
regulaLlons relaLlng Lo
elecLlons
vl lL declares unLruLhful
sLaLemenL ln lLs peLlLlon
vll lL has ceased Lo exlsL for
aL leasL one (1) year
vlll lL falls Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhe
lasL Lwo precedlng
elecLlons or falls Lo obLaln
aL leasL 2 of Lhe voLes
casL under Lhe parLyllsL
sysLem ln Lhe Lwo
precedlng elecLlons for Lhe
consLlLuency ln whlch lL
had reglsLered (Sect|on 6 kA
7941)
Canvass|ng 8oard CCMLLLC
L|ectora| 1r|buna| Pouse of 8epresenLaLlve
LlecLoral 1rlbunal (P8L1)composed of nlne
loqe 117/12/2008 soyr
161
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
(9) members 3 Supreme CourL !usLlces and
slx (6) members of Lhe CongressSect|on 17
Art VI
kemova| LxuLSlCn by Lhe Pouse wlLh Lhe
concurrence of LwoLhlrds (2/3) of all lLs
members (Sec 16 par 3 Art VI)
VacancySecLlon 9 ArLlcle vllo cose of vocoocy lo te eoote ot lo te
noose of
kepteseototlves o speclol electloo moy be colleJ to flll soc vocoocy lo te
moooet
ptesctlbeJ by low bot te eootot ot Membet of te noose of
kepteseototlves tos
electeJ soll setve ooly fot te ooexplteJ tetm
Sa|ar|esSecLlon 10 ArLlcle vl@e solotles of eootots ooJ Membets of
te noose
of kepteseototlves soll be JetetmloeJ by low -o locteose lo solJ
compeosotloo soll
toke effect ootll oftet te expltotloo of te foll tetm of oll te Membets of
te eoote ooJ
te noose of kepteseototlves opptovloq soc locteose
Inh|b|t|ons and roh|b|t|ons
a Incompat|b|e off|cemay noL hold offlce or employmenL ln
governmenL
durlng hls Lerm wlLhouL forfelLlng hls seaL
b Iorb|dden off|cemay noL be appolnLed Lo any offlce creaLed or
compensaLlon Lhereof lncreased durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch he was
elecLed
(Sec 13 ArLlcle vl)
c CannoL appear as counsel before any courL or before Lhe LlecLoral
1rlbunals
quasl[udlclal or oLher admlnlsLraLlve bodles
d Shall noL dlrecLly or lndlrecLly be flnanclally lnLeresLed ln any conLracL
wlLh
franchlse or speclal prlvllege granLed by Lhe governmenL
e Shall noL lnLervene ln any maLLer before any offlce ln governmenL for
hls
pecunlary beneflL or where he may be called upon Lo acL on accounL of hls
offlce (Sec 14 ArLlcle vl)
CCNILIC1 CI IN1LkLS1all members of Lhe SenaLe and Lhe PC8 shall
upon
assumpLlon of offlce make a full dlsclosure of Lhelr flnanclal and buslness
lnLeresLs
38


1hey shall noLlfy Lhe Pouse concerned of a poLenLlal confllcL of lnLeresL
LhaL may arlse
from Lhe flllng of a proposed leglslaLlon of whlch Lhey are auLhor
loqe 127/12/2008 soyr
162
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Incompat|b|e Cff|ceno SenaLor or member of Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves may
hold any oLher offlce or employmenL ln Lhe CovernmenL or any
subdlvlslon agency or
lnsLrumenLallLy Lhereof lncludlng governmenLowned or conLrolled
corporaLlons or Lhelr
subsldlarles durlng hls Lerm wlLhouL forfelLlng hls seaL
1he purpose ls Lo prevenL hlm from owlng loyalLy Lo anoLher branch of Lhe
governmenL Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe lndependence of Lhe leglslaLure and
Lhe docLrlne of
separaLlon of powers
1he prohlblLlon ls noL absoluLe whaL ls noL allowed ls Lhe slmulLaneous
holdlng of
LhaL offlce and Lhe seaL ln Lhe Congress Any leglslaLor may hold anoLher
offlce or
employmenL ln Lhe governmenL provlded he forfelLs hls poslLlon ln Lhe
Congress
lorfelLure of Lhe leglslaLor's seaL or cessaLlon of hls Lenure shall be
auLomaLlc
upon holdlng of Lhe lncompaLlble offlce
Iorb|dden Cff|ceno SenaLor or member of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves
shall be
appolnLed Lo any offlce whlch may have been creaLed or Lhe
emolumenLs Lhereof
lncreased durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch he was elecLed
WlLh Lhls even lf Lhe member of Lhe Congress ls wllllng Lo forfelL hls seaL
Lhereln
he may noL be appolnLed Lo any offlce ln Lhe governmenL LhaL has been
creaLed or Lhe
emolumenLs Lhereof have been lncreased durlng hls Lerm Such a poslLlon
ls forbldden
offlce 1he purpose ls Lo prevenL Lrafflcklng ln publlc offlce
1he provlslon does noL apply Lo elecLlve offlces
1he appolnLmenL of Lhe member of Lhe Congress Lo Lhe forbldden offlce ls
not
a||owed only durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch he was elecLed when such offlce
was creaLed or
lLs emolumenLs were lncreased AfLer such Lerm and even lf Lhe leglslaLor
ls reelecLed
Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon no longer applles and he may Lherefore be appolnLed
Lo Lhe offlce
r|v||eges
a Ireedom from arrestwhlle Congress ls ln sesslon for offense punlshed
by
noL more Lhan 6 years lmprlsonmenL (ArLlcle 143 8C Sec 11 ArL vl)
b Speech and Debate c|ausenoL Lo be quesLloned nor held llable ln any
oLher place for any speech or debaLe ln Congress or ln any commlLLee
Lhereof (SecLlon 11 ArLlcle vl)
(See dlscusslon under arllamenLary lmmunlLy)
loqe 1J7/12/2008 soyr
163
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rCompos|t|on and ua||f|cat|onsLhey are excluslve under Lhe prlnclple
of exptesslo
oolos est excloslo oltetlos wlLh Lhe resulL LhaL lL ls noL compeLenL for Lhe
Congress Lo
provlde by mere leglslaLlon for addlLlonal quallflcaLlons no maLLer how
relevanL Lhey may
be %Iostlce lsoqool ctoz llllpploe lolltlcol low%
ln Morcos vs OML 248 5 l00 Lhe CourL upheld Lhe quallflcaLlon
of
lmelda Marcos desplLe her own declaraLlon ln her cerLlflcaLe of candldacy
LhaL she had
reslded ln Lhe dlsLrlcL for only seven (7) monLhs because of Lhe followlng
a A mlnor follows Lhe domlclle of hls parenLs 1acloban became her
domlclle of
orlgln by operaLlon of law when her faLher broughL Lhelr famlly Lo LeyLe
b uomlclle of orlgln ls losL only when Lhere ls acLual removal or change of
domlclle a bona flde lnLenLlon of abandonlng Lhe former resldence and
esLabllshlng a new one and acLs whlch correspond wlLh Lhe purpose ln
Lhe
absence of clear and poslLlve proof of Lhe concurrence of all Lhese Lhe
domlclle of orlgln should be deemed Lo conLlnue
c 1he wlfe does noL auLomaLlcally galn Lhe husband's domlclle because
Lhe
Lerm resldence" ln Clvll Law does noL mean Lhe same Lhlng ln ollLlcal
Law
when Mrs Marcos marrled lerdlnand Marcos ln 1934 she kepL her
domlclle
of orlgln and merely galned a new home noL a Jomlclllom oecessotlom
d Lven assumlng LhaL she galned a new domlclle afLer her marrlage and
acqulred Lhe rlghL Lo choose a new one only afLer her husband dled her
acLs
followlng her reLurn Lo Lhe counLry clearly lndlcaLe LhaL she chose
1acloban
her domlclle of orlgln as her domlclle of cholce
oqui//o vs OML 6 No 151914 lu/y l1 2002 Lhe SC ruled LhaL
he
peLlLloner had noL been a resldenL of Cras LasLern Samar for aL leasL one
year prlor Lo
Lhe May 14 2001 elecLlons AlLhough Cras was hls domlclle of orlgln
peLlLloner losL Lhe
same when he became a uS clLlzen afLer enllsLlng ln Lhe uS navy lrom
Lhen on unLll
november 10 2000 when he reacqulred hlllpplne clLlzenshlp Lhrough
repaLrlaLlon
peLlLloner was an allen wlLhouL any rlghL Lo reslde ln Lhe hlllpplnes
ln oosi vs OML lL was held LhaL Lhe lmmlgraLlon Lo Lhe uS by vlrLue
of Lhe
acqulslLlon of a green card" consLlLuLes abandonmenL of domlclle ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
loqe 147/12/2008 soyr
164
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
kLU8LIC AC1 7941
AN AC1 kCVIDING ICk 1nL LLLC1ICN CI Ak1LIS1 kLkLSLN1A1IVLS
1nkCUGn 1nL Ak1LIS1 SS1LM AND AkCkIA1ING IUNDS
1nLkLICk
Nature of artyL|st System
1 1he parLyllsL sysLem ls a soclal Lool deslgned noL only Lo glve more law
Lo Lhe greaL
masses of our people who have less ln llfe buL also Lo enable Lhem Lo
become
verlLable lawmakers Lhemselves empowered Lo parLlclpaLe dlrecLly ln Lhe
enacLmenL
of laws deslgned Lo beneflL Lhem lL lnLends Lo make Lhe marglnallzed and
Lhe
underrepresenLed noL merely passlve reclplenLs of he SLaLe's
benevolence buL
39


acLlve parLlclpanLs ln he malnsLream of represenLaLlve democracy 1hus
allowlng all
lndlvlduals and groups lncludlng Lhose whlch now domlnaLe dlsLrlcL
elecLlons Lo
have Lhe same opporLunlLy Lo parLlclpaLe ln parLyllsL elecLlons would
desecraLe Lhls
lofLy ob[ecLlve and mongrellze Lhe soclal [usLlce mechanlsms lnLo an
aLroclous
veneer for LradlLlonal pollLlcs
2 Cruclal Lo Lhe resoluLlon of Lhls case ls Lhe fundamenLal soclal [usLlce
prlnclple LhaL
Lhose who have less ln llfe should have more ln law 1he parLyllsL sysLem
ls one
such Lool lnLended Lo beneflL Lhose who have less ln llfe lL glves Lhe greaL
masses of
our people genulne hope and genulne power lL ls a message Lo Lhe
desLlLuLe and
Lhe pre[udlced and even Lhose ln Lhe underground LhaL change ls
posslble lL ls an
lnvlLaLlon for Lhem Lo come ouL of Lhelr llmbo and selze Lhe opporLunlLy
Clearly Lherefore Lhe CourL cannoL accepL Lhe submlsslons xxx LhaL Lhe
parLyllsL
sysLem ls wlLhouL any quallflcaLlon open Lo all Such poslLlon does noL
only weaken
Lhe elecLoral chances of Lhe marglnallzed and underrepresenLed lL also
pre[udlces
loqe 157/12/2008 soyr
163
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhem lL would guL Lhe subsLance of Lhe parLyllsL sysLem lnsLead of
generaLlng hope
lL would creaLe a mlrage lnsLead of enabllng Lhe marglnallzed lL would
furLher
weaken Lhem and aggravaLe Lhelr marglnallzaLlon %nq 8oqonq 8oyoni
OJ
Lobor Porty vs OML 6 No 147589 lune 2 2001)
Inv|o|ab|e parameters to determ|ne the w|nners |n artyL|st e|ect|on
1 1he 1wenty ercent (20) A||ocat|onLhe comblned number of all
parLyllsL
congressmen shall noL exceed LwenLy percenL (20) of Lhe LoLal
membershlp of
Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlve lncludlng Lhose elecLed under Lhe parLyllsL
2 1he 1wo ercent (2) 1hresho|donly Lhose garnerlng a mlnlmum of
2 of
Lhe LoLal valld voLes casL for Lhe parLyllsL sysLem are quallfled Lo have a
seaL ln
Lhe PC8
3 1he 1hree (3) Seat L|m|teach quallfled parLy regardless of Lhe
number of
voLes lL acLually obLalned ls enLlLled Lo a maxlmum of 3 seaLs LhaL ls one
(1)
quallfylng and Lwo (2) addlLlonal seaLs
4 1he roport|ona| kepresentat|onLhe addlLlonal seaLs whlch a
quallfled parLy
ls enLlLled Lo shall be compuLed ln proporLlon Lo Lhelr LoLal number of
voLes"
%veterons ederotion Porty vs OML 6 No 1l781 October
2000)
Gu|de||nes for Screen|ng artyL|st art|c|pants
1 1he pollLlcal parLy secLor organlzaLlon or coallLlon musL represenL Lhe
marglnallzed and underrepresenLed groups ldenLlfled ln SecLlon 3 of 8A
7941 ln
oLher wordslL musL show ln lLs consLlLuLlon bylaws arLlcles of
lncorporaLlon
hlsLory plaLform of governmenL and Lrack recordLhaL lL represenLs and
seeks Lo
upllfL marglnallzed and underrepresenLed secLors verlly ma[orlLy of lLs
membershlp should belong Lo Lhe marglnallzed and underrepresenLed
And lL
musL demonsLraLe LhaL ln a confllcL of lnLeresL lL has chosen or llkely Lo
choose
Lhe lnLeresL of such secLors
2 1hey musL comply wlLh Lhe declared sLaLuLory pollcy of enabllng
llllplno clLlzens
belonglng Lo marglnallzed and underrepresenLed secLors x x x Lo be
elecLed Lo
Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves" ln oLher words whlle Lhey are noL
dlsquallfled
loqe 17/12/2008 soyr
166
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
merely on Lhe ground LhaL Lhey are pollLlcal parLles Lhey musL show
however
LhaL Lhey represenL Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe marglnallzed and
underrepresenLed
3 ln vlew of Lhe ob[ecLlons dlrecLed agalnsL Lhe reglsLraLlon of Aoq 8ooy
noyoooq
omobooq whlch ls allegedly a rellglous group Lhe CourL noLes Lhe
express
consLlLuLlonal provlslon LhaL Lhe rellglous secLor may noL be represenLed
ln Lhe
parLyllsL sysLem 1he prohlblLlon ls on any rellglous organlzaLlon
reglsLerlng as
pollLlcal parLy noL agalnsL a prlesL runnlng as a candldaLe
4 A parLy or organlzaLlon musL noL be dlsquallfled under secLlon 6 of 8A
7941
whlch enumeraLes Lhe grounds for dlsquallflcaLlon
3 1he parLy or organlzaLlon musL noL be an ad[uncL of or a pro[ecL
organlzed or an
enLlLy funded or asslsLed by Lhe governmenL 1he parLy or organlzaLlon
musL be a
group of clLlzens organlzed by clLlzens and operaLed by clLlzens lL musL
be
lndependenL of Lhe governmenL
6 1he parLy musL noL only comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe law lLs
nomlnees
musL llkewlse do so
7 noL only Lhe candldaLe parLy or organlzaLlon musL represenL
marglnallzed and
underrepresenLed secLors so also musL lLs nomlnees and
8 1he nomlnee musL llkewlse be able Lo conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe formulaLlon and
enacLmenL of approprlaLe leglslaLlon LhaL wlll beneflL Lhe naLlon as a
whole (nq
8oqonq 8oyoniOJ Lobor Porty vs OML 6 No 147589 lune
2 2001)
k/ot vs OML 6 No 1220l pri/ 24 2004 Lhe CCMLLLC has
Lhe
power Lo promulgaLe Lhe necessary rules and regulaLlons Lo enforce and
admlnlsLer
elecLlon laws 1hls power lncludes Lhe deLermlnaLlon wlLhln Lhe
parameLers flxed by
law of approprlaLe perlods for Lhe accompllshmenL of cerLaln preelecLlon
acLs llke flllng
peLlLlons for reglsLraLlon under Lhe parLyllsL sysLem 1hls ls exacLly whaL
Lhe CCMLLLC
dld when lL lssued lLs 8esoluLlon no 6320 declarlng SepLember 30 2003
as Lhe
deadllne for flllng peLlLlons for reglsLraLlon under Lhe parLyllsL sysLem
loqe 177/12/2008 soyr
60


167
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Chooslng arLyLlsL 8epresenLaLlvesLhey are proclalmed by Lhe
CCMLLLC based on
Lhe llsL of names submlLLed by Lhe respecLlve parLles organlzaLlons or
coallLlons Lo Lhe
CCMLLLC accordlng Lo Lhelr ranklng ln Lhe llsL
LffecL of change of afflllaLlon
Any elecLed parLyllsL represenLaLlve who changes hls pollLlcal parLy or
secLoral
afflllaLlon durlng hls Lerm of offlce sha|| forfe|t h|s seat provlded LhaL lf he
changes hls
pollLlcal parLy or secLoral afflllaLlon wlLhln 6 monLhs before an elecLlon he
shall noL be
ellglble for nomlnaLlon as parLyllsL represenLaLlve under hls new parLy or
organlzaLlon
vacancy ln case of vacancy ln Lhe seaL reserved for parLyllsL
represenLaLlves Lhe
vacancy shall be auLomaLlcally fllled by Lhe nexL represenLaLlve from Lhe
llsL of nomlnees
ln Lhe order submlLLed Lo Lhe CCMLLLC by Lhe same parLy organlzaLlon or
coallLlon
who shall serve for Lhe unexplred Lerm lf Lhe llsL ls exhausLed Lhe parLy
organlzaLlon or
coallLlon concerned shall submlL addlLlonal nomlnees
ititens 8ott/e qoinst orruption %l8) vs OML 6 No
17210l pri/
1l 2007 Lhe correcL formula ln ascerLalnlng Lhe enLlLlemenL Lo addlLlonal
seaLs of Lhe
flrsL parLy and oLher quallfled parLyllsL groups was clearly expllcaLed ln
veLerans
whereln Lhe mulLlpller used was Lhe number of addlLlonal seaLs allocaLed
Lo Lhe flrsL
parLy"
r LA8C DCC1kINLdocLrlne of Lhe re[ecLlon of Lhe second placernoL
appllcable ln
arLyLlsL SysLem
ApporLlonmenL of leglslaLlve ulsLrlcLs (SecLlon 3 paragraphs 3 and 4
ArLlcle vl)
Lach leglslaLlve dlsLrlcL shall comprlse as far as pracLlcable cont|guous
compact and ad[acent terr|tory Lach clLy wlLh a populaLlon of aL leasL
Lwo hundred
flfLy Lhousand (230000) or each provlnce shall have aL leasL one
represenLaLlve 1hls
ls lnLended Lo prevenL gerrymander|ng
Gerrymander|ngLhe creaLlon of represenLaLlve dlsLrlcLs ouL of separaLe
porLlons of LerrlLory ln order Lo favor a candldaLe
WlLhln Lhree (3) years followlng Lhe reLurn of every census Lhe Congress
shall
make a reapporLlonmenL of leglslaLlve dlsLrlcLs based on Lhe sLandards
provlded ln Lhls
secLlon
loqe 187/12/2008 soyr
168
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Moriono vs OML 6 No 11827 Morc 7 1995 Lhe CourL held
LhaL Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon does noL preclude Congress from lncreaslng lLs membershlp
by passlng a
law oLher Lhan a general apporLlonmenL law ln facL ln @obios vs bo/os
2l9 5
10 Lhe case lnvolved Lhe dlvlslon of San !uan and Mandaluyong lnLo Lwo
(2)
represenLaLlve dlsLrlcLs WlLh Lhe elevaLlon of Mandaluyong from
munlclpallLy lnLo a
hlghly urbanlzed clLy boLh Mandaluyong and San !uan were recognlzed by
8A 7673 as
dlsLlncL represenLaLlve dlsLrlcLs 1hls was challenged on Lhe ground LhaL
8A 7673 dld noL
menLlon any census lndlcaLlng LhaL San !uan and Mandaluyong had Lhe
mlnlmal
requlremenL of 230000 lnhablLanLs needed Lo consLlLuLe a dlsLrlcL
nelLher dld Lhe
challengers however glve any evldence LhaL Lhe respecLlve populaLlons of
each of Lhe
Lwo pollLlcal unlLs were less Lhan Lhe number requlred Pence Lhe courL
presumed LhaL
Congress had made due conslderaLlon of Lhe mlnlmum requlremenL lL
ruled LhaL
reapporLlonmenL of leglslaLlve dlsLrlcLs may be made Lhrough a speclal
law 1o hold LhaL
reapporLlonmenL can be made only Lhrough a general law would creaLe an
lnequlLable
slLuaLlon where a new clLy or provlnce creaLed by Congress wlll be denled
leglslaLlve
represenLaLlon for an lndeLermlnaLe perlod of Llme 1haL lnLolerable
slLuaLlon would
deprlve Lhe people ln Lhe clLy or provlnce a parLlcle of LhaL soverelgnLy
SoverelgnLy
cannoL admlL subLracLlon lL ls lndlvlslble lL musL be forever whole or lL ls
noL
soverelgnLy
ln Montejo vs OML lL was held LhaL whlle concededly Lhe
converslon of 8lllran
lnLo a regular provlnce broughL abouL an lmbalance ln Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of
voLers and
lnhablLanLs ln Lhe 3 dlsLrlcLs of LeyLe Lhe lssue lnvolves reapporLlonmenL
of leglslaLlve
dlsLrlcLs and eLlLloner's remedy lles wlLh Congress 1hls CourL cannoL
lLself make Lhe
reapporLlonmenL as peLlLloner would wanL
SLSSICNS (SecLlon 14 ArLlcle vl)
1 kegu|arconvene once every year 1he 4Lh Monday of !uly unLll 30
days before
Lhe sLarL of new regular sesslon (SecLlon 14 ArLlcle vl)ad[ournmenL ls
allowed
30 days before Lhe openlng of lLs nexL regular sesslonLhls ls
compulsory
2 Spec|a|
a Called by Lhe resldenL (Sec 13 ArLlcle vl)Lhe resldenL has Lhe
power
Lo call speclal sesslon wlLhouL Lhe call of resldenLlmpeachmenL
loqe 197/12/2008 soyr
169
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
b uue Lo a vacancy ln Lhe offlces of Lhe resldenL and v aL 1000 am on
Lhe 3rd day afLer Lhe vacancles (Sec 10 ArLlcle vll)
c ueclde on Lhe dlsablllLy of Lhe resldenL because Lhe ma[orlLy of all Lhe
members of Lhe CablneL has dlspuLed hls asserLlon LhaL he ls able Lo
dlscharge Lhe powers and duLles of hls offlce (SecLlon 11 par 3 ArLlcle
vll)
d 1o revoke or exLend Lhe resldenLlal roclamaLlon of MarLlal Law or
suspenslon of Lhe WrlL of Pabeas Corpus (SecLlon 18 arLlcle vll)
3 Io|nt
a voLlng separaLely
l Chooslng Lhe resldenL (SecLlon 4 ArLlcle vll)
61


ll ueLermlne Lhe resldenL's dlsablllLy (SecLlon 11 ArLlcle vll)
lll Conflrmlng nomlnaLlon of vlceresldenL (SecLlon 9 ArLlcle vl)
lv ueclarlng exlsLence of sLaLe of war (SecLlon 23 ArLlcle vl) and
v roposlng consLlLuLlonal amendmenLs (SecLlon 1 ArLlcle xvll)
b voLlng [olnLly
l 1o revoke or exLend proclamaLlon suspendlng Lhe prlvllege of wrlL
of habeas corpus (SecLlon 18 ArLlcle vll) and
ll 1o revoke or exLend declaraLlon of marLlal law (SecLlon 18 ArLlcle
vll)
4 Ad[ournmentnelLher Chamber durlng sesslon wlLhouL consenL of Lhe
oLher
ad[ourn for more Lhan 3 days nor any oLher place Lhan LhaL ln whlch Lhe
Lwo
Chambers shall be slLLlng (SecLlon 16 par 3 ArLlcle vl)
Ad[ournment S|ne D|eLhe lnLerval beLween Lhe sesslon of one Congress
and LhaL of
anoLher congress musL sLop Lhe clock" aL mldnlghL of Lhe lasL day of
sesslon ln order Lo
valldly pass a law
loqe 1707/12/2008 soyr
170
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r1he SenaLe ls a conLlnulng body whlle Lhe Pouse ls noL
DISCILINL CI MLM8LkS (Sect|on 16 par 3 Art|c|e VI)
Lach house may punlsh lLs members for dlsorderly behavlor and wlLh
concurrence of 2/3 of all lLs members suspend (for noL more Lhan 60
days) or expel a
member
1he lnLerpreLaLlon of dlsorderly behavlorls Lhe prerogaLlve of Lhe Pouse
concerned and cannoL be [udlclally revlewed
ln Osmeo vs Pendotun 109 Pi/ 8l Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe acLs
whlch
consLlLuLes dlsorderly behavlor ls wlLhln Lhe full dlscreLlonary auLhorlLy of
Lhe Pouse
concerned and Lhe CourL wlll noL revlew such deLermlnaLlon Lhe same
belng a pollLlcal
quesLlon
Members of Congress may also be suspended by Lhe Sandlganbayan or by
Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman %Poredes vs 5ndiqonboyon 6 No
118l4 uqust
10 1995 5ontioqo vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 128055 pri/ 18 2001)
1he suspenslon ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls dlfferenL from Lhe suspenslon
prescrlbed ln
kA 3019 AnLlCrafL and CorrupL racLlces AcL 1he laLLer ls noL a penalLy
buL a
prellmlnary prevenLlve measure and ls noL lmposed upon Lhe peLlLloner
for mlsbehavlor
as a member of Congress %Poredes vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 118l4
uqust
10 1995)
ln Miriom uefensor5ontioqo vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 128055 pri/
18
2001 SecLlon 13 of 8A 3019 (where lL appears Lo be a mlnlsLerlal duLy of
Lhe courL Lo
lssue Lhe order of suspenslon upon a deLermlnaLlon of Lhe valldlLy of Lhe
crlmlnal
lnformaLlon flled before lL) does noL sLaLe LhaL Lhe publlc offlcer should be
suspended
only ln Lhe offlce where he ls alleged Lo have commlLLed Lhe acLs charged
lurLhermore
Lhe order of suspenslon provlded ln 8A 3019 ls dlsLlncL from Lhe power of
Congress Lo
dlsclpllne lLs own ranks nelLher does Lhe order of suspenslon encroach
upon Lhe power
of Congress 1he docLrlne of separaLlon of powers by lLself ls noL deemed
Lo have
effecLlvely excluded Lhe members of Congress from 8A 3019 or lLs
sancLlons
AkLIAMLN1Ak IMMUNI1
loqe 1717/12/2008 soyr
171
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
A SenaLor or member of Lhe PC8 shall ln all offenses punlshable by noL
more
Lhan 6 years lmprlsonmenL be prlvlleged from arresL whlle Lhe Congress ls
ln sesslon
no member shall be quesLloned nor be held llable ln any oLher place for
any speech or
debaLe ln Lhe Congress or ln any oLher commlLLee Lhereof
1wo (2) klnds
a Ireedom from arrest or detent|onwhlle Congress ls |n sess|on for
offense punlshed by noL more Lhan 6 years lmprlsonmenL (ArLlcle 143
8C
Sec 11 ArL vl)lL ls lnLended Lo ensure represenLaLlon of Lhe
consLlLuenLs of
Lhe member of Lhe Congress by prevenLlng aLLempLs Lo keep hlm from
aLLendlng lLs sesslons 1he presenL ConsLlLuLlon adheres Lo Lhe resLrlcLlve
rule
mlnus Lhe obllgaLlon of Congress Lo surrender Lhe Member of Lhe Pouse
of
8epresenLaLlves Lo Lhe cusLody of law 1he requlremenL LhaL he should be
aLLendlng sesslons or commlLLee meeLlngs has also been removed lor
relaLlvely mlnor offenses lL ls enough LhaL Congress ls ln sesslon %Peop/e
vs lo/osjos l24 5 89 ebruory 20 2000)
"|n sess|on"noL day Lo day refers Lo Lhe enLlre duraLlon of Lhe sesslon
from
lLs openlng unLll lLs ad[ournmenL
b Speech and Debate c|ausenoL Lo be quesLloned nor held llable ln any
oLher place for any speech or debaLe ln Congress or ln any commlLLee
Lhereof (SecLlon 11 ArLlcle vl)lL enables Lhe leglslaLor Lo express vlews
bearlng upon Lhe publlc lnLeresL wlLhouL fear of accounLablllLy ouLslde Lhe
halls
of Lhe leglslaLure for hls lnablllLy Lo supporL hls sLaLemenLs wlLh Lhe usual
evldence requlred ln Lhe courL of [usLlce
|n any other p|ace"buL noL ln Lhe SenaLe or Congress lLself
Sect|on 16 par 3 Art|c|e VILach Pouse may deLermlne Lhe rules of lLs
proceedlngs punlsh lLs Members for dlsorderly behavlor and wlLh Lhe
concurrence of 2/3 of all lLs members suspend or expel a Member A
penalLy of
suspenslon when lmposed shall noL exceed 60 days
Peop/e vs lo/osjos l24 5 89 Lhe lmmunlLy from arresL or deLenLlon
of
SenaLors and Members of Lhe PC8 arlses from a provlslon of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon 1he
hlsLory of Lhe provlslon shows LhaL Lhe prlvllege has always been granLed
ln a resLrlcLlve
sense 1he provlslon granLlng an exempLlon as a speclal prlvllege cannoL
be exLended
loqe 1727/12/2008 soyr
172
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
beyond Lhe ordlnary meanlng of lLs Lerm lL may noL be exLended by
lnLendmenL
lmpllcaLlon or equlLable conslderaLlons x x x
62


8ecause of Lhe broad coverage of felony and breach of Lhe peace Lhe
exempLlon
applled only Lo clvll arresLs A congressman llke Lhe accusedappellanL
convlcLed under
1lLle 11 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code could noL clalm parllamenL lmmunlLy
from arresL Pe
was sub[ecL Lo Lhe same general laws governlng all persons sLlll Lo be Lrled
or whose
convlcLlons were pendlng appeal
1he presenL ConsLlLuLlon adheres Lo Lhe same resLrlcLlve rule mlnus Lhe
obllgaLlon
of Congress Lo surrender Lhe sub[ecL Congressman Lo Lhe cusLody of law
1he
requlremenL LhaL he should be aLLendlng sesslons or commlLLee meeLlngs
has also been
removed lor relaLlvely mlnor offenses lL ls enough LhaL Congress ls ln
sesslon
AccusedappellanL argues LhaL a member of Congress' funcLlon Lo aLLend
sesslons ls underscored by Sect|on 16 (2) Art|c|e VI of the Const|tut|on
whlch sLaLes
LhaL
%2% A mojotlty of eoc noose soll coostltote o pootom to Jo bosloess bot
o smollet oombet moy oJjooto ftom Joy to Joy ooJ moy compel te
otteoJooce of obseot Membets lo soc moooet ooJ ooJet soc
peooltles os soc noose moy ptovlJe
Powever Lhe accusedappellanL has noL glven any reason why he should
be
exempLed from Lhe operaLlon of SecLlon 11 ArLlcle vl 1he members of
Congress
cannoL compel absenL members Lo aLLend sesslons lf Lhe reason for
absence ls
leglLlmaLe a one 1he conflnemenL of a Congressman charged wlLh a crlme
punlshable
by lmprlsonmenL of more Lhan 6 years ls noL merely auLhorlzed by law lL
has
consLlLuLlonal foundaLlons
When Lhe voLers of hls dlsLrlcL elecLed Lhe accusedappellanL Lo Congress
Lhey
dld so wlLh full awareness of Lhe llmlLaLlons on hls freedom of acLlon 1hey
dld so wlLh
Lhe knowledge LhaL he could achleve only such leglslaLlve resulLs whlch he
could
accompllsh wlLhln Lhe conflnes of prlson 1o glve a more drasLlc
lllusLraLlon lf voLers
elecL a person wlLh full knowledge LhaL he ls sufferlng from a Lermlnal
lllness Lhey do so
knowlng LhaL any Llme he may no longer serve hls full Lerm ln offlce
LkLCU1IVL kIVILLGL Var|et|es of
lL ls Lhe power of Lhe governmenL Lo wlLhhold lnformaLlon from Lhe
publlc Lhe
courLs and Lhe Congress %cwottz%
loqe 17J7/12/2008 soyr
173
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lL ls also Lhe rlghL of Lhe resldenL and hlghlevel execuLlve branch offlcers
Lo
wlLhhold lnformaLlon from Congress Lhe courLs and ulLlmaLely Lhe publlc
%kozell%
1 SLaLe secreL prlvllegelnvoked by resldenLs on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe
lnformaLlon ls of such naLure LhaL lLs dlsclosure would subverL cruclal
mlllLary
or dlplomaLlc ob[ecLlve
2 lnformer's prlvllegeprlvllege of Lhe governmenL noL Lo dlsclose Lhe
ldenLlLy of
persons who furnlsh lnformaLlon ln vlolaLlons of law Lo offlcers charged
wlLh
Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe law
3 Cenerlc prlvllegefor lnLernal dellberaLlons has been sald Lo aLLach Lo
lnLragovernmenLal
documenLs reflecLlng advlsory oplnlons recommendaLlons and
dellberaLlons comprlslng parL of a process by whlch governmenLal
declslons
and pollcles are formulaLed
ln deLermlnlng Lhe valldlLy of a clalm of prlvllege Lhe quesLlon LhaL musL
be asked
ls noL only wheLher Lhe requesLed lnformaLlon falls wlLhln one of Lhe
LradlLlonal prlvlleges
buL also wheLher LhaL prlvllege should be honored ln a glven procedural
seLLlng
5enote vs rmito 6 No 19777 pri/ 20 200 execuLlve prlvllege
wheLher asserLed agalnsL Congress Lhe courLs or Lhe publlc ls recognlzed
only ln
relaLlon Lo cerLaln Lypes of lnformaLlon of a senslLlve characLer Whlle
execuLlve prlvllege
ls a consLlLuLlonal concepL a clalm Lhereof may be valld or noL dependlng
on Lhe ground
lnvoked Lo [usLlfy lL and Lhe conLexL ln whlch lL ls made noLlceably absenL
ls any
recognlLlon LhaL execuLlve offlclals are exempL from Lhe duLy Lo dlsclose
lnformaLlon by
Lhe mere facL of belng execuLlve offlclals lndeed Lhe exLraordlnary
characLer of Lhe
exempLlons lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe presumpLlon lncllnes heavlly aga|nst
execuLlve secrecy
and ln favor of dlsclosure
rGenera| ru|e ulSCLCSu8L(pollcy on Lransparency)
Lxcept|ons ulsclosure would subverL cruclal dlplomaLlc or mlllLary
ob[ecLlve
1 Supreme CourL
2 LxecuLlve SecreLary
3 resldenLmusL lnvoke execuLlve prlvllege
loqe 1747/12/2008 soyr
174
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
PO@OOL u LO@ua flnal acL an lnsLrumenL whlch records Lhe
wlndlng up of
Lhe proceedlngs of a dlplomaLlc conference and usually lncludes a
reproducLlon of Lhe
LexL of LreaLles convenLlons recommendaLlons and oLher acLs agreed
upon and slgned
by Lhe plenlpoLenLlarles aLLendlng Lhe conference lL ls noL Lhe LreaLy
lLself lL ls raLher a
summary of Lhe proceedlngs of a proLracLed conference whlch may have
Laken place
over several years lL wlll noL requlre Lhe concurrence of Lhe SenaLe 1he
documenLs
conLalned Lhereln are deemed adopLed wlLhouL need for raLlflcaLlon
%@oodo vs
nqoro 272 5 18 1997)
Comm|ss|on on Appo|ntments(SecLlon 18 ArLlcle vl)
1he Commlsslon ls lndependenL of Lhe Lwo Pouses of Congress lLs
employees
are noL Lechnlcally employees of Congress lL has Lhe power Lo
promulgaLe lLs own
rules of proceedlngs
owers AcL on all appolnLmenLs submlLLed Lo lL wlLhln 30 sesslon days of
Congress
from Lhelr submlsslon Lo acL on resldenLlal appolnLmenLs has power Lo
promulgaLe lLs
63


own rules of proceedlngs
ComposlLlon
rSenaLe resldenLacLs as LxCfflclo Chalrman
r12 SenaLors and 12 Members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves elecLed
by each house
on Lhe basls of proporLlonal represenLaLlon from Lhe pollLlcal parLles and
organlzaLlons
reglsLered under Lhe parLyllsL sysLem represenLed Lhereln
rChalrman shall noL voLe except ln case of a Lle
ln 6uinqono vs 6onto/es 214 5 789 a pollLlcal parLy musL have aL
leasL
Lwo (2) elecLed senaLors for every seaL ln Lhe Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenLs 1hus
where Lhere are Lwo or more pollLlcal parLles represenLed ln Lhe SenaLe a
pollLlcal
parLy/coallLlon wlLh a slngle senaLor ln Lhe SenaLe cannoL consLlLuLlonally
clalm a seaL ln
Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs lL ls noL mandaLory Lo elecL 12 senaLors
Lo Lhe
Commlsslon whaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon requlres ls LhaL Lhere musL be aL leasL
a ma[orlLy of
Lhe enLlre membershlp
CWLkS CI CCNGkLSS
ClasslflcaLlon
loqe 1757/12/2008 soyr
173
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 LLGISLA1IVL
r Ceneral plenary power
r Speclflc power of approprlaLlon
r 1axaLlon and exproprlaLlon
r LeglslaLlve lnvesLlgaLlons (SecLlon 21 ArL vl) and
r CuesLlon hour (SecLlon 22 ArL vl)
2 NCNLLGISLA1IVLlncludes power Lo
r Canvass presldenLlal elecLlon (SecLlon 4 ArL vll)
r ueclare Lhe exlsLence of sLaLe of war (SecLlon 23 par1 ArL vl)
r Lxerclse delegaLlon of emergency powers
r Call speclal elecLlon for resldenL and v (SecLlon 10 ArL vll)
r Clve concurrence Lo LreaLles and amnesLles (SecLlons 19 and 21 ArL
vll)
r ropose consLlLuLlonal amendmenLs (consLlLuenL power) (SecLlons 12
ArL xvll)
r Conflrm cerLaln appolnLmenLs (SecLlon 9 and 16 ArL vll)
r lmpeach (SecLlon 2 ArL xl)
r ueclde Lhe dlsablllLy of resldenL because ma[orlLy of Lhe CablneL
dlspuLes hls
asserLlon LhaL he ls able Lo dlscharge hls duLles (SecLlon 11 ArL vll)
r 8evoke or exLend proclamaLlon of suspenslon of prlvllege of wrlL of
habeas corpus or
declaraLlon of marLlal law (SecLlon 18 ArL vll)
r SeL Lhe rules regardlng Lhe uLlllzaLlon of naLural resources (SecLlon 2
ArL xll)
LlmlLaLlons on Lhe owers of Congress
1 Su8S1An1lvL
a Lxpress
l 8lll of 8lghLs (ArLlcle lll)
ll Cn ApproprlaLlons (SecLlons 23 and 29 paragraphs 1 and 2 ArLlcle vl)
lll Cn LaxaLlon (SecLlons 28 and 29 paragraph 3 ArLlcle vl)
lv Cn ConsLlLuLlonal appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon of SC (SecLlon 30 ArLlcle vl)
v no law granLlng LlLle of royalLy or noblllLy shall be passed (SecLlon 31
ArLlcle vl)
vl no speclflc funds shall be approprlaLed or pald for use or beneflL of any
rellglon secL eLc excepL for prlesLs eLc asslgned Lo Al penal
lnsLlLuLlons eLc (SecLlons 29 paragraph 2 ArLlcle vl)
b lmplled
l rohlblLlon agalnsL lrrepealable laws
ll nondelegaLlon of powers
2 8CCLuu8AL
a C nly one sub[ecL Lo be sLaLed ln Lhe LlLle of Lhe blll (Sec 26 par 1
ArLlcle vl)
loqe 177/12/2008 soyr
176
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
b 1 hree (3) readlngs on separaLe days prlnLed coples of Lhe blll ln lLs flnal
form
dlsLrlbuLed Lo members 3 days before lLs passage excepL lf resldenL
cerLlfles Lo
lLs lmmedlaLe enacLmenL Lo meeL a publlc calamlLy or emergency upon lLs
lasL
readlng no amendmenL allowed and Lhe voLe Lhereon Laken lmmedlaLely
and Lhe
yeas and nays enLered lnLo Lhe !ournal (SecLlon 26 paragraph 2 ArLlcle vl
c ApproprlaLlon revenue and Larlff bllls shall orlglnaLe excluslvely ln Lhe
Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves loqe 1777/12/2008
soyr
177
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
now a b||| becomes a |aw?
1 Approved and slgned by Lhe resldenL
2 resldenLlal veLo overrldden by 2/3 voLes of a|| Lhe members of boLh
Pouses
3 lallure of Lhe resldenL Lo veLo Lhe blll and Lo reLurn lL wlLh hls
ob[ecLlons Lo Lhe
Pouse where lL orlglnaLed wlLhln 30 days afLer Lhe daLe of recelpL
4 A blll calllng a speclal elecLlon for resldenL and vlceresldenL under
SecLlon
10 ArLlcle vll becomes a law upon Lhlrd and flnal readlng
8|||s exc|us|ve|y or|g|nated |n the nouse of kepresentat|ve (AkIL)
1 ApproprlaLlon bllls
2 rlvaLe bllls
3 kevenue or Larlff bllls
4 8llls auLhorlzlng Increase ln publlc debLs and
3 8llls of Local appllcaLlon
Powever alLhough Lhese bllls are requlred Lo orlglnaLe excluslvely ln Lhe
Pouse
of 8epresenLaLlves Lhe SenaLe may propose or concur wlLh amendmenLs
(Sec 24 Art
VI) AmendmenLs may lnclude amendmenLs by subsLlLuLlon %@o/entino vs
5ecretory
of inonce)
WhaL ls requlred Lo orlglnaLe excluslvely ln Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves ls
Lhe
blll noL Lhe law lLself %@o/entino vs 5ecretory of inonce)
rlf Lhe nays prevall Lhen lL ls abouL Llme LhaL a new blcameral commlLLee
be
creaLed unLll Lhe blll wlll be accepLed by boLh houses (8lll ls noL kllled)
rlf yeas prevall Lhe blll ls slgned by Lhe LxecuLlve SecreLary
1wo (2) 8ules Lo be observedSecLlon 26 ArLlcle vl
1 Cne (1) sub[ecL Cne (1) 1lLle 8uleLo prevenL kIDLkSLoLally
unrelaLed maLLers
2 1hree (3) 8eadlngs on SeparaLe uays
Lxcept when Lhe resldenL cerLlfles Lo Lhe necesslLy of Lhe lmmedlaLe
enacLmenL of
Lhe blll Lo meeL Lhe publlc calamlLy and emergency rpollLlcal quesLlon
noL sub[ecL Lo
64


[udlclal revlew
Sect|on 26 (par 1) Art|c|e VIevety blll posseJ by te cooqtess soll
embtoce ooly
ooe sobject wlc soll be exptesseJ lo te tltle teteof
loqe 1787/12/2008 soyr
178
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he ob[ecLlves of Lhe above provlslon are
1 1o prevenL hodgepodge or logrolllng leglslaLlon
2 1o prevenL surprlse or fraud upon Lhe leglslaLure by means of provlslons
ln
bllls of whlch Lhe LlLles gave no lnformaLlon and whlch mlghL Lherefore be
overlooked and carelessly and unlnLenLlonally adopLed and
3 1o falrly appralse Lhe people Lhrough such publlcaLlon of leglslaLlve
proceedlngs as ls usually made of Lhe sub[ecLs of leglslaLlon LhaL are belng
consldered ln order LhaL Lhey may have opporLunlLy of belng heard
Lhereon by
peLlLlon or oLherwlse lf Lhey shall so deslre
rLlLeral lnLerpreLaLlonLhe sub[ecL or LlLle need noL be an lndex or
caLalogue lL musL be
germane and relaLed Lo Lhe sub[ecL maLLer
qripino ue 6utmon lr et o/ vs OML 6 No 129118 lu/y 19
2000
SecLlon 26 (1) ArLlcle vl ls sufflclenLly complled wlLh where Lhe LlLle ls
comprehenslve
enough Lo embrace Lhe general ob[ecLlve lL seeks Lo achleve and lf all Lhe
parLs of Lhe
sLaLuLe are relaLed and germane Lo Lhe sub[ecL maLLer embodled ln Lhe
LlLle or so long as
Lhe same are noL lnconslsLenL wlLh or forelgn Lo Lhe general sub[ecL and
LlLle
Sect|on 26 par 2 of Art|c|e VI-o blll posseJ by eltet noose soll
become o low
ooless lt os posseJ ttee teoJloqs oo sepotote Joys ooJ ptloteJ coples
teteof lo lts
flool fotm ove beeo JlsttlboteJ to lts Membets ttee Joys befote lts
possoqe except
weo te lteslJeot cettlfles to te oecesslty of lts lmmeJlote eooctmeot to
meet o
pobllc colomlty ot emetqeocy
LNkCLLLD 8ILL DCC1kINL
lL ls one duly lnLroduced and flnally passed by boLh houses auLhenLlcaLed
by Lhe
proper offlcer of each and approved by Lhe resldenL lL ls concluslve
upon Lhe courLs
as regards Lhe Lenor of Lhe measure passed by Congress and approved by
Lhe
resldenL
Cnce Lhe blll becomes an enrolled blll lL ls concluslve upon Lhe courL of lLs
due
enacLmenL CourLs may no longer valldly lnqulre lnLo Lhe blll because of
Lhe docLrlne of
separaLlon of powers
osco %Pi/) emico/ o vs 6imenet 7 5 l47 lf a mlsLake was made
ln Lhe prlnLlng of Lhe blll before lL was cerLlfled by Congress and approved
by Lhe
resldenL Lhe remedy ls amendmenL or correcLlve leglslaLlon noL a
[udlclal decree
loqe 1797/12/2008 soyr
179
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he enrolled blll rule resLs on Lhe followlng conslderaLlons
x x x As te lteslJeot os oo oototlty to opptove o blll oo posseJ by
cooqtess oo eotolleJ oct lo te costoJy of te ectetoty of tote ooJ
ovloq
te offlclol ottestotloos of te peoket of te noose of kepteseototlves of
te
lteslJeot of te eoote ooJ of te lteslJeot of te uolteJ totes cottles
oo lts
foce o solemo ossotooce by te leqlslotlve ooJ execotlve Jepottmeots of
te
qovetomeot cotqeJ tespectlvely wlt te Joty of eooctloq ooJ
execotloq te
lows tot lt wos posseJ by te cooqtess te tespect Joe to coepool ooJ
loJepeoJeot Jepottmeots tepoltes te joJlclol Jepottmeot to oct opoo te
ossotooce ooJ to occept os ovloq posseJ cooqtess oll bllls
ooteotlcoteJ lo
te moooet stoteJ leovloq te coott to Jetetmloe weo te poestloo
ptopetly
otlses wetet te Act so ooteotlcoteJ ls lo coofotmlty wlt te
coostltotloo
%Morso// ie/d o vs /ork 14l u5 49)
8ICAMLkAL CCNILkLNCL CCMMI11LLLhe mechanlsm for
compromlslng
dlfferences beLween Lhe SenaLe and Lhe Pousecapable of produclng
unexpecLed
resulLblll wlll have Lo be senL back Lo boLh houses and sub[ecL Lo
voLaLlon
A conference commlLLee may deal generally wlLh Lhe sub[ecL maLLer or lL
may be
llmlLed Lo resolvlng Lhe preclse dlfferences beLween Lhe Lwo houses Lven
where Lhe
conference commlLLee ls noL by rule llmlLed ln lLs [urlsdlcLlon leglslaLlve
cusLom severely
llmlLs Lhe freedom wlLh whlch new sub[ecL maLLer can be lnserLed ln Lo
Lhe conference
blll 8uL occaslonally lL produces unexpecLed resulLs resulLs beyond lLs
mandaLe 1hese
e4xcurslons occurs even where Lhe rules lmpose sLrlcL llmlLaLlons on
conference
commlLLee [urlsdlcLlon 1hls ls sympLomaLlc of an auLhorlLarlan power of
conference
commlLLee %Pi/ippine ludqes ssociotion vs Prodo 227 5 70l
November
11 199l)
DCC1kINL CI SnII1ING MAICkI1
lor each house Lo pass a blll only Lhe voLes of Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhose
presenL ln
Lhe sesslon Lhere belng a quorum ls requlred
uorumA ma[orlLy of each Pouse buL a smaller number may ad[ourn
from day Lo day
and may compel Lhe aLLendance of absenL members ln such manner and
under such
penalLles as such house may deLermlne
loqe 1807/12/2008 soyr
180
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ve/ino vs uenco 8l Pi/ 17 Lhe basls ln deLermlnlng Lhe exlsLence of a
quorum ln Lhe SenaLe shall be Lhe LoLal number of SenaLors who are ln Lhe
counLry and
wlLhln Lhe coerclve [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe SenaLe
rroyo vs ue venecio 6 No 127255 lune 2 1998 Lhe SC declared
LhaL
Lhe quesLlon of quorum cannoL be ralsed repeaLedly especlally when a
quorum ls
obvlously presenL for Lhe purpose of delaylng Lhe buslness of Lhe Pouse
63


LLGISLA1IVL ICUkNALregarded as concluslve wlLh respecL Lo maLLers
LhaL are
requlred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo be recorded Lhereln WlLh respecL Lo oLher
maLLers ln Lhe
absence of evldence Lo Lhe conLrary Lhe [ournals have also been accorded
concluslve
effecLs 1hus ln u5 vs Pons Lhls CourL spoke of Lhe lmperaLlves of publlc
pollcy for
regardlng Lhe !ournals as publlc memorlals of Lhe mosL permanenL
characLer" Lhus
1hey should be publlc because all are requlred Lo conform Lo Lhem Lhey
should be
permanenL LhaL rlghLs acqulred Loday upon Lhe falLh of whaL has been
declared Lo be
law shall noL be desLroyed Lomorrow or aL some remoLe perlod of Llme
by facLs resLlng
only ln memory of lndlvlduals %rroyo vs ue venecio 277 5 28)
MaLLers LhaL are requlred Lo be enLered on Lhe !ournal
1 1he yeas and nays on Lhe 3rd and flnal readlng of a blll
2 1he yeas and nays on any quesLlon aL Lhe requesL of 1/3 of Lhe
members
presenL
3 1he yeas and nays upon repasslng a blll over Lhe resldenL's veLo and
4 1he resldenL's ob[ecLlon Lo a blll he had veLoed %rroyo vs ue
venecio 277
5 28)
Iourna| entry vs enro||ed b|||
Lnrolled blll prevalls excepL Lo maLLers whlch under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
musL
enLered lnLo Lhe !ournal %Moro/es vs 5ubido 2 5 150)
resldenL's CpLlons
1 Slgn and Lhe blll becomes a law
2 veLoes Lhe blll lL does noL become a law
r2/3 voLes of all lLs Members (for Congress Lo overrlde)
3 lnacLlonLhe blll auLomaLlcally becomes a law wlLhln 30 days upon
recelpL of Lhe
blll from Congress
loqe 1817/12/2008 soyr
181
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r1here ls no such Lhlng as pockeL veLo" here ln Lhe hlllpplnes because
lnacLlon by
Lhe resldenL for 30 days never produces a veLo even lf Congress ls ln
recess 1he
resldenL musL sLlll acL Lo veLo Lhe blll and communlcaLe hls veLo Lo Lhe
Congress
wlLhouL need of reLurnlng Lhe veLoed blll wlLh hls veLo message
ockeL veLo occurs when
a 1he resldenL falls Lo acL on Lhe blll
b 1he reason he does noL reLurn Lhe blll Lo Lhe Congress ls LhaL Congress
ls noL
ln sesslon
kLSIDLN1IAL VL1C
VL1CSecLlon 27 ArLlcle vl
1 Genera| veto of the res|dentparagraph 1 of SecLlon 27 ArLlcle vl
2 Item]L|ne veto of the res|dentparagraph 2 of SecLlon 27 ArLlcle vl
1he acL of Lhe LxecuLlve ln veLolng Lhe parLlcular provlslons ls an exerclse
of a
consLlLuLlonally vesLed power 8uL even as Lhe ConsLlLuLlon granLs Lhe
power lL also
provldes llmlLaLlons Lo lLs exerclse 1he veLo power ls noL absoluLe
x x x
1he CSC ls correcL when lL sLaLes LhaL Lhe LxecuLlve musL veLo a blll ln lLs
enLlreLy or noL aL all Pe or she cannoL acL llke an edlLor crosslng ouL
speclflc llnes
provlslons or paragraphs ln a blll LhaL he or she dlsllkes ln Lhe exerclse of
Lhe veLo
power lL ls generally veLo however when lL comes Lo approprlaLlon
revenue or Larlff
bllls Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlon needs Lhe money Lo run Lhe machlnery of Lhe
governmenL and lL
can noL veLo Lhe enLlre blll even lf lL may conLaln ob[ecLlonable feaLures
1he resldenL
ls Lherefore compelled Lo approve lnLo law Lhe enLlre blll lncludlng lLs
undeslrable
parLs lL ls for Lhls reason LhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon has wlsely provlded Lhe
lLem veLo power"
Lo avold lnexpedlenL rlders belng aLLached Lo an lndlspensable
approprlaLlon or revenue
measures
1he ConsLlLuLlon provldes LhaL only a parLlcular lLem or lLems may be
veLoed 1he
power Lo dlsapprove any lLem or lLems ln an approprlaLlon blll does noL
granL Lhe
auLhorlLy Lo veLo a parL of an lLem and Lo approve Lhe remalnlng porLlon
of Lhe same
lLem %8enqton vs uri/on 208 5 1ll pri/ 15 1992)
loqe 1827/12/2008 soyr
182
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Genera| ru|e SelecLlve/parLlal veLo ls noL allowed 1he resldenL may noL
veLo a
provlslon of Lhe blll wlLhouL veLolng Lhe whole/enLlre blll lLself
Lxcept|on aragraph 2 of SecLlon 27 ArLlcle vllLem/Llne veLo
rCnly ApproprlaLlon kevenue and 1arlff 8llls (A81)selecLlve veLo ls
allowed here prov|ded Lhe veLoed blll shall noL affecL Lhe lLems whlch was
noL veLoed
Item8efers Lo Lhe parLlculars Lhe deLalls Lhe dlsLlncL and severable
parLs of Lhe blll lL
ls an lndlvlslble sum of money dedlcaLed Lo a sLaLed purpose
Lxcept|ons to the Lxcept|on
1 DCC1kINL CI INAkCkIA1L kCVISICNSecLlon 23 (2) ArLlcle vl
A provlslon LhaL ls consLlLuLlonally lnapproprlaLe for an approprlaLlon blll
may be
slngled ouL for veLo even lf lL ls noL an approprlaLlon or revenue lLem
lL was lnvoked ln Lhe case of 6onto/et vs Mocoroiq whereln resldenL
Aqulno
veLoed a provlslon of Lhe general approprlaLlon blll 1he Supreme CourL
ruled ln favor of
Lhe veLo power of Lhe resldenL SecLlon 23 (2) ArLlcle vlno provlslon or
enacLmenL
shall be embraced ln Lhe general approprlaLlon blll unless lL relaLes
speclflcally Lo some
parLlcular approprlaLlon LherelnlLems whlch Lhe resldenL does noL
ob[ecL oLherwlse lL
becomes an lnapproprlaLe provlslonlL may be LreaLed as an |tem
sub[ecL Lo Lhe lLem
veLo of Lhe resldenL
2 Lxecut|ve Impoundmentrefusal of Lhe resldenL Lo spend funds
already
allocaLed by Congress for speclflc purpose lL ls Lhe fallure Lo spend or
obllgaLe
budgeL auLhorlLy of any Lype 1hls power ls derlved from SecLlon 38 of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987 on suspenslon
ApproprlaLlon 8eserves
SecLlon 37 of Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlve Code auLhorlzes Lhe 8udgeL SecreLary Lo
esLabllsh reserves agalnsL approprlaLlons Lo provlde for conLlngencles and
emergencles whlch may arlse durlng Lhe year 1hls ls merely expendlLure
deferral noL suspenslon slnce Lhe agencles concerned can sLlll draw on
Lhe
66


reserves lf Lhe flscal ouLlook lmproves
3 Leg|s|at|ve Vetoa congresslonal veLo ls a means whereby Lhe
leglslaLure can
block or modlfy admlnlsLraLlve acLlon Laken under a sLaLuLe lL ls a form of
loqe 18J7/12/2008 soyr
183
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
leglslaLlve conLrol ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of parLlcular execuLlve acLlon
1he form
may elLher be
a negaLlvesub[ecLlng Lhe execuLlve acLlon Lo dlsapproval by Congress
or
b AfflrmaLlverequlrlng approval of Lhe execuLlve acLlon by Congress
A congresslonal veLo ls sub[ecL Lo serlous quesLlons lnvolvlng Lhe
separaLlon of
powers
rLocal Chlef LxecuLlves have veLo power excepL Lhe unong 8arangay
CWLk CI AkCkIA1ICN
1he spendlng power called Lhe power of purse" belongs Lo Lhe Congress
sub[ecL only Lo Lhe veLo power of Lhe resldenL lL carrles wlLh lL a power
Lo speclfy Lhe
pro[ecL or acLlvlLy Lo be funded under Lhe approprlaLlon law
Appropr|at|ons LawA sLaLuLe Lhe prlmary and speclflc purpose of whlch
ls Lo
auLhorlze release of publlc funds from Lhe Lreasury
1he exlsLence of approprlaLlons and Lhe avallablllLy of funds are
lndlspensable
prerequlslLes Lo or condlLlons sloe poo ooo for Lhe execuLlon of
governmenL conLracLs
%OML vs ludqe uijono Podi//o ond Potokino Morketinq orp
6 No
151992 5eptember 18 2000)
ClasslflcaLlon
1 Ceneral ApproprlaLlon Lawpassed annually lnLended Lo provlde for
Lhe
flnanclal operaLlons of Lhe enLlre governmenL durlng one flscal perlod
2 Speclal ApproprlaLlon Lawdeslgned for a speclflc purpose
lmplled (LxLraConsLlLuLlonal) LlmlLaLlons on ApproprlaLlon ower
1 MusL speclfy publlc purpose and
2 Sum auLhorlzed for release musL be deLermlnaLe or aL leasL
deLermlnable
C onsLlLuLlonal LlmlLaLlons on S pec|a| ApproprlaLlon Measures
1 MusL speclfy publlc purpose for whlch Lhe sum was lnLended and
2 MusL be supporLed by funds acLually avallable as cerLlfled by Lhe
naLlonal
1reasurer or Lo be ralsed by correspondlng revenue proposal lncluded
Lhereln
C onsLlLuLlonal 8ules on G enera| ApproprlaLlon Laws Sect|on 2S Art|c|e
VI
loqe 1847/12/2008 soyr
184
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 Congress may noL lncrease approprlaLlons recommended by Lhe
resldenL for
operaLlon of Lhe CovernmenLLo prevenL blg budgeL deflclLs
2 lorm conLenL and manner of preparaLlon of budgeL shall be provlded
by law
3 no provlslon or enacLmenL shall be embraced unless lL relaLes
speclflcally Lo
some parLlcular approprlaLlons Lhereln
4 rocedure for approvlng approprlaLlons for Congress shall be Lhe same
as LhaL of
oLher deparLmenLsLo prevenL sub rosa appropr|at|ons by Congress
3 rohlblLlon agalnsL Lransfer of approprlaLlons (uocLrlne of
AugmenLaLlon)
however
a resldenL
b SenaLe resldenL
c Speaker of Lhe Pouse
d Chlef !usLlce and
e Peads of ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons
may by law be auLhorlzed Lo augmenL any lLem ln Lhe general
approprlaLlons law for Lhelr respecLlve offlces from savlngs ln oLher lLems
of Lhelr respecLlve approprlaLlons
6 rohlblLlon agalnsL approprlaLlons for secLarlan beneflL and
7 AuLomaLlc reapproprlaLlon
CWLk CI 1AkA1ICN
LlmlLaLlons
1 8ule of LaxaLlon shall be unlform and equlLable and Congress shall
evolve a
progresslve sysLem of LaxaLlon
2 CharlLable lnsLlLuLlons eLc and all lands bulldlngs and lmprovemenLs
acLually dlrecLly and excluslvely used for rellglous charlLable or
educaLlonal
purposes shall be exempL from LaxaLlon
3 All revenues and asseLs of nonsLock nonproflL educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons
used
acLually dlrecLly and excluslvely for educaLlonal purposes shall be exempL
from Laxes and duLles
4 Law granLlng Lax exempLlon shall be passed only wlLh Lhe concurrence
of a
ma[orlLy of all Lhe members of Congress
LLLC1CkAL 1kI8UNAL Sect|on 17 Art|c|e VSenaLe and Pouse of
8epresenLaLlvessole [udge of all conLesL relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlon reLurns
and
quallflcaLlons of Lhelr respecLlve Members
rno appeal lles Appeal ls merely sLaLuLory 1he remedy ls 8ule 63
CerLlorarl (Speclal
Clvll AcLlon) based on Crave Abuse of ulscreLlon
loqe 1857/12/2008 soyr
183
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
nkL1alLhough aLLached Lo Lhe Congress has separaLe and dlsLlncL
personallLy lL was
creaLed as a nonparLlsan courL lL musL be lndependenL of Congress and
devold of
parLlsan lnfluence and conslderaLlon Members of P8L1 once appolnLed
LhereLo Lhey
shall be accorded LhereLo of securlLy of Lenure Lo ensure Lhelr lmparLlallLy
and
lndependence
8ondoc vs Pinedo 201 5 792 ulsloyalLy Lo Lhe parLy" and 8reach of
parLy
dlsclpllne" are noL valld grounds for Lhe expulslon of a member P8L1
members en[oy
securlLy of Lenure Lhelr membershlp may noL be LermlnaLed excepL for a
[usL cause such
as Lhe explraLlon of congresslonal Lerm deaLh reslgnaLlon from Lhe
pollLlcal parLy
formal afflllaLlon wlLh anoLher pollLlcal parLy or removal for oLher valld
causes
Pimente/ vs n@ 6 No 141489 November 29 2002 Lhe SC sald LhaL
even
assumlng LhaL Lhe parLyllsL represenLaLlves comprlse a sufflclenL number
and have
67


agreed Lo deslgnaLe common nomlnees Lo Lhe P8L1 and Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenLs Lhelr prlmary recourse clearly resLs wlLh Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves
and noL wlLh Lhe CourL Cnly lf Lhe Pouse falls Lo comply wlLh Lhe dlrecLlve
of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon on proporLlonal represenLaLlon of pollLlcal parLles ln Lhe
P8L1 and
Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs can Lhe parLyllsL represenLaLlves seek
recourse from Lhls
CourL Lhrough [udlclal revlew under Lhe docLrlne of prlmary
admlnlsLraLlve [urlsdlcLlon
prlor recourse Lo Lhe Pouse ls necessary before Lhe peLlLloners may brlng
Lhe case Lo
CourL
lme/do omuo/detMorcos vs OML 248 5 l00As Lo Lhe P8L1's
supposed assumpLlon of [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe lssue of peLlLloner's
quallflcaLlons afLer Lhe
May 8 1993 elecLlons sufflce lL Lo say LhaL P8L1's [urlsdlcLlon as Lhe sole
[udge of all
conLesLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons reLurns and quallflcaLlons of members
of Congress
beglns only afLer a candldaLe has become a member of Lhe Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves
(ArLlcle vl SecLlon 17 1987 ConsLlLuLlon) eLlLloner noL belng a member
of Lhe Pouse
of 8epresenLaLlves lL ls obvlous LhaL P8L1 aL Lhls polnL has no [urlsdlcLlon
over Lhe
quesLlon CCMLLLC ls noL ousLed of [urlsdlcLlon ee olso ectloo of kA
4
6uerrero vs OML ll 5 458 %lu/y 2 2000) Whlle Lhe
Congress ls
vesLed wlLh Lhe power Lo declare valld or lnvalld cerLlflcaLe of candldacy
lLs refusal Lo
exerclse Lhe power followlng Lhe proclamaLlon and assumpLlon of larlnas
ls a
recognlLlon of Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal boundarles separaLlng Lhe CCMLLLC and
Lhe P8L1
under ArLlcle vl SecLlon 17 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lhe P8L1 has Lhe sole and
excluslve
loqe 187/12/2008 soyr
186
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
[urlsdlcLlon over all conLesLs relaLlve Lo Lhe elecLlons reLurns and
quallflcaLlons of
members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves 1hus once a wlnnlng candldaLe
has been
proclalmed Laken hls oaLh and assumed offlce as a member of Lhe PC8
CCMLLLC's
[urlsdlcLlon over elecLlon conLesLs relaLlng Lo hls elecLlons reLurns and
quallflcaLlons
ends and Lhe P8L1's own [urlsdlcLlon beglns 1hus Lhe CCMLLLC's
declslon Lo
dlsconLlnue exerclslng [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case ls [usLlflable ln deference
Lo Lhe
P8L1's own [urlsdlcLlon and funcLlons
Appea| from SL1 or nkL1 Dec|s|on
1he ConsLlLuLlon mandaLes LhaL Lhe P8L1 and Lhe SL1 shall each
respecLlvely
be Lhe sole [udge of all conLesL relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons reLurns and
quallflcaLlons of
Lhelr respecLlve members
1he CourL has sLressed LhaL so long as Lhe ConsLlLuLlon granLs Lhe P8L1
Lhe
power Lo be Lhe sole [udge of all conLesLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons reLurns
and
quallflcaLlons of members of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves any flnal
acLlon Laken by Lhe
P8L1 on a maLLer wlLhln lLs [urlsdlcLlon shall as a rule noL be revlewed by
Lhe Supreme
CourL 1he power granLed Lo Lhe LlecLoral 1rlbunal excludes Lhe exerclse
of any
auLhorlLy on Lhe parL of Lhls CourL LhaL would ln any wlse resLrlcLs lL or
curLall lL or even
affecL Lhe same
ln ob/es vs n@ Lhe CourL has explalned LhaL whlle Lhe [udgmenLs of
Lhe
1rlbunal are beyond [udlclal lnLerference Lhe CourL may do so however
buL only ln Lhe
exerclse of Lhe SC's socalled exLraordlnary [urlsdlcLlon upon
deLermlnaLlon LhaL Lhe
1rlbunal's declslon or resoluLlon was rendered wlLhouL or ln excess of lLs
[urlsdlcLlon or
wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon or upon a clear showlng of such arblLrary
and
lmprovldenL use by Lhe 1rlbunal of lLs power as consLlLuLes a denlal of due
process of
law or upon demonsLraLlon of a very clear unmlLlgaLed error manlfesLly
consLlLuLlng
such grave abuse of dlscreLlon LhaL Lhere has Lo be remedy for such abuse
1he CourL does noL venLure lnLo Lhe perllous area of correcLlng percelved
errors
of lndependenL branches of governmenL lL comes ln only when lL has Lo
vlndlcaLe a
denlal of due process or correcL an abuse of dlscreLlon so grave or glarlng
LhaL no less
Lhan Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself calls for remedlal acLlon %Libonon vs n@
28l 5
520)
loqe 1877/12/2008 soyr
187
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Sect|on 21 Art|c|e VI1he SenaLe or Lhe PC8 or any of lLs respecLlve
commlLLees
may conducL lnqulrles ln ald of leglslaLlon ln accordance wlLh lLs duly
publlshed rules
and procedure 1he rlghL of persons appearlng ln or affecLed by such
lnqulrles shall be
respecLed
rConst|tut|ona| ||m|tat|on on |nqu|r|es |n a|d of |eg|s|at|on
CWLk CI LLGISLA1IVL INVLS1IGA1ICN(SecLlon 21 ArLlcle vl)
ower to conduct |nqu|r|es |n a|d of |eg|s|at|onlnvesLlgaLorlal ower
noL
absoluLe sub[ecL [udlclal revlew ln vlew of Lhe expanded power of Lhe
courL Lo deLermlne
wheLher Lhere has been grave abuse of dlscreLlon amounLlng Lo lack or
excess of
[urlsdlcLlon
LlmlLaLlons
1 1he lnqulry musL be ln ald of leglslaLlon
2 lL musL be ln accordance wlLh duly publlshed rules and procedure of Lhe
Pouse
concerned and
3 1he rlghL of persons appearlng ln or affecLed by such lnqulrles shall be
respecLed
8emedy lnvoke Lhe 8lghL agalnsL SelflncrlmlnaLlon
Sect|on 21 (Leg|s|at|ve |nvest|gat|on) vs Sect|on 22(uest|on nour)
1 lnqulry ln ald of leglslaLlonLhey may noL valldly refuse Lo appear
rlL wlll lmpalr Lhe work of Congress
rlL wlll vlolaLe Lhe rlghLs of Lhe people Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc
concern (SecLlon 7 ArLlcle lll)
68


2 Members of Lhe execuLlve cablneL ln vlew of LC 464
r1hese Lwo (2) secLlons should noL be consldered as perLalnlng Lo Lhe
same
power of Congress Cne speclflcally relaLes Lo Lhe power Lo conducL
lnqulry ln ald of
leglslaLlon Lhe alm of whlch ls Lo ellclL lnformaLlon LhaL may be used for
leglslaLlon
whlle Lhe oLher perLalns Lo Lhe power Lo conducL a quesLlon hour Lhe
ob[ecLlve of
whlch ls Lo obLaln lnformaLlon ln pursulL of Congress' overslghL funcLlon
Sect|on 21 (Leg|s|at|ve
|nvest|gat|on)
Sect|on 22(uest|on nour)
loqe 1887/12/2008 soyr
188
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 Any person may appear
2 1he CommlLLees conducL Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon
3 1he sub[ecL maLLer ls any
maLLer for Lhe purpose of
leglslaLlon
4 Appearance ls mandaLory
1 Cnly deparLmenL head may
appear
2 1he enLlre body conducL Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon
3 1he sub[ecL maLLers are
maLLers relaLed Lo Lhe
deparLmenL only
4 Appearance ls ulscreLlonary
5enote vs rmito 6 No 19777 pri/ 20 200 whlle aLLendance Lo
Congresslonal hearlngs ls dlscreLlonary on Lhe parL of Lhe deparLmenL
heads durlng
quesLlon hour" such ls noL ln Lhe case ln lnqulrles ln ald of leglslaLlon
excepL upon a
valld and express clalm of execuLlve prlvllege"
1he prlnclple of separaLlon of powers ls Lhe reason why execuLlve offlclals
may
noL be compelled Lo aLLend hearlngs when Congress exerclses lLs overslghL
funcLlons
1hough Lhls ls noL Lhe case when Lhe Congress exerclses lLs power of
lnqulry ln ald of
leglslaLlon SecLlons 21 and 22 of ArLlcle vl Lherefore whlle closely relaLed
and
complemenLary Lo each oLher should noL be consldered as perLalnlng Lo
Lhe same
power of Congress one speclflcally relaLes Lo Lhe power Lo conducL an
lnqulry ln ald of
leglslaLlon Lhe alm of whlch ls Lo ellclL lnformaLlon LhaL may be used for
leglslaLlon whlle
Lhe oLher perLalns Lo Lhe power Lo conducL a quesLlon hour Lhe ob[ecL of
whlch ls Lo
obLaln lnformaLlon ln pursulL of Congress' overslghL funcLlon
5obio vs 5en 6ordon 6 No 174l40 October 17 200 Lhe Congress'
power of
lnqulry belng broad encompasses everyLhlng LhaL concerns Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon of
exlsLlng laws as well as proposed or posslbly needed sLaLuLes lL even
exLends Lo
governmenL agencles creaLed by Congress and offlcers whose poslLlons
are wlLhln Lhe
power of Congress Lo regulaLe or even abollsh A mere provlslon of law
cannoL pose a
llmlLaLlon Lo Lhe broad power of Congress ln Lhe absence of any
consLlLuLlonal basls
ULS1ICN nCUklnLegral ln a parllamenLary governmenL Lhe heads of
deparLmenLs
may upon Lhelr own lnlLlaLlve wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe resldenL or upon
Lhe requesL of
elLher house as Lhe rules of each house shall provlde appear before and
be heard by
such house on any maLLer perLalnlng Lo Lhelr deparLmenLs WrlLLen
quesLlons shall be
submlLLed Lo Lhe resldenL of Lhe SenaLe or Lhe Speaker of Lhe Pouse aL
leasL 3 days
before Lhelr scheduled appearance lnLerpolaLlons shall noL be llmlLed Lo
wrlLLen
loqe 1897/12/2008 soyr
189
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
quesLlons buL may cover maLLers relaLed LhereLo When Lhe scruLlny of
Lhe SLaLe or Lhe
publlc lnLeresL so requlres Lhe appearance shall be conducLed ln
execuLlve sesslon
rnou/t vs Notoreno 87 Pi/ 29Lhe lnqulry Lo be wlLhln Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
leglslaLlve body maklng lL musL be maLerlal or necessary Lo Lhe exerclse of
a power ln lL
vesLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon such as Lo leglslaLe or Lo expel a member
(1he power Lo conducL lnqulry ls lnLegral and lmplled of leglslaLlve power)
5tondord ortered 8onk vs 5enote ommittee on 8onks 6 No
1717l
uecember 27 2007 Lhe mere flllng of a crlmlnal or an admlnlsLraLlve
complalnL before
a courL or a quasl[udlclal body should noL auLomaLlcally bar Lhe conducL
of leglslaLlve
lnvesLlgaLlon CLherwlse lL would be exLremely easy Lo subverL any
lnLended lnqulry by
Congress Lhrough Lhe convenlenL ploy of lnsLlLuLlng a crlmlnal or
admlnlsLraLlve
complalnL
Congress|ona| Cvers|ght Iunct|ons %Moko/into/ vs OML 6 No
15701l
lu/y 10 200l)
lL embraces all acLlvlLles underLaken by Congress Lo enhance lLs
undersLandlng
of and lnfluence over Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of leglslaLlon lL has enacLed
Clearly overslghL
concerns posLenacLmenL measures underLaken by Congress
a 1o monlLor bureaucraLlc compllance wlLh program ob[ecLlves
b 1o deLermlne wheLher agencles are properly admlnlsLered
c 1o ellmlnaLe execuLlve wasLe and dlshonesLy
d 1o prevenL execuLlve usurpaLlon of auLhorlLy and
e 1o assess execuLlve conformlLy wlLh Lhe congresslonal percepLlon of
publlc
lnLeresL
1he power of overslghL has been held Lo be lnLrlnslc ln Lhe granL of
leglslaLlve
power lLself and lnLegral Lo Lhe checks and balances lnherenL ln a
democraLlc sysLem of
governmenL
1he overslghL power has also been used Lo ensure Lhe accounLablllLy of
regulaLory commlsslons llke Lhe SLC unllke oLher ordlnary admlnlsLraLlve
agencles
Lhese bodles are lndependenL from Lhe execuLlve branch and are ouLslde
Lhe execuLlve
deparLmenL ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhelr funcLlons
loqe 1907/12/2008 soyr
69


190
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Categor|es of Congress|ona| Cvers|ght Iunct|ons
a Scrut|nylmplles a lesser lnLenslLy and conLlnulLy of aLLenLlon Lo
admlnlsLraLlve
operaLlons lLs prlmary purpose ls Lo deLermlne economy and efflclency of
Lhe
operaLlon of governmenL acLlvlLles ln Lhe exerclse of leglslaLlve scruLlny
Congress may requesL lnformaLlon and reporL from Lhe oLher branches of
governmenL lL can glve recommendaLlons or pass resoluLlons for
conslderaLlon
of Lhe agency lnvolved
lL ls based prlmarlly on Lhe power of approprlaLlon of Congress xxx 8uL
leglslaLlve scruLlny does noL end ln budgeL hearlngs Congress can ask Lhe
heads of
deparLmenLs Lo appear before and be heard by elLher Lhe Pouse of
Congress on any
maLLer perLalnlng Lo Lhelr deparLmenL
Llkewlse Congress exerclses leglslaLlve scruLlny Lhru lLs power of
conflrmaLlon Lo
flnd ouL wheLher Lhe nomlnee possesses Lhe necessary quallflcaLlons
lnLegrlLy and
problLy requlred of all publlc servanLs
b Congress|ona| |nvest|gat|onlnvolves a more lnLense dlgglng of facLs
lL ls
recognlzed under SecLlon 21 ArLlcle vl Lven ln Lhe absence of
consLlLuLlonal
mandaLe lL has been held Lo be an essenLlal and approprlaLe auxlllary Lo
Lhe
leglslaLlve funcLlons
c Leg|s|at|ve superv|s|onlL connoLes a conLlnulng and lnformed
awareness on
Lhe parL of congresslonal commlLLee regardlng execuLlve operaLlons ln a
glven
admlnlsLraLlve area lL allows Congress Lo scruLlnlze Lhe exerclse of
delegaLed
lawmaklng auLhorlLy and permlLs Congress Lo reLaln parL of LhaL
delegaLed
auLhorlLy
Congress exerclses supervlslon over Lhe execuLlve agencles Lhrough lLs
veLo
power lL Lyplcally uLlllzes veLo provlslons when granLlng Lhe resldenL or
an execuLlve
agency Lhe power Lo promulgaLe regulaLlons wlLh Lhe force of law 1hese
provlslons
requlre Lhe resldenL or an agency Lo presenL Lhe proposed regulaLlons Lo
Congress
whlch reLalns a rlghL" Lo approve or dlsapprove any regulaLlon before lL
Lakes effecL
Such leglslaLlve veLo provlslons usually provlde LhaL a proposed regulaLlon
wlll become
a law afLer Lhe explraLlon of a cerLaln perlod of Llme only lf Congress does
noL
afflrmaLlvely dlsapprove of Lhe regulaLlon ln Lhe meanLlme Less
frequenLly Lhe sLaLuLe
provldes LhaL a proposed regulaLlon wlll become a law lf Congress
afflrmaLlvely
approves lL
loqe 1917/12/2008 soyr
191
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
CWLk CI CCNCUkkLNCL
1he ConsLlLuLlon requlres Lhe concurrence of Lhe Congress Lo an amnesLy
and Lo
a LreaLy
1nL WAk CWLk
1he Congress by a voLe of 2/3 of boLh houses ln [olnL sesslon assembled
voLlng
separaLely shall have Lhe sole power Lo declare Lhe exlsLence of a sLaLe of
war
LAWMAkING CWLkS CI CCNGkLSS
erLlnenLly Lhe power Lo make lawsleglslaLlve powerls vesLed ln
Congress
Congress may noL escape lLs duLles and responslblllLles by delegaLlng LhaL
power Lo any
oLher body or auLhorlLy Any aLLempL Lo abdlcaLe Lhe power ls
unconsLlLuLlonal and vold
on Lhe prlnclple of Jeleqotl potesto ooo potest JeleqotldelegaLed power
may noL be
delegaLed @e tole wlc fotblJs te Jeleqotloo of leqlslotlve powet
owevet ls oot
obsolote ooJ loflexlble lL admlLs of excepLlons An excepLlon sancLloned
by lmmemorlal
pracLlce permlLs Lhe leglslaLlve body Lo delegaLe lLs llcenslng power Lo
cerLaln persons
munlclpal corporaLlons Lowns boards counclls commlsslons
commlssloners audlLors
bureaus and dlrecLors Such llcenslng power lncludes Lhe power Lo
promulgaLe
necessary rules and regulaLlons %ovet vs omu/o 6 No 1570l
lune 9
2004)
Art|c|e VII
LkLCU1IVL DLAk1MLN1
LkLCU1IVL CWLk
lL ls Lhe legal and pollLlcal funcLlons of Lhe resldenL lnvolvlng Lhe exerclse
of
dlscreLlon lL ls vesLed ln Lhe resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes lL ls Lhe power Lo
enforce and
admlnlsLer laws
loqe 1927/12/2008 soyr
192
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
@e execotlve powet soll be vesteJ lo te lteslJeot of te llllpploes
(SecLlon
1 ArLlcle vll) ln Notiono/ /ectrificotion dministrotion vs 6 No
14l481
ebruory 15 2002 Lhe resldenL ls vesLed wlLh Lhe power Lo execuLe
admlnlsLer and
carry ouL laws lnLo pracLlcal operaLlon LxecuLlve power Lhen ls Lhe
power of carrylng
ouL Lhe laws lnLo pracLlcal operaLlon and enforclng Lhelr due observance
1he resldenL may noL veLo a law enacLed LhlrLyflve (33) years before hls
or her
Lerm of offlce nelLher may Lhe resldenL seL aslde or reverse a flnal and
execuLory
[udgmenL of Lhe Supreme CourL Lhrough Lhe exerclse of veLo power
%8enqton vs
uri/on 208 5 1ll pri/ 15 1992)
kLSIDLN1 VICLkLSIDLN1
U A L I I IC A 1 I C NS
1 naLuralborn clLlzen
2 8eglsLered voLer
3 Able Lo read and wrlLe
4 AL leasL 40 years of age on Lhe day of elecLlon and
70


3 8esldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes for aL leasL 10 years lmmedlaLely precedlng
Lhe
elecLlon
1 L k M C I C I I I C L
Slx (6) years
D I S U A L I I I C A 1 I C N S
1 noL ellglble for any reelecLlon
2 no person who has succeeded as
resldenL and has served as such
for more Lhan 4 years shall be
quallfled for elecLlon Lo Lhe same
offlce aL any Llme (Sec 4 ArL vll)
1 Shall noL serve for more Lhan Lwo (2)
consecuLlve Lerms (Sec 4 ArL vll)
Genera| D|squa||f|cat|ons*
a Cne who has been declared lncompeLenL or lnsane by compeLenL
auLhorlLy
b Cne who has been senLenced by flnal [udgmenL for
vl Subverslon
vll lnsurrecLlon
vlll 8ebelllon
lx Any offense for whlch he has been senLenced Lo a penalLy of noL more
Lhan 18 monLhs or
loqe 19J7/12/2008 soyr
193
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
x A crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude unless glven plenary pardon or
granLed amnesLy (SecLlon 12 8 881Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code)
INnI8I1ICNS AND kCnI8I1ICNS
1 Shall noL recelve any oLher emolumenL from Lhe governmenL or any
oLher source
(SecLlon 6 ArLlcle vll)
2 Shall noL hold any oLher offlce or employmenL unless oLherwlse
provlded ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
3 Shall noL pracLlce any oLher professlon
4 Shall noL parLlclpaLe ln any buslness
S Shall noL be flnanclally lnLeresLed ln any conLracL wlLh or ln any
franchlse or
speclal prlvllege granLed by Lhe CovernmenL lncludlng CCCCs
6 Shall avold confllcL of lnLeresL ln conducL of offlce
7 Shall avold nepoLlsm (SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vll)
k I V I L L G L S
1 Cfflclal resldence
2 Salary ls deLermlned by law and
noL Lo be decreased durlng hls
Lenure (SecLlon 6 ArLlcle vll)
3 lmmunlLy from sulL for offlclal acLs
1 Salary shall noL be decreased durlng
hls Lenure
2 no need for Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenL conflrmaLlon for CablneL
posL (SecLlon 3 ArLlcle vll)
CANVASSING 8CAkD
Congress (SenaLe and Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves) ln case of Lle Congress
by
ma[orlLy voLe shall selecL
LLLC1CkAL 1kI8UNAL
Supreme CourL (eo booc)
k L M C V A L
lmpeachmenL only
LLLC1ICN
(SecLlon 4 ArLlcle vll) uoless otetwlse ptovlJeJ by low te teqolot
electloo fot
lteslJeot ooJ IlcelteslJeot soll be elJ oo te secooJ MooJoy of Moy
Lven afLer Congress has ad[ourned lLs regular sesslon lL may conLlnue Lo
perform Lhls consLlLuLlonal duLy of canvasslng Lhe presldenLlal and vlce
presldenLlal
elecLlon resulLs wlLhouL need of any call for speclal sesslon by Lhe
resldenL 1he [olnL
publlc sesslon of boLh Pouses of Congress convened by express dlrecLlve
of SecLlon 4
ArLlcle vll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo canvass Lhe voLes for and proclalm Lhe
newlyelecLed
resldenL and vlceresldenL has noL and cannoL ad[ourn sloe Jle unLll lL
has
accompllshed lLs consLlLuLlonally mandaLed Lasks lor only when a board
of canvassers
loqe 1947/12/2008 soyr
194
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
has compleLed lLs funcLlons lL ls rendered funcLus offlclo %Pimente/ lr vs
loint
ommittee of onqress to onvoss te votes cost for President ond vP
6 No
1l78l lune 22 2004)
1here ls no consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLory basls for CCMLLLC Lo underLake a
separaLe and an unofflclal" LabulaLlon of resulLs wheLher manually or
elecLronlcally 8y
conducLlng such unofflclal" LabulaLlon Lhe CCMLLLC descends Lo Lhe
level of a prlvaLe
organlzaLlon spendlng publlc funds for Lhe purpose 1hls noL only vlolaLes
Lhe excluslve
prerogaLlve of nAMl8LL Lo conducL an unofflclal" counL buL also LalnLs
Lhe lnLegrlLy of
Lhe envelopes conLalnlng Lhe elecLlon reLurns and Lhe elecLlon reLurns
Lhemselves 1hus
lf Lhe CCMLLLC ls proscrlbed from conducLlng an offlclal canvass of Lhe
voLes casL for
Lhe resldenL and v Lhe CCMLLLC ls wlLh more reason prohlblLed from
maklng an
unofflclal" canvass of sald voLes %8ri//ontes vs OML 6 No
1l19l lune
15 2004)
lmmunlLy from sulL
AfLer hls Lenure Lhe resldenL cannoL lnvoke lmmunlLy from sulL for clvll
damages
arlslng ouL of acLs done by hlm whlle he was resldenL whlch were noL
performed ln Lhe
exerclse of hls offlclal duLles %strodo vs uesierto 6 Nos 1471015
Morc
2001)
ku|es on Success|on
a v acancy aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe Lerm
l ueaLh or permanenL dlsablllLy of Lhe resldenLelecL velecL shall
become
resldenL
ll resldenLelecL falls Lo quallfy velecL shall acL as resldenL unLll Lhe
resldenLelecL shall have quallfled
lll resldenL shall noL have been chosen velecL shall acL as resldenL
unLll a
resldenL shall have been chosen and quallfled
lv no resldenL and v chosen nor shall have quallfled or boLh shall dled
or
become permanenLly dlsabled 1he resldenL of Lhe SenaLe or ln case of
hls
dlsablllLy Lhe Speaker of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves shall acL as
resldenL
unLll a resldenL or a v shall have been chosen and quallfled ln Lhe evenL
of
71


lnablllLy of Lhe offlclals menLloned Congress shall by law provlde for Lhe
manner ln whlch one who ls Lo acL as resldenL shall be selecLed unLll a
resldenL or v shall have quallfled
loqe 1957/12/2008 soyr
193
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
AL 10 o'clock ln Lhe mornlng of Lhe 3rd day afLer Lhe vacancy occurs
Congress
shall convene wlLhouL need of a call and wlLhln 7 days enacL a law calllng
for
a speclal elecLlon Lo elecL a resldenL and a v Lo be held noL earller Lhan
43
nor laLer Lhan 60 days from Lhe Llme of such call 1he blll shall be deemed
cerLlfled and shall become a law upon lLs approval on 3rd readlng by
Congress 1he convenlng of Lhe Congress cannoL be suspended nor Lhe
speclal elecLlon posLponed no speclal elecLlon shall be called lf Lhe
vacancy
occurs wlLhln 18 monLhs before Lhe daLe of Lhe nexL presldenLlal elecLlon
b v acancy durlng Lhe Lerm
l ueaLh permanenL dlsablllLy removal from offlce or res|gnat|on of Lhe
resldenL v shall become Lhe resldenL
strodo vs rroyo 6 No 147l8 Morc 2 2001 Lhe SC declared LhaL
Lhe reslgnaLlon of resldenL LsLrada could noL be doubLed as conflrmed by
hls
leavlng Malacanan alace ln Lhe press release conLalnlng hls flnal
sLaLemenL
1 Pe acknowledged Lhe oaLhLaklng of Lhe respondenL as resldenL
2 Pe emphaslzed he was leavlng Lhe alace for Lhe sake of peace and ln
order Lo begln Lhe heallng process (he dld noL say LhaL he was leavlng due
Lo any klnd of dlsablllLy and LhaL he was golng Lo reassume Lhe resldency
as soon as Lhe dlsablllLy dlsappears)
3 Pe expressed hls graLlLude Lo Lhe people for Lhe opporLunlLy Lo serve
Lhem
as resldenL (wlLhouL doubL referrlng Lo Lhe pasL opporLunlLy)
4 Pe assured LhaL he wlll noL shlrk from any fuLure challenge LhaL may
come
ln Lhe same servlce of Lhe counLry
3 Pe called on hls supporLers Lo [oln hlm ln promoLlon of a consLrucLlve
naLlonal splrlL of reconclllaLlon and solldarlLy
1he CourL declared LhaL Lhe elemenLs of a valld reslgnaLlon are
1 lnLenL Lo reslgn
2 AcL of rellnqulshmenL
8oLh were presenL when resldenL LsLrada lefL Lhe alace
Intent to res|gnmusL be accompanled by acL of rellnqulshmenLacL or
omlsslon
before durlng and afLer !anuary 20 2001
loqe 197/12/2008 soyr
196
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1ota||ty of pr|or contemporaneous poster|or facts and c|rcumstant|a|
ev|dence
bearlng maLerlal relevanL lssuesresldenL LsLrada ls deemed Lo have
reslgned
consLrucLlve reslgnaLlon
kes|gnat|onmay be wrlLLen oral express or lmplled for as long as lL ls
clear lL musL
be glven legal effecL
Vacancy |n the off|ce of the V
Whenever Lhere ls vacancy ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe v durlng Lhe Lerm for
whlch he
was elecLed Lhe resldenL shall nomlnaLe a v from among Lhe Members
of Lhe SenaLe
and Lhe PC8 who shall assume offlce upon conflrmaLlon by a ma[orlLy
voLe of all Lhe
Members of boLh Pouses of Lhe Congress voLlng separaLely (Sect|on 9
Art|c|e VII)
owers of the res|dent
1 LxecuLlve power (SecLlon 1 ArLlcle vll)
2 AppolnLlng power (SecLlon 16 ArLlcle vll)
3 ConLrol power (SecLlon 17 ArLlcle vll)
rSect|on 4 Art|c|e kower of general supervlslon over local
governmenLs
4 CalllngouL power power Lo place Lhe hlllpplnes under marLlal law and
power Lo
suspend Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL of habeas corpus (SecLlon 18 ArLlcle vll)
S ardonlng power reprleves commuLaLlons amnesLy remlL flnes and
forfelLures
(SecLlon 19 ArLlcle vll)
6 8orrowlng power (SecLlon 20 ArLlcle vll)
7 ulplomaLlc/1reaLymaklng power (SecLlon 21 ArLlcle vll)
8 8udgeLary power (SecLlon 22 ArLlcle vll)
9 lnformlng powerSLaLe of Lhe naLlon Address (SecLlon 23 ArLlcle vll)
10veLo power (ArLlcle vl)
11 ower of general supervlslon over local governmenLs (SecLlon 4
ArLlcle x)
12ower Lo call speclal sesslon (SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vl)
13unsLaLed 8esldual owernoL found ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
14ower Lo 8eorganlze Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenL (AdmlnlsLraLlve Code)
1Sower of lmpoundmenL
ACIN1ING CWLkcarr|es w|th |t the kemova| ower
AppolnLmenLls Lhe selecLlon by Lhe auLhorlLy vesLed wlLh Lhe power of
an lndlvldual
who ls Lo exerclse Lhe funcLlons of a glven offlce
loqe 1977/12/2008 soyr
197
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ueslgnaLlonslmply means lmposlLlon of addlLlonal duLles on a person
already ln Lhe
publlc servlce
8inomiro vs 6orruco 188 5 154 when a person ls merely
deslgnaLed
and noL appolnLed Lhe lmpllcaLlon ls LhaL he shall hold offlce ln a
Lemporary capaclLy
and may be replaced aL wlll of Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy ln Lhls sense a
deslgnaLlon ls
consldered only an acLlng or Lemporary appolnLmenL whlch does noL
confer securlLy of
Lenure on Lhe person named
AppolnLlng power ls execuLlve ln naLure lL ls vesLed ln Lhe resldenL 1he
power
carrles wlLh lL Lhe power Lo remove excepL ln some cases llke !usLlces of
Lhe Supreme
CourL Lhe resldenL appolnLs Lhem buL he cannoL remove Lhem 1hey can
only be
removed Lhrough lmpeachmenL
Cfflcers Lo be appolnLed by Lhe resldenL LhaL requlre Lhe conflrmaLlon of
Commlsslon
on AppolnLmenLs (Lhe llsL ls excluslve)
1 Peads of Lhe execuLlve deparLmenL
Lxcept vlceresldenLmay be appolnLed as a Member of Lhe CablneL
Such appolnLmenL
requlres no conflrmaLlon (SecLlon 3 ArLlcle vll)
2 Ambassadors oLher publlc mlnlsLers and consuls
3 Cfflcers of Lhe armed forces from Lhe rank of colonel or naval capLaln
72


4 CLher offlcers whose appolnLmenLs are vesLed ln hlm ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
Lxamp|e !8C ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons
3 All oLher offlcers of Lhe governmenL whose appolnLmenLs are noL
oLherwlse
provlded by law
6 1hose whom he may be auLhorlzed by law Lo appolnL
5ormiento vs Mison 15 5 549 noL all appolnLmenLs made by Lhe
resldenL
need CA conflrmaLlon Cnly Lhose enumeraLed ln paragraph 1 of SecLlon
16 ArLlcle vll
need conflrmaLlon of Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs 1he appolnLmenL
of Salvador
Mlson as Commlssloner of CusLoms needs no conflrmaLlon by Lhe CA
because Lhe
Commlssloner of CusLoms ls noL among Lhe offlcers menLloned ln Lhe 1sL
paragraph of
SecLlon 16 ArLlcle vll
Cff|cers of the armed forces from the rank of co|one| or nava| capta|n
refers Lo
mlllLary offlcers alone
rn ls now under Lhe ulLC (clvlllan ln characLer naLlonal ln scope)no
longer parL of
Lhe Al Lherefore no need for CA conflrmaLlon
loqe 1987/12/2008 soyr
198
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
5oriono vs Listo 6 No 15l881 Morc 24 200l Lhe hlllpplne CoasL
Cuard
(CC) ls no longer parL of Lhe hlllpplne navy or Lhe Al buL ls noL under
Lhe uC1C a
clvlllan agency Lhe promoLlon and appolnLmenL of respondenL offlcers of
Lhe CC wlll
noL requlre conflrmaLlon by Lhe CA
o/deron vs oro/e 208 5 254 ArLlcle 213 of Lhe Labor Code as
amended by 8A
6713 lnsofar as lL requlres Lhe conflrmaLlon by Lhe CA of Lhe appolnLmenL
of Lhe nL8C
Chalrman and commlssloners ls unconsLlLuLlonal because lL vlolaLes
SecLlon 16 of
ArLlcle vll 1he Congress when Lhey enacLed Lhe law added Lo Lhe
excluslve llsL
anoLher caLegory of offlcers Lo be appolnLed by Lhe resldenL LhaL need
Lhe conflrmaLlon
of Lhe CA
Mono/o vs 5istoto l12 5 2l9a law was enacLed creaLlng Lhe n
8A 6793 lL
provldes LhaL Lhe ulrecLor uepuLy ulrecLor Ceneral and oLher Lop offlclals
of Lhe n
shall be conflrmed by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs 1he SC declared
lL as
unconsLlLuLlonal
ln Lhe above Lwo cases Congress cannot add/remove anyLhlng from Lhe
llsL of
offlcers Lo be appolnLed by Lhe resldenL LhaL requlre conflrmaLlon of Lhe
CA 1he llsL ls
excluslve 1he Congress cannoL add or remove anyLhlng by a mere
leglslaLlve acL
Cfflclals sub[ecL Lo Lhe AppolnLmenL of Lhe resldenL
A WlLh Lhe conflrmaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs
1 Peads of Lhe execuLlve deparLmenL
2 Ambassadors oLher publlc mlnlsLers and consuls
3 Cfflcers of Lhe armed forces from Lhe rank of colonel or naval capLaln
4 CLher offlcers whose appolnLmenLs are vesLed ln hlm ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
8 rlor recommendaLlon or nomlnaLlon by Lhe !udlclal and 8ar Councll
(!8C)
1 Members of Lhe Supreme CourL and all lower courLs
2 Cmbudsman and hld 3 uepuLles
C AppolnLmenL of v as Member of Lhe CablneL
u AppolnLmenL solely by Lhe resldenL
1 1hose vesLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon on Lhe resldenL alone
2 1hose whose appolnLmenLs are noL oLherwlse provlded for by law
3 1hose who may be auLhorlzed by law Lo appolnL
4 1hose oLher offlcers lower ln rank whose appolnLmenL ls vesLed by law
ln Lhe
resldenL alone
loqe 1997/12/2008 soyr
199
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
AppolnLlng rocedure
1 nomlnaLlon by Lhe resldenL
2 ConflrmaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs
3 lssuance of commlsslon and
4 AccepLance by appolnLee rueemed compleLe upon accepLance
endlng such
accepLance whlch ls opLlonal Lo Lhe appolnLee Lhe appolnLmenL may sLlll
be
valldly wlLhdrawn AppolnLmenL Lo a publlc offlce cannoL be forced upon
clLlzen
excepL for purposes of defense of Lhe SLaLe under SecLlon 4 ArLlcle ll of
Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon as an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule agalnsL lnvolunLary servlLude
ClasslflcaLlons
1 ermanentLhose exLended Lo persons possesslng Lhe requlslLe
ellglblllLy and
are Lhus proLecLed by Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee of securlLy of Lenure
2 1emporaryLhose glven Lo persons wlLhouL such ellglblllLy revocable
aL wlll and
wlLhouL necesslLy of [usL cause or a valld lnvesLlgaLlon made on Lhe
undersLandlng LhaL Lhe appolnLlng power has noL yeL declded on a
permanenL
appolnLee and LhaL Lhe Lemporary appolnLee may be replaced aL any Llme
a
permanenL cholce ls made
r1emporary appolnLmenL and ueslgnaLlon are noL sub[ecL Lo conflrmaLlon
by Lhe
Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs Such conflrmaLlon lf glven erroneously
wlll noL
make Lhe lncumbenL permanenL appolnLee %vo/encio vs Pero/to 8 5
92)
3 kegu|arAppolnLmenL by Lhe resldenL when Congress ls |n sess|on lL
Lakes
effecL only afLer conflrmaLlon by Lhe CA and once approved conLlnues
unLll Lhe
end of Lhe Lerm of Lhe appolnLee
4 Ad Inter|m( 2 n d paragraph of SecLlon 16 ArLlcle vll)AppolnLmenL
by Lhe
resldenL when Congress ls not ln sesslon lL Lakes effecL lmmedlaLely buL
ceases Lo be valld lf dlsapproved by Lhe CA or upon Lhe nexL ad[ournmenL
of
Congress lL ls deemed bypassed Lhrough lnacLlon lL ls lnLended Lo
prevenL
lnLerrupLlons ln vlLal governmenL servlces LhaL would oLherwlse resulL
from Lhe
prolonged vacancles ln governmenL offlces
lL ls a permanenL appolnLmenL because lL Lakes effecL lmmedlaLely and
can
no longer be wlLhdrawn by Lhe resldenL once Lhe appolnLee has quallfled
lnLo
73


offlce 1he facL LhaL lL ls sub[ecL Lo conflrmaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenLs does noL alLer lLs permanenL characLer 1he ConsLlLuLlon
lLself
loqe 2007/12/2008 soyr
200
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
makes an ad lnLerlm appolnLmenL permanenL ln characLer by maklng lL
effecLlve
unLll dlsapproved by Lhe CA or unLll Lhe nexL ad[ournmenL of Congress
a kecessone made whlle Lhe Congress ls noL ln sesslon before
conflrmaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenL lmmedlaLely effecLlve
and ceases Lo be valld lf dlsapproved or bypassed by CA upon Lhe nexL
ad[ournmenL of Congress
b M|dn|ghtmade by Lhe resldenL before hls Lerm explres wheLher or
noL
lL ls conflrmed by Lhe CA
rAd |nter|m appo|ntment d|sapproved by the Comm|ss|on on
Appo|ntmentscan no longer be exLended a new appolnLmenL 1he
dlsapproval
ls a flnal declslon of Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs ln Lhe exerclse of lLs
checklng power on Lhe appolnLlng power of Lhe resldenL 1he dlsapproval
ls a
declslon on Lhe merlLs belng a refusal by Lhe CA Lo glve lLs consenL afLer
dellberaLlng on Lhe quallflcaLlons of Lhe appolnLee Slnce Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
does
noL provlde for any appeal from such declslon Lhe dlsapproval ls flnal and
blndlng on Lhe appolnLee as well as on Lhe appolnLlng power ln Lhls
lnsLance Lhe
resldenL can no longer renew Lhe appolnLmenL noL because of Lhe
consLlLuLlonal
prohlblLlon on appolnLmenL buL because of a flnal declslon by Lhe CA Lo
wlLhhold
lLs consenL Lo Lhe appolnLmenL
ln Lhe case of Motiboq vs 8enipoyo l80 5 49 ad lnLerlm means ln
Lhe meanLlme" or for Lhe Llme belng" An ad lnLerlm appolnLmenL means
a
permanenL appolnLmenL made by Lhe resldenL lo te meootlme tot
cooqtess ls
lo tecess lL does noL mean a Lemporary appolnLmenL LhaL can be
wlLhdrawn or
revoked aL any Llme An ad lnLerlm appolnLee who has quallfled and
assumed
offlce becomes aL LhaL momenL a governmenL employee and Lherefore
parL of Lhe
clvll servlce Pe en[oys Lhe consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon LhaL he cannoL be
suspended
or removed excepL for causes provlded by law 1he wlLhdrawal or
revocaLlon of
an ad lnLerlm appolnLmenL ls posslble only lf lL ls communlcaLed Lo Lhe
appolnLee
before Lhe momenL he quallfles and any wlLhdrawal or revocaLlon
LhereafLer ls
LanLamounL Lo removal from offlce Cnce an appolnLee has quallfled he
acqulres
a legal rlghL Lo Lhe offlce whlch ls proLecLed noL only by sLaLuLe buL also by
Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon Pe can only be removed for cause afLer noLlce and hearlng
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of due process
loqe 2017/12/2008 soyr
201
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Ad Inter|m regu|ar
r1akes effecL lmmedlaLely
rAppolnLee assumes offlce lmmedlaLely
and laLer on Lhe appolnLmenL should be
conflrmed by Lhe CA
rMade whlle Congress ls not ln
sesslon
ruoes noL Lake effecL lmmedlaLely
rAppolnLee assumes offlce only afLer
conflrmaLlon by Lhe CA
rMade when Congress ls ln sesslon
r1he dlsLlncLlon lles ln Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe appolnLmenL
rAd lnLerlm appolnLee bypassed by Lhe CA ls no longer sub[ecL Lo
reappolnLmenL
Pe ls deemed Lo have vacaLed Lhe offlce
rCase of I|rst Impress|onr
2 n d |ssue |n the case of Mat|bag vs 8en|payowheLher ad lnLerlm
appolnLees
bypassed by Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs may be sub[ecL Lo re
appolnLmenL?
1he SC held LhaL an ad lnLerlm appolnLmenL LhaL ls bypassed by Lhe
Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs because of lack of Llme or fallure of Lhe
laLLer Lo
organlze ls anoLher maLLer A bypassed appo|ntment ls one LhaL has noL
been
flnally acLed upon on Lhe merlLs by Lhe CA aL Lhe close of Lhe sesslon of
Congress 1here ls no flnal declslon by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs
Lo glve
or wlLhhold lLs consenL Lo Lhe appolnLmenL as requlred by Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon AbsenL
such declslon Lhe resldenL ls free Lo renew Lhe ad lnLerlm appolnLmenL
of a bypassed
appolnLee 1hls ls recognlzed ln SecLlon 17 of Lhe 8ules of Lhe
Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs Pence under Lhe 8ules a bypassed
appolnLmenL can be consldered agaln lf Lhe resldenL renews Lhe
appolnLmenL
1he ad lnLerlm appolnLmenLs and subsequenL renewals of appolnLmenLs
of
8enlpayo 8orra and 1uason do noL vlolaLe Lhe prohlblLlon on
reappolnLmenLs
because Lhere were no prevlous appolnLmenLs LhaL were conflrmed by Lhe
Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs A reappolnLmenL presupposes a prevlous
conflrmed appolnLmenL 1he same ad lnLerlm appolnLmenLs and renewal
of
appolnLmenLs wlll also noL breach Lhe 7year Lerm llmlL because all Lhe
appolnLmenLs and renewals of appolnLmenLs of 8enlpayo 8orra and
1uason are
for a flxed Lerm explrlng on lebruary 2 2008 Any delay ln Lhelr
conflrmaLlon wlll
noL exLend Lhe explry daLe of Lhelr Lerms of offlce ConsequenLly Lhere ls
no
danger whaLsoever LhaL Lhe renewal of Lhe ad lnLerlm appolnLmenLs of
Lhese
loqe 2027/12/2008 soyr
202
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhree respondenLs wlll resulL ln any of Lhe evlls lnLended Lo be exorclsed
by Lhe
Lwln prohlblLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon 1he conLlnulng renewal of Lhe ad
lnLerlm
appolnLmenL of Lhese Lhree respondenLs for so long as Lhelr Lerm of offlce
explres
on lebruary 2 2008 does noL vlolaLe Lhe prohlblLlon on reappolnLmenLs ln
SecLlon 1 (2) ArLlcle lxC of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
Iour (4) S|tuat|ons where Sect|on 1 (2) Art|c|e IkC w||| app|y
74


SecLlon 1 (2) ArLlcle lxC of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon provldes @e coltmoo ooJ
te
commlsslooets soll be oppoloteJ by te lteslJeot wlt te cooseot of te
commlssloo oo Appolotmeots fot o tetm of seveo yeots wltoot
teoppolotmeot
Of tose fltst oppoloteJ ttee Membets soll olJ offlce fot seveo yeots
two
Membets fot flve yeots ooJ te lost Membet fot ttee yeots wltoot
teoppolotmeot Appolotmeot to ooy vocoocy soll be ooly fot te
ooexplteJ tetm
of te pteJecessot lo oo cose soll ooy Membet be oppoloteJ ot
JeslqooteJ lo
o tempototy ot octloq copoclty
1 Where an ad |nter|m appo|ntee to the CCMLLLC after conf|rmat|on by
the CA serves h|s fu|| 7year term Such person cannoL be reappolnLed Lo
Lhe CCMLLLC wheLher as a member or as a chalrman because he wlll
Lhen
be acLually servlng more Lhan 7 years
2 Where the appo|ntee after conf|rmat|on serves a part of h|s term and
then res|gns before h|s 7year term of off|ce ends Such person cannoL be
reappolnLed WheLher as a member or as a chalrman Lo a vacancy arlslng
from reLlremenL because a reappolnLmenL wlll resulL ln Lhe appolnLee also
servlng more Lhan seven years
3 Where the appo|ntee |s conf|rmed to serve the unexp|red term of
someone who d|ed or res|gned and the appo|ntee comp|etes the
unexp|red term Such person cannoL be reappolnLed wheLher as member
or
chalr Lo a vacancy arlslng from reLlremenL because a reappolnLmenL wlll
resulL ln Lhe appolnLee also servlng more Lhan seven years
4 Where the appo|ntee has prev|ous|y served a term |ess than seven
years and a vacancy ar|ses from death or res|gnat|on Lven lf lL wlll noL
resulL ln hls servlng more Lhan 7 years a reappolnLmenL of such person Lo
serve an unexplred Lerm ls also prohlblLed because hls slLuaLlon wlll be
slmllar
Lo Lhose appolnLed under Lhe second senLence of SecLlon 1 (2) ArLlcle lxC
of
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon 1hls provlslon refers Lo Lhe 1sL appolnLees under Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon whose Lerms of offlce are less Lhan 7 years buL are barred
from
ever belng reappolnLed under any slLuaLlon
loqe 20J7/12/2008 soyr
203
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ln Pimente/ lr vs rmito 6 No 14798 October 1l 2005
Congress commenced Lhelr regular sesslon on !uly 26 2004 Lhe
Commlsslon
on AppolnLmenLs was consLlLuLed on AugusL 23 2004 Meanwhlle
resldenL
Arroyo lssued appolnLmenLs Lo respondenLs as acLlng secreLarles of Lhelr
respecLlve deparLmenLs 8espondenLs Look Lhelr oaLh and assume duLles
as
acLlng secreLarles Congress ad[ourned on SepLember 22 2004 Cn
SepLember
23 2004 resldenL Arroyo lssued ad lnLerlm appolnLmenLs Lo
respondenLs as
secreLarles of Lhe deparLmenLs Lo whlch Lhey were prevlously appolnLed
ln an
acLlng capaclLy A peLlLlon was flled Lo declare unconsLlLuLlonal Lhe
appolnLmenLs
lssued by Lhe resldenL Lo Lhe respondenLs as acLlng secreLarles of Lhelr
respecLlve deparLmenLs wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenLs
whlle Congress ls ln sesslon 1he SC held LhaL as a rule Lhe wrlL of
prohlblLlon
wlll noL lle Lo en[oln acLs already done Powever an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule
on
mooLness courLs wlll declde a quesLlon oLherwlse mooL lf lL ls capable of
repeLlLlon yeL evadlng revlew ln Lhe presenL case Lhe mooLness of Lhe
peLlLlon
does noL bar lLs resoluLlon 1he quesLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe
resldenL's
appolnLmenL of deparLmenL secreLarles ln an acLlng capaclLy whlle
Congress ls ln
sesslon wlll arlse ln every such appolnLmenL 1he offlce of a deparLmenL
secreLary may become vacanL whlle Congress ls ln sesslon Slnce a
deparLmenL
secreLary ls an alLer ego of Lhe resldenL Lhe acLlng appolnLee Lo Lhe
offlce musL
necessarlly have Lhe resldenL's confldence 1hus by Lhe very naLure of
Lhe
offlce of a deparLmenL secreLary Lhe resldenL musL appolnL ln an acLlng
capaclLy
a person of her own cholce even whlle Congress ls ln sesslon 1he person
may
or may noL be Lhe permanenL appolnLee buL pracLlcal reasons may make
lL
expedlenL LhaL Lhe acLlng appolnLee wlll also be Lhe permanenL appolnLee
1he
law expressly allows Lhe resldenL Lo make such acLlng appolnLmenL
Sect|on
17 Chapter S 1|t|e I 8ook III of LC 292 (Adm|n|strat|ve Code of 1987)
sLaLes
LhaL @e lteslJeot moy tempototlly Jeslqoote oo offlcet olteoJy lo te
qovetomeot setvlce ot ooy competeot petsoo to petfotm te fooctloos of
oo
offlce lo te execotlve btooc 1hus Lhe resldenL may even appolnL ln an
acLlng
capaclLy a person noL yeL ln Lhe governmenL servlce as long as Lhe
resldenL
deems LhaL person compeLenL
Ad |nter|m appo|ntment Appo|ntment |n an act|ng capac|ty
rMade lf congress ls noL ln sesslon rMade any Llme Lhere ls vacancy le
wheLher Congress ls ln sesslon or noL
loqe 2047/12/2008 soyr
204
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r8equlres conflrmaLlon of CA
rermanenL ln naLure
rAppolnLee en[oys securlLy of Lenure
ruoes noL requlre conflrmaLlon of CA
r1emporary ln naLure
r1he appolnLee does noL en[oy securlLy
of Lenure
LlmlLaLlons on AppolnLlng ower
1 rohlblLlon agalnsL nepoLlsm(SecLlon 13 par 2 ArLlcle vll) 1e
spoose ooJ
telotlves by coosooqololty ot offlolty wltlo te 4t clvll Jeqtee of te
lteslJeot
soll oot Jotloq ls teoote be oppoloteJ os Membets of te coostltotloool
commlssloos ot te Offlce of te OmboJsmoo ot os ectetotles
uoJetsectetotles coltmeo ot eoJs of boteoos ot offlces locloJloq
qovetomeotowoeJ ot coottolleJ cotpototloos ooJ telt sobslJlotles
2 AppolnLmenLs exLended by an AcLlng resldenL shall remaln effecLlve
unless
revoked by Lhe elecLed resldenL wlLhln 90 days from hls assumpLlon of
offlce
(secLlon 14 ArLlcle vll)
3 1he presldenLlal power of appolnLmenL may also be llmlLed by Congress
Lhrough
73


lLs power Lo prescrlbe quallflcaLlons for publlc offlce
4 1he [udlclary may annul an appolnLmenL made by Lhe resldenL lf Lhe
appolnLee
ls noL quallfled or has noL been valldly conflrmed by Lhe Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenLs
S SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vll2 Lypes of appolnLmenL @wo moots
lmmeJlotely befote
te oext pteslJeotlol electloos ooJ op to te eoJ of ls tetm o lteslJeot ot
Actloq lteslJeot soll oot moke oppolotmeots except tempototy
oppolotmeots
to execotlve posltloos weo cootlooeJ vocoocles tetelo wlll ptejoJlce
pobllc
setvlce ot eoJooqet pobllc sofety
rCase of I|rst Impress|onr
ln e non Moteo vo/entue/o ond non P/ocido vo//orto 298 5 409
SecLlon
13 ArLlcle vll ls dlrecLed agalnsL Lwo (2) Lypes of appolnLmenL
1 1hose made for buylng voLesLhose appolnLmenLs made wlLhln 2
monLhs
precedlng Lhe resldenLlal elecLlon and are slmllar Lo Lhose whlch are
declared
elecLlon offenses ln Lhe Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code
loqe 2057/12/2008 soyr
203
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2 1hose made for parLlsan conslderaLlonsconslsL of Lhe socalled
m|dn|ght
appolnLmenLs and Lhose presumed made for Lhe purpose of lnfluenclng
Lhe
ouLcome of Lhe presldenLlal elecLlon
r a lf made wlLhln Lhe 2monLh elecLlon perlodelecLlon offense
b lf made by an ouLgolng resldenL before hls Lerm of offlce ends lL ls
MlunlCP1
appolnLmenL
LxcepLlon Lemporary appolnLmenL Lo execuLlve poslLlons
rCase of I|rst Impress|onr
ue omo vs ourt of ppeo/s l5l 5 94 Mayor Lvelyn Abe[a run for
reelecLlon
buL losL 8efore she vacaLed her offlce Lhough she exLended permanenL
appolnLmenLs
Lo 14 new employees of Lhe munlclpal governmenL 1he lncomlng mayor
upon
assumlng offlce recalled sald appolnLmenLs conLendlng LhaL Lhese were
mldnlghL
appolnLmenLs" and Lherefore prohlblLed under SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vll of
Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon 1he SC held LhaL Lhe records reveal LhaL when Lhe peLlLloner
broughL Lhe
maLLer of recalllng Lhe appolnLmenLs of Lhe 14 prlvaLe respondenLs before
Lhe Clvll
Servlce Commlsslon Lhe only reason he clLed Lo [usLlfy hls acLlons was LhaL
Lhese were
mldnlghL appolnLmenLs" LhaL are forbldden by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
Powever Lhe CSC
ruled and correcLly so LhaL Lhe sald prohlblLlon applles only Lo
presldenLlal
appolnLmenLs ln LruLh and ln facL Lhere ls no law LhaL prohlblLs local
elecLlve offlclals
from maklng appolnLmenLs durlng Lhe lasL days of hls or her Lenure
ufino vs ndriqo 6 Nos 1l9554 ond 1l955 lu/y 21 200 a sLaLuLe
cannoL
clrcumvenL Lhe consLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlons on Lhe power Lo appolnL by fllllng
vacancles ln a
publlc offlce Lhrough elecLlon by Lhe coworkers ln LhaL offlce Such
manner of fllllng
vacancles ln a publlc offlce has no consLlLuLlonal basls And slnce Lhe
perLlnenL secLlon
ls unconsLlLuLlonal Lhe resldenL has Lhe power Lo appolnL Lhe LrusLees by
vlrLue of
SecLlon 16 ArLlcle vll whlch glves Lhe resldenL Lhe power Lo appolnL
offlcers whose
appolnLmenLs are noL provlded for by Lhe law
CWLk CI kLMCVAL
Ceneral 8ule 1hls power ls lmplled from Lhe power Lo appolnL
LxcepLlons 1hose appolnLed by hlm where Lhe ConsLlLuLlon prescrlbes
cerLaln
meLhods for separaLlon from publlc servlces
Lxample Members of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons !usLlces of Lhe
SCmay
only be removed Lhrough lmpeachmenL
loqe 207/12/2008 soyr
206
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Members of Lhe career servlce of Lhe Clvll Servlce who are appolnLed by
Lhe
resldenL may be dlrecLly dlsclpllned provlded LhaL Lhe same ls for cause
and ln
accordance wlLh Lhe procedure prescrlbed by law
Members of Lhe CablneL and such offlcers whose conLlnulLy ln offlce
depends
upon Lhe pleasure of Lhe resldenL may be replaced aL any Llme buL
legally speaklng
Lhelr separaLlon ls effecLed noL by removal buL by explraLlon of Lhelr Lerm
%porri vs
ourt of ppeo/s 127 5 2l1)
CWLk CI CCN1kCL
Sec 17 ArLlcle vll @e lteslJeot soll ove coottol of oll te execotlve
Jepottmeots
boteoos ooJ offlces ne soll eosote tot te lows be foltfolly execoteJ
rlalLhful LxecuLlon Clause
As Chlef LxecuLlve Lhe resldenL holds Lhe sLeerlng wheel LhaL conLrols
Lhe
course of her governmenLshe lays down pollcles ln Lhe execuLlon of her
plans and
programs and whaLever pollcy she chooses she has her subordlnaLes Lo
lmplemenL
Lhem %ovet vs omu/o 6 No 1570l lune 9 2004)
ConLrolls Lhe power Lo alLer or modlfy or nulllfy or seL aslde whaL a
subordlnaLe had
done ln Lhe performance of hls duLles and Lo subsLlLuLe Lhe [udgmenL of
Lhe former for
LhaL of Lhe laLLer
Supervlslonmeans overseelng or Lhe power or auLhorlLy of an offlcer Lo
see LhaL
subordlnaLe offlcers perform Lhelr duLles and lf Lhe laLLer fall or neglecL Lo
fulflll Lhem
Lhen Lhe former may Lake such acLlon or sLeps as prescrlbed by law Lo
make Lhem
perform Lhese duLles
Doctr|ne of ua||f|ed o||t|ca| Agency or Lhe A|ter Lgo Doctr|ne
AcLs of Lhe SecreLarles of execuLlve deparLmenLs when performed and
promulgaLed ln
Lhe regular course of buslness or unless dlsapproved or reprobaLed by Lhe
Chlef
LxecuLlve are presumpLlvely Lhe acLs of Lhe Chlef execuLlve
ln Lhe case of uN vs uN eqion xll mp/oyees 6 No 149724
uqust 19 200l Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo reorganlze Lhe naLlonal
CovernmenL
may valldly be delegaLed Lo hls CablneL members exerclslng conLrol over a
parLlcular
76


execuLlve deparLmenL Accordlngly ln Lhls case Lhe uLn8 SecreLary can
valldly
reorganlze Lhe uLn8 by orderlng Lhe Lransfer of Lhe uLn8 8eglonal Cfflces
from
loqe 2077/12/2008 soyr
207
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
CoLabaLo ClLy koronadal SouLh CoLabaLo 1he exerclse of Lhls auLhorlLy by
Lhe uLn8
SecreLary as an alLer ego of Lhe resldenL ls presumed Lo be Lhe acL of
Lhe resldenL
because Lhe laLLer had noL expressly repudlaLed Lhe same
Powever ln Lhe case of 6/orio vs ourt of ppeo/s 6 No 11990l
uqust
15 2000 Lhe SC held LhaL even lf Lhe uLCS SecreLary ls an alLer ego of Lhe
resldenL
he cannoL lnvoke Lhe resldenL's lmmunlLy from sulL ln a case flled agalnsL
hlm
lnasmuch as Lhe quesLloned acLs are noL Lhose of Lhe resldenL
r 1he power of conLrol may be exerclsed by Lhe resldenL only over Lhe
acLs noL
over Lhe acLor %nqonqco vs osti//o 9 5 19)
CWLk CI GLNLkAL SULkVISICN CVLk LCCAL GCVLkNMLN1S (Sect|on
4
Art|c|e k)Lhe resldenL can only lnLerfere ln Lhe affalrs and acLlvlLles of a
LCu lf he
flnds LhaL Lhe laLLer acLed conLrary Lo law 1he resldenL or any of hls alLer
egos cannoL
lnLerfere ln local affalrs as long as Lhe concerned LCu acLs wlLhln Lhe
parameLers of Lhe
law and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Any dlrecLlve Lherefore by Lhe resldenL or any
of hls alLer
egos seeklng Lo alLer Lhe wlsdom of a lawconformlng [udgmenL on local
affalrs of a LCu
ls a paLenL nulllLy because lL vlolaLes Lhe prlnclple of local auLonomy as
well as Lhe
docLrlne of separaLlon of powers of Lhe execuLlve and Lhe leglslaLlve
deparLmenLs ln
governlng munlclpal corporaLlons %ludqe uodo/e vs O 6 No
125l50
uecember l 2002)
r 1he resldenL exerclses general supervlslon noL conLrol over local
governmenLs 1he
power ls generally Lo see Lo lL LhaL Lhe LCus perform Lhelr powers and
funcLlons ln
accordance wlLh law
MILI1Ak CWLkS
SecLlon 18 ArLlcle vll
1 1he CommanderlnChlef Clause
r1o call ouL Lhe Armed forces Lo prevenL or suppress lawless vlolence
lnvaslon
or rebelllon
rCrganlze courLs marLlal for Lhe dlsclpllne of Lhe armed forces and creaLe
mlllLary
commlsslons for Lhe punlshmenL of war crlmlnals
CalllngouL powerlawless vlolence declare marLlal law suspend Lhe
wrlL of PC
8ebelllon lnvaslon when Lhe publlc safeLy
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lnvaslon rebelllon so requlres"
r 6udoni vs 5enqo 6 No 17015 uqust 15 200 %@inqo) Lhe ablllLy
of Lhe
resldenL Lo requlre a mlllLary offlclal Lo secure prlor consenL before
appearlng
before Congress perLalns Lo a wholly dlfferenL and lndependenL specle of
presldenLlal auLhorlLyLhe commanderlnchlef powers of Lhe resldenL
8y LradlLlon
and [urlsprudence Lhe commanderlnchlef powers of Lhe resldenL are
noL
encumbered by Lhe same degree of resLrlcLlon as LhaL whlch may aLLach Lo
execuLlve
prlvllege or execuLlve conLrol
2 Suspenslon of Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL of habeas corpus
Crounds lnvaslon or rebelllon when publlc safeLy requlres lL
uuraLlon noL Lo exceed 60 days followlng whlch lL shall be llfLed unless
exLended
by Congress
uuLy of Lhe resldenL 1o reporL acLlon Lo Congress wlLhln 48 hours
personally or
ln wrlLlng
r1he Congress may revoke or exLend on requesL of Lhe resldenL Lhe
effecLlvlLy
of proclamaLlon by a ma[orlLy voLe of all lLs Members voLlng [olnLly
1he suspenslon applles only Lo persons [udlclally charged for rebelllon or
offenses lnherenL ln or dlrecLly connecLed wlLh lnvaslon
uurlng Lhe suspenslon of Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL of habeas corpus any
person
Lhus arresLed or deLalned shall be [udlclally charged wlLhln Lhree (3) days
oLherwlse he
shall be released
3 roclamaLlon of MarLlal Law
ConsLlLuLlonal safeguards on Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of Lhe resldenL Lo
proclalm marLlal law
a 1here musL be acLual lnvaslon or rebelllon
b 1he duraLlon of Lhe proclamaLlon shall noL exceed 60 days
c WlLhln 48 hours Lhe resldenL shall reporL hls acLlon Lo Congress lf
Congress ls noL ln sesslon lL musL convene wlLhln 24 hours
loqe 2097/12/2008 soyr
209
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
d Congress may by ma[orlLy voLe of all lLs members voLlng [olnLly revoke
Lhe proclamaLlon and Lhe resldenL cannoL seL aslde Lhe revocaLlon
e 8y Lhe same voLe and ln Lhe same manner upon lnlLlaLlve of Lhe
resldenL Congress may exLend Lhe proclamaLlon lf Lhe lnvaslon or
rebelllon conLlnues and publlc safeLy requlres lL
f 1he Supreme CourL may revlew ln an approprlaLe proceedlng flled by
any
clLlzen Lhe sufflclency of Lhe facLual basls of Lhe proclamaLlon of marLlal
law or Lhe suspenslon of Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL of habeas corpus or Lhe
exLenslon Lhereof and musL promulgaLe lLs declslon Lhereon wlLhln 30
days from lLs flllng
g lL does noL suspend Lhe operaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon nor supplanL Lhe
funcLlonlng of Lhe clvll courLs or leglslaLlve assemblles nor auLhorlze Lhe
conflnemenL of [urlsdlcLlon on mlllLary courLs and agencles over clvlllans
where clvll courLs are able Lo funcLlon nor auLomaLlcally suspend Lhe
prlvllege of Lhe wrlL
C|aguer doctr|neaka CLn CCu81 uCC18lnLclvlllans cannoL be Lrled
by
mlllLary courLs lf Lhe clvll courLs are open and funcLlonlng %O/oquer vs
Mi/itory
ommission No l4 6 No L54448 Moy 22 1987)
4 ways for Lhe proclamaLlon or suspenslon Lo be llfLed
1 LlfLlng by Lhe resldenL hlmself
2 8evocaLlon by Congress
77


3 nulllflcaLlon by Lhe SC
4 CperaLlon of law afLer 60 days
AkDCNING CWLk
Lxerclse by Lhe resldenL ulscreLlonary may noL be conLrolled by Lhe
leglslaLure
or reversed by Lhe courLs unless Lhere ls vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
SecLlon 19 ArLlcle vll ls slmply Lhe source of power of Lhe resldenL Lo
granL
reprleves commuLaLlons and pardons and remlL flnes and forfelLures
afLer convlcLlon by
flnal [udgmenL 1hls provlslon however cannoL be lnLerpreLed as denylng
Lhe power of
courLs Lo conLrol Lhe enforcemenL of Lhelr declslons afLer Lhe flnallLy ln
LruLh an accused
LhaL has been convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL sLlll possesses collaLeral rlghLs
and Lhese
rlghLs can be clalmed ln Lhe approprlaLe courLs lor lnsLance a deaLh
convlcL who
becomes lnsane afLer hls flnal convlcLlon cannoL be execuLed whlle ln Lhe
sLaLe of
lnsanlLy (See ArLlcle 79 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code)
loqe 2107/12/2008 soyr
210
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ArLlcle 81 of Lhe 8evlsed enal code as amended whlch provldes LhaL Lhe
deaLh senLence shall be carrled ouL wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe exerclse by
Lhe resldenL of
hls execuLlve clemency powers aL all Llmes lor lnsLance Lhe resldenL
cannoL granL
reprleve le posLpone Lhe execuLlon of a senLence Lo a day cerLaln ln Lhe
absence of a
preclse daLe Lo reckon wlLh 1he exerclse of such clemency power aL Lhls
Llme mlghL
even work Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe convlcL and defeaL Lhe purpose of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon and
Lhe appllcable sLaLuLe as when Lhe daLe of execuLlon seL by Lhe resldenL
would be
earller Lhan LhaL deslgnaLed by courL %ceqoroy vs 5ecretory of lustice
l01 5
9)
1 ardonan acL of grace whlch exempLs Lhe lndlvldual on whom lL ls
besLowed
from punlshmenL whlch Lhe law lnfllcLs for a crlme he has commlLLed
a lenary or parLlal
b AbsoluLe or condlLlonal
Cond|t|ona| pardonls ln Lhe naLure of a conLracL beLween Lhe soverelgn
power
or Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve and Lhe convlcLed crlmlnal Lo Lhe effecL LhaL Lhe
former wlll
release Lhe laLLer sub[ecL Lo Lhe condlLlon LhaL lf he does noL comply wlLh
Lhe
Lerms of Lhe pardon he wlll be recommlLLed Lo prlson Lo serve Lhe
unexplred
porLlon of Lhe senLence or an addlLlonal one
2 CommuLaLlonreducLlon or mlLlgaLlon of penalLy
3 8eprleveposLponemenL of senLence or sLay of execuLlon
4 arolerelease from lmprlsonmenL buL wlLhouL full resLoraLlon of
llberLy as
parolee ls ln cusLody of Lhe law alLhough noL ln conflnemenL
3 AmnesLyacL of grace concurred ln by Lhe LeglslaLure usually
exLended Lo
groups of persons who commlLLed pollLlcal offenses whlch puLs lnLo
obllvlon Lhe
offense lLself
LlmlLaLlons
a CannoL be granLed ln cases of lmpeachmenL
b CannoL be granLed ln vlolaLlons of elecLlon laws wlLhouL favorable
recommendaLlons of Lhe CCMLLLC
c Can be granLed only afLer convlcLlon by flnal [udgmenL (excepL
amnesLy)
d CannoL be granLed ln cases of leglslaLlve conLempL or clvll conLempL
e CannoL absolve convlcL of clvll llablllLy
f CannoL resLore publlc offlces forfelLed
Amnesty ardon
raddressed Lo pollLlcal offenses rrefers Lo lnfracLlons of laws of Lhe sLaLe
or
loqe 2117/12/2008 soyr
211
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rgranLed Lo a class or classes of persons
rlL need noL be accepLed
rlL requlres Lhe concurrence of Congress
rlL ls a publlc acL
rlL looks backward and puLs Lhe offense
lnLo obllvlon
ordlnary offenses
rgranLed Lo lndlvlduals
rlL musL be accepLed
rlL does noL need Lhe concurrence of
Congress
rlL ls a prlvaLe acL of Lhe resldenL
rlL looks forward and relleves Lhe pardonee
of Lhe consequences of Lhe offense
r !udlclal admlsslons
MaLLers of [udlclal noLlce no need of proof
!udlclal presumpLlons
ln L/omos vs Orbos pardon ls avallable also Lo one found gullLy of
admlnlsLraLlve
offense
SecLlon 19 of ArLlcle vll dld noL dlsLlngulsh beLween a crlmlnal and
admlnlsLraLlve
offense
LffecL of granL of pardon
ln Lhe case of Monsanto vs Iactoran Lhe accused was convlcLed of
malversaLlon Lhru falslflcaLlon of offlclal documenLs She was granLed
absoluLe pardon
She demanded for relnsLaLemenL and back salarles 1he SC held LhaL
pardon may
mean forglveness buL noL forgeLfulness WhaL was remlLLed ls Lhe penalLy
and noL Lhe
facL of one's gullL ln Lhe eyes of law she was sLlll a convlcL
Lxcept|ons
1 unless Lhe granL expressly so provldes for her relnsLaLemenL and
paymenL of
back salarles
2 lf Lhe granL of pardon was based on Lhe facL of Lhe lnnocence of Lhe one
charged
of Lhe crlme
8CkkCWING CWLk
1he resldenL may conLracL or guaranLee forelgn loans on behalf of Lhe
8epubllc
wlLh Lhe concurrence of Lhe MoneLary 8oard sub[ecL Lo such llmlLaLlons
as may be
loqe 2127/12/2008 soyr
212
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
78


provlded by law 1he MoneLary 8oard shall submlL Lo Lhe Congress reporL
on loans
wlLhln 30 days from end of every quarLer
LlmlLaLlons
1 1here musL be prlor concurrence of Lhe MoneLary 8oard
2 lL ls sub[ecL Lo such oLher llmlLaLlons
DILCMA1IC]1kLA1MAkING CWLk (SecLlon 21 ArLlcle vll)
no LreaLy or lnLernaLlonal agreemenL shall be valld and effecLlve unless
concurred
ln by aL leasL 2/3 of all Lhe members of Lhe SenaLe
ln our [urlsdlcLlon Lhe power Lo raLlfy ls vesLed ln Lhe resldenL and noL
as
commonly belleved ln Lhe leglslaLure 1he role of Lhe SenaLe ls llmlLed
only Lo glvlng or
wlLhholdlng lLs consenL or concurrence Lo Lhe raLlflcaLlon %8oyon vs
2omoro 6
No 1l8570 October 10 2000)
1hls provlslon lays down Lhe general rule on LreaLles or lnLernaLlonal
agreemenLs
and applles Lo any form of LreaLy wlLh a wlde varleLy of sub[ecL maLLer All
LreaLles or
lnLernaLlonal agreemenLs enLered lnLo by Lhe hlllpplnes regardless of
sub[ecL maLLer
coverage or parLlcular deslgnaLlon or appellaLlon requlres Lhe
concurrence of Lhe
SenaLe Lo be valld and effecLlve
8uL see SecLlon 23 of ArLlcle xvlll under Lhls provlslon Lhe concurrence of
Lhe
SenaLe ls only one of Lhe requlslLes Lo render compllance wlLh Lhe
consLlLuLlonal
requlremenLs and Lo conslder Lhe agreemenL blndlng on Lhe hlllpplnes
8UDGL1Ak CWLk
WlLhln 30 days from openlng of every regular sesslon resldenL shall
submlL Lo
Congress a budgeL of expendlLures and sources of flnanclng lncludlng
recelpLs from
exlsLlng and proposed revenue measures
1he Congress may noL lncrease Lhe approprlaLlon recommended by Lhe
resldenL Powever lLs form conLenL manner of preparaLlon of Lhe
budgeL shall be
prescrlbed by Congress
INICkMING CWLkSLaLe of Lhe naLlon Address (SecLlon 23 ArLlcle vll)
1he resldenL shall address Congress aL Lhe openlng of lLs regular sesslon
(4Lh
Monday of !uly) Pe may also appear before lL aL any oLher Llme
loqe 21J7/12/2008 soyr
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
VL1C CWLk (ArLlcle vl)
kLSIDUAL CWLk WhaLever ls noL [udlclal whaLever ls noL leglslaLlve ls
resldual power exerclsed by Lhe resldenL
C1nLk CWLkS
1 ower Lo call speclal sesslon (SecLlon 13 ArLlcle vl)
2 ower Lo deporL allens
3 ConsenL Lo depuLlzaLlon of governmenL personnel by CCMLLLC
4 1o dlsclpllne such depuLles
3 8y delegaLlon from Congress exerclse emergency and Larlff powers
CondlLlons for Lhe exerclse of Lhe resldenL of Lmergency owers
a lL can be exerclsed only ln Llmes of war or naLlonal emergency
b 1here musL be a law auLhorlzlng Lhe resldenL Lo exerclse emergency
powers
c lL musL be for a llmlLed perlod
d lL musL be sub[ecL Lo resLrlcLlons whlch Congress may provlde and
e lL musL be necessary and proper Lo carry ouL a declared naLlonal pollcy
6 ower Lo 8eorganlze Lhe Cfflce of Lhe resldenLunder LC 292 Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1987
1he law granLs Lhe resldenL conLlnulng auLhorlLy Lo reorganlze Lhe Cfflce
of Lhe
resldenL ln recognlLlon of Lhe recurrlng need of every resldenL Lo
reorganlze hls offlce
Lo achleve slmpllclLy economy and efflclency" 1he Cfflce of Lhe
resldenL ls Lhe nerve
cenLer of Lhe LxecuLlve 8ranch 1o remaln effecLlve and efflclenL Lhe
Cfflce musL be
capable of belng shaped and reshaped by Lhe resldenL ln Lhe manner he
deems flL Lo
carry ouL hls dlrecLlves and pollcles
ower to reorgan|ze the Cff|ce of
the res|dent Sec 31 (23) LC
292
ower to reorgan|ze the Cff|ce of the
res|dent roper Sec 31 (1) LC
292
r 1he resldenL's power Lo reorganlze
offlces ouLslde Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
r 1he resldenL can reorganlze Lhe
Cfflce of Lhe presldenL roper by
loqe 2147/12/2008 soyr
214
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
resldenL roper ls llmlLed Lo merely
Lransferrlng funcLlons or agencles from
Lhe Cfflce of Lhe presldenL Lo
ueparLmenLs or Agencles and vlce
versa
a Abollshlng
b ConsolldaLlng or merglng unlLs
c 1ransferrlng funcLlons from one
unlL Lo anoLher
uominqo vs 2omoro 6 No 14228l ebruory 200l
Mo/orio mp/oyees ond Jorkers ssociotion of te Pi/ippines %MJP)
vs
xecutive 5ecretory omu/o 6 No 1009l lu/y l1 2007 Lhe
resldenL has Lhe
auLhorlLy Lo carry ouL a reorganlzaLlon of Lhe uCP under Lhe ConsLlLuLlons
and sLaLuLory
laws 1hls auLhorlLy ls ad[uncL of hls power of conLrol under ArLlcle vll
SecLlons 1 and
17 1he resldenL's power Lo re0organlze Lhe execuLlve branch ls also an
exerclse of hls
resldual powers Powever Lhe resldenL musL exerclse good falLh ln
carrylng ouL Lhe
reorganlzaLlon of any branch or agency of Lhe execuLlve deparLmenL
IMCUNDMLN1 CWLk
lmpoundmenL refers Lo Lhe refusal of Lhe resldenL for whaLever reason
Lo
spend funds made avallable by Congress lL ls Lhe fallure Lo spend or
obllgaLe budgeL
auLhorlLy of any Lype
roponenLs of lmpoundmenL have lnvoked aL leasL Lhree (3) prlnclpal
sources of
Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe resldenL
1 auLhorlLy Lo lmpound glven Lo hlm elLher expressly or lmplledly by
Congress
2 Lhe execuLlve power drawn from Lhe resldenL's role as Commanderln
Chlef
3 lalLhful LxecuLlon Clause
1he proponenLs lnslsL LhaL a falLhful execuLlon of Lhe laws requlres LhaL
Lhe
79


resldenL deslsL from lmplemenLlng Lhe law lf dolng so would pre[udlce
publlc lnLeresL
An example glven ls when Lhrough efflclenL and prudenL managemenL of a
pro[ecL
subsLanLlal savlngs are made ln such a case lL ls sheer folly Lo expecL Lhe
resldenL Lo
spend Lhe enLlre amounL budgeLed ln Lhe law %PnlLON5 vs nriquet
2l5 5
50)
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e VIII
IUDICIAL DLAk1MLN1
CCNCL1 CI IUDICIAL CWLk
lL ls Lhe power Lo hear and declde cases pendlng beLween parLles who
have Lhe
rlghL Lo sue ln courLs of law and equlLy Corollary Lo Lhls dlcLum ls Lhe
prlnclple of locus
sLandl of a llLlganL Pe who ls dlrecLly affecLed and whose lnLeresL ls
lmmedlaLe and
subsLanLlal has Lhe sLandlng Lo sue 1hus a parLy musL show a personal
sLake ln Lhe
ouLcome of Lhe case or an ln[ury Lo hlmself LhaL can be redressed by a
favorable
declslon ln order Lo warranL an lnvocaLlon of Lhe courL's [urlsdlcLlon and
[usLlfy Lhe
exerclse of [udlclal power on hls behalf %uominqo vs oroque 6 No
1105
pri/ 15 2005)
Sect|on 1 Art|c|e VIII IUDICIAL CWLk
1he [udlclal power shall be vesLed ln one SC and ln such lower courLs as
may be
esLabllshed by law
!udlclal power lncludes
1 1he duLy of Lhe courLs of [usLlce Lo seLLle acLual conLroversles lnvolvlng
rlghLs
whlch are legally demandable and enforceable (18Aul1lCnAL CCnCL1
Cl
!uulClAL CWL8) and
2 1o deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhere has been a grave abuse of dlscreLlon
amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon (CAuALL!) on Lhe parL of any
branch or
lnsLrumenLallLy of Lhe CovernmenL (LxAnuLu CWL8)
Iur|sd|ct|on 1he power Lo hear and declde cases
Sect|on 2 Art|c|e VIII@e cooqtess soll ove te powet to Jefloe
ptesctlbe ooJ
oppottloo te jotlsJlctloo of te votloos cootts bot moy oot Jeptlve te
opteme coott
of lts jotlsJlctloo ovet coses eoometoteJ lo ectloo 5 eteof
-o low soll be posseJ teotqoolzloq te IoJlcloty weo lt ooJetmloes te
secotlty of teoote of lts Membets
loqe 217/12/2008 soyr
216
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ConsLlLuLlonal Safeguards LhaL guaranLee lndependence of !udlclary
1 1he Supreme CourL ls a consLlLuLlonal body and may noL be abollshed
by law
2 1he members of Lhe SC are removable only by lmpeachmenL
3 1he SC may noL be deprlved of mlnlmum orlglnal and appellaLe
[urlsdlcLlon
appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon may noL be lncreased wlLhouL lLs advlce and
concurrence
4 1he SC has admlnlsLraLlve supervlslon over all lnferlor courLs and
personnel
3 1he SC has Lhe excluslve power Lo dlsclpllne [udges/[usLlces of lnferlor
courLs
6 1he members of Lhe !udlclary have securlLy of Lenure
7 1he members of Lhe SC may noL be deslgnaLed Lo any agency
performlng quasl[udlclal
or admlnlsLraLlve funcLlons
8 Salarles of [udges may noL be reduced Lhe !udlclary en[oys flscal
auLonomy
9 1he SC alone may lnlLlaLe 8ules of CourL
101he SC alone may order Lemporary deLall of [udges
111he SC can appolnL all offlclals and employees of Lhe !udlclary
I|sca| Autonomymeans freedom from ouLslde conLrol 1he !udlclary
Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons and Lhe Cmbudsman musL have Lhe
lndependence and
flexlblllLy needed ln Lhe dlscharge of Lhelr consLlLuLlonal duLles 1he
lmposlLlon of
resLrlcLlons and consLralnLs on Lhe manner Lhe lndependenL consLlLuLlonal
offlces
allocaLe and uLlllze Lhe funds approprlaLed for Lhelr operaLlons ls
anaLhema Lo flscal
auLonomy and vlolaLlve noL only of Lhe express mandaLe of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon buL
especlally as regards Lhe SC of Lhe lndependence and separaLlon of
powers upon
whlch Lhe enLlre fabrlc of our consLlLuLlonal sysLem ls based %8enqton vs
uri/on 208
5 1ll pri/ 15 1992)
Appo|ntment to the Iud|c|ary
CuallflcaLlons Cf proven compeLence lnLegrlLy problLy and
lndependence ln addlLlon
A !usLlces of Lhe SC
a naLuralborn clLlzen
b AL leasL 40 years of age
loqe 2177/12/2008 soyr
217
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
c 13 years or more a [udge of a lower courL or has been engaged ln Lhe
pracLlce of law ln Lhe hlllpplnes for Lhe same perlod
8 !usLlces of Lhe CourL of Appeals
rSame quallflcaLlons as Lhose provlded for SC !usLlces
rCongress may prescrlbe oLher quallflcaLlons
C 81C !udges
a ClLlzen of Lhe hlllpplnes
b AL leasL 33 years of age
c Pas been engaged ln Lhe pracLlce of law for aL leasL 3 years or has held
publlc offlce ln Lhe hlllpplnes requlrlng admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law
as
an lndlspensable requlslLe
u M1C Me1C MC1C !udges
a ClLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
b AL leasL 30 years of age
c Pas been engaged ln Lhe pracLlce of law for aL leasL 3 years or has held
publlc offlce ln Lhe hlllpplnes requlrlng admlsslon Lo Lhe pracLlce of law
as
an lndlspensable requlslLe
rocedure for Appo|ntment
1 AppolnLed by Lhe resldenL from among a llsL of aL leasL 3 nomlnees
prepared by
Lhe !udlclal and 8ar Councll (!8C) for every vacancy
80


2 lor lower courLs resldenL shall lssue Lhe appolnLmenL 90 days from
submlsslon
of Lhe llsL
1enure of Iust|ces and Iudges
A S upreme CourLPold offlce unLll Lhey reach Lhe age of 70 or become
lncapaclLaLed Lo dlscharge Lhelr duLles 1hey may be removed only
Lhrough
lmpeachmenL
8 L ower CourLsPold offlce durlng good behavlor unLll Lhey reach Lhe
age of 70 or
become lncapaclLaLed Lo dlscharge Lhelr duLles
r8y ma[orlLy voLe of members who acLually Look parL ln Lhe dellberaLlon
on Lhe
lssues and voLed Lhereon SC en banc shall have Lhe power Lo dlsclpllne
[udges of lower
courLs or order Lhelr dlsmlssal
rno law shall be passed reorganlzlng Lhe !udlclary when lL undermlnes Lhe
securlLy of Lenure of lLs Members
loqe 2187/12/2008 soyr
218
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
IUDICIAL AND 8Ak CCUNCIL
ComposlLlon
LxCfflclo ChalrmanChlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme CourL
LxCfflclo Members SecreLary of !usLlce
8epresenLaLlve of Congress
8egular Members8epresenLaLlve of Lhe l8
rofessor of Law
8eLlred Member of SC
8epresenLaLlve of prlvaLe secLor
SecreLary de CfflcloClerk of Lhe Supreme CourL
AppolnLmenL
1he resldenL shall appolnL regular members for a 4year Lerm wlLh Lhe
consenL
of Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenLs
owers and luncLlons
1 8ecommend appolnLees Lo Lhe !udlclary
2 8ecommend appolnLees Lo Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman and hls 3
uepuLles
3 May exerclse such oLher funcLlons as may be asslgned by Lhe Supreme
CourL
SUkLML CCUk1
ComposlLlon
% Chlef !usLlce and 14 AssoclaLes !usLlces
% May slL
o Ln 8anc or
o ln lLs dlscreLlon ln dlvlslons of 3 3 or 7 members
% Any vacancy shall be fllled wlLhln 90 days from occurrence Lhereof
owers of the Supreme Court
A Cr|g|na| Iur|sd|ct|on
1 Cver cases affecLlng ambassadors oLher publlc mlnlsLers and consuls
2 Cver peLlLlon for CerLlorarl rohlblLlon mandamus Cuo WarranLo and
Pabeas Corpus
Cert|orar| Iur|sd|ct|on of the SCllmlLed Lo declslons rendered ln acLlons
or
proceedlngs Laken cognlzance of by Lhe Commlsslons ln Lhe exerclse of
Lhelr
ad[udlcaLory or quasl[udlclal funcLlons
lL does noL refer Lo purely execuLlve powers Pence quesLlons arlslng
from Lhe
award of a conLracL for consLrucLlon of voLlng booLhs can be broughL
before Lhe
Lrlal courL %mbi/ vs OML 6 No 14ll98 October 5 2000)
3 8evlew of facLual basls for Lhe declaraLlon of marLlal law or suspenslon
of Lhe
prlvllege of wrlL of habeas corpus
loqe 2197/12/2008 soyr
219
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
8 Appe||ate Iur|sd|ct|on
% Cver flnal [udgmenLs and orders of lower courLs ln
a All cases ln whlch consLlLuLlonallLy or valldlLy of any LreaLy lnLernaLlonal
or execuLlve agreemenL law presldenLlal decree proclamaLlon order
lnsLrucLlon ordlnance or regulaLlon ls ln quesLlon
b All cases lnvolvlng Lhe legallLy of any Lax lmposL assessmenL or Loll or
any penalLy lmposed ln relaLlon LhereLo
c All cases ln whlch Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of any lower courLs ls ln lssue
d All crlmlnal cases ln whlch Lhe penalLy lmposed ls recluslon perpeLua
or hlgher and
e All cases ln whlch only a quesLlon of law ls lnvolved
C LlecLoral 1rlbunal for resldenLlal and vlceresldenLlal ConLesLs over
all
conLesLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlon reLurn and quallflcaLlon of Lhe resldenL
or vlce
resldenL
u 1emporary asslgnmenL of [udges of lower courLs Lo oLher sLaLlons as
publlc
lnLeresL may requlre noL Lo exceed 6 monLhs wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
[udge
concerned
L Crder change of venue or place of Lrlal Lo avold mlscarrlage of [usLlce
l 8ulemaklng powerpromulgaLes rules concernlng
1 roLecLlon and enforcemenL of consLlLuLlonal rlghLs
2 leadlng pracLlce and procedure ln all courLs
3 Admlsslons Lo Lhe pracLlce of law
4 l8 and
3 Legal asslsLance Lo Lhe underprlvlleged
LlmlLaLlons on rulemaklng power
a rovlde a slmpllfled and lnexpenslve procedure for speedy dlsposlLlon
of
cases
b unlform for all courLs of Lhe same grade
c Shall noL dlmlnlsh lncrease or modlfy subsLanLlve rlghLs
ln e equest for reotion of o 5pecio/ uivision M No 021095
lonuory 21 2002 lL was held LhaL lL ls wlLhln Lhe compeLence of Lhe
Supreme
CourL ln Lhe exerclse of lLs power Lo promulgaLe rules governlng Lhe
enforcemenL
and proLecLlon of consLlLuLlonal rlghLs and rules governlng pleadlng
pracLlce and
procedure ln all courLs Lo creaLe a Speclal ulvlslon ln Lhe Sandlganbayan
whlch
wlll hear and declde Lhe plunder case agalnsL former resldenL LsLrada
ceqoroy vs 5ecretory of lustice 6 No 1l201 lonuory 19
1999 Congress cannoL amend Lhe 8ules of CourL 1he SC declared LhaL Lhe
loqe 2207/12/2008 soyr
220
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ConsLlLuLlon Look away Lhe power of Congress Lo repeal alLer or
supplemenL
rules concernlng pleadlng pracLlce and procedure ln flne Lhe power Lo
promulgaLe rules of pleadlng pracLlce and procedure ls no longer shared
by Lhe
CourL wlLh Congress more so wlLh Lhe LxecuLlve
C ower of AppolnLmenLSC appolnLs all offlclals and employees of Lhe
!udlclary
81


ln accordance wlLh Clvll Servlce law
P ower of AdmlnlsLraLlve SupervlslonSC shall have admlnlsLraLlve
supervlslon
over all courLs and personnel Lhereof
AdmlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs before Lhe SC are confldenLlal ln naLure ln
order Lo proLecL Lhe respondenL Lhereln who may Lurn ouL Lo be lnnocenL
of Lhe
charges lL can Lake years Lo bulld a repuLaLlon and only a slngle
accusaLlon
alLhough unfounded Lo desLroy lL %6odinet vs /ono M @l981409
ebruory 18 1999)
l ?early 8eporLWlLhln 30 days from Lhe openlng of each regular sesslon
of
Congress SC shall submlL Lo Lhe resldenL and Congress an annual reporL
on
Lhe operaLlon and acLlvlLles of Lhe !udlclary (Sect|on 16 Art VIII)
Cases to be heard by the SC Ln 8anc
1 Cases ln whlch Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy or valldlLy of any LreaLy
lnLernaLlonal or execuLlve
agreemenL law execuLlve order or presldenLlal decree proclamaLlon
order
lnsLrucLlon ordlnance or regulaLlon ls ln quesLlon
2 Cases ralslng novel quesLlons of law
3 Cases affecLlng ambassadors oLher publlc mlnlsLers and consuls
4 Cases lnvolvlng declslons resoluLlons or orders of Lhe Clvll Servlce
Commlsslon
Commlsslon on LlecLlon and Commlsslon on AudlL
3 Cases where Lhe penalLy Lo be lmposed ls Lhe dlsmlssal of a [udge
offlcer or
employee of Lhe [udlclary dlsbarmenL of a lawyer or elLher Lhe
suspenslon of any of
Lhem for a perlod of more Lhan one (1) year or a flne exceedlng Len
Lhousand pesos
(1000000) or boLh
6 Cases where a docLrlne or prlnclple lald down by Lhe courL en banc or ln
dlvlslon may
be modlfled or reversed
7 Cases asslgned Lo a dlvlslon whlch ln Lhe oplnlon of aL leasL Lhree (3)
members
Lhereof merlL Lhe aLLenLlon of Lhe courL en banc and are accepLable Lo a
ma[orlLy of
Lhe acLual membershlp of Lhe courL en banc and
8 All oLher cases as Lhe courL en banc by a ma[orlLy of lLs acLual
membershlp may
deem of sufflclenL lmporLance Lo merlL lLs aLLenLlon %irestone eromics
lnc vs
ll4 5 45 lune 28 2000)
Consu|tat|ons]Dec|s|ons of SC
@e cooclosloos of te c lo ooy cose sobmltteJ to lt fot Jeclsloo eo booc
ot lo Jlvlsloo
soll be teoceJ lo coosoltotloo befote te cose ls osslqoeJ to o Membet
fot te wtltloq of te
loqe 2217/12/2008 soyr
221
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
oploloo of te coott A cettlflcotloo to tls effect slqoeJ by te clef Iostlce
soll be lssoeJ ooJ
o copy teteof ottoceJ to te tecotJ of te cose ooJ setveJ opoo te
pottles Aoy Membet
wo took oo pott ot JlsseoteJ ot obstoloeJ ftom o Jeclsloo ot tesolotloo
most stote te teosoo
tetefot @e some tepoltemeots soll obsetve by oll lowet colleqlote
cootts Sect|on 13
Art|c|e VIII
r1hls requlremenL does noL apply Lo admlnlsLraLlve cases
Sect|on 14 Art|c|e VIII-o Jeclsloo soll be teoJeteJ by ooy coott
wltoot
exptessloq tetelo cleotly ooJ Jlstloctly te focts ooJ te low oo wlc lt ls
boseJ
r lL does noL apply Lo a mlnuLe resoluLlon dlsmlsslng a peLlLlon for habeas
corpus cerLlorarl and
mandamus provlded a legal basls ls glven Lhereln nelLher wlll lL apply Lo
admlnlsLraLlve
cases
Peop/e vs 8orinq 6 No 1l79ll lonuory 28 2002 Lhe Lrlal courL's
declslon may casL doubL on Lhe gullL of Lhe accused noL by Lhe lack of
dlrecL evldence
agalnsL Lhe accused buL by
1 Lhe Lrlal courL's fallure Lo fully explaln Lhe correlaLlon of Lhe facLs
2 Lhe welghL of Lhe admlsslblllLy of Lhe evldence
3 Lhe assessmenLs made from Lhe evldence and
4 1he concluslon drawn Lherefrom afLer applylng Lhe perLlnenL law as
basls of Lhe
declslon
-o petltloo fot tevlew ot motloo fot tecooslJetotloo of o Jeclsloo of te
coott
soll be tefoseJ Joe cootse ot JeoleJ wltoot stotloq te leqol bosls
tetefot
r Lack of merlL" ls sufflclenL declaraLlon of Lhe legal basls for denlal of
peLlLlon for revlew
or moLlon for reconslderaLlon
@iconqco vs nriquet 6 No 15029 lune l0 2004 when Lhe CourL
afLer
dellberaLlng on a peLlLlon and any subsequenL pleadlngs manlfesLaLlons
commenLs or
moLlons decldes Lo deny due course Lo a peLlLlon and sLaLesln a mlnuLe
resoluLlon
LhaL Lhe quesLlons ralsed are facLual or no reverslble error ln Lhe
respondenL courL's
declslon ls shown or some oLher legal basls sLaLed ln Lhe resoluLlon Lhere
ls sufflclenL
compllance wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal requlremenL
loqe 2227/12/2008 soyr
222
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
WkI1 CI AMAkC
@e u/e on Jrit of mporo %M No 079125)
lL was drafLed pursuanL Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal power of Lhe Supreme CourL
Lo
promulgaLe rules and regulaLlons for Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of
consLlLuLlonal
rlghLs
WkI1 CI AMAkClL ls a remedy avallable Lo any person whose rlghL Lo
llfe llberLy
and securlLy has been vlolaLed or ls LhreaLened wlLh vlolaLlon by an
unlawful acL or
omlsslon of a publlc offlclal or offlce or of a prlvaLe lndlvldual or enLlLy
1he wrlL covers
exLralegal kllllngs and enforced dlsappearances or LhreaLs Lhereof
lL ls a wrlL whlch may be lssued by Lhe courLs based on Lhls consLlLuLlonal
power
of Lhe SC Lo promulgaLe rules for Lhe proLecLlon and enforcemenL of
consLlLuLlonal
rlghLs lL ls a remedy Lo enforce fundamenLal rlghLs
lL would compel sLaLe agenLs Lo look for Lhe mlsslng person and Lhe agenLs
would
be held llable lf Lhey dld noL exerL adequaLe efforL ln flndlng Lhe person
"amparo"means proLecLlon from amparar" meanlng Lo proLecL"
Who may f||e?
82


1he peLlLlon may be flled by Lhe aggrleved parLy or by any quallfled person
or
enLlLly ln Lhe followlng order
r Any member of Lhe lmmedlaLe famlly namely
l Spouse
ll Chlldren
lll arenLs of Lhe aggrleved parLy
r Any ascendanL descendanL or collaLeral relaLlve of Lhe aggrleved parLy
wlLhln Lhe 4Lh clvll degree of consangulnlLy or afflnlLy ln defaulL of Lhose
menLloned above or
r Any concerned clLlzen organlzaLlon assoclaLlon or lnsLlLuLlon lf Lhere ls
no known member of Lhe lmmedlaLe famlly or relaLlve of Lhe aggrleved
parLy
r 1he flllng of a peLlLlon by Lhe aggrleved parLy suspends Lhe rlghL of all
oLher auLhorlzed
parLles Lo flle slmllar peLlLlons Llkewlse Lhe flllng of Lhe peLlLlon by an
auLhorlzed parLy
on behalf of Lhe aggrleved parLy suspends Lhe rlghLs of all oLhers
observlng Lhe order
esLabllshed by Lhe law
loqe 22J7/12/2008 soyr
223
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Where can be f||ed?
1he peLlLlon may be flled on any day aL any Llme wlLh Lhe
% 81C of Lhe place where Lhe LhreaL acL or omlsslon was commlLLed or
any of lLs elemenLs occurred
% Sandlganbayan
% CourL of Appeals or any !usLlce of such courLs
% Supreme CourL
r 1he wrlL shall be enforceable anywhere ln Lhe hlllpplnes 1he courL
[usLlce or [udge
shall lmmedlaLely order Lhe lssuance of Lhe wrlL lf on Lhe face of Lhe
peLlLlon lL oughL Lo
lssue lL ls served on Lhe respondenL by a [udlclal offlcer or by a person
depuLlzed by Lhe
courL [usLlce or [udge who shall reLaln a copy on whlch Lo make a reLurn
of servlce
r ln case Lhe wrlL cannoL be served personally on Lhe respondenL Lhe
rules on
subsLlLuLed servlce shall apply
A clerk of courL who refuses Lo lssue Lhe wrlL afLer lLs allowance or a
depuLlzed
person who refuses Lo serve Lhe same shall be punlshed by Lhe courL
[usLlce or [udge
for conLempL wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo oLher dlsclpllnary acLlons
keturn of the Wr|tLhe respondenL shall flle a verlfled wrlLLen reLurn
LogeLher wlLh Lhe
supporLlng affldavlLs wlLhln sevenLyLwo (72) hours
lf he falls Lo flle a reLurn Lhe courL [usLlce or [udge shall proceed Lo hear
Lhe
peLlLlon ex potte or even wlLhouL Lhe appearance of Lhe respondenL
81CreLurnable before such courL or [udge
r8eLurnable before such courL or any [usLlce Lhereof or
S8/CA r1o any 81C of Lhe place where Lhe LhreaL acL or omlsslon was
commlLLed or any of lLs elemenLs occurred
r8eLurnable before such courL or any of lLs [usLlces
SC r8efore Lhe S8 or CA or any of Lhelr [usLlces or
r1o any 81C of Lhe place where Lhe LhreaL acL or omlsslon was
commlLLed or any of lLs elemenLs occurred
near|ng on the et|t|on
1he hearlng shall be summary ln naLure Powever Lhe courL [usLlce or
[udge
may call for a prellmlnary conference Lo clarlfy or slmpllfy some lssues and
deLermlne
Lhe posslblllLy of obLalnlng sLlpulaLlons and admlsslons from Lhe parLles
loqe 2247/12/2008 soyr
224
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Ava||ab|e Inter|m ke||efs
1 1emporary rotect|on Crderupon moLlon or moto ptoptlo Lhe courL
[usLlce or
[udge may order LhaL Lhe peLlLloner or Lhe aggrleved parLy and any
member of Lhe
lmmedlaLe famlly be proLecLed ln a governmenL agency or by an
accredlLed
person or prlvaLe lnsLlLuLlon capable of keeplng and securlng Lhelr safeLy
2 Inspect|on Crderlssued Lo any person ln possesslon or conLrol of a
deslgnaLed land or oLher properLy Lo permlL enLry for Lhe purpose of
lnspecLlng
measurlng surveylng or phoLographlng Lhe properLy or any relevanL
ob[ecL or
operaLlon Lhereon 1he movanL musL show LhaL Lhe order ls necessary Lo
esLabllsh Lhe rlghL of Lhe aggrleved parLy alleged Lo be LhreaLened or
vlolaLed lL
explres flve (3) days afLer daLe of lLs lssuance unless exLended for
[usLlflable
reasons
3 W|tness rotect|on CrderLhe wlLness may be referred Lo Lhe uC! for
admlsslon Lo Lhe WlLness roLecLlon SecurlLy and 8eneflL rogram or Lo
oLher
governmenL agencles or Lo accredlLed persons or prlvaLe lnsLlLuLlons
capable of
keeplng and securlng Lhelr safeLy
r Cnly Lhe flrsL Lwo lnLerlm rellefs are avallable Lo Lhe respondenL afLer he
flled a verlfled
moLlon supporLed by affldavlLs or LesLlmonles of wlLnesses havlng
personal knowledge
of Lhe defenses of Lhe respondenL and afLer due hearlng
1he CourL shall render [udgmenL wlLhln 10 days from Lhe Llme Lhe peLlLlon
ls
submlLLed for declslon lf Lhe allegaLlons ln Lhe peLlLlon are proven by
subsLanLlal
evldence Lhe courL shall granL Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL and such rellefs as
may be
deemed proper and approprlaLe oLherwlse Lhe prlvllege shall be denled
lf Lhe courL deLermlnes LhaL lL cannoL proceed for a valld cause such as Lhe
fallure
of peLlLloner or wlLnesses Lo appear due Lo LhreaLs on Lhelr llves lL shall
noL dlsmlss Lhe
peLlLlon 1he courL shall archlve lL lnsLead 1he amparo courL may on lLs
own or upon
moLlon by any parLy order revlval of Lhe peLlLlon when ready for furLher
proceedlngs
1he peLlLlon shall be dlsmlssed wlLh pre[udlce upon fallure Lo prosecuLe
Lhe case afLer
Lhe lapse of Lwo (2) years from noLlce Lo Lhe peLlLloner of Lhe order
archlvlng Lhe case
ruoes te fi/inq of te petition prec/ude te fi/inq of seporote crimino/
civi/ or
odministrotive octions?
r no Powever when a crlmlnal acLlon has been commenced no separaLe
peLlLlon for
Lhe wrlL shall be flled buL Lhe rellefs under Lhe wrlL shall be avallable by
moLlon ln Lhe
crlmlnal case and Lhe procedure under Lhls rule shall govern Lhe
dlsposlLlon of Lhe
rellefs avallable under Lhe wrlL of amparo
loqe 2257/12/2008 soyr
223
83


2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
When a crlmlnal acLlon ls flled subsequenL Lo Lhe flllng of a peLlLlon for Lhe
wrlL
Lhe laLLer shall be consolldaLed wlLh Lhe crlmlnal acLlon
When a crlmlnal acLlon and a separaLe clvll acLlon are flled subsequenL Lo
a
peLlLlon for a wrlL of amparo Lhe laLLer shall be consolldaLed wlLh Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon
AfLer consolldaLlon Lhe procedure under Lhls 8ule shall conLlnue Lo apply
Lo Lhe
dlsposlLlon of Lhe rellefs ln Lhe peLlLlon
CWLk CI IUDICIAL kLVILW
lL ls Lhe power of courLs Lo LesL valldlLy of execuLlve and leglslaLlve acLs lf
Lhe
same are ln accordance wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lL ls an expresslon of
supremacy of
ConsLlLuLlon
Iust|c|ab|e uest|ona glven rlghL legally demandable and enforceable
an acL or
omlsslon vlolaLlve of such rlghL and a remedy granLed by law for sald
breach of rlghL
o||t|ca| uest|onsLhose quesLlons whlch under Lhe consLlLuLlon are Lo
be declded
by Lhe people ln Lhelr soverelgn capaclLy or ln regard Lo whlch full
dlscreLlonary
auLhorlLy has been delegaLed Lo Lhe leglslaLlve or execuLlve branches of
governmenL
ollLlcal CuesLlon uocLrlne has been greaLly dlmlnlshed
%ollLlcal quesLlons are quesLlons of pollcy 1hey lnvolve Lhe wlsdom of an
acL or Lhe
efflcacy or Lhe necesslLy of a parLlcular measure 1hese are quesLlons
whlch are beLLer
lefL for Lhe pollLlcal branches of Lhe governmenL Lo deLermlne or resolve
%Arose from docLrlne of separaLlon of powers
1wo (2) 1ypes of o||t|ca| uest|on
1 1hose Lo be declded by Lhe people Lhemselves ln Lhelr soverelgn
capaclLy
2 lull dlscreLlonary auLhorlLy has been delegaLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo
Lhe
LeglslaLlve or LxecuLlve branch of Lhe governmenL
rLeglslaLlve and LxecuLlvepollLlcal branches of Lhe governmenLwhere
laws are
enacLed and enforced
kLCALL a mode of removlng a local offlclal from hls posL even before hls
Lerm ends
due Lo lack of confldence lL ls a pollLlcal quesLlon whlch can noL be
lnLruded by Lhe
courLs
bordone vs OML lack of confldence ls Lo be declded by Lhe people
Lhru a
speclal recall elecLlon
loqe 227/12/2008 soyr
226
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lowyers Leoque vs quinoeLlLloner quesLloned Lhe legallLy of Lhe
Aqulno
CovernmenL
Lhe SC dlsmlssed Lhe peLlLlon LhaL lL has gone ouLslde Lhe amblL of [udlclal
revlew
Lhe mere presence of Lhe people wlLhouL lnqulrlng Lo Lhelr moLlve ln
golng Lo
LuSA caused Marcos Lo fly Lo Pawall
strodo vs uesierto %2001)
r1he eLlLlon quesLloned Lhe leglLlmacy of Lhe assumpLlon of offlce by
Lhen vlce
resldenL CMA
rLawyers League case was clLed by respondenLs LhaL Lhe case presenLed
a
pollLlcal quesLlon hence noL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew
rSC held LhaL Lhe case of Lawyers League ls lnappllcable Lhe governmenL
of
former resldenL Aqulno was Lhe resulL of a successful revoluLlon by Lhe
soverelgn
people albelL a peaceful one no less Lhan Lhe lreedom ConsLlLuLlon
declared LhaL Lhe
Aqulno governmenL was lnsLalled Lhrough a dlrecL exerclse of Lhe power
of Lhe llllplno
people ln deflance of Lhe provlslons of Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon as
amended lL ls famlllar
learnlng LhaL Lhe leglLlmacy of a governmenL slred by a successful
revoluLlon by people
power ls beyond [udlclal scruLlny for LhaL governmenL auLomaLlcally orblLs
ouL of Lhe
consLlLuLlonal loop ln checkered conLrasL Lhe governmenL of respondenL
Arroyo ls noL
revoluLlonary ln characLer 1he oaLh LhaL she Look aL Lhe LuSA Shrlne ls
Lhe oaLh under
1987 ConsLlLuLlon ln her oaLh she caLegorlcally swore Lo preserve and
defend Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon lndeed she has sLressed LhaL she ls dlscharglng Lhe powers
of Lhe
presldency under Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon
1he case aL bar pose legal and noL pollLlcal quesLlons 1he prlnclpal lssues
for
resoluLlon requlre Lhe proper lnLerpreLaLlon of cerLaln provlslons ln Lhe
1987 ConsLlLuLlon
noLably Sec 1 of ArLlcle ll and Sec 8 of ArLlcle vl and Lhe allocaLlon of
governmenLal
powers under SecLlon 11 of ArLlcle vll 1he lssues llkewlse call for a rullng
on Lhe scope
of presldenLlal lmmunlLy from sulL 1hey also lnvolve Lhe correcL
callbraLlon of Lhe rlghL of
peLlLloner agalnsL pre[udlclal publlclLy 1hus respondenLs lnvocaLlon of
Lhe docLrlne of
pollLlcal quesLlon ls buL a foray ln Lhe dark
LDSA I LDSA II
lnvolves Lhe exerclse of people power of
revoluLlon whlch overLhrows Lhe whole
governmenL
extra const|tut|ona| and Lhe leglLlmacy of
Lhe new governmenL LhaL resulLed from lL
cannot be the sub[ect of [ud|c|a| rev|ew
lnvolves Lhe exerclse of people power of
freedom of speech and freedom of
assembly Lo peLlLlon Lhe governmenL for
redress of grlevances whlch only affecLed
Lhe offlce of Lhe resldenL
|ntra const|tut|ona| and Lhe reslgnaLlon
of Lhe slLLlng resldenL LhaL lL caused and
Lhe successlon of Lhe v as resldenL are
sub[ect to [ud|c|a| rev|ew
loqe 2277/12/2008 soyr
227
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
presenLed a pollLlcal quesLlon lnvolves legal quesLlons
l8P vs 2MO %2000)
84


1he SC sald LhaL when Lhe resldenL calls ouL Lhe armed forces Lo suppress
lawless vlolence rebelllon or lnvaslon he necessarlly exerclses a
d|scret|onary power
solely vesLed ln hls wlsdom 1he CourL cannoL overrule Lhe resldenLs
dlscreLlon or
subsLlLuLe lLs own 1he only crlLerlon ls LhaL whenever lL becomes
necessary Lhe
resldenL may call ouL Lhe armed forces ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe power on
LhespoL
declslons may be necessary ln emergency slLuaLlons Lo averL greaL loss of
human llves
and mass desLrucLlon of properLy lndeed Lhe declslon Lo call ouL Lhe
armed forces musL
be done swlfLly and declslvely lf lL were Lo have any effecL aL all
Sect|on 18 Art|c|e VII owers of Lhe resldenL
1 Calllng ouL power as CommanderlnChlef of Lhe Al
2 ower Lo proclalm marLlal law
3 ower Lo suspend Lhe prlvllege of Lhe wrlL of obeos cotpos
CALLlnCCu1 CWL8 full dlscreLlonary power of Lhe resldenL ln effecL
lL ls
a pollLlcal quesLlon noL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew unLLSS lL can be shown
LhaL
Lhere ls C8AvL A8uSL Cl ulSC8L1lCn (CAu) ln Lhe exerclse of such
power
expanded power of Lhe [udlclal revlew
mere abuse of dlscreLlon wlll noL do 1he abuse musL be
grave 1o doubL ls Lo susLaln Lhe power of Lhe
resldenL
Grave Abuse of D|scret|on Amount|ng to Lack or Lxcess of Iur|sd|ct|on
caprlclous and whlmslcal exerclse of [udgmenL 1he abuse of dlscreLlon
musL be paLenL
and gross as Lo amounL Lo an evaslon of a poslLlve duLy or a vlrLual refusal
Lo perform a
duLy en[olned by law or Lo acL aL all ln conLemplaLlon of law as where Lhe
power ls
exerclsed ln an arblLrary and despoLlc manner by reason of passlon or
hosLlllLy
%lntestote stote of ormen de Luno vs l ebruory 1l 1989)
Genera| ku|e Calllng ouL power ls noL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew and ls
consldered a pollLlcal quesLlon
Lxcept|on When Lhere has been a CAu
r#s 2 and 3 are noL pollLlcal quesLlons 1hey are sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew
as
expressly provlded ln Sec 18 (3) Art|c|e VII
xxx
@e c moy tevlew lo oo opptoptlote ptoceeJloq flleJ by
loqe 2287/12/2008 soyr
228
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ooy cltlzeo te sofflcleocy of te foctool bosls of te ptoclomotloo
of mottlol low ot te sospeosloo of te ptlvlleqe of te wtlt ot te
exteosloo teteof ooJ most ptomolqote lts Jeclsloo teteoo wltlo
J0 Joys ftom lts fllloq
xxx
ondo/f uovid et o/ vs 6M et o/ %200)
reLlLloners falled Lo rebuL Lhe asserLlon LhaL CMA acLed wlLh grave abuse
of dlscreLlon
rSC uphold Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 1017 lnsofar as lL consLlLuLes a call
by Lhe
resldenL for Lhe Al Lo prevenL or suppress lawless vlolence 1he
proclamaLlon ls
susLalned by Sec 18 Art VII and other re|evant [ur|sprudence Powever
1017s
exLraneous provlslons glvlng Lhe resldenL express or lmplled power (1) Lo
lssue
decrees (2) Lo dlrecL Lhe Al Lo enforce obedlence Lo all laws even Lhose
noL relaLed Lo
lawless vlolence as well as decrees promulgaLed by Lhe resldenL and (3)
Lo lmpose
sLandards on medla or any form of prlor resLralnL on Lhe press are u/tro
vires and
unconst|tut|ona| 1he CourL also rules LhaL under Sec 17 ArL xll Lhe
presldenL ln Lhe
absence of leglslaLlon cannoL Lake over prlvaLelyowned publlc uLlllLy and
prlvaLe
buslness affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
u|trav|res acts and unconst|tut|ona|
a warranLless arresL of peLlLloners uavld and Llamas
b Lhe dlspersal of Lhe rallles and warranLless arresL of Lhe kMu and
nAlLukMu members
c lmposlLlon of sLandards on medla or any prlor resLralnL on Lhe press
d warranLless search of Lhe 1rlbune offlces and Lhe whlmslcal selzures of
some arLlcles for publlcaLlon and oLher maLerlals
Sect|on 23 (2) Art|c|e VI
ln Llmes of war or other nat|ona| emergency Lhe Congress may by law
auLhorlze Lhe resldenL for a ||m|ted per|od and sub[ect to restr|ct|ons as
|t may
prescr|be Lo exerclse powers necessary and proper Lo carry ouL a
declared naLlonal
pollcy unless sooner wlLhdrawn by resoluLlon of Lhe Congress such
powers shall
cease upon Lhe nexL ad[ournmenL Lhereof
Cenerally Congress |s the repos|tory of emergency powers 1hls ls
evldenL
ln Lhe Lenor of Lhe above provlslon auLhorlzlng lL Lo delegaLe such powers
Lo Lhe
resldenL Certa|n|y a body cannot de|egate a power not reposed upon
|t
Powever knowlng LhaL durlng grave emergencles lL may noL be posslble
or pracLlcable
for Congress Lo meeL and exerclse lLs powers Lhe lramers of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon deemed
lL wlse Lo allow Congress Lo granL emergency powers Lo Lhe resldenL
sub[ecL Lo cerLaln
condlLlons Lhus
(1) 1here musL be war or other emergency
(2) 1he delegaLlon musL be for a ||m|ted per|od on|y
(3) 1he delegaLlon musL be sub[ect to restr|ct|ons as the Congress may
loqe 2297/12/2008 soyr
229
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
prescr|be
(4) 1he emergency power musL be exerclsed Lo carry out a nat|ona| po||cy
declared by Congress
LeL lL be emphaslzed LhaL whlle Lhe resldenL alone can declare a sLaLe of
naLlonal emergency however wlLhouL leglslaLlon he has no power Lo
Lake over
prlvaLelyowned publlc uLlllLy or buslness affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
1he resldenL
cannoL declde wheLher excepLlonal clrcumsLances exlsL warranLlng Lhe
Lake over of
prlvaLelyowned publlc uLlllLy or buslness affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
nor can he
deLermlne when such excepLlonal clrcumsLances have ceased Llkewlse
w|thout
|eg|s|at|on Lhe resldenL has no power Lo polnL ouL Lhe Lypes of
buslnesses affecLed
wlLh publlc lnLeresL LhaL should be Laken over ln shorL Lhe resldenL has
no absoluLe
83


auLhorlLy Lo exerclse all Lhe powers of Lhe SLaLe under Sect|on 17 Art|c|e
kII ln Lhe
absence of an emergency powers acL passed by Congress
*emergency power musL be auLhorlzed by Congress (Lhru an enacLmenL of
law)
*she ls noL exerclslng emergency power because Lhere was no law
enacLed by
Congress auLhorlzlng her Lo exerclse such power
Genera| ru|e C1LS1A uLLLCA1A nCn uLLLCA8L C1LS1 whaL has been
delegaLed cannoL be redelegaLed lL ls based on eLhlcal prlnclple LhaL
delegaLed
powers consLlLuLes noL only a rlghL buL a duLy Lo be performed by Lhe
delegaLe Lhrough
Lhe lnsLrumenLallLy of hls own [udgmenL and noL Lhrough Lhe lnLervenlng
mlnd of anoLher
Whlle ACCC8 ls allowed under lLs charLer Lo enLer lnLo operaLor's and/or
managemenL conLracLs lL ls noL allowed Lo rellnqulsh or share lLs
franchlse much less
granL a verlLable franchlse Lo anoLher enLlLy such as SACL ln Lim vs
Pocquinq 240
5 49 Lhe CourL clarlfled LhaL slnce AuC has no franchlse from
Congress Lo
operaLe [alalal lL cannoL even lf lL has llcense or permlL from Lhe ClLy
Mayor operaLe
[alalal ln Lhe ClLy of Manlla" 8y Lhe same Loken SACL has Lo obLaln a
separaLe
leglslaLlve franchlse and noL rlde on" ACCC8's franchlse lf lL were Lo
legally operaLe
onllne lnLerneL gambllng %loworski vs P6O 6 No 1444l
lonuory 14
2004)
Lxcept|ons ermlsslble uelegaLlon of owers (L1AL)
eople power Lhru pleblsclLe and lnlLlaLlve (Sec 32 A81 vl Sec 10 ArL
x Sec 2
ArL xvll 8A 6733) under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon Lhere are speclflc
provlslons where Lhe
people have reserved Lo Lhemselves Lhe funcLlon of leglslaLlon
keferendum vs |eb|sc|te
keferendum |eb|sc|te
Lhe power of Lhe elecLoraLe Lo approve or
re[ecL leglslaLlon Lhrough an elecLlon called
Lhe elecLoral process by whlch an lnlLlaLlve
on Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls approved or re[ecLed
loqe 2J07/12/2008 soyr
230
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
for LhaL purpose by Lhe people
Lmergency power of Lhe resldenL (Sec 23(2) ArL vl)
1arlff owers Lo Lhe resldenL (Sec 28(2) ArL vl)
AdmlnlsLraLlve agencles 1he power of subordlnaLe leglslaLlon"
Local governmenL (8A 7160) Such leglslaLlon (by LC) ls noL regarded as a
Lransfer of
general leglslaLlve power buL raLher as Lhe granL of Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
prescrlbe
local regulaLlons accordlng Lo lmmemorlal pracLlce sub[ecL of course Lo
Lhe
lnLerposlLlon of Lhe superlor ln cases of necesslLy" %Peop/e vs vero% 1hls
recognlzes Lhe facL LhaL local leglslaLures are more knowledgeable Lhan
Lhe
naLlonal lawmaklng body on maLLers of purely local concern and are ln
beLLer
poslLlon Lo enacL approprlaLe leglslaLlve measures Lhereon
1ests for Va||d De|egat|on
1 C ompleLeness 1esL1he law musL be compleLe ln all lLs essenLlal Lerms
and
condlLlons when lL leaves Lhe leglslaLure so LhaL Lhere wlll be noLhlng lefL
for Lhe
delegaLe Lo do when lL reaches hlm excepL Lo enforce lL
2 S ufflclenL SLandard 1esLlnLended Lo map ouL Lhe boundarles of Lhe
delegaLe's
auLhorlLy by deflnlng Lhe leglslaLlve pollcy and lndlcaLlng Lhe
clrcumsLances under
whlch lL ls Lo be pursued and effecLed 1hls ls lnLended Lo prevenL a LoLal
Lransference of leglslaLlve power from Lhe leglslaLure Lo Lhe delegaLe
1hree (3) Important Iunct|ons of Iud|c|a| kev|ew
1 Checklng
2 LeglLlmaLlng
r8ule on uouble negaLlveuses Lhe Lerm noL unconsLlLuLlonal" Lhe
courL
cannoL declare a law consLlLuLlonal because lL already en[oys a
presumpLlon of
consLlLuLlonallLy
3 Symbollc educaLlng Lhe bar and bench and Lhe people on Lhe exLenL of
proLecLlon
glven by Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLees
rroclamaLlon no 1021 was lssued llfLlng 1017 lL becomes mooL and
academlc buL
SC dld noL agree as Lhe case ls capable of repeLlLlon
kequ|s|tes for the proper exerc|se of ower of Iud|c|a| kev|ew
1 Actua| case or controversy musL be deflnlLe concreLe bearlng upon
Lhe legal
relaLlons of parLles who are plLLed agalnsL each oLher due Lo Lhelr adverse
legal
lnLeresLs
suscepLlble of [udlclal deLermlnaLlon
loqe 2J17/12/2008 soyr
231
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rhlllpplne courLs may noL render advlsory oplnlon 1here musL always be
an
acLual case or conLroversy LkCL1 lnLl CourL of !usLlceprlnclpal [udlclal
organ of Lhe
unlLed naLlons lC! may render advlsory oplnlons lLs 2 ma|n funct|ons
are (a) Lo
declde conLenLlous cases and (b) Lo render advlsory oplnlons upon
requesL of Lhe
Ceneral Assembly or Lhe SecurlLy Councll or Lhe oLher organs of Lhe un
when
auLhorlzed by Lhe Ceneral Assembly
rA requesL for an advlsory ls noL an acLual case or conLroversy 8uL an
acLlon for
declaraLory rellef ls proper for [udlclal deLermlnaLlon
r1he lssue ralsed ln Lhe case musL noL be mooL and academlc or because
of
subsequenL developmenLs have become mooL and academlc
MCC1 and ACADLMIC kINCILL
Genera| ku|e CourL wlll have Lo dlsmlss Lhe case 1here ls no more acLual
case Lo be
resolved
Lxcept|ons (Dav|d vs GMA)
a Crave vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
b 1he excepLlonal characLer of Lhe slLuaLlon and Lhe paramounL publlc
lnLeresL ls
lnvolved
c ConsLlLuLlonal lssue ralsed requlres formulaLlon of guldlng and
conLrolllng
consLlLuLlonal prlnclples precepLs docLrlnes or rules and Lhe symbollc
funcLlon Lo
educaLe Lhe bar and bench and Lhe people on Lhe exLenL of proLecLlon
glven by Lhe
86


consLlLuLlonal guaranLees
d Case |s capab|e of repet|t|on yet evad|ng rev|ewlL presupposes LhaL
| 1he llfe of Lhe conLroversy ls Loo shorL Lo be fully llLlgaLed prlor Lo lLs
LermlnaLlon
and
|| 1haL Lhere ls a reasonable expecLaLlon LhaL Lhe plalnLlff wlll agaln be
sub[ecLed
Lo Lhe same problem
2 1he const|tut|ona| quest|on must be ra|sed by the proper partyA
proper parLy
ls one who has susLalned or ls ln lmmlnenL danger of susLalnlng an ln[ury
as a resulL of
Lhe acL complalned of (LCCuS S1Anul)
Lega| Stand|ng personal and subsLanLlal lnLeresL ln Lhe case such LhaL
Lhe parLy has
susLalned or wlll susLaln dlrecL ln[ury as a resulL of governmenLal acL
A parLys sLandlng ln courL ls a procedural LechnlcallLy whlch may be seL
aslde by Lhe
loqe 2J27/12/2008 soyr
232
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
CourL ln vlew of Lhe lmporLance of Lhe lssues lnvolved 1hus where Lhe
lssues ralsed by
Lhe peLlLloners are of paramounL publlc lnLeresL Lhe CourL may ln Lhe
exerclse of lLs
dlscreLlon brush aslde Lhe procedural barrler %ki/osboyon vs 6uinqono
2l2 5
110)
ln 5on/okos vs xecutive 5ecretory 6 No 159085 ebruory l 2004
8ep
Supllco eL al and SenaLor lmenLel were consldered as proper parLles Lo
conLesL Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy of res Arroyo's proclamaLlon of a sLaLe of rebelllon"
afLer Lhe
Cakwood lncldenL
ln l8P vs 2omoro 6 No 141284 uqust 15 2000 Lhe peLlLlon seeklng
Lo nulllfy
Lhe order of res LsLrada for Lhe deploymenL of Lhe hlllpplne Marlnes Lo
[oln Lhe n
ln vlslblllLy paLrols around MeLro Manlla area was dlsmlssed on Lhe
ground LhaL Lhe l8
had no legal sLandlng Lo quesLlon Lhe presldenLlal acL
Lim vs xecutive 5ecretory %2002)8ecause of Lhe paramounL
lmporLance and Lhe
consLlLuLlonal slgnlflcance of Lhe lssues ralsed ln Lhe eLlLlon Lhe CourL ln
Lhe exerclse
of lLs sound dlscreLlon brushed aslde Lhe procedural barrler and Look
cognlzance of Lhe
peLlLlons
lnformotion @ecno/oqy oundotion vs OML %2004) Lhe sub[ecL
maLLer of
Lhe case ls a maLLer of publlc concern and lmbued wlLh publlc lnLeresL lL ls
of paramounL
publlc lnLeresL and of LranscendenLal lmporLance
ki/osboyon vs Moroto 24 5 540 Lhe peLlLloners do noL posses Lhe
legal
capaclLy Lo lnsLlLuLe Lhe acLlon for annulmenL of Lhe LqulpmenL Lease
AgreemenL (LLA)
because Lhey are wlLhouL a presenL subsLanLlal lnLeresL" as dlsLlngulshed
from mere
expecLancy or fuLure conLlngenL subordlnaLe or consequenLlal lnLeresL
present substant|a| |nterest" means such lnLeresL of a parLy ln Lhe
sub[ecL
maLLer of Lhe acLlon as wlll enLlLle hlm under subsLanLlve law Lo recover
lf Lhe evldence
ls sufflclenL or LhaL he has a legal LlLle Lo defend and Lhe defendanL wlll be
proLecLed ln
paymenL Lo or recovery from hlm
In uominqo vs oroque 6 No 1105 pri/ 15 2005 Lhe peLlLloners
falled Lo
show any dlrecL and personal lnLeresL ln Lhe CCA CrganlzaLlonal
8esLrucLurlng lan
Lhere was no lndlcaLlon LhaL Lhey have susLalned or are ln lmmlnenL
danger of susLalnlng
some dlrecL ln[ury as a resulL of lLs lmplemenLaLlon and Lhey admlLLed
LhaL Lhey do noL
seek any afflrmaLlve rellef nor lmpuLe any lmproper or lmprovldenL acL
agalnsL Lhe
respondenLs Clearly Lhen Lhey do noL have any legal sLandlng Lo flle Lhe
lnsLanL sulL
In utoron vs uN 6 No 1l4958 lonuory l1 2001 Lhe SC refused
Lo glve due
loqe 2JJ7/12/2008 soyr
233
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
course Lo a peLlLlon seeklng Lo en[oln Lhe uLn8 from processlng Lhe
ancesLral land
clalm of prlvaLe respondenL over a properLy locaLed aL Camp !ohn Pay
reservaLlon ln
8agulo on Lhe ground LhaL Lhere ls no acLual or lmmlnenL vlolaLlon of Lhe
peLlLloner's
asserLed rlghL CourL wlll noL Louch an lssue lnvolvlng Lhe valldlLy of a law
unless Lhere
has been a governmenLal acL accompllshed or performed LhaL has a dlrecL
adverse
effecL on Lhe legal rlghL of Lhe person conLesLlng lLs legallLy unLll such
Llme peLlLloners
are slmply speculaLlng LhaL Lhey mlghL be evlcLed from Lhe premlses aL a
fuLure Llme
rGenera| ru|e A parLy can quesLlon Lhe valldlLy of a sLaLuLe only lf as
applled Lo hlm lL
ls unconsLlLuLlonal
Lxcept|on IACIAL CnALLLNGL 1he sLaLuLe ls absoluLely unconsLlLuLlonal
under
no clrcumsLance 8uL Lhe only Llme a foclol colleoqe Lo a sLaLuLe ls
allowed ls when lL
operaLes ln Lhe area of freedom of expresslon
rlnvalldaLlon of Lhe sLaLuLe on lLs face" raLher Lhan as applled" ls
permlLLed ln
Lhe lnLeresL of prevenLlng a chllllng effecL on freedom of expresslon
Cverbreadth Doctr|nepermlLs a parLy Lo challenge Lhe valldlLy of a
sLaLuLe
even Lhough as applled Lo hlm |t |s not unconst|tut|ona| buL lL mlghL be lf
applled Lo
oLhers noL before Lhe CourLs whose acLlvlLles are consLlLuLlonally
proLecLed
ln roncisco lr vs 8oyoni ernondo 6 No 1501 November 1
200
a clLlzen can ralse a consLlLuLlonal quesLlon only when 1) he can show LhaL
he has
personally suffered some acLual or LhreaLened ln[ury because of Lhe
allegedly lllegal
conducL of Lhe governmenL 2) Lhe ln[ury ls falrly Lraceable Lo Lhe
challenged acLlon and
3) a favorable acLlon wlll llkely redress Lhe ln[ury
3 1he const|tut|ona| quest|on must be ra|sed at the ear||est opportune
t|me
generally Lhe quesLlon musL be ralsed ln he pleadlngs however ln
cr|m|na| cases Lhe
87


quesLlon can be ralsed aL any Llme aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL ln c|v||
cases Lhe
quesLlon can be ralsed aL any sLage of Lhe proceedlngs lf necessary for Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe case lLself and |n every case excepL where Lhere ls
esLoppel lL
can be ralsed aL any sLage lf lL lnvolves Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courL
ln umo/i vs 6uinqono 6 No 1l1124 Morc 21 1999 Lhe quesLlon of
consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe resldenLlal Commlsslon on AnLlCrafL and
CorrupLlon (CACC)
was noL enLerLalned because Lhe lssue was ralsed by Lhe peLlLloner only ln
hls moLlon for
reconslderaLlon before Lhe 81C of MakaLl lL was Loo laLe Lo ralse Lhe lssue
for Lhe flrsL
Llme aL LhaL sLage of Lhe proceedlngs
4 1he dec|s|on on the const|tut|ona| quest|on must const|tute the very
LIS MC1A
loqe 2J47/12/2008 soyr
234
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
musL be deLermlnaLlve of Lhe case lLself/enLlre conLroversy
ln rceto vs ludqe Monqrobonq 6 No 152895 lune 15 2004 ln a
new
challenge Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 8 22 Lhe SC dld noL flnd Lhe
consLlLuLlonal
quesLlon Lo be Lhe very lls moto presenLed ln Lhe conLroversy Lvery law
has ln lLs favour
Lhe presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy and Lo [usLlfy lLs nulllflcaLlon Lhere
musL be a clear
and unequlvocal breach of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and noL one LhaL ls doubLful
speculaLlve or
argumenLaLlve
LkICD ICk DLCISICN
Sect|on 1S Art|c|e VIII%1) All coses ot mottets flleJ oftet te effectlvlty of
tls
coostltotloo most be JeclJeJ ot tesolveJ wltlo tweotyfoot %24% moots
ftom Jote of
sobmlssloo fot te c ooJ ooless teJoceJ by te c twelve moots %12%
fot oll lowet
colleqlote cootts ooJ ttee %J% moots fot oll lowet cootts
%2) A cose ot mottet soll be JeemeJ sobmltteJ fot Jeclsloo ot tesolotloo
opoo te fllloq
of te lost pleoJloq btlef ot memotooJom tepolteJ by te koles of coott
ot by te
coott ltself
%l) upoo te expltotloo of te cottespooJloq petloJ o cettlflcotloo to tls
effect slqoeJ
by te clef Iostlce ot te pteslJloq joJqe soll fottwlt be lssoeJ ooJ o
copy teteof
ottoceJ to te tecotJ of te cose ot mottet ooJ setveJ opoo te pottles
@e
cettlflcotloo soll stote wy Jeclsloo ot tesolotloo os oot beeo teoJeteJ
ot lssoeJ
wltlo solJ petloJ
%4) uesplte te expltotloo of te oppllcoble mooJototy petloJ te coott
wltoot
ptejoJlce to soc tespooslblllty os moy ove beeo locotteJ lo coosepoeoce
teteof
soll JeclJe ot tesolve te cose ot mottet sobmltteJ teteto fot
Jetetmlootloo wltoot
fottet Jeloy
r 1he above provlslon does noL apply Lo Sandlganbayan 1he provlslon
refers Lo
regular courLs of lower colleglaLe level LhaL ln Lhe presenL hlerarchy
applles only Lo Lhe
CourL of Appeals
1he Sandlganbayan ls a speclal courL of Lhe same level as Lhe CourL of
Appeals
and possesslng all Lhe lnherenL powers of a courL of [usLlce wlLh funcLlons
of a Lrlal
courL
1hus Lhe Sandlganbayan ls noL a regular courL buL a speclal one %e
Prob/em
of ue/oys in oses 8efore te 5ondiqonboyon M 008055
November 28
2001)
MLMCkANDUM DLCISICNS
loqe 2J57/12/2008 soyr
233
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
A specle of succlncLly wrlLLen declslons by appellaLe courLs ln accordance
wlLh Lhe
provlslons of SecLlon 40 8 129 on Lhe grounds of
1 Lxpedlency
2 racLlcallLy
3 Convenlence
4 uockeL sLaLus of Lhe CourL
1o be valld lL cannoL lncorporaLe Lhe flndlngs of facL and Lhe concluslons
of law
of Lhe lower courL only by remoLe reference whlch ls Lo say LhaL Lhe
challenged declslon
ls noL easlly and lmmedlaLely avallable Lo Lhe person readlng Lhe
memorandum
declslon lor Lhe lncorporaLlon by reference Lo be allowed lL musL provlde
for dlrecL
access Lo Lhe facLs and Lhe law belng adopLed whlch musL be conLalned ln
a sLaLemenL
aLLached Lo Lhe sald declslon ln oLher words Lhe memorandum declslon
auLhorlzed
under SecLlon 40 of 8 129 should acLually embody Lhe flndlngs of facL
and concluslons
of law of Lhe lower courL ln an annex aLLached Lo and made an
lndlspensable parL of Lhe
declslon
ulsLlncLlve leaLures and urpose
1 lL ls rendered by an appellaLe courL
2 lL lncorporaLes by reference Lhe flndlngs of facLs or Lhe concluslons of
law
conLalned ln Lhe declslon order or rullng under revlew 1hls ls Lo avold
cumbersome reproducLlon of Lhe declslon of Lhe lower courL or porLlons
Lhereof
ln Lhe declslon of Lhe hlgher courL 1he ldea ls Lo avold havlng Lo repeaL ln
Lhe
body of Lhe hlgher courL declslon Lhe flndlngs or concluslons of Lhe lower
courL
slnce Lhey are belng approved or adopLed anyway
3 1he purpose ls Lo afflrm Lhe declslon alLhough lL ls noL lmposslble LhaL
Lhe
approval of Lhe flndlng of facLs by Lhe lower courL may lead Lo a dlfferenL
concluslon of law by Lhe hlgher courL %oo vs l44 5 202 October
24
2000)
Art|c|e Ik
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL CCMMISSICNS
Independent Const|tut|ona| Comm|ss|ons
1 Clvll Servlce Commlsslon
2 Commlsslon on LlecLlons
3 Commlsslon on AudlL
Safeguards that guarantee the |ndependence of the Comm|ss|ons
loqe 2J7/12/2008 soyr
236
88


2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 1hey are consLlLuLlonally creaLed may noL be abollshed by a sLaLuLe
2 Lach ls conferred cerLaln powers and funcLlons whlch cannoL be
reduced by
sLaLuLe
3 Lach expressly descrlbed as lndependenL
4 Chalrmen and members are glven falrly long Lerm of offlce for seven (7)
years
3 Chalrmen and members cannoL be removed excepL by lmpeachmenL
6 Chalrmen and members may noL be reappolnLed or appolnLed ln an
acLlng
capaclLy
7 Salarles of chalrmen and members are relaLlvely hlgh and may noL be
decreased
durlng conLlnuance ln offlce
8 Commlsslons en[oy flscal auLonomy
9 Lach commlsslon may promulgaLe lLs own procedural rules
10Chalrmen and members are sub[ecL Lo cerLaln dlsquallflcaLlons
calculaLed Lo
sLrengLhen Lhelr lnLegrlLy and
11 Commlsslons may appolnL Lhelr own offlclals and employees ln
accordance wlLh
Clvll Servlce Law
roh|b|t|ons and Inh|b|t|ons
no member of a ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon shall durlng hls Lenure
1 Pold any oLher offlce or employmenL
2 Lngage ln Lhe pracLlce of any professlon
3 Lngage ln Lhe acLlve managemenL and conLrol of any buslness whlch ln
any way
may be affecLed by Lhe funcLlons of hls offlce and
4 8e flnanclally lnLeresLed dlrecLly or lndlrecLly ln oLher conLracL wlLh or
ln any
franchlse or prlvllege granLed by Lhe governmenL any of lLs subdlvlslon
agencles
or lnsLrumenLallLles lncludlng CCCCs or Lhelr subsldlarles
n mp/oyees ssociotion vs n 6 No 155ll November 24
2004 Lhe
Commlsslon on Puman 8lghLs unllke Lhe Lhree ConsLlLuLlonal
Commlsslons does noL
en[oy flscal auLonomy
ivi/ 5ervice ommission vs u8M 6 No 158791 lu/y 22 2005 Lhe no
reporL
no release" pollcy may noL be valldly enforced agalnsL offlces vesLed wlLh
flscal
auLonomy wlLhouL vlolaLlng Sec 3 ArLlcle lxA of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon 1he
auLomaLlc
release" of approved annual approprlaLlons Lo peLlLloner a consLlLuLlonal
commlsslon
vesLed wlLh flscal auLonomy should Lhus be consLrued Lo mean LhaL no
condlLlon Lo fund
releases Lo lL may be lmposed Powever peLlLloner's clalm LhaL lLs budgeL
may noL be
reduced by Congress below Lhe amounL approprlaLed for Lhe prevlous
year as ln Lhe
case of !udlclary musL be re[ecLed 1he provlslon ln SecLlon 3 of ArLlcle
vlll prohlblLlng
Lhe reducLlon ln Lhe approprlaLlon for Lhe !udlclary below Lhe amounL
approprlaLed for
Lhe prevlous year does noL appear ln SecLlon 3 ArLlcle lxA 1he plaln
lmpllcaLlon of Lhls
omlsslon ls LhaL Congress ls noL prohlblLed from reduclng Lhe
approprlaLlons of
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons below Lhe amounL approprlaLed for Lhem for
Lhe prevlous
loqe 2J77/12/2008 soyr
237
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
year
Cert|orar| Iur|sd|ct|on of the Supreme Court
r LlmlLed Lo declslons rendered ln acLlons or proceedlngs Laken
cognlzance of by Lhe
Commlsslons ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr ad[udlcaLory or quasl[udlclal
funcLlons lL does noL
refer Lo purely execuLlve powers Pence quesLlons arlslng from Lhe award
of a conLracL
for consLrucLlon of voLlng booLhs can be broughL before Lhe Lrlal courL
%mbi/ vs
OML 6 No 14ll98 October 5 2000)
CIVIL SLkVICL CCMMISSICN
Compos|t|on
% 1 Chalrman
% 2 Commlssloners
ua||f|cat|ons
1 naLuralborn clLlzen
2 AL leasL 33 years of age aL Lhe Llme of appolnLmenL
3 WlLh proven capaclLy for publlc admlnlsLraLlon and
4 noL a candldaLe for any elecLlve poslLlon ln Lhe elecLlon lmmedlaLely
precedlng
Lhe appolnLmenL
1erm Seven (7) years wlLhouL reappolnLmenL
Scope of the C|v|| Serv|ce Lmbraces all branches subdlvlslons
lnsLrumenLallLles and
agencles of Lhe CovernmenL lncludlng governmenLowned and conLrolled
corporaLlons
wlLh or|g|na| charters Sect|on 2(1) Art|c|e Ik8
C|asses of Serv|ce
r Career Serv|cecharacLerlzed by
a LnLrance based on merlL and flLness Lo be deLermlned by compeLlLlve
examlnaLlon or based on hlghly Lechnlcal quallflcaLlon
b CpporLunlLy for advancemenL and
c SecurlLy of Lenure
k|nds of Career Serv|ce
% C pen Career oslLlonsprlor quallflcaLlon vla examlnaLlon
% C losed Career oslLlonsLhose hlghly Lechnlcal poslLlon
% C areer LxecuLlve ServlceundersecreLarles 8ureau ulrecLors
% C areer CfflcersLhose appolnLed by Lhe resldenL llke Lhose ln Lhe
forelgn servlce
% C ommlssloned Cfflcers and enllsLed men of Lhe Algoverned by
loqe 2J87/12/2008 soyr
238
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
separaLe merlL sysLem
% ersonnel of CCCCswheLher performlng governmenLal or
proprleLary funcLlons wlLh orlglnal charLers and
% ermanenL laborerswheLher skllled semlskllled or unskllled
r NonCareer Serv|cecharacLerlzed by
a LnLrance on bases oLher Lhan Lhose of Lhe usual LesLs of merlLs and
flLness
uLlllzed for Lhe career servlce and
b 1enure whlch ls llmlLed Lo a perlod speclfled by law whlch ls co
Lermlnus
wlLh LhaL of Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy or sub[ecL Lo hls pleasure or whlch ls
llmlLed Lo Lhe duraLlon of a parLlcular pro[ecL for whlch purpose
employmenL was made
k|nds of NonCareer
% LlecLlve offlclal and Lhelr personal or confldenLlal sLaff
89


% ueparLmenL heads and oLher offlclals of CablneL rank who hold
poslLlons aL Lhe pleasure of Lhe resldenL and Lhelr personal or
confldenLlal sLaff
% Chalrmen and members of commlsslons and boards wlLh flxed Lerms
of offlce and Lhelr personal or confldenLlal sLaff
% ConLracLual personnel or Lhose whose employmenL ln Lhe governmenL
ls ln accordance wlLh a speclal conLracL Lo underLake a speclflc work or
[ob and
% Lmergency and seasonal personnel
Lxcept|ons to the requ|rement of Compet|t|ve Lxam|nat|ons
1 o||cydeterm|n|ng os|t|onone charged wlLh laylng down of prlnclpal
or
fundamenLal guldellnes or rules
2 r|mary Conf|dent|a| os|t|onone denoLlng noL only confldence ln Lhe
apLlLude of Lhe appolnLee for Lhe duLles of Lhe offlce buL prlmarlly close
lnLlmacy
whlch ensures freedom of lnLercourse wlLhouL embarrassmenL or freedom
from
mlsglvlng or beLrayals of personal LrusL on confldenLlal maLLers of sLaLe or
one
declared Lo be so by Lhe resldenL upon recommendaLlon of Lhe Clvll
Servlce
Commlsslon
3 n|gh|y 1echn|ca| os|t|onrequlres Lhe appolnLee Lo possess Lechnlcal
sklll or
Lralnlng ln Lhe supreme or superlor degree
5 vs nqr uoronqino 6 No 17472 lonuory l1 2007 where a
nonellglble
holds a Lemporary appolnLmenL hls replacemenL by anoLher nonellglble
ls noL
prohlblLed When a Lemporary appolnLee ls requlred Lo rellnqulsh hls
offlce he ls belng
separaLed preclsely because hls Lerm has explred
loqe 2J97/12/2008 soyr
239
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
@onjoy Joter uistrict vs uinit lr 6 No 10502 pri/ 27 2007 lL ls
an
esLabllshed rule LhaL Lhe Lenure of offlce of Lhose holdlng prlmarlly
confldenLlal poslLlons
ends upon loss of confldence because Lhelr Lerm of offlce lasLs only as
longs as
confldence ln Lhem endures 1helr LermlnaLlon can be [usLlfled on Lhe
ground of loss of
confldence ln whlch case Lhelr cessaLlon from offlce lnvolves no removal
buL Lhe
explraLlon of Lhelr Lerm of offlce
ower to approve]d|sapprove appo|ntments
1he auLhorlLy of CSC Lo approve appolnLmenLsLo check wheLher or noL
Lhe
appolnLee possesses Lhe approprlaLe clvll servlce ellglblllLy or Lhe requlred
quallflcaLlon
does noL lnclude Lhe auLhorlLy Lo make Lhe appolnLmenL lLself or Lo
dlrecL Lhe
appolnLlng auLhorlLy Lo change Lhe employmenL sLaLus of an employee
1he CSC can
only lnqulre lnLo Lhe ellglblllLy of Lhe person chosen Lo flll a poslLlon and lf
lL flnds Lhe
person quallfled lL musL so aLLesL lf noL Lhe appolnLmenL musL be
dlsapproved
%Province of omorines 5ur vs 6 No 104l9 lu/y 14 1995)
ln Lhe case of Lopet vs 5 194 5 29 Lhe SC held LhaL Lhe CSC has
no power
Lo revoke an appolnLmenL slmply because lL belleves LhaL Lhe person
proLesLlng Lhe
appolnLmenL or somebody ls beLLer quallfled for LhaL wlll consLlLuLe an
encroachmenL of
Lhe dlscreLlon vesLed solely ln Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy
CCMMISSICN CN LLLC1ICN
Compos|t|on
% Cne (1) Chalrman
% Slx (6) Commlssloners
ua||f|cat|ons
1 naLuralborn clLlzen
2 AL leasL 33 years of age aL Lhe Llme of appolnLmenL
3 WlLh proven capaclLy for publlc admlnlsLraLlon and
4 noL a candldaLe for any elecLlve poslLlon ln Lhe elecLlon lmmedlaLely
precedlng
Lhe appolnLmenL
S Ma[orlLy lncludlng Lhe Chalrman musL be members of Lhe hlllpplne
8ar who
have been engaged ln Lhe pracLlce of law for aL leasL Len (10) years
loqe 2407/12/2008 soyr
240
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1erm Seven (7) years wlLhouL reappolnLmenL
rSect|on 1 par 2 Art|c|e IkCChalrman and Commlssloners of
CCMLLLC are noL
sub[ecL Lo reappolnLmenL
%ee te cose of Motiboq vs 8enipoyo te oJ lotetlm oppolotmeot%
1he CCMLLLC's exerclse of lLs quasl[udlclal powers ls sub[ecL Lo SecLlon 3
ArLlcle lxC
whlch expressly requlres LhaL
1 All elecLlons cases lncludlng preproclamaLlon conLroversles shall be
declded by Lhe CCMLLLC |n d|v|s|on and
2 1he moLlon for reconslderaLlon shall be declded by Lhe CCMLLLC en
banc
1he prosecuLlon of elecLlon law vlolaLors lnvolves Lhe exerclse of Lhe
CCMLLLC's admlnlsLraLlve powers 1hus Lhe CCMLLLC en bonc can
dlrecLly opptove
Lhe recommendaLlon of lLs Law ueparLmenL Lo flle Lhe crlmlnal
lnformaLlon for double
reglsLraLlon agalnsL vlolaLors 1here ls no consLlLuLlonal requlremenL LhaL
Lhe flllng of Lhe
crlmlnal lnformaLlon be flrsL declded by any of Lhe dlvlslons of Lhe
CCMLLLC %8oyton
vs OML 6 No 15l945 ebruory 4 200l)
ln vintonsoto vs OML 6 No 1721l1 pri/ 2 2007 once Lhe
wlnnlng candldaLe has been proclalmed Laken hls oaLh and assumed
offlce as a
Member of Lhe Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves Lhe CCMLLLC's [urlsdlcLlon over
elecLlon
conLesLs relaLlng Lo hls elecLlon reLurns and quallflcaLlons ends and Lhe
P8L1's own
[urlsdlcLlon beglns
ln uiton vs OML 6 No 177927 ebruory 17 2008 Lhe denlal of
due course or cancellaLlon of one's cerLlflcaLe of candldacy ls noL wlLhln
Lhe
admlnlsLraLlon powers of Lhe Commlsslon buL raLher calls for Lhe exerclse
of lLs quasl[udlclal
funcLlons Pence Lhe CourL may compel CCMLLLC Lo exerclse such
dlscreLlon
and resolve Lhe maLLer buL lL may noL conLrol Lhe manner of exerclslng
such dlscreLlon
owers and Iunct|ons
1 Lnforce and admlnlsLer law and regulaLlons relaLlve Lo Lhe conducL of
elecLlons
pleblsclLe lnlLlaLlve referendum or recall
2 Lxcluslve orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon over all conLesLs relaLlng Lo elecLlon
reLurns and
90


quallflcaLlons of all elecLlve reglonal provlnclal and clLy offlclals
3 Lxcluslve appellaLe [urlsdlcLlon over all conLesLs lnvolvlng elecLlve
munlclpal
offlclals declded by Lhe 81C or lnvolvlng elecLlve barangay offlclals by
M1C
4 ueclde excepL Lhose lnvolvlng rlghL Lo voLe all quesLlons affecLlng
elecLlons
lncludlng Lhe deLermlnaLlon of number and locaLlon of polllng places
appolnLmenL
loqe 2417/12/2008 soyr
241
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
of elecLlon offlclals and lnspecLors and reglsLraLlon of voLers
3 uepuLlze wlLh concurrence of resldenL law enforcemenL agencles and
lnsLrumenLallLles for excluslve purpose of lnsurlng free orderly honesL
peaceful
and credlble elecLlons
6 8eglsLer afLer sufflclenL publlcaLlon pollLlcal parLles organlzaLlons or
coallLlons
whlch musL presenL Lhelr plaLform or program governmenL accredlL
clLlzen's
arms
7 llle upon verlfled complalnL or moLu proprlo peLlLlons ln courL for
lncluslons or
excluslons of voLers lnvesLlgaLe and where approprlaLe prosecuLe cases
of
vlolaLlons of elecLlon laws
8 8ecommend Lo Congress effecLlve measures Lo mlnlmlze elecLlon
spendlng
llmlLaLlon of places and prevenL and penallze all forms of elecLlon frauds
offenses malpracLlce and nulsance candldaLes and
9 SubmlL Lo Lhe resldenL and Congress comprehenslve reporLs on
conducL of
each elecLlon pleblsclLe lnlLlaLlve referendum or recall
CCMMISSICN CN AUDI1
Compos|t|on
% Cne (1) Chalrman
% 1wo (2) Commlssloners
ua||f|cat|ons
1 naLuralborn clLlzen
2 AL leasL 33 years of age aL Lhe Llme of appolnLmenL
3 CA wlLh aL leasL Len (10) years audlLlng experlence or members of Lhe
hlllpplne 8ar wlLh aL leasL Len (10) years pracLlce of law aL no Llme shall
all
members belong Lo Lhe same poslLlon and
4 noL a candldaLe for any elecLlve poslLlon ln Lhe elecLlon lmmedlaLely
precedlng
Lhe appolnLmenL
1erm Seven (7) years wlLhouL reappolnLmenL
loqe 2427/12/2008 soyr
242
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
owers and Dut|es
1 Lxamlne audlL and seLLle all accounLs perLalnlng Lo revenue and
recelpLs of and
expendlLures or uses of funds and properLy owned or held ln LrusL or
perLalnlng Lo
governmenL
2 keep general accounLs of governmenL and preserve vouchers and
supporLlng
papers
3 AuLhorlLy Lo deflne scope of lLs audlL and examlnaLlon esLabllsh
Lechnlques and
meLhods requlred Lherefore and
4 romulgaLe accounLlng and audlLlng rules and regulaLlons lncludlng
Lhose for
preservaLlon and dlsallowance
Iur|sd|ct|on of the Comm|ss|on no law shall be passed exempLlng any
enLlLy of Lhe
CovernmenL or any lnvesLmenL of publlc funds from Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe CCA (Sec
3 Art|c|e IkC)
r1emporary or AcLlng capaclLy appolnLmenL by Lhe resldenL Lo Lhe
CCMLLLC CCA
CSC ls prohlblLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ln 8ri//ontes vs oroc 192 5 l58 Lhe deslgnaLlon of Commlssloner
?orac as
AcLlng Commlssloner of Lhe CCMLLLC was a vlolaLlon of SecLlon 1
paragraph 1 of ArLlcle lxC
I|sca| Autonomy
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon expressly and unamblguously granLs flscal
auLonomy only
Lo !udlclary Lhe consLlLuLlonal commlsslons and Lhe Cfflce of
Cmbudsman 1he
Commlsslon on Puman 8lghLs has no flscal auLonomy %n mp/oyees
ssociotion vs
n 6 No 155ll lu/y 21 200)
Art|c|e k
LCCAL GCVLkNMLN1
(ln relaLlon Lo 8epubllc AcL no 7160Local CovernmenL Code)
ub||c Corporat|onone creaLed by Lhe sLaLe elLher by general or speclal
acL for
purposes of admlnlsLraLlon of local governmenL or renderlng servlce ln Lhe
publlc
lnLeresL
De Iacto Mun|c|pa| Corporat|onsLhose where Lhe people have
organlzed
Lhemselves under color of law lnLo ordlnary munlclpal bodles exerclslng
Lhelr powers
wlLh Lhelr rlghLs dependenL qulLe as much as on acqulescence as on Lhe
regularlLy of
Lhelr orlgln
8equlslLes
1 valld law auLhorlzlng lncorporaLlon
2 ALLempL ln good falLh Lo organlzlng under lL
3 Colorable compllance wlLh law and
4 AssumpLlon of corporaLe powers
loqe 24J7/12/2008 soyr
243
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Loca| Governmentdescrlbed as a pollLlcal subdlvlslon of a naLlon or
sLaLe whlch ls
consLlLuLed by law and has subsLanLlal conLrol of local affalrs
1hese subdlvlslons are Lhe followlng
1 rovlnces
2 ClLles
3 MunlclpallLles
4 8arangays
3 AuLonomous 8eglon of Musllm Mlndanao (A8MM)
6 Cordlllera AdmlnlsLraLlve 8eglon (CA8)
7 Speclal meLropollLan pollLlcal subdlvlslons
rCreaLed for Lhe sole purpose of coordlnaLlon of dellvery of baslc servlces
8 Subprovlnces (as recognlzed by ArLlcle xvlll)
8arangayLhe baslc pollLlcal and LerrlLorlal selfgovernlng body corporaLe
and ls
subordlnaLe Lo Lhe munlclpallLy or clLy of whlch lL forms parL
91


Autonomous reg|onconslsLs of provlnces clLles munlclpallLles and
geographlcal
areas sharlng common and dlsLlncLlve hlsLorlcal and culLural herlLage
economlc and
soclal sLrucLures and oLher relevanL characLerlsLlcs wlLhln Lhe framework
of Lhe
consLlLuLlon and Lhe naLlonal soverelgnLy as well as Lhe LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy
of Lhe republlc
of Lhe hlllpplnes
Adm|n|strat|ve reg|onsare mere grouplngs of conLlguous provlnces for
admlnlsLraLlve purposes 1hey are noL LerrlLorlal and pollLlcal subdlvlslons
llke provlnces
clLles munlclpallLles and barangays Whlle Lhe power Lo merge
admlnlsLraLlve reglons ls
noL expressly provlded for ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lL ls a power whlch has
LradlLlonally been
lodged wlLh Lhe resldenL Lo faclllLaLe Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of general
supervlslon
over local governmenLs
Devo|ut|onrefers Lo Lhe acL by whlch Lhe naLlonal governmenL confers
power and
auLhorlLy upon Lhe varlous local governmenL unlLs Lo perform speclflc
funcLlons and
responslblllLles Sect|on 17 (e 2nd paragraph) LGC
Sect|on 4 Art|c|e k@e lteslJeot of te llllpploes soll exetclse qeoetol
sopetvlsloo ovet locol qovetomeots ltovloces wlt tespect to compooeot
cltles ooJ
moolclpolltles ooJ cltles ooJ moolclpolltles wlt tespect to compooeot
botooqoys soll
eosote tot te octs of telt compooeot oolts ote wltlo te scope of telt
ptesctlbeJ
powets ooJ fooctloos (See Lhe case of !udge uadole on page 213)
Sect|on 6 Art|c|e kA share ln Lhe naLlonal Laxes collecLed by Lhe
naLlonal
governmenL ls anoLher source of revenue for local unlLs 1he amounL wlll
be as
deLermlned by law" 1hls ls dlsLlncL from Lhe Laxes whlch Lhe local
governmenL lLself
loqe 2447/12/2008 soyr
244
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
mlghL lmpose
Sect|on 7 Art|c|e kAnoLher source of revenue for local governmenLs ls
Lhe share ln
Lhe proceeds from Lhe explolLaLlon and developmenL of naLural resources
found wlLhln
Lhe locallLy 1hls can Lake Lhe form of flnanclal beneflLs for Lhe local unlLs
comlng from a
share ln fees charges and oLher lncomes comlng from developmenL and
lL can also
Lake Lhe form of dlrecL beneflL for Lhe populaLlon comlng ln Lhe form for
lnsLance of
cheaper elecLrlc power raLes of energy sourced ln Lhe locallLy or prlorlLy
ln employmenL
1hls can be effecLed elLher Lhrough naLlonal or local laws
Sect|on 8 Art|c|e kte tetm of offlce of electlve locol offlclols except
botooqoy
offlclols wlc soll be JetetmloeJ by low soll be ttee yeots ooJ oo
soc offlclols
soll setve fot mote too ttee coosecotlve tetms Ioloototy teoooclotloo
of te offlce
fot ooy leoqt of tlme soll oot be cooslJeteJ os oo lotettoptloo lo te
cootloolty of ls
setvlce fot te foll tetm fot wlc e wos electeJ
SecLlon 8 cannoL be more clear and expllclLLhe Lerm of offlce of elecLed
local
offlclals shall be 3 years and no such offlclals shall serve for more Lhan 3
consecuLlve
Lerms upon Lhe oLher hand SecLlon 43 (d) of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code
clearly
provldes Lhan no local offlclal shall serve for more Lhan Lhree (3)
consecuLlve Lerms ln
Lhe same poslLlon %tty ivero lll vs OML 6 Nos 17591 ond
170577
Moy 9 2007)
Sect|on 10CreaLlon dlvlslon merger abollLlon subsLanLlal change of
boundarles are
noL only sub[ecL Lo Lhe crlLerla esLabllshed ln Lhe local governmenL code
buL also sub[ecL
Lo approval by a ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a pleblsclLe ln Lhe pollLlcal
unlLs dlrecLly
affecLed
Author|ty to Create Loca| Government
A local governmenL unlL may be creaLed dlvlded merged abollshed or lLs
boundarles subsLanLlally alLered
1 rovlnce ClLy MunlclpallLy or any oLher pollLlcal subdlvlslononly by
AcL of
Congress
2 8arangaysordlnance passed by Lhe Sanggunlang anlalawlgan or
anglungsod concerned ln Lhe case of any barangay wlLhln lLs LerrlLorlal
[urlsdlcLlon
1he creaLlon or converslon of an LCu from one level Lo anoLher level shall
be based on
verlflable lndlcaLors
a IncomemusL be sufflclenL Lo provlde for all essenLlal faclllLles and
servlces commensuraLe wlLh Lhe slze of lLs populaLlon
b opu|at|onbased on LoLal number of lnhablLanLs wlLhln Lhe LerrlLorlal
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe LCu
c Land areamusL be conLlguous unless lL comprlses Lwo or more lslands
or ls separaLed by an LCu properly ldenLlfled by meLes and bounds and
loqe 2457/12/2008 soyr
243
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
sufflclenL Lo provlde for such baslc servlces and faclllLles
D|v|s|on and MergerLCu shall comply wlLh Lhe same requlremenLs for
Lhelr creaLlon
provlded lL shall noL reduce Lhe lncome populaLlon and land area of LCus
concerned Lo
less Lhan Lhe mlnlmum requlremenLs prescrlbed pleblsclLe be held ln LCu
affecLed and
Lhe asseLs and llablllLles of creaLlon shall be equlLably dlsLrlbuLed beLween
Lhe LCus
affecLed and Lhe new LCu
rov|nce Mun|c|pa||ty C|ty n|gh|y
urban|zed
8arangay
As to Income
2000000000 230000000 10000000000 3000000000
As to opu|at|on
230000 23000 130000 200000 2000 (excepL
MeLro Manlla
or ln PuCs
3000)
As to Land Area
2000 sq kms
(not appllcable
lf proposed
provlnce Lo be
creaLed
92


composed of 2
or more
lslands)
30 sq kms
(not appllcable
lf proposed
munlclpallLy Lo
be creaLed
composed of 2
or more
lslands)
100 sq kms
(not appllcable lf
proposed clLy Lo
be creaLed
composed of 2
or more lslands)
100 sq kms
kequ|s|tes before a prov|nce c|ty mun|c|pa||ty or barangay may be
created
d|v|ded merged abo||shed or |ts boundary substant|a||y a|tered
1 lL musL be ln accordance wlLh Lhe crlLerla esLabllshed ln Lhe Local
CovernmenL
Code
2 lL ls sub[ecL Lo approval by a ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a pleblsclLe ln
Lhe
pollLlcal unlLs dlrecLly affecLed (Sect|on 10 Art|c|e k)
C|ass|f|cat|on of C|t|es
1 Plghly urbanlzed clLles as deLermlned by law
2 ClLles noL ralsed Lo Lhe hlghly urbanlzed caLegory buL whose exlsLlng
charLers
prohlblL Lhelr voLers from voLlng ln provlnclal elecLlons and
3 ComponenL clLlesclLles whlch sLlll are under a provlnce ln some way
1hey
cannoL be denled a voLe ln Lhe elecLlon of provlnclal offlclals
r 1hose ln numbers 1 and 2 do noL voLe ln provlnclal elecLlons Lhey are
lndependenL of
Lhe provlnce 8esldenLs are noL quallfled Lo run for provlnclal poslLlons
loqe 247/12/2008 soyr
246
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Abo||t|onwhen Lhe lncome populaLlon or land area has been
lrreverslbly reduced Lo
less Lhan Lhe mlnlmum sLandards prescrlbed for lLs creaLlon Lhe LCu Lhru
a law or
ordlnance may be abollshed
LCCAL CIIICIALS
1 Covernor
2 vlceCovernor
3 Members of Lhe Sanggunlang anlalawlgan
4 Members of Lhe Sanggunlang anlungsod
3 Mayor
6 vlceMayor
7 Members of Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan
8 unong 8arangay
9 Members of Lhe Sanggunlang barangay
10Sanggunlang kabaLaan
UALIIICA1ICNS
1 ClLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
2 8eglsLered voLer ln Lhe barangay munlclpallLy clLy or provlnce or ln
Lhe case of
a member of Lhe SC anlalawlgan anlungsod or 8ayan ln Lhe dlsLrlcL
where
he lnLends Lo be elecLed
3 8esldenL Lhereln for aL leasL 1 year lmmedlaLely precedlng elecLlon
4 Able Lo read and wrlLe llllplno or any oLher local language or dlalecL
3 Cn e|ect|on day age musL aL leasL be
a 23 yearsfor governor vlcegovernor member of Lhe SC panlalawlgan
mayor vlcemayor or member of Lhe SC panlungsod of PuC
b 21 yearsfor mayor vlcemayor of lndependenL componenL clLles
(lCC)
componenL clLles (CC) or munlclpallLles
c 18 yearmembers of Lhe SC panlungsod or SC 8ayan unong
8arangay member of Lhe Sanggunlang ambarangay
d 13 years buL noL more Lhan 18 yearsfor Sk
1LkM CI CIIICL 1P8LL (3) ?LA8S
MANNLk CI LLLC1ICN
1 lor governor vlcegovernor clLy or munlclpal mayor and vlcemayor
punong
barangayelecLed aL large ln Lhelr respecLlve unlLs
2 lor Lhe SC panlalawlgan panlungsod and bayan of PuCelecLed ln
Lhelr
respecLlve dlsLrlcL
3 lor Sk Chalrman and MemberselecLed by Lhe reglsLered voLers of Lhe
kaLlpunan ng mga kabaLaan
loqe 2477/12/2008 soyr
247
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
DISUALIIICA1ICNS %keoJ ectloo 40 lCc%
kCnI8I1CNS AND INnI8I1ICNS
%keoJ ectloos 89 90 ooJ 94 of te lCc ooJ Attlcle I%
Autonomyls elLher decenLrallzaLlon of admlnlsLraLlon or
decenLrallzaLlon of power
decentra||zat|on of adm|n|strat|on decentra||zat|on of power
r 1he cenLral governmenL delegaLes
admlnlsLraLlve powers Lo pollLlcal
subdlvlslons ln order Lo broaden Lhe base
of governmenL and ln Lhe process Lo make
local governmenLs more responslve and
accounLable and ensure Lhelr fullesL
developmenL as selfrellanL communlLles
and make Lhem more effecLlve parLners ln
Lhe pursulL of naLlonal developmenL and
soclal progress AL Lhe same Llme lL
relleves Lhe cenLral governmenL of Lhe
burden of managlng local affalrs and
enables lL Lo concenLraLe on naLlonal
concerns 1he resldenL exerclses general
supervlslon over Lhem buL only Lo ensure
LhaL local affalrs are admlnlsLered
accordlng Lo law Pe has no conLrol over
Lhelr acLs ln Lhe sense LhaL he can
subsLlLuLe Lhelr [udgmenLs wlLh hls own
r lL lnvolves an abdlcaLlon of pollLlcal
power ln favor of Lhe local governmenL
unlLs declared auLonomous ln LhaL case
Lhe auLonomous governmenL ls free Lo
charL lLs own desLlny and shape lLs own
fuLure wlLh mlnlmum lnLervenLlon from
cenLral auLhorlLles lL amounLs Lo selflmmolaLlon
slnce ln LhaL evenL Lhe
auLonomous governmenL becomes
accounLable noL Lo Lhe cenLral auLhorlLles
buL Lo lLs consLlLuency
rWhat k|nd of |oca| autonomy |s contemp|ated by the Const|tut|on?
What about
the autonomy contemp|ated |nsofar as the autonomous reg|ons are
concerned?
1 1he prlnclple of local auLonomy under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon slmply
means
93


decenLrallzaLlon" lL does noL make local governmenLs soverelgn wlLhln
Lhe sLaLe
or an lmperlum ln lmperlo" 8emalnlng Lo be an lnLra soverelgn
subdlvlslon of
one soverelgn naLlon buL noL lnLended however Lo be an lmperlum ln
lmperlo"
Lhe LCu ls auLonomous ln Lhe sense LhaL lL ls glven more power auLhorlLy
responslblllLles and resources ower whlch used Lo be hlghly cenLrallzed
ln
Manlla ls Lhereby deconcenLraLed enabllng especlally Lhe perlpheral
LCus Lo
develop noL only aL Lhelr own pace and dlscreLlon buL also wlLh Lhelr own
resources and asseLs %/voret vs 6uinqono lr 252 5 95)
2 1he consLlLuLlonal guaranLee of local auLonomy ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
refers Lo Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve auLonomy of LCus or casL ln more Lechnlcal language Lhe
decenLrallzaLlon of governmenL auLhorlLy
loqe 2487/12/2008 soyr
248
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Cn Lhe oLherhand Lhe creaLlon of auLonomous reglons ln Musllm
Mlndanao and
Lhe Cordllleras whlch ls pecullar Lo Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon conLemplaLes
Lhe granL of
pollLlcal auLonomy and noL [usL admlnlsLraLlve auLonomy Lo Lhese reglons
1hus Lhe
provlslon ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon for an auLonomous reglonal governmenL wlLh
a baslc
sLrucLure conslsLlng of an execuLlve deparLmenL and a leglslaLlve assembly
and speclal
courLs wlLh personal famlly and properLy law [urlsdlcLlon ln each of Lhe
auLonomous
reglons %ordi//ero 8rood oo/ition vs O 181 5 495)
1he dynamlc and more lmporLanL aspecL of local auLonomy musL be
measured ln
Lerms of Lhe scope of Lhe powers glven Lo Lhe local unlLs
8otonqos @v lnc vs 6 No 1l8810 5eptember 29 2004 an
ordlnance
enacLed by vlrLue of Lhe general welfare clause ls valld unless lL
conLravenes Lhe
fundamenLal law of Lhe hlllpplnes or an acL of Lhe LeglslaLure or unless
lL ls agalnsL
publlc pollcy or ls unreasonable oppresslve parLlal dlscrlmlnaLlng or ln
derogaLlon of
common rlghL
A local governmenL unlL cannoL enacL an ordlnance or approve a
resoluLlon ln
vlolaLlon of a general law Munlclpal auLhorlLles under a general granL of
power cannoL
adopL ordlnances whlch lnfrlnge Lhe splrlL of a sLaLe law or repugnanL Lo
Lhe general
pollcy of Lhe sLaLe lL ls clear LhaL ln Lhe absence of consLlLuLlonal or
leglslaLlve
auLhorlzaLlon munlclpallLles have no power Lo granL franchlses
5l5 vs tiento lr 6 No 15052 Morc 7 2007 Lhe Sanggunlang
anlungsod
shall enacL such ordlnances as may be necessary Lo carry lnLo effecL and
dlscharge Lhe
responslblllLles conferred upon lL by law and such as shall be necessary
and proper Lo
provlde for Lhe healLh and safeLy comforL and convenlence malnLaln
peace and order
and promoLe Lhe general welfare of Lhe communlLy and lnhablLanLs 1here
ls a duLy Lo
enforce Lhe Crdlnance as long as lL has noL been repealed by Lhe
Sanggunlan or
annulled by Lhe courLs
u vs 5oronqqoni qricu/turo/ o lonuory 24 2007 whlle Lhe uA8
reLalns Lhe
responslblllLy for approvlng or dlsapprovlng appllcaLlons for land use
converslon flled by
lndlvldual landowners on Lhelr landholdlngs Lhe exerclse of such auLhorlLy
should be
conflned Lo compllance wlLh Lhe requlremenLs and llmlLaLlons under
exlsLlng laws and
regulaLlons 1he uA8's power ln such cases may noL be exerclsed ln such a
manner as
Lo defeaL Lhe very purpose of Lhe LCu concerned ln reclasslfylng cerLaln
area Lo achleve
soclal and economlc beneflLs ln pursulL of lLs mandaLe Lowards Lhe general
welfare
o||ce power of the Loca| Government
A local governmenL ls consldered Lo have properly exerclsed lLs pollce
powers
loqe 2497/12/2008 soyr
249
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
only when Lhe followlng requlslLes are meL
S 1he lnLeresLs of Lhe publlc generally as dlsLlngulshed from Lhose of a
parLlcular class requlre Lhe lnLerference of Lhe SLaLe
r8efers Lo Lhe equal proLecLlon clause
6 1he means employed are reasonably necessary for Lhe aLLalnmenL of
Lhe
ob[ecL soughL Lo be accompllshed and noL unduly oppresslve
r8efers Lo Lhe due process clause %Poroyno vs love//onos 6 No
148408 lu/y 14 200)
1he exerclse of pollce power by Lhe local governmenL ls valld unless lL
conLravenes Lhe fundamenLal law of Lhe land or an acL of Lhe leglslaLure
or unless lL ls
agalnsL publlc pollcy or ls unreasonable oppresslve parLlal
dlscrlmlnaLlng or ln
derogaLlon of a common rlghL %@oyobon vs Peop/e 6 No 150194
Morc 2007)
rnove te powers of L@O to reqister motor veic/es ond to issue drivers
/icenses for te operotion tereof been devo/ved to /oco/ qovernments
under te
Loco/ 6overnment ode?
r no 1he only powers of Lhe Land 1ransporLaLlon lranchlslng 8egulaLory
8oard
(L1l88) Lo regulaLe Lhe operaLlon of Lrlcyclesforhlre and Lo granL
franchlses for Lhe
operaLlon Lhereof had been devolved Lo local governmenLs under Lhe
Local CovernmenL
Code (8A 7160) Clearly unaffecLed by Lhe LCC are Lhe powers of Lhe L1C
under 8A
4136 requlrlng Lhe reglsLraLlon of all klnds of moLor vehlcles used or
operaLed on or
upon any publlc hlghway" ln Lhe counLry %L@O vs ity of 8utuon 6 No
1l1512
lonuory 20 2000)
rls te MMu o /oco/ qovernment unit or pub/ic corporotion endowed
wit
/eqis/otive power? ls it o specio/ metropo/iton subdivision contemp/oted
by
5ection 11 rtic/e x of te onstitution? Moy it vo/id/y exercise po/ice
power?
Moy it vo/id/y order te openinq or c/osure of privote subdivision streets
to pub/ic
veicu/or troffic?
94


1he MMuA ls noL a pollLlcal unlL of governmenL 1he power delegaLed Lo
Lhe
MMuA ls glven Lo Lhe MeLro Manlla Councll Lo promulgaLe admlnlsLraLlve
rules and
regulaLlons ln Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe MMuA's funcLlon 1here ls no
granL of auLhorlLy
Lo enacL ordlnances and regulaLlons for Lhe general welfare of Lhe
lnhablLanLs of Lhe
meLropolls
lL ls Lhus beyond doubL LhaL Lhe MMuA ls noL a local governmenL unlL or a
publlc
corporaLlon endowed wlLh leglslaLlve power lL ls noL even a speclal
meLropollLan
pollLlcal subdlvlslon" as conLemplaLed ln SecLlon 11 ArLlcle x of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon 1he
loqe 2507/12/2008 soyr
230
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
creaLlon of a speclal meLropollLan pollLlcal subdlvlslon" requlres Lhe
approval by a
ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a pleblsclLe ln Lhe pollLlcal unlLs dlrecLly
affecLed 8A 7924
(law creaLlng Lhe MMuA) was noL submlLLed Lo Lhe lnhablLanLs of MeLro
Manlla ln a
pleblsclLe 1he Chalrman of Lhe MMuA ls noL an offlclal elecLed by Lhe
people buL
appolnLed by Lhe resldenL wlLh Lhe rank and prlvlleges of a cablneL
member ln facL
parL of hls funcLlon ls Lo perform such oLher duLles as may be asslgned Lo
hlm by Lhe
resldenL whereas ln LCus Lhe resldenL merely exerclses supervlsory
auLhorlLy 1hls
emphaslzes Lhe admlnlsLraLlve characLer of MMuA
1he MMuA has no power Lo enacL ordlnances for Lhe welfare of Lhe
communlLy lL
ls Lhe LCus acLlng Lhrough Lhelr respecLlve leglslaLlve counclls whlch
possesses
leglslaLlve power and pollce power ln Lhe case aL bar Lhe Sanggunlang
anlungsod of
MakaLl ClLy dld noL pass any ordlnance or resoluLlon orderlng Lhe openlng
of nepLune
SLreeL hence lLs proposed openlng by peLlLloner MMuA ls lllegal %MMu
vs 8e/ir
vi//oqe ssociotion lnc l28 5 8l)
LAW CI U8LIC CIIICLkS
ub||c Cff|ceLhe rlghL auLhorlLy and duLy creaLed and conferred by law
by whlch for
a glven perlod elLher flxed by law or endurlng aL Lhe pleasure of Lhe
creaLlng power an
lndlvldual ls lnvesLed wlLh some sovere|gn funct|ons of government Lo be
exerclsed
by hlm for Lhe beneflL of Lhe publlc %ernondet vs 5to @omos 2l4 5
54)
ub||c off|ce |s a pub||c trustLhls requlres LhaL all governmenL offlclals
and
employees musL aL all Llmes be accounLable Lo Lhe people serve Lhem
wlLh uLmosL
responslblllLy lnLegrlLy loyalLy and efflclency acL wlLh paLrloLlsm and
[usLlce and lead
modesL llves
ub||c trustlmplles a flduclary relaLlonshlp beLween a publlc offlcer who
ls a LrusLee
and Lhe people who are Lhe beneflclarles of a publlc offlce Sald
relaLlonshlp makes Lhe
publlc offlcer Lhe servanL of Lhe people requlres of hlm
a uLmosL responslblllLy
b lnLegrlLy
c LoyalLy
d Lfflclency
e lldellLy
f Cood falLh and
g AccounLablllLy ln Lhe dlscharge of hls duLles
loqe 2517/12/2008 soyr
231
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
and demands LhaL he Lakes no advanLage of hls poslLlon for hls personal
beneflL or Lo
Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe publlc
Created by
1 1he ConsLlLuLloneg Cfflce of Lhe resldenL
2 valld sLaLuLory amendmenLs
3 8y auLhorlLy of law
L|ements of ub||c Cff|ce
1 CreaLed by law or ordlnance auLhorlzed by law
2 ossesses soverelgn funcLlons of Lhe governmenL
3 luncLlons deflned expressly or lmplledly by law
4 luncLlons exerclsed by an offlcer dlrecLly under Lhe conLrol of law noL
under a
superlor offlcer unless Lhey be Lhose of an lnferlor or subordlnaLe offlce
creaLed
or auLhorlzed by Lhe leglslaLure and by lL placed under Lhe general conLrol
of a
superlor offlce or body and
3 MusL have permanency or conLlnulLy
Character|st|cs
1 ubllc offlce ls a publlc LrusL
2 ubllc offlce ls noL a properLy and ls ouLslde Lhe commerce of man lL
cannoL be
sub[ecL of a conLracL
U8LIC CIIICLkSlndlvlduals vesLed wlLh publlc offlce
under 8C ArL 203any person who by dlrecL provlslon of law popular
elecLlon or appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy shall Lake parL ln Lhe
performance of
publlc funcLlons ln Lhe CovernmenL of Lhe hlllpplne lslands or shall
perform ln sald
CovernmenL or ln any of lLs branches publlc duLles as an employee agenL
or
subordlnaLe offlclal of any rank or class shall be deemed Lo be a publlc
offlcer
under Sec 2 8A 3019Lhe Lerm lncludes elecLlve and appolnLlve offlclals
and
employees permanenL or Lemporary wheLher ln Lhe classlfled
unclasslfled or exempL
servlce recelvlng compensaLlon even nomlnal from Lhe governmenL
kon lr vs Office of te Ombudsmon 6 No 12529 lu/y 20 200 ln
Lhe case
of offlcers/employees ln CCCCs Lhey are deemed publlc offlcers" lf Lhelr
corporaLlons
are Lasked Lo carry ouL governmenLal funcLlons
loqe 2527/12/2008 soyr
232
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
"c|ass|f|ed unc|ass|f|ed or exempt serv|ce"Career and nonCareer
servlce under
u 807
93


Sec 2 (14) Adm|n|strat|ve Codeofflcer" refers Lo a person whose
duLles noL belng
a clerlcal or manual naLure lnvolve Lhe exerclse of dlscreLlon ln Lhe
performance of Lhe
funcLlons of governmenL When used wlLh reference Lo a person havlng
auLhorlLy Lo do a
parLlcular acL or perform a parLlcular funcLlon ln Lhe exerclse of
governmenLal power
offlcer" lncludes any governmenL employee agenL or body havlng
auLhorlLy Lo do Lhe
acL or exerclse LhaL funcLlon
LLIGI8ILI1 AND UALIIICA1ICN
(LeglslaLlve ln naLurebelongs Lo Congress)
1wo (2) Senses
1 LndowmenLs quallLles or aLLrlbuLes whlch make an lndlvldual ellglble
for publlc
offlceLhe lndlvldual musL possess Lhe quallflcaLlons aL Lhe Llme of
appolnLmenL
or elecLlon and conLlnuously for as long as Lhe offlclal relaLlonshlp
conLlnues
a ClLlzenshlppubllc offlce ls reserved only Lo clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes
b 8esldenceelecLlve offlce or poslLlon ln Clvll Law resldence and
domlclle
are dlfferenL Cne can have 1 domlclle buL several resldences ln ollLlcal
Law Lhey are Lhe same AnlMuS 8LvL81LnulLhe lnLenL Lo reLurn
3 klnds of domlclle ln ollLlcal Law
l uomlclle of blrLh (orlglnal)
ll uomlclle of cholceLhe person lefL Lhe orlglnal domlclle wlLhouL
Aolmos kevetteoJl and esLabllshed a new domlclle
lll uomlclle by operaLlon of law
Morcos vs OMLformer llrsL Lady lmelda Marcos
orlglnally domlclled ln LeyLe She marrled lM (from llocos) under
Lhe Clvll Code lL ls Lhe duLy of Lhe wlfe Lo llve wlLh her husband
She acqulred Lhe domlclle of her husband llocos norLe by
operaLlon of law
8uL when her husband dled Lhe wlfe has no more duLy Lo
llve wlLh her husband She auLomaLlcally reverLs back Lo her orlglnal
domlclle LeyLe Aolmos kevetteoJl ls applled
loqe 25J7/12/2008 soyr
233
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Caas| vs CCMLLLCresldence ln a forelgn counLry
c Age
d ollLlcal AfflllaLlonas a rule lL ls noL a quallflcaLlon
Lxcept|ons ln arLyLlsL Membershlp ln Lhe LlecLoral 1rlbunal
Commlsslon
on appolnLmenL
2 AcL of enLerlng lnLo Lhe performance of funcLlons of publlc offlce
fallure of an
offlcer Lo perform an acL requlred by law could affecL Lhe offlcer's LlLle Lo
Lhe glven
offlce (example Laklng Lhe oaLh of offlce)
Author|ty to rescr|be ua||f|cat|on
1 ConsLlLuLlonordlnarlly LxCLuSlvL 1he leglslaLure may noL lncrease
or
decrease quallflcaLlons excepL when Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself provldes
oLherwlse as
when only mlnlmum or no quallflcaLlons are prescrlbed
Lxamples Sec 17 (2) Art kIII (numan k|ghts) @e commlssloo soll be
composeJ of o coltmoo ooJ foot Membets wo most be oototolboto
cltlzeos of
te llllpploes ooJ o mojotlty of wom soll be membets of te 8ot @e
tetm of
offlce ooJ otet poollflcotloos ooJ Jlsobllltles of te Membets of te
commlssloo
soll be ptovlJeJ by low
Sect|on 7 (2) Art|c|e VIII @e cooqtess soll ptesctlbe te poollflcotloos
of joJqes of lowet cootts bot oo petsoo moy be oppoloteJ joJqe teteof
ooless e
ls o cltlzeo of te llllpploes ooJ o membet of te llllpploe 8ot
2 SLaLuLeCongress has Lhe plenary power Lo prescrlbe Lhe quallflcaLlon
buL such
musL be
a Cetmooe Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe offlce
b -ot too speclflc so as Lo refer Lo only one lndlvldual
ln Lecorot vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 1l0872 Morc 25 1999 an oaLh
of
offlce ls a quallfylng requlremenL for publlc offlce Cnly when Lhe publlc
offlcer has
saLlsfled Lhls prerequlslLe can hls rlghL Lo enLer lnLo Lhe poslLlon be
consldered plenary
and compleLe unLll Lhen he has none aL all and for as long as he has noL
quallfled Lhe
holdover offlcer ls Lhe rlghLful occupanL An oaLh of offlce Laken before
one who has no
auLhorlLy Lo admlnlsLer ls no oaLh aL all
Powever ln Mendoto vs Loxino 6 No 14875 lu/y 14 200l once
proclalmed and duly sworn ln offlce a publlc offlcer ls enLlLled Lo assume
offlce and Lo
loqe 2547/12/2008 soyr
234
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
exerclse Lhe funcLlons Lhereof 1he pendency of an elecLlon proLesL ls noL
sufflclenL
basls Lo en[oln hlm from assumlng offlce or from dlscharglng hls funcLlons
Sec S (1) Art kVIAll membets of te otmeJ fotces soll toke oo oot ot
offltmotloo to opolJ ooJ JefeoJ tls coostltotloo
A was elecLed/appolnLed Lo publlc offlce Pe assumed offlce wlLhouL
Laklng Lhe oaLh
of offlce as prescrlbed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and relevanL CSC rules and
regulaLlons Are
hls acLs valld?
A ?es A's acLs are consldered valld lnsofar as Lhlrd parLles and Lhe
general publlc are
concerned/rely on hls acLsacLs of a ue lacLo offlcer
%ee te cose of Office of te Ombudsmon vs 5 6 No 12215 lu/y
l0 2007%
DISUALIIICA1ICNS
1he leglslaLure has Lhe rlghL Lo prescrlbe dlsquallflcaLlons ln Lhe same
manner
LhaL lL can prescrlbe quallflcaLlons provlded LhaL Lhe prescrlbed
dlsquallflcaLlons do noL
vlolaLe Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
G enera| ulsquallflcaLlons under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
1 Sec 6 Art Ik8 -o cooJlJote wo os lost lo ooy electloo soll
wltlo ooe
yeot oftet soc electloo be oppoloteJ to ooy offlce lo te Covetomeot ot
ooy
COccs ot lo ooy of lts sobslJlotles
2 Sec 7 (1) Art Ik8refers Lo elecLlve offlclals-o electlve offlclol
soll be
ellqlble fot oppolotmeot ot Jeslqootloo lo ooy copoclty to ooy pobllc offlce
ot
posltloo Jotloq ls teoote
ln Lhe case of /ores vs uri/on 6 No 1047l2 lune 22 199l 8A
7227creaLlng Lhe S8MA one provlslon sLaLes LhaL Mayor ulck Cordon
shall be
appolnLed as Chalrman and Chlef LxecuLlve of Lhe S8MA 1he SC ruled for
Lhe
96


consLlLuLlonallLy of hls appolnLmenL as Lhe flrsL AdmlnlsLraLor of Lhe
S8MA Pe
was allowed Lo acL as Chalrman ln an exofflclo capaclLy SecLlon 7(1) of
ArLlcle
lx8 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon refers Lo elecLlve offlclals 1he second paragraph
refers
Lo appolnLlve offlclals made Lwo excepLlons
a unless oLherwlse allowed by law or
b unless oLherwlse allowed by Lhe prlmary funcLlon of hls poslLlon
Pence Mayor Cordon's appolnLmenL ls valld
loqe 2557/12/2008 soyr
233
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 Sec 7 (2) Art Ik8uoless otetwlse olloweJ by low ot by te ptlmoty
fooctloos of ls posltloo oo oppolotlve offlclols soll olJ ooy otet offlce
ot
employmeot lo te Covetomeot ot ooy sobJlvlsloo oqeocy ot
losttomeotollty
teteof locloJloq COccs ot telt sobslJlotles
Notiono/ mnesty ommission vs O 6 No 15982 5eptember 8
2004
when anoLher offlce ls held by a publlc offlcer ln an exofflclo capaclLy as
provlded by
law and as requlred by Lhe prlmary funcLlons of hls offlce Lhere ls no
vlolaLlon because
such oLher offlce does noL comprlse any oLher poslLlon" 1he exofflclo
poslLlon ls
acLually and ln legal conLemplaLlon parL of Lhe prlnclpal offlce 8uL Lhe
offlclal
concerned ls noL enLlLled Lo recelve addlLlonal compensaLlon for hls
servlces ln Lhe sald
poslLlon because hls servlces are already pald for and covered by Lhe
compensaLlon
aLLached Lo hls prlnclpal offlce
S pec|f|c u lsquallflcaLlons under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
1 Sec 13 Art VII1he resldenL v Member of Lhe CablneL and Lhelr
depuLles
or asslsLanLs shall noL unless oLherwlse provlded ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon hold
any
oLher offlce or employmenL durlng Lhelr Lenure
2 Sec 13 Art VI no SenaLor or Member of Lhe PC8 may hold any
oLher offlce
or employmenL ln Lhe governmenL or any subdlvlslon agency or
lnsLrumenLallLy
Lhereof lncludlng CCCCs or Lhelr subsldlarles durlng hls Lerm wlLhouL
forfelLlng
hls seaL nelLher shall he be appolnLed Lo any offlce whlch may have been
creaLed or Lhe emolumenLs Lhereof lncreased durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch
he was
elecLed
Incompat|b|e Cff|ce Iorb|dden Cff|ce
no SenaLor or Member of Lhe PC8
may hold any oLher offlce or
employmenL ln Lhe governmenL or any
subdlvlslon agency or lnsLrumenLallLy
Lhereof lncludlng CCCCs or Lhelr
subsldlarles durlng hls Lerm wlLhouL
forfelLlng hls seaL
1he purpose ls Lo prevenL hlm from
owlng loyalLy Lo anoLher branch of Lhe
governmenL Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe
lndependence of Lhe leglslaLure and Lhe
docLrlne of separaLlon of powers
whaL ls prohlblLed ls Lhe slmulLaneous
holdlng of LhaL offlce and Lhe seaL ln
nelLher shall he be appolnLed Lo any
offlce LhaL has been creaLed or Lhe
emolumenLs Lhereof have been
lncreased durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch he
was elecLed
Lhe purpose ls Lo prevenL Lrafflcklng ln
publlc offlce
whaL ls prohlblLed ls Lhe appolnLmenL
Lo Lhe offlce durlng Lhe Lerm for whlch
loqe 257/12/2008 soyr
236
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Congress Any leglslaLor may hold
anoLher offlce or employmenL ln Lhe
governmenL provlded he forfelLs hls
seaL ln Lhe Congress
he was elecLed when such offlce was
creaLed or lLs emolumenLs were
lncreased
3 Sec 12 Art VIII@e Membets of te c ooJ of otet cootts
estobllseJ by
low soll oot be JeslqooteJ to ooy oqeocy petfotmloq poosljoJlclol ot
oJmlolsttotlve fooctloos
4 Sec 2 Art IkA-o Membet of o coostltotloool commlssloo soll
Jotloq ls
teoote olJ ooy otet offlce ot employmeot 1he same dlsquallflcaLlon
applles Lo
Lhe Cmbudsman and hls uepuLlesSec 8 Art kI
3 Sec 11 Art kI@e OmboJsmoo ooJ ls uepotles soll oot be poollfleJ
to too
fot ooy offlce lo te electloo lmmeJlotely socceeJloq telt cessotloo ftom
offlce
6 Sec 1 Art Ik8 Art IkC Sec 1 Art IkD Sec 8 art kIMembets of
te
coostltotloool commlssloos te OmboJsmoo ooJ ls uepotles most oot
ove
beeo cooJlJotes fot ooy electlve posltloo lo te electloos lmmeJlotely
pteceJloq
telt oppolotmeot
7 Sec 1 (2) Art Ik8 Sec 1 (2) Art IkC Sec 1 (2) Art IkD Sec 11
Art
kI Membets of te coostltotloool commlssloos te OmboJsmoo ooJ ls
uepotles ote oppoloteJ to o tetm of seveo %7% yeots wltoot
teoppolotmeot
8 Sec 13 Art VIILhe spouse and relaLlves by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
wlLhln Lhe
fourLh clvll degree of Lhe resldenL shall noL durlng hls Lenure be
appolnLed as
Members of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons or Lhe Cfflce of Lhe
Cmbudsman or
as SecreLarles undersecreLarles chalrmen or heads of bureaus or offlces
lncludlng CCCCs
Pub/ic lnterest enter lnc vs Moqdonqo/ /mo 6 No 1l895 Morc
5 2007
Lhe concurrenL appolnLmenLs of respondenL as CCC Chalrman and Chlef
resldenLlal
Legal Counsel (CLC) are unconsLlLuLlonal 1he concurrenL appolnLmenL Lo
Lhese
offlces ls ln vlolaLlon of SecLlon 7 (2) ArLlcle lx8 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon slnce
Lhese are
lncompaLlble offlces 1he duLles of Lhe CLC lnclude glvlng lndependenL
and lmparLlal
legal advlce on Lhe acLlons of Lhe heads of varlous execuLlve deparLmenLs
and agencles
97


and revlewlng lnvesLlgaLlons lnvolvlng heads of execuLlve deparLmenLs
Slnce Lhe
acLlons of Lhe CCC Chalrman a head of an execuLlve agency are sub[ecL
Lo Lhe
revlew of Lhe CLC such appolnLmenLs would be lncompaLlble
D|squa||f|cat|ons under the Loca| Government Code (Sect|on 40 LGC)
1he followlng persons are dlsquallfled from runnlng for any elecLlve local
poslLlon
loqe 2577/12/2008 soyr
237
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 1hose senLenced by flnal [udgmenL for an offense lnvolvlng moral
LurplLude or for
an offense punlshable by one year or more of lmprlsonmenL wlLhln Lwo
(2) years
afLer servlng senLence
2 1hose removed from offlce as a resulL of an admlnlsLraLlve case
3 1hose convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL for vlolaLlng Lhe oaLh of alleglance Lo
Lhe
8epubllc
4 1hose wlLh dual clLlzenshlp
3 luglLlve from [usLlce ln crlmlnal or nonpollLlcal cases here or abroad
6 ermanenL resldenLs ln a forelgn counLry or Lhose who have acqulred
Lhe rlghL Lo
reslde abroad and conLlnue Lo avall of Lhe same rlghL afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy
of Lhls
Code
7 1he lnsane or feeblemlnded
oosi vs OML 191 5 229 Lo be quallfled Lo run for elecLlve
offlce Lhe law
requlres LhaL Lhe candldaLe who ls a green card holder musL have walved
hls sLaLus as a
permanenL resldenL or lmmlgranL of a forelgn counLry 1he walver should
be manlfesLed
by some acL or acLs lndependenL of and done prlor Lo flllng hls cerLlflcaLe
of candldacy
for elecLlve offlce 1he reason ls LhaL resldence ln Lhe munlclpallLy where
he lnLends Lo
run for elecLlve offlce whlch ls aL leasL one (1) year aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng
of hls
cerLlflcaLe of candldacy ls one of Lhe quallflcaLlons LhaL a candldaLe musL
possess 1he
mere flllng of hls CCC for elecLlve offlce ln Lhe counLry ls noL sufflclenL
1he elecLlon of a
candldaLe who ls a green card holder or who has noL valldly walved hls
sLaLus as a
green card holder ls null and vold
odriquet vs OML 259 5 29 Lhe Lerm fuglLlve from [usLlce"
lncludes noL
only Lhose who flee afLer convlcLlon Lo avold punlshmenL buL llkewlse
Lhose who afLer
belng charged ln Lhe hlllpplnes or abroad flee Lo avold prosecuLlon
lnLenL Lo evade on
Lhe parL of a candldaLe musL be esLabllshed by proof LhaL Lhere has
already been a
convlcLlon or aL leasL a charge has already been flled aL Lhe Llme of fllghL
Pe ls noL a
fuglLlve from [usLlce when aL Lhe Llme of deparLure from abroad Lo Lhe
hlllpplnes Lhere
ls yeL no complalnL flled agalnsL hlm abroad ln Lhls case lL was
esLabllshed LhaL Lhe
case was flled agalnsL 8odrlguez flve (3) monLhs afLer he had reLurned Lo
Lhe
hlllpplnes WhaL ls conLrolllng ls Lhe lnLenL Lo evade Lhe Callfornla courL
DL IAC1C CIIICLkS
loqe 2587/12/2008 soyr
238
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Cne who has repuLaLlon of belng an offlcer LhaL he assumes Lo be and yeL
ls noL
an offlcer ln polnL of law
8equlslLes
1 A valld exlsLlng offlce
2 AcLual physlcal possesslon of sald offlce
3 Color of LlLle Lo Lhe offlce elLher by
a 8epuLaLlon or acqulescence
b known or valld appolnLmenL or elecLlon buL offlcer falled Lo conform
wlLh
legal requlremenLs
c known appolnLmenL or elecLlon buL vold because of lnellglblllLy of
offlcer or
wanL of auLhorlLy of appolnLlng or elecLlng auLhorlLy or lrregularlLy ln
appolnLmenL or elecLlon noL known Lo Lhe publlc and
d known appolnLmenL of elecLlon pursuanL Lo unconsLlLuLlonal law before
declaraLlon of unconsLlLuLlonallLy
De Iacto Cff|cer De Iure Cff|cer Usurper]Intruder
rLhe person ls ln acLual
possesslon of offlce buL he
merely has a color of LlLle
racLs are valld lnsofar as 3rd
parLles and Lhe general
publlc ls concern buL he ls
noL suppose Lo beneflL from
hls acLsagalnsL publlc
pollcy
rchallenged ln a dlrecL
proceedlng where Lhe LlLle
rhe has lawful LlLle Lo hold
offlce alLhough he may be
unlawfully deprlved of hls
offlce
rhls acLs are valld
rchallenged ln a dlrecL
proceedlng Lhru poo
rhe ls ln acLual possesslon
of Lhe offlce wlLhouL LlLle or
colorable LlLle
rhls acLs are enLlrely vold
rcan be aLLacked
collaLerally
loqe 2597/12/2008 soyr
239
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
wlll be Lhe prlnclpal lssue wottooto cannoL be
aLLacked collaLerally
ls o defocto officer /owfu//y entit/ed to te so/ory of te office e is
occupyinq?
A no he ls noL supposed Lo beneflL from hls acLs lL ls agalnsL publlc
pollcy CLherwlse
lL wlll encourage oLher people Lo be a de facLo offlcer LhaL wlll resulL Lo
chaos
Lxcept|ons
c lf Lhere ls no de[ure offlcer clalmlng for Lhe same salary
d lf Lhe assumpLlon/acL was done ln good falLh
Legal LffecLs of AcLs valld blndlng and wlLh full legal effecL lnsofar as Lhey
affecL Lhe
98


publlc lL ls lnLended for Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe publlc and lndlvlduals who
geL lnvolved ln
Lhe offlclal acLs of persons dlscharglng Lhe duLles of a publlc offlce
%Monroy vs 20
5 20)
6enero/ Monoqer PP vs Monsorote 6 No 1291 pri/ 17 2002 a
rlghLful
lncumbenL of a publlc offlce may recover from a de facLo offlcer Lhe salary
recelved by
Lhe laLLer durlng Lhe Llme of hls wrongful Lenure even Lhough he (Lhe de
facLo offlcer)
occupled Lhe offlce ln good falLh and under color of LlLle
Dut|es of a pub||c off|cer
A ConsLlLuLlonal uuLles
a 1o be accounLable Lo Lhe people Lo serve Lhem wlLh uLmosL
responslblllLy
lnLegrlLy loyalLy and efflclency Lo acL wlLh paLrloLlsm and [usLlce and Lo
lead modesL llves (Sect|on 1 Art|c|e kI)
b 1o submlL a declaraLlon under oaLh of hls asseLs llablllLles and neL
worLh
upon assumpLlon of offlce and as ofLen LhereafLer as may be requlred by
law (Sect|on 17 Art|c|e kI)
c 1o owe Lhe SLaLe and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon alleglance aL all Llmes (Sect|on
18
Art|c|e kI)
8 Speclflc Cases
a 1he SollclLor Ceneral's duLy Lo represenL Lhe governmenL lLs offlces and
lnsLrumenLallLles and lLs offlclals and agenLsexcepL ln crlmlnal cases or
clvll cases for damages arlslng from felonyls mandaLory AlLhough he
has dlscreLlon ln chooslng wheLher or noL Lo prosecuLe a case or even
wlLhdraw Lherefrom such dlscreLlon musL be exerclsed wlLhln Lhe
parameLers seL by law and wlLh Lhe besL lnLeresL of Lhe SLaLe as Lhe
ulLlmaLe goal %6onto/es vs ovet 205 5 817)
b 1he governmenL ls noL sLopped from quesLlonlng Lhe acLs of lLs offlclals
more so lf Lhey are erroneous or lrregular %5orp lnt/ Mktq vs 154
5 88)
loqe 207/12/2008 soyr
260
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
roh|b|t|ons
1 Lngaglng ln parLlsan pollLlcal parLy excepL Lo voLe
2 AddlLlonal or double compensaLlon
3 rohlblLlon agalnsL loans
4 Laborersshall noL be asslgned Lo perform clerlcal duLles
3 ueLall or reasslgnmenL
6 nepoLlsm
k|ghts of pub||c off|cers
1 8lghL Lo offlce
2 8lghL Lo salary
3 8lghL Lo preference ln promoLlon
4 8lghL Lo vacaLlon and slck leave
3 8lghL Lo maLernlLy leave
6 8lghL Lo reLlremenL pay
7 CLhersrlghL Lo relmbursemenL for expenses lncurred ln Lhe due
performance of
hls duLy rlghL Lo be lndemnlfled rlghL Lo longevlLy pay
CCMMLNCLMLN1 CI CIIICIAL kLLA1ICNS
A 8y AppolnLmenL
8 8y LlecLlon
ACIN1MLN1
1he selecLlon by auLhorlLy vesLed wlLh power of lndlvldual who ls Lo
perform
funcLlons of a glven offlce %8inomiro vs 6orruco 6 No lu/y l0 1990)
lL ls an unequlvocal acL of deslgnaLlng or selecLlng by one havlng Lhe
auLhorlLy
Lherefor of an lndlvldual Lo dlscharge and perform Lhe duLles and
funcLlons of an offlce or
LrusL 1he appolnLmenL ls deemed compleLe once Lhe lasL acL requlred of
Lhe appolnLlng
auLhorlLy has been complled wlLh and lLs accepLance LhereafLer by Lhe
appolnLee ln
order Lo render lL effecLlve AppolnLmenL necessarlly calls for an exerclse
of dlscreLlon
on Lhe parL of Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy
8ermudet vs @orres l11 5 7ll Lhe rlghL of cholce ls Lhe hearL of Lhe
power Lo appolnL ln Lhe exerclse of power Lo appolnL dlscreLlon ls an
lnLegral Lhereof
Comm|ss|onls Lhe wrlLLen evldence of appolnLmenL
Des|gnat|onls Lhe lmposlLlon of addlLlonal duLles usually by law on a
person
already ln publlc offlce
lL presupposes LhaL Lhe person has already been appolnLed and merely
glven
addlLlonal funcLlon/Lasks
loqe 217/12/2008 soyr
261
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r A mere deslgnaLlon does noL confer securlLy of Lenure as Lhe person
deslgnaLed occuples Lhe poslLlon only ln an acLlng capaclLy %5evi//o vs
209 5
l7)
C|ass|f|cat|on of appo|ntments
2 ermanentexLended Lo a person possesslng Lhe requlslLe
quallflcaLlon for Lhe
poslLlon and Lhus en[oys securlLy of Lenure
3 1emporaryacLlng appolnLmenL glven Lo a nonclvll servlce ellglble ls
wlLhouL a
deflnlLe Lenure and ls dependenL upon Lhe pleasure of Lhe appolnLlng
power
4 rov|s|ona|one whlch may be lssued upon
a rlor auLhorlzaLlon of Lhe Commlssloner of Lhe Clvll Servlce
b 1o a person who has noL quallfled ln an approprlaLe examlnaLlon
c 8uL who oLherwlse meeLs Lhe requlremenLs for appolnLmenL Lo a
regular poslLlon
ln Lhe compeLlLlve servlce
d Whenever a vacancy occurs
e 1he flllng Lhereof ls necessary ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe servlce and
f 1here ls no approprlaLe reglsLer of Lhose who are ellglble aL Lhe Llme of
appolnLmenL
3 kegu|arone made by Lhe resldenL whlle Congress ls ln sesslon and
becomes
effecLlve afLer Lhe nomlnaLlon ls conflrmed by Lhe Commlsslon on
AppolnLmenL
and conLlnues unLll Lhe end of Lhe Lerm
6 Ad|nter|m
a kecessone made whlle Lhe Congress ls noL ln sesslon before
conflrmaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on AppolnLmenL lmmedlaLely effecLlve
and ceases Lo be valld lf dlsapproved or bypassed by CA upon Lhe nexL
ad[ournmenL of Congress
b M|dn|ghtmade by Lhe resldenL before hls Lerm explres wheLher or
noL
lL ls conflrmed by Lhe CA
Motiboq vs 8enipoyo 6 No 1490l pri/ 2 2002(See dlscusslon
under ArLlcle vll)
6enero/ Monoqer PP vs Monsorote 6 No 1291 pri/ 17 2002
once an
appolnLmenL ls lssued and Lhe momenL Lhe appolnLee assumes a poslLlon
ln Lhe clvll
servlce under a compleLe appolnLmenL he acqulres legal noL merely
equlLable rlghL Lo
99


Lhe poslLlon whlch ls proLecLed noL only by sLaLuLe buL also by Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon and
cannoL be Laken away from hlm elLher by revocaLlon of Lhe appolnLmenL
or by removal
excepL for cause and wlLh prevlous noLlce and hearlng
Acceptance by appo|nteependlng such accepLance whlch ls opLlonal Lo
Lhe
appolnLee Lhe appolnLmenL may sLlll be valldly wlLhdrawn AppolnLmenL
Lo a publlc offlce
cannoL be forced upon clLlzen excepL for purposes of defense of Lhe SLaLe
under SecLlon
4 ArLlcle ll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon as an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule agalnsL
lnvolunLary servlLude
loqe 227/12/2008 soyr
262
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
D|scret|on of appo|nt|ng author|tyappolnLmenL ls essenLlally
dlscreLlonary power
and musL be performed by Lhe offlcer ln whlch lL ls vesLed accordlng Lo hls
besL llghLs
Lhe only condlLlon belng LhaL Lhe appolnLee ld lssued a permanenL
appolnLmenL should
possess Lhe mlnlmum quallflcaLlon requlremenLs lncludlng Clvll Servlce
ellglblllLy
prescrlbed by law for Lhe poslLlon 1hls dlscreLlon also lncludes Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe
naLure or characLer of Lhe appolnLmenL le wheLher Lhe appolnLmenL ls
Lemporary or
permanenL %Lueqo vs 5 14l 5 l27)
Act|ng appo|ntmenta Lemporary appolnLmenL and revocable ln
characLer
Doub|e Appo|ntmentnoL prohlblLed as long as Lhe poslLlons lnvolved
are noL
lncompaLlble excepL LhaL Lhe offlcer or employee appolnLed cannoL
recelve addlLlonal or
double compensaLlon unless speclflcally auLhorlzed by law
r|mar||y conf|dent|a| os|t|onsdenoLes noL only confldence ln Lhe
apLlLude of Lhe
appolnLee for Lhe duLles of Lhe offlce buL prlmarlly close lnLlmacy whlch
lnsures freedom
of lnLercourse wlLhouL embarrassmenL or freedom from mlsglvlngs of
beLrayals of
personal LrusL and confldenLlal maLLers of sLaLe lL ls Lhe facL of loss of
confldence noL
Lhe reason for lL LhaL ls lmporLanL and conLrolllng %5ontos vs Mocoroiq
208 5 74)
Next|nkank ku|erefers Lo a poslLlon whlch by reason of Lhe
hlerarchlcal
arrangemenL of poslLlons ln Lhe deparLmenL or agency or ln governmenL
ls deLermlned
Lo be Lhe nearesL degree of relaLlonshlp Lo a hlgher poslLlon Laklng lnLo
accounL Lhe
followlng
1 CrganlzaLlon sLrucLure ls reflecLed ln Lhe approved organlzaLlonal charL
2 ClasslflcaLlon and/or funcLlonal relaLlonshlps
3 Salary and/or range allocaLlon
4 Ceographlcal locaLlon
A quallfled nexLlnrank ls an employee appolnLed on a permanenL basls Lo
a
poslLlon prevlously deLermlned Lo be nexLlnrank Lo Lhe vacancy
proposed Lo be fllled
and who meeLs Lhe requlslLes for appolnLmenL LhereLo as prevlously
deLermlned by Lhe
appolnLlng auLhorlLy and approved by Lhe Clvll Servlce Commlsslon
r 1he nexLlnrank rule nelLher granLs a vesLed rlghL Lo Lhe holder nor
lmposes a
mlnlsLerlal duLy on Lhe appolnLlng auLhorlLy
1he nexLlnrank rule applles only lf Lhe vacancy ls fllled by promoLlon
1ransfera laLeral movemenL ln Lhe same poslLlon
romot|onls a verLlcal movemenL of poslLlon
loqe 2J7/12/2008 soyr
263
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
LIMI1A1ICN CN 1nL 1LkM CI CIIICL
1wo (2) ollcles
1 1o prevenL esLabllshmenL of pollLlcal dynasLy
2 Lnhanclng Lhe freedom of cholce of Lhe people
r1wo (2) cond|t|ons that must concur to app|y D|squa||f|cat|on
1 1he local offlclal was elecLed for Lhree (3) consecuLlve Llmes for Lhe
same
poslLlon
2 Pe had fully served Lhe Lhree (3) consecuLlve Lerms
L|ect|ve |oca| off|c|a|3 years and may serve only for 3 consecuLlve Lerms

1988Capco was a vlceMayor
1989Lhe Mayor (8or[a Sr) dled Capco succeeded as Mayor
1992Capco ran for Mayor and won
1993he ran for reelecLlon and won agaln
1998ls he sLlll quallfled Lo run?
1he SC held LhaL Mayor Capco ls sLlll quallfled ln 1998 local elecLlon 1he
rlghL Lo
be elecLed for 3 consecuLlve Llmes for Lhe same poslLlon was noL presenL
ln Lhls case
Mayor Capco dld noL fully serve hls Lerm ln 1989 Pe became a mayor Lhru
successlon
and noL elecLlon %8orjo jr vs OML Moyor opco of Poteros)

1992
1993 x was elecLed Mayor
1998
Powever ln uecember 1 2000 before hls 3rd Lerm ends he reslgned Is
he st|||
qua||f|ed to run as mayor for the next e|ect|on?
No he ls no longer allowed Lo run 8eslgnaLlon ls noL consldered as an
lnLerrupLlon ln Lhe conLlnulLy of hls servlce of offlce for whlch he was
elecLed

1992
1993 x was elecLed as Mayor
1998
Cn uecember 1 2000 before hls 3rd Lerm ends he was removed for
mlsconducL
Pe dld noL appeal Lhe case 1he admlnlsLraLlve case aLLalned flnallLy ls he
quallfled Lo
run agaln for mayor ln Lhe 2001 elecLlon?
loqe 247/12/2008 soyr
264
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
no he has been elecLed for 3 consecuLlve Llmes for Lhe same poslLlon
SecLlon
40 (b) of Lhe LCC provldes for hls dlsquallflcaLlonremoved as a resulL of
admlnlsLraLlve
case Powever lf he appealed he ls sLlll quallfled because Lhere ls no
flnallLy of
[udgmenL yeL
100



1992
1993 x was elecLed as Mayor
1998
Cn uecember 1 2000 he was removed for grave mlsconducL Pe was able
Lo
appeal seasonably ln May 2001 he flled hls cerLlflcaLe of candldacy for
mayor Pls
opponenL flled a dlsquallflcaLlon case 1he CCMLLLC dld noL acL
lmmedlaLely on Lhe
uC case Pe won as mayor
ne|d
1 1he uC flled ln CCMLLLC should be dlsmlssed as Lhere was no flnallLy
yeL of
Lhe admlnlsLraLlve case
2 1he admlnlsLraLlve case should also be dlsmlssed Pls reelecLlon should
be
consldered as a condonaLlon by Lhe people of whaLever admlnlsLraLlve
case flled
agalnsL hlm
Doctr|ne of Iorg|veness or Condonat|onwhen Lhe people have elecLed
a man Lo
offlce lL musL be assumed LhaL Lhey dld Lhls wlLh knowledge of hls llfe and
characLer
and LhaL Lhey dlsregarded or forgave hls faulLs or mlsconducL lf he had
been gullLy of
any lL ls noL for Lhe courL by reason of such faulLs or mlsconducL Lo
pracLlcally overrule
Lhe wlll of Lhe people
quino/do vs 5ontos 212 5 78 a publlc offlclal cannoL be removed
for
admlnlsLraLlve conducL commlLLed durlng a prlor Lerm slnce hls re
elecLlon Lo offlce
operaLes as a condonaLlon of Lhe offlcer's prevlous conducL Lo Lhe exLenL
of cuLLlng off
Lhe rlghL Lo remove hlm Lherefor 1he foregolng rule however flnds no
appllcaLlon Lo
crlmlnal cases pendlng agalnsL peLlLloner
Moyor /vin 6orcio vs non Mojico et o/ 6 No 1l904l 5eptember
10 1999 a
reelecLed local offlclal may noL be held admlnlsLraLlvely accounLable for
mlsconducL
commlLLed durlng hls prlor Lerm of offlce 1he raLlonale for Lhls holdlng ls
LhaL when Lhe
elecLoraLe puL hlm back lnLo offlce lL ls presumed LhaL lL dld so wlLh full
knowledge of hls
llfe and characLer lncludlng hls pasL mlsconducL lf armed wlLh such
knowledge lL sLlll
reelecLs hlm such reelecLlon ls consldered a condonaLlon of hls pasL
mlsdeeds
1992
1993 Pagedorn was elecLed as Mayor
1998
ln 2001 Pagedorn ran for governor buL losL SocraLes was elecLed as
mayor
loqe 257/12/2008 soyr
263
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
!une 30 2001end of Pagedorn's Lerm for mayor
!uly 2 2002resoluLlon calllng for recall of Mayor SocraLes
SepLember 2002CCMLLLC seL speclal elecLlon for uerLo rlncesa ClLy
Pagedorn
flled hls
CCC for mayor Was he quallfled?
ne|d Lhe Lhree (3)Lerm llmlL rule found ln Sec 43b LCC has Lwo (2)
parLs
1 1hree (3) consecuLlve Lerms
2 Any lengLh of Llme wlll lnLerrupL
1he provlslon speaks of a regu|ar elecLlon and noL a spec|a| one ln Lhls
case recall ls
a speclal elecLlon lL ls noL consldered as lmmedlaLe elecLlon 1he
lmmedlaLe elecLlon
LhaL prohlblLs Pagedorn from runnlng for mayor ls Lhe nexL regular
elecLlon afLer hls 3
consecuLlve Lerms has ended Lhe 2001 elecLlon
any subsequenL elecLlon"ls noL covered by Lhe prohlblLlon
Pe won ln Lhe SepLember 2002 recall elecLlon Pe wlll conLlnue Lhe Lerm
of SocraLes
Pls Lerm wlll end on !une 30 2004a Lerm whlch ls less Lhan 3 years
WhaL lf ln
2004
2007 he was elecLed as Mayor
May he run agaln ln 2010?
no more 8ecall elecLlon Lerm ls consldered as one full Lerm for purposes
of applylng Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon CLherwlse Pagedorn wlll be allowed Lo
serve for
more Lhan nlne (9) years
r 1he above hypoLheLlcal problem was only an oblLer dlcLum ln Lhe case of
SocraLes vs
CCMLLLC
1he rule ls servlce of Lhe recall Lerm wlll not lnLerrupL Lhe 3consecuLlve
Lerm rule ln Lhe
case of Mendoto vs OML Lhe SC dld noL abandon Lhe rullng ln
SocraLes
because lL was merely an ob|ter d|ctum

1993lrancls Cng ran for mayor he won
1998Pe ran and won agaln Alegre flled a proLesL
2001Cng ran and won agaln 1he proLesL ln 1998 was declded by Lhe
81C on !uly 4
2001 LhaL lL was Alegre who won ln 1998 elecLlon
loqe 27/12/2008 soyr
266
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2004Cng ran agaln Alegre quesLloned Cng alleged LhaL hls
proclamaLlon as mayorelecL
ln Lhe May 1998 elecLlon was conLesLed and evenLually nulllfled by Lhe
81C of
uaeL
Issue WheLher or noL Cng's assumpLlon of offlce as Mayor from !uly 1
1998 Lo !une
30 2001 may be consldered as one full Lerm servlce ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe
consecuLlve 3
Lerm llmlL rule?
ne|d 1he assumpLlon of offlce from !uly 1 1998 Lo !une 30 2001
consLlLuLes servlce
for Lhe full Lerm" and should be counLed as a full Lerm served ln
conLemplaLlon of Lhe 3
Lerm llmlL prescrlbed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and LCC barrlng local elecLlve
offlclals from
belng elecLed and servlng more Lhan 3consecuLlve Lerm for Lhe same
poslLlon x x x Pls
proclamaLlon by Lhe Munlclpal 8oard of Canvassers of San vlcenLe as Lhe
duly elecLed
mayor ln Lhe 1998 mayoralLy elecLlon coupled by hls assumpLlon of offlce
and hls
conLlnuous exerclse of Lhe funcLlons Lhereof from sLarL Lo flnlsh of Lhe
Lerm should
101


legally be Laken as servlce for a full Lerm ln conLemplaLlon of Lhe 3Lerm
rule
1here was no lnLerrupLlon or break ln Lhe conLlnulLy of Cng's servlce
respecLlng
Lhe 19982001 Lerm Cng was never unseaLed durlng Lhe Lerm ln quesLlon
he never
ceased dlscharglng hls duLles and responslblllLles as Mayor of San vlcenLe
Camarlnes
norLe for Lhe enLlre perlod coverlng Lhe 19982001 Lerm
ln Lhe case of Lontonido vs OML l11 5 02 %1999) Lonzanlda
was
elecLed and served for 2 consecuLlve Lerms as mayor of San AnLonlo
Zambales prlor Lo
Lhe May 8 1993 elecLlons Pe Lhen ran agaln for Lhe same poslLlon ln Lhe
May 1993
elecLlons won and dlscharged hls duLles as Mayor Powever an elecLlon
proLesL was
flled before 81C of Zambales ln a declslon daLed !uly 9 1997 lL was held
LhaL Lhere
was a fallure of elecLlons and Lhe poslLlon for mayor as vacanL Lonzanlda
assumed Lhe
offlce and performed hls duLles up Lo March 1998 only uurlng Lhe 1998
elecLlons
Lonzanlda ran agaln for mayor A peLlLlon Lo dlsquallfy under Lhe Lhree
Lerm llmlL rule
was flled and was evenLually granLed 1he CourL held LhaL Lonzanlda
cannoL be
consldered as havlng been duly elecLed Lo Lhe posL ln Lhe May 1993
elecLlon and LhaL
he dld noL fully serve Lhe 19931998 mayoralLy Lerm by reason of
lnvolunLary
rellnqulshmenL of offlce Pe cannoL be deemed Lo have served Lhe May
1993 Lo 1998
Lerm because he was ordered Lo vacaLe (and ln facL vacaLed) hls posL
before Lhe
explraLlon of Lhe Lerm 1here was an lnvolunLary severance from offlce as
a resulL of
legal processes ln flne Lhere was an effecLlve lnLerrupLlon of Lhe
conLlnulLy of servlce
VACANCILS AND SUCCLSSICN
Concept of Vacancy
1wo (2) rlnclples Lo conslder
loqe 277/12/2008 soyr
267
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 Cne who lllegally LermlnaLed by legal flcLlon ls deemed noL Lo have
vacaLed hls
poslLlon
2 Cne no maLLer how quallfled may noL fllled a poslLlon whlch ls noL
vacanL
ku|e on Automat|c Success|on (SecLlon 44 LCC)
A permanenL vacancy arlses when an elecLlve local offlclal
1 lllls a hlgher vacanL offlce
2 8efuses Lo assume offlce
3 lalls Lo quallfy
4 ules
3 ls removed from offlce
6 volunLarlly reslgns
7 Cr ls oLherwlse permanenLly lncapaclLaLed Lo dlscharge Lhe funcLlons of
hls offlce
r8anklng ln Lhe Sanggunlan shall be deLermlned on Lhe basls of Lhe
proporLlon of voLes
obLalned by each wlnnlng candldaLe Lo Lhe LoLal number of reglsLered
voLers ln each
dlsLrlcL ln Lhe lmmedlaLely precedlng local elecLlon
Governor Mayor unong 8arangay
V|ce Governor V|ce Mayor
n|ghest rank|ng sanggun|an member]2nd h|ghest rank|ng sanggun|an
member
(|n case of permanent |nab|||ty of the h|ghest rank|ng member)
r ln Case of Lle beLween or among Lhe hlghesL ranklng sanggunlan
memberslL shall
be resolved by Lhe draw|ng of |ots
r 1he successors shall serve on|y Lhe unexplred Lerms of Lhelr
predecessors
Sect|on 44 LGClllllng Lhe vacancy
Last|nrankLhe one who wlll replace hlm musL come from Lhe same
pollLlcal parLy of
Lhe one who caused Lhe vacancy upon nomlnaLlon of Lhe parLy
Who sha|| appo|nt?
1 res|dentLhrough Lhe LxecuLlve SecreLaryln case of permanenL
vacancles ln
Lhe Sanggunlang anlalawlgan and Lhe Sanggunlang anlungsod of PuC
and
lndependenL componenL clLles
2 Governorln case of Lhe Sanggunlang anglungsod of componenL clLles
and
Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan
3 C|ty or mun|c|pa| mayorln case of Sangggunlang 8arangayupon
recommendaLlon of Lhe Sanggunlang 8arangay concerned
loqe 287/12/2008 soyr
268
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r A nomlnaLlon and a cerLlflcaLe of membershlp of Lhe appolnLee from Lhe
hlghesL offlclal
of Lhe pollLlcal parLy concerned are condlLlons sloe poo ooo Any
appolnLmenL wlLhouL
such nomlnaLlon and cerLlflcaLlon shall be null and vold ob loltlo and shall
be a ground
for admlnlsLraLlve acLlon agalnsL Lhe offlclal responslble Lherefor
No po||t|ca| party how sha|| the vacancy be f|||ed? (Sect|on 4Sc LGC)
r 1he local chlef execuLlve shall appolnL upon recommendaLlon of Lhe
sanggunlan
concern a quallfled person Lo flll Lhe vacancy
orios vs 8orbo Lhe lasLlnrank sanggunlang bayan member reslgned
Mayor
8arba upon recommendaLlon of Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan appolnLed
somebody
Powever Cov larlnas also appolnLed somebody upon recommendaLlon
of Lhe
Sanggunlang anlalawlgan 1he SC held LhaL nelLher ls enLlLled Lo occupy
Lhe vacancy
lL should have been Cov larlnas who should appolnL buL Lhe sanggunlan
who
recommended should be Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan where Lhe vacancy Look
place
Novorro vs Morc 2001
Mayor LakasnuCu
vMayor LakasnuCu
1 S8 Member
2 S8 Member
3 S8 Member came from 8eforma arLy
4 S8 Member
3 S8 Member
6 S8 MemberLakas nuCu
7 S8 Member8eforma arLy
8 S8 MemberLakas nuCu
1he Mayor dled vlce Mayor succeeded 1he #1 S8 Member became Lhe
vlce Mayor
102


1he #8 sloL became vacanL 1he Covernor appolnLed somebody from
8eforma arLy
1he SC held LhaL Lhe appolnLmenL made by Lhe governor ls valld 1he lasL
ranklng shall
be fllled by 8eforma arLy Lo malnLaln parLy represenLaLlon ln Lhe
Sanggunlan as wllled
by Lhe elecLoraLe
loqe 297/12/2008 soyr
269
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
6omboo lr vs quirre lu/y 1999
1he vlceCovernor acLed as Covernor Can he (vCovernor) preslde over
Lhe sesslons
of Sanggunlang anlalawlgan?
No 1he creaLlon of Lemporary vacancy ln Lhe offlce of Lhe governor
creaLes a
correspondlng vacancy ln Lhe offlce of Lhe vlcegovernor Sect|on 49d
LGC Lhe
members presenL and consLlLuLlng a quorum shall elecL from among
Lhemselves a
Lemporary presldlng offlcer
1he rule on permanenL vacancy should noL be applled Lo Lemporary
vacancy
Who appo|nts the 8arangay Secretary or 1reasurer?
ln Lhe case of /quiso/o 5r vs 6o//ordo Oco/ uqust 1999 Lhe SC held
LhaL
Lhe 8arangay secreLary or Lreasurer shall be appolnLed con[o|nt|y by Lhe
unong
8arangay and Lhe Sangggunlang 8arangay
S|tuat|ons covered by the Law on Nepot|sm
Cne ls gullLy of nepoLlsm lf an appolnLmenL ls lssued ln favor of a relaLlve
wlLhln
Lhe th|rd c|v|| degree of consangulnlLy or afflnlLy of any of Lhe followlng
a AppolnLlng auLhorlLy
b 8ecommendlng auLhorlLy
c Chlef of Lhe bureau of offlce and
d erson exerclslng lmmedlaLe supervlslon
ln Lhe lasL slLuaLlons (c and d) lL ls lmmaLerlal who Lhe appolnLlng or
recommendlng auLhorlLy ls 1o consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of Lhe law lL sufflces
LhaL an
appolnLmenL ls exLended or lssued ln favor of a relaLlve wlLhln Lhe 3rd c|v||
degree of
consangu|n|ty or aff|n|ty of Lhe chlef of Lhe bureau or offlce or Lhe person
exerclslng
lmmedlaLe supervlslon over Lhe appolnLee %5 vs uocoycoy 6 No
1l5805
pri/ 29 1999)
Lxempt|ons
1 ersons employed ln confldenLlal capaclLy
2 1eachers
3 hyslclans
4 Members of Lhe Al
3 Member of any famlly who afLer hls appolnLmenL Lo any poslLlon ln an
offlce or
bureau conLracLs marrlage wlLh someone ln Lhe same offlce or bureau ln
whlch
evenL Lhe employmenL or reLenLlon Lhereln of boLh husband and wlfe may
be
allowed
ln SecLlon 79 of Lhe Local CovernmenL Code Lhe prohlblLlon ls up Lo Lhe
4th c|v||
degree of consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
loqe 2707/12/2008 soyr
270
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Loure/ v vs 5 Covernor Laurel appolnLed hls broLher as Clvlllan SecurlLy
Cfflcer hence lL ls exempLed no vlolaLlon as lL ls prlmarlly confldenLlal ln
characLer
Powever Lhe governor subsequenLly deslgnaLed Lhe same broLher as
AcLlng rovlnclal
AdmlnlsLraLor 1he SC ruled LhaL appolnLmenL and deslgnaLlon are Lwo
dlfferenL maLLers
8uL for purposes of Lhe law on nepoLlsm Lhe Lwo are now Lhe same
Pence Lhere ls
now a vlolaLlon of Lhe law on nepoLlsm
uebu/qodo vs 5 lL was alleged LhaL Lhe law applles only Lo orlglnal
appolnLmenL
and noL Lo promoLlonal appolnLmenL 1he SC dld noL agree 1he law
applles Lo all klnds
of appolnLmenL 1he law does noL dlsLlngulsh
1LkMINA1ICN CI CIIICIAL kLLA1ICNSnI
1 LxplraLlon of Lerm or Lenure
2 8eachlng Lhe age llmlLcompu|sory ret|rement age 70 years of age for
members of Lhe
!udlclary 63 for oLher governmenL offlcers and employees
3 8eslgnaLlon
4 8ecall
3 8emoval
6 AbandonmenL
7 AccepLance of an lncompaLlble offlce
8 AbollLlon of offlce
9 rescrlpLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo offlce
10lmpeachmenL
11ueaLh
12lallure Lo assume elecLlve offlce wlLhln 6 monLhs from proclamaLlon
13ConvlcLlon of a crlme
14llllng a cerLlflcaLe of candldacy
1ermLhe perlod of Llme durlng whlch a publlc offlcer has Lhe r|ght to
ho|d Lhe publlc
offlce
1enureLhe perlod of Llme durlng whlch Lhe publlc offlcer actua||y held
offlce
no|dover pr|nc|p|eSee Lhe case of Lecaroz vs S8 (1999)ln Lhe
absence of any
express or lmplled consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLory provlslon Lo Lhe conLrary
Lhe publlc offlcer
ls enLlLled Lo hold hls offlce unLll hls successor shall have been duly chosen
and shall
have quallfled 1he purpose ls Lo prevenL a hlaLus ln publlc offlce
lL lmplles LhaL Lhe offlce has a flxed Lerm and Lhe lncumbenL ls holdlng
onLo Lhe
succeedlng Lerm Where Lhls provlslon ls found Lhe offlce does noL
become vacanL
upon Lhe explraLlon of Lhe Lerm lf Lhere ls no successor elecLed and
quallfled Lo assume
lL buL Lhe presenL lncumbenL wlll carry over unLll hls successor ls elecLed
and quallfled
even Lhough lL be beyond Lhe Lerm flxed by law
loqe 2717/12/2008 soyr
271
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lndeed Lhe law abhors a vacuum ln publlc offlces and courLs generally
lndulge ln
Lhe sLrong presumpLlon agalnsL a leglslaLlve lnLenL Lo creaLe by sLaLuLe a
condlLlon
103


whlch may resulL ln an execuLlve or admlnlsLraLlve offlce becomlng for
any perlod of
Llme wholly vacanL or unoccupled by one lawfully auLhorlzed Lo exerclse
lLs funcLlons
1hls ls founded on obvlous conslderaLlons of publlc pollcy for Lhe prlnclple
of holdover
ls speclflcally lnLended Lo prevenL publlc convenlence from sufferlng of a
vacancy and Lo
avold a hlaLus ln Lhe performance of governmenL funcLlons %Lecorot vs
5ondiqonboyon l05 5 l97 Morc 25 1999)
kLCALLLhe LermlnaLlon of offlclal relaLlonshlp of an elecLlve offlclal for
loss of
confldence prlor Lo explraLlon of hls Lerm Lhrough Lhe wlll of Lhe
elecLoraLe
lL ls exerclsed by Lhe reglsLered voLers of a local governmenL unlL Lo whlch
Lhe
local elecLlve offlclal sub[ecL Lo such recall belongs (Sect|on 69 LGC)
rohlblLlon from reslgnaLlon
1he elecLlve local offlclal soughL Lo be recalled shall noL be allowed Lo
reslgn whlle Lhe
recall process ls ln progress
LlmlLaLlons on 8ecall (SecLlon 74 LCC)
1 Any elecLlve local offlclal may be Lhe sub[ecL of a recall elecLlon only
once durlng
hls Lerm of offlce for loss of confldence
2 no recall shall Lake place wlLhln one year from Lhe daLe of Lhe offlclal's
assumpLlon Lo offlce or one year lmmedlaLely precedlng a regular local
elecLlon
Poros vs OML 6 No 12l19 November 4 199 lL was held LhaL
Lhe
Sk LlecLlon ls noL a regular elecLlon wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe LCC as
would bar Lhe holdlng of a recall elecLlon nelLher wlll Lhe recall elecLlon
of Lhe
Mayor be barred by Lhe 8arangay LlecLlon
nqobunq vs OML 6 No 12571 Morc 5 1997 Lhe regular
local
elecLlon" referred Lo ln SecLlon 74 LCC means LhaL Lhe approachlng local
elecLlon musL be one where Lhe poslLlon of Lhe offlclal Lo be recalled ls
acLually
conLesLed and Lo be fllled by Lhe elecLoraLe
kLSIGNA1ICN ls Lhe acL of glvlng up or Lhe acL of a publlc offlcer by
whlch he
decllnes hls offlce and renounces Lhe furLher rlghL Lo use lL lL ls an
expresslon of Lhe
lncumbenL ln some form expressed or lmplled of Lhe lnLenLlon Lo
surrender renounce
and rellnqulsh Lhe offlce and Lhe accepLance by compeLenL and lawful
auLhorlLy
1o consLlLuLe a compleLe and operaLlve reslgnaLlon from publlc offlce
Lhere musL
be
1 An lnLenLlon Lo rellnqulsh a parL of Lhe Lerm
2 An acL of rellnqulshmenL
loqe 2727/12/2008 soyr
272
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 AccepLance by Lhe proper auLhorlLy
1he lasL one ls requlred by reason of ArLlcle 238 of Lhe revlsed enal Code
%5onqqqunionq 8oyon of 5on ndres otonduones vs 284 5 27)
strodo vs uesierto 6 Nos 1471015 Morc 2 2001 reslgnaLlon ls a
facLual
quesLlon and lLs elemenLs are beyond qulbble Lhere musL be an lnLenL Lo
reslgn and Lhe
lnLenL musL be coupled by acLs of rellnqulshmenL 1he valldlLy of a
reslgnaLlon ls noL
governed by any formal requlremenL as Lo for lL can be oral lL can be
wrlLLen lL can be
express lL can be lmplled As long as Lhe reslgnaLlon ls clear lL musL be
glven legal
effecL
A8ANDCNMLN1 CI CIIICLlL ls Lhe volunLary rellnqulshmenL of an
offlce by Lhe
holder wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon of LermlnaLlng hls possesslon and conLrol
Lhereof lndeed lL ls
a specle of reslgnaLlon whlle reslgnaLlon ln general ls a formal
rellnqulshmenL
abandonmenL ls a volunLary rellnqulshmenL Lhrough nonuser
lL sprlngs from and ls accompanled by dellberaLlon and freedom of cholce
1he
concomlLanL effecL ls LhaL Lhe former holder of an offlce can no longer
legally repossess
lL even by forclble reoccupancy
A8CLI1ICN CI CIIICLlL connoLes an lnLenLlon Lo do away wlLh such
offlce wholly
and permanenLly as Lhe word abollshed" denoLes Where one offlce ls
abollshed and
replaced wlLh anoLher offlce vesLed wlLh slmllar funcLlons Lhe abollLlon ls
a legal nulllLy
ln Lhe case of uP 8oord of eqents vs osu/ Lhe renamlng and
resLrucLurlng
of Lhe CP and lLs componenL unlLs cannoL glve rlse Lo a valld and bona
flde abollLlon of
Lhe poslLlon of CP ulrecLor 1hls ls because where Lhe abollshed offlce
and Lhe offlces
creaLed ln lLs place have slmllar funcLlons Lhe abollLlon lacks good falLh
1he abollLlon
whlch merely changes Lhe nomenclaLure of poslLlons ls lnvalld and does
noL resulL ln Lhe
removal of Lhe lncumbenL
1he above noLwlLhsLandlng and assumlng LhaL Lhe abollLlon of Lhe
poslLlon of Lhe
CP ulrecLor and Lhe creaLlon of Lhe uCP Medlcal cenLer ulrecLor are
valld Lhe
removal of Lhe lncumbenL ls sLlll noL [usLlfled for Lhe reason LhaL Lhe
duLles and funcLlons
of Lhe Lwo poslLlons are baslcally Lhe same
ononitodo vs quirre 6 No 1ll1l2 lonuory 25 2000 Lhe
subsLanLlal ldenLlLy
ln Lhe funcLlons beLween Lhe Lwo offlces was lndlcla of bad falLh ln Lhe
removal of
peLlLloner pursuanL Lo a reorganlzaLlon
kLCkGANI2A1ICNLakes place when Lhere ls alLeraLlon of Lhe exlsLlng
sLrucLure of
governmenL offlces or unlLs Lhereln lncludlng Lhe llnes of conLrol
auLhorlLy and
responslblllLy beLween Lhem lL lnvolves a reducLlon of personnel
consolldaLlon of
offlces or abollLlon Lhereof by reason of economy or redundancy of
funcLlons naLurally
lL may resulL ln Lhe loss of one's poslLlon Lhrough removal or abollLlon of
an offlce
loqe 27J7/12/2008 soyr
273
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1o be valld lL musL also pass Lhe LesL of good falLh
ClrcumsLances evldenclng bad falLh ln Lhe removal of employees as a
resulL of
reorganlzaLlon and whlch may glve rlse Lo a clalm for relnsLaLemenL or
reappolnLmenL
104


1 Where Lhere ls a slgnlflcanL lncrease ln Lhe number of poslLlons ln Lhe
new
sLafflng paLLern of Lhe deparLmenL or agency concerned
2 Where an offlce ls abollshed and anoLher performlng subsLanLlally Lhe
same
funcLlons ls creaLed
3 Where lncumbenLs are replaced by Lhose less quallfled ln Lerms of
sLaLus of
appolnLmenL performance and merlL
4 Where Lhere ls a reclasslflcaLlon offlces perform subsLanLlally Lhe same
funcLlons
as Lhe orlglnal offlces and
3 Where Lhe removal vlolaLes Lhe order of separaLlon provlded for by
SecLlon 2 and
of 8A 6636
GkCUNDS ICk kLMCVAL AND SUSLNSICN(Sect|on 23 ku|e kIV
Cmn|bus ku|es
Imp|ement|ng 8ook V of 1987 Adm|n|strat|ve Code)
1 Crave Cffenses
2 Less Crave offenses
3 LlghL Cffenses
revent|ve Suspens|on
lL ls noL a penalLy lLself lL ls merely a measure of precauLlon so LhaL Lhe
employee
who ls charged may be separaLed for obvlous reasons from Lhe scene of
hls alleged
mlsfeasance whlle Lhe same ls belng lnvesLlgaLed lL ls noL an acLlon by
lLself buL merely
an lncldenL ln an acLlon
lL ls dlfferenL from admlnlsLraLlve penalLy of suspenslon from offlce 1he
laLLer ls
Lhe penalLy whlch may only be meLed upon Lhe respondenL aL Lhe
LermlnaLlon of Lhe
lnvesLlgaLlon or Lhe flnal dlsposlLlon of Lhe case revenLlve suspenslon ls
lmposed on
Lhe respondenL durlng Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon of charges agalnsL hlm
Govern|ng Laws
1 revenLlve Suspenslon ln AdmlnlsLraLlve Cases
a C|v|| Serv|ce Law
Maxlmum duraLlon 90 days
AfLer 90 days auLomaLlc relnsLaLemenL
loqe 2747/12/2008 soyr
274
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
CerLlorarl perlod wlll noL be lncluded ln Lhe 90day perlod compuLaLlon
6/orio vs %199) Lhere are Lwo (2) klnds of prevenLlve suspenslon
under
CSC
l endlng lnvesLlgaLlon
ll endlng appeal Lhe respondenL ls exoneraLed on appeal
"payment of back sa|ar|es"
end|ng |nvest|gat|on end|ng Appea|
(8espondenL ls noL enLlLled (8elnsLaLemenL wlLh full paymenL
Lo back wages) paymenL of back salarles)
6ov P/oto vs 6 No 1l844 lonuory 18 2008 Lhe law provldes for
prevenLlve suspenslon of appolnLlve local offlclal and employees pendlng
lnvesLlgaLlon
of Lhe charges agalnsL Lhem 1he suspenslon glven Lo prlvaLe respondenLs
cannoL
Lherefore be consldered un[usLlfled for lL ls one of Lhose sacrlflces whlch
holdlng a
publlc offlce requlres for Lhe publlc good 1o be enLlLled Lo back salarles
prlvaLe
respondenLs musL noL only be found lnnocenL of Lhe charges buL Lhelr
suspenslon musL
llkewlse be un[usLlfled
b Loca| Government Code
l Sec 63Lhose holdlng local elecLlve offlce
revenLlve Suspenslon placed by
1 Mayorconcernlng Lhe elecLlve barangay offlclals
2 Covernor munlclpal elecLlve offlclals
ComponenL clLy elecLlve offlclal
3 resldenL hlghly urbanlzed/lndependenL componenL clLy offlclals
rovlnclal offlclals
rLvery admlnlsLraLlve charge maxlmum 60 days
Several admlnlsLraLlve cases maxlmum 90 days w/ln a slngle
year
r90 days before Lhe nexL local elecLlonS shall be llfLed
auLomaLlcally
ll Sec 8SLhose appolnLed offlclals
loqe 2757/12/2008 soyr
273
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
uuraLlon maxlmum of 60 days
c Cmbudsman AcL8A 6770
uuraLlon Maxlmum of 6 monLhs
2 revenLlve suspenslon ln Crlmlnal Cases
a SecLlon 13 8A 3019Suspenslon and loss of beneflLs
AuLhorlLy Lo lmpose
l CourL where Lhe lnformaLlon was flled
Luciono vs Provincio/ 6overnor slnce Lhe law ls sllenL Lhe courL where
Lhe
lnformaLlon was flled shall lmpose Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon
ll Salary Crade 27 or overSandlganbayan
lll 8elow Salary Crade 2781C
r lL ls mandaLory for Lhe courL Lo lmpose Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon
Powever lL
ls noL auLomaLlc ln Lhe case of 5ocrotes vs 5ondiqonboyon lL was held
LhaL
Lhe courL musL conducL flrsL a presuspens|on hear|ng Lo deLermlne Lhe
valldlLy
of crlmlnal lnformaLlon flled agalnsL Lhe publlc offlcer
uuraLlon Lhe law ls sllenL
ln Lhe case of 6ontoqo vs 5ondiqonboyon slnce Lhe law ls sllenL apply
by analogy Lhe Clvll Servlce Law Lhe maxlmum duraLlon would be 90 days
ue/oso vs 58 SecLlon 13 8A 3019 does noL sLaLe LhaL Lhe publlc
offlcer may be suspended ln Lhe offlce where he
commlLLed
8oyot vs 58 Lhe crlme
5eqovio vs 58 1he Lerm offlce" lndlcaLes LhaL lL applles Lo "any other
5ontioqo vs 58 off|ce"
Poredes vs 58 Lhe suspenslon lmposed ls merely prevenLlve 1here
5ontioqo vs 58 ls no encroachmenL
loqe 277/12/2008 soyr
276
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e kI
ACCCUN1A8ILI1 CI U8LIC CIIICLkS
Sect|on 1 Art|c|e kI
Pub/ic office is o pub/ic trust Pub/ic officers ond emp/oyees must ot o//
times be
occountob/e to te peop/e serve tem wit utmost responsibi/ity
inteqrity
/oyo/ty ond efficiency oct wit potriotism ond justice ond /eod modest
/ives
loqe 2777/12/2008 soyr
103


277
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ubllc offlce ls a publlc LrusL and as such Lhe same ls governed by law
and
cannoL be made Lhe sub[ecL of personal promlses or negoLlaLlons by
prlvaLe persons
SecurlLy of Lenure of employees ln Lhe career execuLlve servlce (excepL
flrsL and second
level employees ln Lhe clvll servlce) perLalns only Lo rank and noL Lo Lhe
offlce or Lo Lhe
poslLlon Lo whlch Lhey may be appolnLed %o//ontes vs 6 No
1904 Morc
2007)
Who are |mpeachab|e off|cers?
(1he llsL ls excluslve)
1 resldenL
2 vlceresldenL
3 Members of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon
4 !usLlces of Lhe Supreme CourL
3 Cmbudsman
r!usLlces of Lhe Sandlganbayan cannoL be removed by lmpeachmenL
r lmpeachmenL of resldenLLhe Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme CourL wlll
preslde Lhe
SenaLe/PC8 wlll prosecuLe
Crounds for lmpeachmenL
1 Culpable vlolaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlon
2 1reason
3 8rlbery
4 8eLrayal of publlc LrusL
3 CrafL and corrupLlon
6 CLher hlgh crlmes
rocedure |n Impeachment
lnlLlaLlon
1he Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves shall have Lhe excluslve power Lo lnlLlaLe all
cases
of lmpeachmenL
rocess
1 verlfled complalnL flled by any member of Lhe Pouse or any clLlzen
upon
resoluLlon of endorsemenL by any member Lhereof
2 lncluded ln Lhe order of buslness wlLhln Len (10) sesslon days
3 8eferred Lo Lhe proper commlLLee wlLhln Lhree (3) sesslon days of lLs
lncluslon
rlf Lhe verlfled complalnL ls flled by aL leasL 1/3 of all lLs members Lhe
same shall
consLlLuLe Lhe ArLlcles of lmpeachmenL and Lrlal by Lhe SenaLe shall
forLhwlLh
loqe 2787/12/2008 soyr
278
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
proceed
4 1he CommlLLee afLer hearlng and by ma[orlLy voLe of all lLs members
shall
submlL lLs reporL Lo Lhe Pouse LogeLher wlLh Lhe correspondlng resoluLlon
3 laclng on calendar Lhe CommlLLee resoluLlon wlLhln Len (10) days from
submlsslon
6 ulscusslon on Lhe floor of Lhe reporL
7 A voLe of aL leasL 1/3 of all Lhe members of Lhe Pouse shall be necessary
elLher
Lo afflrm a favorable resoluLlon wlLh Lhe ArLlcles of lmpeachmenL of Lhe
CommlLLee or overrlde lLs conLrary resoluLlon
1r|a| and Dec|s|on
1 1he SenaLors Lake an oaLh or afflrmaLlon
2 When Lhe presldenL ls on Lrlal Lhe Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Supreme CourL
shall
preslde buL shall noL voLe
3 A declslon of convlcLlon musL be concurred ln by aL leasL 2/3 of all Lhe
members
of Lhe SenaLe
Lffect of Conv|ct|on
1 8emoval from offlce
2 ulsquallflcaLlon Lo hold any oLher offlce under Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe
hlllpplnes
3 arLy convlcLed shall be llable and sub[ecL Lo prosecuLlon Lrlal and
punlshmenL
accordlng Lo law
L|m|tat|on
1 noL more Lhan one lmpeachmenL case shall be lnlLlaLed agalnsL Lhe
same offlclal
wlLhln a perlod of one (1) year
2 1he Pouse of 8epresenLaLlves shall have Lhe excluslve power Lo lnlLlaLe
all cases
of lmpeachmenL
epub/ic vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 14247 Morc 20 2001 Lhe
8epubllc of Lhe
hlllpplnes cannoL be held llable under an AgreemenL" enLered lnLo by
Lhe CCC wlLh
anoLher parLy where Lhe republlc dld noL auLhorlze Lhe CCC Lo enLer lnLo
such conLracL
Where Lhe sale of an alrcrafL Lo a Lhlrd parLy by Lhe CCC ls vold lL follows
LhaL Lhe
AgreemenL" beLween Lhe CCC and Lhe Lhlrd parLy ls llkewlse a nulllLy
and Lhere can
be no cause of acLlon agalnsL Lhe 8epubllc
Presidentio/ d noc octindinq ommittee on 8eest Loons vs
uesierto et o/
6 No 1l0140 October 25 1999 ArLlcle xl SecLlon 13 of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon provldes
LhaL Lhe rlghL of Lhe SLaLe Lo recover properLles unlawfully acqulred by
publlc offlclals or
employees from Lhem or from Lhelr nomlnees as Lransferees shall noL be
barred by
prescrlpLlon laches or esLoppel 1hls provlslon does noL seem Lo lndlcaLe
LhaL whaL ls
lmprescrlpLlble ls Lhe correspondlng clvll acLlon Lo recover lllgoLLen
wealLh" buL noL Lhe
crlmlnal acLlon LhaL may relaLe LhereLo 1he crlmlnal acLlon le vlolaLlon
of SecLlon 3(c)
and (g) 8A 3019 can prescrlbe conformably wlLh Lhe perLlnenL sLaLuLe
appllcable whlch
loqe 2797/12/2008 soyr
279
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
ln Lhls lnsLance 8 193 provldlng for a 13year prescrlpLlve perlod and
Lhereby
modlfylng Lo Lhe above exLenL Lhe 10year prescrlpLlve perlod under 8A
3019
ln roncisco vs nouse of epresentotives 6 No 1021 November
10
200l an |mpeachment case ls Lhe legal conLroversy LhaL musL be declded
by Lhe
SenaLe whlle an |mpeachment proceed|ng ls one LhaL ls lnlLlaLed ln Lhe
Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves lor purposes of applylng Lhe oneyear bar rule Lhe
proceedlng ls
106


lnlLlaLed" or beglns when a verlfled complalnL ls flled and referred Lo Lhe
CommlLLee on
!usLlce for acLlon
LeglslaLlve bodles cannoL lmpose Lhe admlnlsLraLlve punlshmenL of
removal from
offlce because Lhe power Lo remove local elecLlve offlclals has been
excluslvely granLed
Lo Lhe proper courLs %5onqqqunionq 8oronqoy of uon Moriono Morcos
vs
Mortinet 6 No 1702 Morc l 2008)
SANDIGAN8AAN
1he anLlgrafL courL shall conLlnue Lo funcLlon and exerclse lLs [urlsdlcLlon
as now
and hereafLer may be provlded by law
Compos|t|on
% Cne (1) resldlng !usLlce
% lourLeen (14) AssoclaLe !usLlces wlLh Lhe rank of !usLlce of Lhe CourL of
Appeals
r SlLs ln flve (3) ulvlslons of Lhree (3) members each
Dec|s|on and kev|ew
unanlmous voLe of all Lhree (3) members shall be requlred for Lhe
pronouncemenL of [udgmenL by a dlvlslon ueclslon shall be revlewable by
Lhe SC on
peLlLlon for cerLlorarl
Iur|sd|ct|on
r C rlglnal !urlsdlcLlon
8 vlolaLlon of 8A 3019 8A 1379 and ChapLer ll SecLlon 2 1lLle vll of Lhe
8C where one or more of Lhe accused are offlclals occupylng Lhe
followlng
poslLlons ln Lhe governmenL wheLher ln a permanenL acLlng or lnLerlm
capaclLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense
3 Cfflclals of Lhe LxecuLlve branch wlLh Lhe poslLlon of 8eglonal ulrecLor
or
hlgher or wlLh SC Level 27 accordlng Lo kA 67S8 speclflcally lncludlng
l rovlnclal governors vlcegovernors board members provlnclal
Lreasures assessors englneers and oLher provlnclal deparLmenLs
head
ll ClLy mayors vlcemayors clLy councllors clLy Lreasurers
loqe 2807/12/2008 soyr
280
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
assessors englneers and oLher clLy deparLmenL heads
lll Cfflclals of Lhe dlplomaLlc servlce from consuls or hlgher
lv A/Al colonels n capLalns and all offlcers of hlgher rank
v Cfflcers of Lhe n whlle occupylng Lhe poslLlon of provlnclal
dlrecLor and Lhose holdlng Lhe rank of senlor superlnLendenL or
hlgher
vl ClLy/provlnclal prosecuLors and Lhelr asslsLanLs and offlclals and
prosecuLors ln Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman and speclal
prosecuLor
vll resldenLs dlrecLors LrusLees or managers of CCCC's sLaLe
unlverslLles or educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons or foundaLlons
6 Members of Congress and offlclals Lhereof wlLh SC27 and up
7 Members of Lhe !udlclary wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
8 Chalrmen and members of Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons wlLhouL
pre[udlce Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and
9 All oLher naLlonal and local offlclals wlLh SC27 or hlgher
C CLher offenses or felonles wheLher slmple or complex wlLh oLher crlmes
commlLLed by Lhe publlc offlclals and employees menLloned ln SubsecLlon
(a)
ln relaLlon Lo Lhelr offlce
u Clvll and crlmlnal cases flled pursuanL Lo and ln connecLlon wlLh
LxecuLlve
Crder nos 1 2 14 and 14A lssued ln 1986
r L xcluslve Crlglnal !urlsdlcLlon over peLlLlons for Lhe lssuance of Lhe wrlLs
of
mandamus prohlblLlons cerLlorarl habeas corpus ln[uncLlon and oLher
anclllary
wrlLs and processes |n a|d of |ts appe||ate [ur|sd|ct|on rovlded LhaL
[urlsdlcLlon over Lhese peLlLlons shall be noL excluslve of Lhe Supreme
CourL
r L xcluslve AppellaLe !urlsdlcLlon over flnal [udgmenLs resoluLlons or
orders of
81C wheLher ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr own orlglnal [urlsdlcLlon or Lhelr
appellaLe
[urlsdlcLlon (8A 8249)
1nL CM8UDSMAN
% 1he champlon of Lhe clLlzens and proLecLor of Lhe people
% 1asked Lo enLerLaln complalnLs addressed Lo hlm agalnsL errlng publlc
offlcers
and Lake all necessary acLlons Lhereon
Compos|t|on
% An Cmbudsman known as Lhe @oooJboyoo
% Cne (1) Cverall uepuLy
% AL leasL one (1) uepuLy e3ach for Luzon vlsayas and Mlndanao
% Cne (1) separaLe uepuLy for Lhe mlllLary esLabllshmenL may llkewlse be
loqe 2817/12/2008 soyr
281
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
appolnLed
ua||f|cat|ons
1 naLuralborn clLlzen
2 AL leasL 40 years of age
3 Cf recognlzed problLy and lndependence
4 Member of Lhe hlllpplne 8ar and
3 MusL noL have been candldaLes for any elecLlve offlce ln Lhe
lmmedlaLely
precedlng elecLlon
1erm Seven (7) years wlLhouL reappolnLmenL
D|squa||f|cat|ons and Inh|b|t|ons
A uurlng Lhelr Lenure
1 Shall noL hold any oLher offlce or employmenL
2 Lngage ln Lhe pracLlce of any professlon or ln Lhe acLlve managemenL
and
conLrol of any buslness whlch ln any way may be affecLed by Lhe funcLlons
of
hls offlce
3 Shall noL be flnanclally lnLeresLed dlrecLly or lndlrecLly ln oLher
conLracL wlLh
or ln any franchlse or prlvllege granLed by Lhe governmenL any of lLs
subdlvlslon agencles or lnsLrumenLallLles lncludlng CCCCs or Lhelr
subsldlarles
4 Shall noL be quallfled Lo run for any offlce ln Lhe elecLlon lmmedlaLely
succeedlng Lhelr cessaLlon from offlce
r 1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman shall en[oy flscal auLonomy lLs approved
annual
approprlaLlons shall be auLomaLlcally and regularly released (SecLlon 14
ArLlcle xl)
8uenesodo vs /ovier 6 No 10719 5eptember 21 199l Lhe power
Lo
lnvesLlgaLe also lncludes Lhe power Lo lmpose prevenLlve suspenslon 1hls
ls dlfferenL
from Lhe power Lo recommend suspenslon 1he laLLer ls suspenslon as a
penalLy
prevenLlve suspenslon ls noL a penalLy
owers Iunct|ons and Dut|es
1 1he ConsLlLuLlon and 8A 6770 (Cmbudsman AcL of 1989) has endowed
Lhe
107


Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman wlLh a wlde laLlLude of lnvesLlgaLory and
prosecuLor
powers vlrLually free from leglslaLlve execuLlve or [udlclal lnLervenLlon
1he
Supreme CourL conslsLenLly refralns from lnLerferlng wlLh Lhe exerclse of
lLs
powers and respecLs Lhe lnlLlaLlve and lndependence lnherenL ln Lhe
Cmbudsman who beholden Lo no one acLs as Lhe champlon of Lhe
people and
Lhe preserver of Lhe lnLegrlLy of publlc servlce %Loquios vs Office of te
Ombudsmon 6 No 1l9l9 uqust 15 2000)
loqe 2827/12/2008 soyr
282
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2 1he Cmbudsman ls cloLhed wlLh auLhorlLy Lo conducL prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon
and prosecuLe all crlmlnal cases lnvolvlng publlc offlcers and employees
noL only
Lhose wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlganbayan buL Lhose wlLhln Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon
of Lhe regular courLs as well %uy vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 1059570
Morc 20 2001)
Office of te Ombudsmon vs 5 6 No 12215 lu/y l0 2007 slnce
Lhe
responslblllLy for Lhe esLabllshmenL admlnlsLraLlon and malnLenance of
quallflcaLlon
sLandards lles wlLh Lhe concerned deparLmenL or agency Lhe role of Lhe
CSC ls llmlLed
Lo asslsLlng Lhe deparLmenL or agency wlLh respecL Lo Lhese quallflcaLlon
sLandards and
approvlng Lhem 1he CSC cannoL subsLlLuLe lLs own sLandards for Lhose of
Lhe
deparLmenL or agency speclally ln a case llke Lhls ln whlch an lndependenL
consLlLuLlonal body ls lnvolved
Peret vs 5ondiqonboyon 6 No 102 5eptember 2 200 Lhe
lncumbenL
1anodbayan (called Speclal rosecuLor under Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon and
who ls
supposed Lo reLaln powers and duLles nC1 ClvLn Lo Lhe Cmbudsman) ls
clearly
wlLhouL auLhorlLy Lo conducL prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlons and Lo dlrecL Lhe
flllng of crlmlnal
cases wlLh Lhe Sandlganbayan excepL upon orders of Lhe Cmbudsman
Suspens|on under the Cmbudsman Act v|sv|s the Loca| Government
Code
o ln order Lo [usLlfy Lhe prevenLlve suspenslon of a publlc offlclal under
SecLlon 24
of 8A 6770 Lhe evldence of gullL should be sLrong and
r 1he charge agalnsL Lhe offlcer or employee should lnvolve dlshonesLy
oppresslon or grave mlsconducL or neglecL ln Lhe performance of duLy
r 1he charges should warranL removal from Lhe servlce or
r 1he respondenL's conLlnued sLay ln Lhe offlce would pre[udlce Lhe case
flled agalnsL hlm
o 1he Cmbudsman can lmpose Lhe 6monLh prevenLlve suspenslon Lo all
publlc
offlclals wheLher elecLlve or appolnLlve who are under lnvesLlgaLlon
o Cn Lhe oLher hand ln lmposlng Lhe shorLer perlod of slxLy (60) days of
prevenLlve
suspenslon prescrlbed under Lhe LCC of 1991 on an elecLlve local offlclal
(aL any
Llme afLer Lhe lssues are [olned) lL would be enough LhaL
d 1here ls a reasonable ground Lo belleve LhaL Lhe respondenL has
commlLLed Lhe acL or acLs complalned of
e 1he evldence of culpablllLy ls sLrong
f 1he gravlLy of Lhe offense so warranLs or
g 1he conLlnuance ln Lhe offlce of Lhe respondenL could lnfluence Lhe
wlLnesses or pose a LhreaL Lo Lhe safeLy and lnLegrlLy of Lhe records and
loqe 28J7/12/2008 soyr
283
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
oLher evldence %Mirondo vs 5ondioqonboyon 6 No 154098 lu/y
27 2005)
Office of te Ombudsmon vs 6 No 18079 lu/y 17 2007 Lhe SC
upheld
Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of SecLlons 13 21 and 23 of 8A 6770 Lhus afflrmlng
LhaL Lhe
powers of Lhe Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman are noL merely recommendaLory
1he CourL
ruled ln LsLarl[a case LhaL under 8A 6770 and Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon Lhe
Cmbudsman
has Lhe consLlLuLlonal power Lo dlrecLly remove from Lhe governmenL
servlce an errlng
publlc offlclal oLher Lhan a member of Congress and Lhe !udlclary
Art|c|e kII
NA1ICNAL LCCNCM AND A1kIMCN
Sect|on 1 Art|c|e kIIGoa|s
1 More equlLable dlsLrlbuLlon of wealLh
2 lncreased wealLh for Lhe beneflL of Lhe people
3 lncreased producLlvlLy
kLGALIAN DCC1kINLSect|on 2 Art|c|e kII
All lands of Lhe publlc domaln waLers mlnerals coals peLroleum and
oLher
mlneral olls all forces of poLenLlal energy flsherles foresLs or Llmber
wlldllfe flora and
fauna and naLural resources belong Lo Lhe SLaLe WlLh Lhe excepLlon of
agrlculLural
lands all oLher naLural resources shall noL be allenaLed
1o prove LhaL Lhe land sub[ecL of an appllcaLlon for reglsLraLlon ls
allenable an
appllcanL musL concluslvely esLabllsh Lhe exlsLence of a poslLlve acL of Lhe
governmenL
loqe 2847/12/2008 soyr
284
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
such as a presldenLlal proclamaLlon or an execuLlve order or an
admlnlsLraLlve acLlon
lnvesLlgaLlon reporLs of Lhe 8ureau of Lands lnvesLlgaLor or a leglslaLlve
acL or sLaLuLe
unLll Lhen Lhe rules on conflrmaLlon of lmperfecL LlLle do noL apply A
cerLlflcaLlon of Lhe
CommunlLy LnvlronmenL and naLural 8esources Cfflcer (CLn8C) ln Lhe
uLn8 sLaLlng
LhaL Lhe land sub[ecL of an appllcaLlon ls found Lo be wlLhln Lhe allenable
and dlsposable
slLe ln a land classlflcaLlon pro[ecL map ls sufflclenL evldence Lo show Lhe
real characLer
of Lhe land sub[ecL of Lhe appllcaLlon %P vs ondy Moker lnc 6 No
1l7
lune 22 200)
C|ass|f|cat|on of Lands of the ub||c Doma|n
1 AgrlculLural
2 loresL or Llmber
3 Mlneral lands and
4 naLlonal parks
r|vate Lands
108


Ceneral 8ule no prlvaLe land shall be Lransferred or conveyed excepL Lo
lndlvlduals
corporaLlons or assoclaLlons quallfled Lo acqulre or hold lands of Lhe
publlc domaln
LxcepLlons
1 lorelgners who lnherlL Lhrough lnLesLaLe successlon
2 lormer naLuralborn clLlzen may be a Lransferee of prlvaLe lands sub[ecL
Lo
llmlLaLlons provlded by law
3 Cwnershlp ln condomlnlum unlLs
4 arlLy rlghL agreemenL under 1933 ConsLlLuLlon
Stewardsh|p Doctr|neprlvaLe properLy ls supposed Lo be held by Lhe
lndlvldual only
as a LrusLee for Lhe people ln general who are lLs real owner
I|||p|no I|rst o||cyln Lhe granL of rlghLs prlvlleges and concesslons
coverlng Lhe
naLlonal economy and paLrlmony Lhe SLaLe shall glve preference Lo
quallfled llllplnos
(2nd paragraph SecLlon 10 ArLlcle xll)
1hls provlslon ls selfexecuLlng lL ls mandaLory poslLlve command whlch
ls
compleLe ln lLself and whlch needs no furLher guldellnes or lmplemenLlng
laws or rules
for lLs enforcemenL lrom lLs very words Lhe provlslon does noL requlre
any leglslaLlon Lo
puL lL ln operaLlon lL ls per se [udlclally enforceable When our
ConsLlLuLlon mandaLes
LhaL lo te qtoot of tlqts ptlvlleqes ooJ coocessloos covetloq te
ootloool ecooomy
ooJ pottlmooy te tote soll qlve ptefeteoce to poollfleJ lllploos lL
means [usL LhaL
quallfled llllplnos musL be preferred %Moni/o Prince note/ vs 65l5 6
No 118295
Moy 2 1997)
A [oln venLure ls an assoclaLlon of persons or companles [olnLly
underLaklng
loqe 2857/12/2008 soyr
283
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
some commerclal enLerprlse wlLh all of Lhem generally conLrlbuLlng asseLs
and sharlng
rlsks Conslderlng more of a parLnershlp a [olnL venLure ls governed by Lhe
laws on
conLracLs and on parLnershlp 1he [olnL venLure creaLed beLween naLlonal
lnvesLmenL
and uevelopmenL CorporaLlon (nluC) and kawasakl falls wlLhln Lhe
purvlew of an
assoclaLlon" pursuanL Lo SecLlon 3 of ArLlcle xlv of Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon
and SecLlon
11 of ArLlcle xll of Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon ConsequenLly a [olnL venLure
LhaL would
engage ln Lhe buslness of operaLlng a publlc uLlllLy such as shlpyard musL
observe Lhe
proporLlon of 6040 llllplnolorelgn caplLallzaLlon %l6 5ummit
no/dinqs lnc vs
l45 5 14l)
1emporary 1ake Cver of 8us|ness Affected w|th ub||c Interest
1he SLaLe may Lemporarlly Lake over or dlrecL Lhe operaLlon of any
prlvaLely
owned publlc uLlllLy or buslness affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
1 ln Llmes of naLlonal emergency
2 When Lhe publlc lnLeresL so requlres and
3 uurlng Lhe emergency and under reasonable Lerms prescrlbed by lL
1he Lemporary Lake over by Lhe governmenL exLends only Lo Lhe operaLlon
of Lhe
buslness and noL Lo Lhe ownershlp Lhereof As such Lhe governmenL ls noL
requlred Lo
compensaLe Lhe prlvaLe enLlLyowner of Lhe sald buslness as Lhere ls no
Lransfer of
ownershlp wheLher permanenL or Lemporary 1he prlvaLe enLlLyowner
affecLed by Lhe
Lemporary Lake over cannoL llkewlse clalm for [usL compensaLlon for Lhe
use of Lhe sald
buslness and lLs properLles as Lhe Lemporary Lakeover by Lhe governmenL
ls ln exerclse
of lLs pollce power and noL of lLs power of emlnenL domaln %qon vs
Pl@O 6
No 155001 Moy 5 200l)
k|ght of Ind|genous Cu|tura| Commun|t|es]Ind|genous eop|e
ConsLlLuLlonal rovlslons 8ecognlzlng and roLecLlng Lhe 8lghLs and
lnLeresL of Lhe
lndlgenous eople
1 Sect|on 22 Art|c|e IILhe SLaLe recognlzes and promoLes Lhe rlghLs of
lndlgenous peoples wlLhln Lhe framework of naLlonal unlLy and
developmenL
2 Sect|on S Art|c|e kIILhe SLaLe sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
and naLlonal developmenL pollcles and programs shall proLecL Lhe rlghLs
of
lndlgenous culLural communlLles Lo Lhelr ancesLral lands Lo ensure Lhelr
economlc soclal and culLural wellbelng
1he Congress may provlde for Lhe appllcablllLy of cusLomary laws
governlng properLy rlghLs or relaLlons ln deLermlnlng Lhe ownershlp and
exLenL of
ancesLral domaln
3 Sect|on 1 Art|c|e kIII
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
4 Sect|on 6 Art|c|e kIIILhe SLaLe shall apply Lhe prlnclples of agrarlan
reform
sLewardshlp whenever appllcable ln accordance wlLh law ln Lhe
dlsposlLlon or
uLlllzaLlon of oLher naLural resources lncludlng lands of Lhe publlc domaln
under
lease or concesslon sulLable Lo agrlculLure sub[ecL Lo prlor rlghLs
homesLead
rlghLs of small seLLlers and Lhe rlghLs of lndlgenous culLural communlLles
Lo Lhelr
ancesLral lands
3 Sect|on 17 Art|c|e kIVLhe SLaLe shall recognlze respecL and proLecL
Lhe
rlghLs of lndlgenous culLural communlLles Lo preserve and develop Lhelr
culLures
LradlLlons and lnsLlLuLlons lL shall conslder Lhese rlghLs ln Lhe formulaLlon
of
naLlonal plans and pollcles
6 Sect|on 12 Art|c|e kVILhe Congress may creaLe a consulLaLlve body Lo
advlse
Lhe resldenL on pollcles affecLlng lndlgenous culLural communlLles Lhe
ma[orlLy
of Lhe members of whlch shall come from such communlLles
Ind|genous eop|es k|ghts Act (kA 8371)
1he l8A ls a law deallng wlLh a speclflc group of people le Lhe
lndlgenous
CulLural CommunlLles (lCCs) or Lhe lndlgenous eoples (ls) 1he Lerm lCCs
ls used ln
Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon whlle LhaL of ls ls Lhe conLemporary lnLernaLlonal
language ln Lhe
109


lnLernaLlonal Labor CrganlzaLlon (lLC) ConvenLlon 169 and Lhe un urafL
ueclaraLlon on
Lhe 8lghLs of lndlgenous eoples
1he ICCs or Is refer Lo a group of people or homogenous socleLles who
have
conLlnuously llved as an organlzed communlLy on communally bounded
and deflned
LerrlLory 1hese groups of people have acLually occupled possessed and
uLlllzed Lhelr
LerrlLorles under clalm of ownershlp slnce Llme lmmemorlal 1hey share
common bonds
of language cusLoms LradlLlons and oLher dlsLlncLlve culLural LralLs or
Lhey by Lhelr
reslsLance Lo pollLlcal soclal and culLural lnroads of colonlzaLlon non
lndlgenous
rellglons and culLures became hlsLorlcally dlfferenLlaLed from Lhe llllplno
ma[orlLy 1he
lCCs/ls also lnclude Lhelr descendanLs who lnhablLed Lhe counLry aL Lhe
Llme of
conquesL or colonlzaLlon who have been dlsplaced from Lhelr LradlLlonal
LerrlLorles or
who may have reseLLled ouLslde Lhelr ancesLral domalns
lL recognlzes Lhe exlsLence of Lhe lndlgenous culLural communlLles or
lndlgenous
peoples (lCCs/ls) as a dlsLlncL secLor ln hlllpplne socleLy lL granLs Lhese
people Lhe
ownershlp and possesslon of Lhelr ancesLral domalns and ancesLral lands
and deflnes
Lhe exLenL of Lhese lands and domalns 1he ownershlp glven ls Lhe
lndlgenous concepL
of ownershlp under cusLomary law whlch Lraces lLs orlgln Lo naLlve LlLle
WlLhln Lhelr ancesLral domalns and ancesLral lands Lhe lCCs/ls are glven
Lhe
rlghL Lo selfgovernance and empowermenL soclal [usLlce and human
rlghLs Lhe rlghL Lo
preserve and proLecL Lhelr culLure LradlLlons lnsLlLuLlons and communlLy
lnLellecLual
rlghLs and Lhe rlghL Lo develop Lhelr own sclences and Lechnologles
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Ancestra| doma|nsare all areas belonglng Lo lCCs/ls held under a clalm
of
ownershlp occupled or possessed by lCCs/ls by Lhemselves or Lhrough
Lhelr
ancesLors communally or lndlvldually slnce Llme lmmemorlal
conLlnuously unLll Lhe
presenL excepL when lnLerrupLed by war force ma[eure or dlsplacemenL
by force
decelL sLealLh or as a consequence of governmenL pro[ecLs or any oLher
volunLary
deallngs wlLh governmenL and/or prlvaLe lndlvlduals or corporaLlons lL
comprlses lands
lnland waLers coasLal areas and naLural resources Lhereln and lncludes
ancesLral
lands foresLs pasLure resldenLlal agrlculLural and oLher lands
lndlvldually owned
wheLher allenable or noL hunLlng grounds burlal grounds worshlp areas
bodles of
waLer mlneral and oLher naLural resources 1hey also lnclude lands whlch
may no
longer be excluslvely occupled by lCCs/ls buL from whlch Lhey
LradlLlonally had access
Lo for Lhelr subslsLence and LradlLlonal acLlvlLles parLlcularly Lhe home
ranges of
lCCs/ls who are sLlll nomadlc and/or shlfLlng culLlvaLors Sect|on 3(a)
IkA
Ancestra| Landsare lands held by Lhe lCCs/ls under Lhe same
condlLlons as
ancesLral domalns excepL LhaL Lhese are llmlLed Lo lands and LhaL Lhese
lands are noL
merely occupled and possessed buL are also uLlllzed by Lhe lCCs/ls under
clalms of
lndlvldual or LradlLlonal group ownershlp 1hese lands lnclude buL are noL
llmlLed Lo
resldenLlal loLs rlce Lerraces or paddles prlvaLe foresLs swldden farms
and Lree loLs
Sect|on 3(b) IkA
1he rlghL of Lhe lCCs/ls Lo Lhelr ancesLral domalns and ancesLral lands
may be
acqulred ln Lwo modes
1 Nat|ve t|t|e over boLh ancesLral domalns and lands
2 1orrens t|t|e under Lhe ubllc Land AcL and Lhe Land 8eglsLraLlon AcL
wlLh
respecL Lo ancesLral lands only
Nat|ve 1|t|erefers Lo lCCs/ls preconquesL rlghLs Lo lands and domalns
held under a
clalm of prlvaLe ownershlp as far back as memory reaches 1hese lands are
deemed
never Lo have been publlc lands and are lndlspuLably presumed Lo have
been held LhaL
way slnce before Lhe Spanlsh conquesL 1he rlghLs of lCCs/ls Lo Lhelr
ancesLral
domalns (whlch also lnclude ancesLral lands) by vlrLue of naLlve LlLle shall
be recognlzed
and respecLed (Sect|on 11 IkA) lormal recognlLlon when sollclLed by
lCCs/ls
concerned shall be embodled ln a CerLlflcaLe of AncesLral uomaln 1lLle
(CAu1) whlch
shall recognlze Lhe LlLle of Lhe concerned lCCs/ls over Lhe LerrlLorles
ldenLlfled and
dellneaLed
rLlke a Lorrens LlLle a CAu1 ls an evldence of prlvaLe ownershlp of land by
naLlve LlLle naLlve LlLle however ls a rlghL of prlvaLe ownershlp pecullarly
granLed Lo
lCCs/ls over Lhelr ancesLral lands and domalns 1he l8A caLegorlcally
declares
ancesLral lands and domalns held by naLlve LlLle as never to have been
publlc land
uomalns and lands held under naLlve LlLle are Lherefore lndlspuLably
presumed Lo have
never been publlc lands and are prlvaLe
loqe 2887/12/2008 soyr
288
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he concepL of naLlve LlLle ln Lhe l8A was Laken from Lhe 1909 case of
orio
vs lnsu/or 6overnment 41 Pi/ 9l5 Carlno flrmly esLabllshed a concepL
of prlvaLe
land LlLle LhaL exlsLed lrrespecLlve of any royal granL from Lhe SLaLe
1he concepL of naLlve LlLle Lo natura| resources unllke naLlve LlLle Lo |and
has
noL been recognlzed ln Lhe hlllpplnes ln Lhe case of eovies vs ionto
40 Pi/
1017 Lhe CourL merely upheld Lhe rlghL of Lhe lndlgenous peoples Lo
clalm ownershlp of
mlnerals under Lhe hlllpplne 8lll of 1902
Cwnersh|p by v|rtue of nat|ve t|t|epresupposes LhaL Lhe land has been
held by lLs
110


possessor and hls predecessorlnlnLeresL ln Lhe concepL of an owner slnce
Llme
lmmemorlal 1he land ls noL acqulred from Lhe SLaLe LhaL ls Spaln or lLs
successorlnlnLeresL
Lhe uS and Lhe hlllpplnes CovernmenL 1here has been no Lransfer of
LlLle
from Lhe SLaLe as Lhe lands has been regarded as prlvaLe ln characLer as
far back as
memory goes
Cwnersh|p of the |and by acqu|s|t|ve prescr|pt|onagalnsL Lhe SLaLe
lnvolves a
converslon of Lhe characLer of Lhe properLy from allenable publlc land Lo
prlvaLe land
whlch presupposes a Lransfer of LlLle from Lhe SLaLe Lo a prlvaLe person
Ius kega||aprlvaLe LlLle Lo Lhe land musL be Lraced Lo some granL
express or lmplled
from Lhe Spanlsh Crown or lLs successors Lhe Amerlcan Colonlal
governmenL and
LhereafLer Lhe hlllpplne 8epubllc 1he bellef LhaL Lhe Spanlsh Crown ls
Lhe orlgln of all
land LlLles ln Lhe hlllpplnes has perslsLed because LlLle Lo land musL
emanaLe from
some source for lL cannoL lssue forLh from nowhere
rlL refers Lo royal granLs or Lhose rlghLs whlch Lhe klng has by vlrLue of hls
prerogaLlves
lsoqoni rut vs 5ecretory of uN et o/ 6 No 1l5l85 uecember
2000
n bonc %Puno ond kopunon 5eporote Opinions)
Lands
ub||c doma|n r|vate Lands
1 Iorest]t|mber (A cert|f|cate of t|t|e had been
2 M|nera| |ands |ssued to a I|||p|no |nd|v|dua|)
3 Nat|ona| parks
4 a gr|cu|tura|
Same ru|es as a||enab|e
1he on|y |and (ub||c Doma|n) |ands as to who may acqu|re
wh|ch may be a||enated (Cn|y I|||p|nos)
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
I|||p|no C|t|zens r|vate Corporat|ons Lxcept
1) Not more than 12 ha by |ease 1) hered|tary success|on
(urchase homestead 2) former natura| born
Grant) 3) Amer|cans ho|d|ng va||d t|t|e
2) Leasenot more than to pr|vate |ands as aga|nst pr|vate
S00 ha persons 1|t|es to pr|vate |ands
acqu|red by Amer|cans before
Iu|y 3 1974 sha|| be va||d as
r8ut State may recover aga|nst pr|vate persons
on|y
Art|c|e kIII
SCCIAL IUS1ICL AND nUMAN kIGn1S
1 Soclal !usLlce
2 Labor
3 Agrarlan and naLural 8esources 8eform
4 urban Land 8eform and Pouslng
3 PealLh
6 Women
7 8ole and 8lghLs of eople's CrganlzaLlon
8 Puman 8lghLs
Sect|on 1
@e onqress so// qive iqest priority to te enoctment of meosures
tot
protect ond enonce te riqt of o// te peop/e to umon diqnity reduce
socio/
economic ond po/itico/ inequities ond remove cu/turo/ inequities by
equitob/y
diffusinq weo/t ond po/itico/ power for te common qood
@o tis end te 5tote so// requ/ote te ocquisition ownersip use ond
disposition of property ond its increments
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290
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Sect|on 2
@e promotion of socio/ justice so// inc/ude te commitment to creote
economic
opportunities bosed on freedom of initiotive ond se/fre/ionce
Labor
Sect|on 3
@e 5tote so// offord fu// protection to /obor /oco/ ond overseos
orqonited ond
unorqonited ond promote fu// emp/oyment ond equo/ity of emp/oyment
opportunities for o//
lt so// quorontee te riqts of o// workers to se/forqonitotion co//ective
borqoininq ond neqotiotions ond peocefu/ concerted octivities inc/udinq
te
riqt to strike in occordonce wit /ow @ey so// be entit/ed to security
of tenure
umone conditions of work ond o /ivinq woqe @ey so// o/so
porticipote in
po/icy ond decisionmokinq processes offectinq teir riqts ond benefits
os moy
be provided by /ow
@e 5tote so// promote te princip/e of sored responsibi/ity between
workers
ond emp/oyers ond te preferentio/ use of vo/untory modes in sett/inq
disputes
inc/udinq conci/iotion ond so// enforce teir mutuo/ comp/ionce
terewit to
foster industrio/ peoce
@e 5tote so// requ/ote te re/otions between workers ond emp/oyers
recoqnitinq te riqt of /obor to its just sore in te fruits of production
ond te
riqt of enterprises to reosonob/e returns on investments ond to
exponsion ond
qrowt
Agrar|an and Natura| kesources keform
Sect|on 4
loqe 2917/12/2008 soyr
291
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e kIV
LDUCA1ICN SCILNCL AND 1LCnNCLCG Ak1S
CUL1UkL AND SCk1S
SecLlon 4 (1) ArLlcle xlv of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon recognlzes Lhe SLaLe's power
Lo regulaLe
educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons
@e tote tecoqolzes te complemeototy toles of pobllc ooJ
ptlvote lostltotloos lo te eJocotloool system ooJ soll exetclse
teosoooble sopetvlsloo ooJ teqolotloo of oll eJocotloool lostltotloos
As may be gleaned from Lhe above provlslon such power Lo regulaLe ls
sub[ecL
Lo Lhe requlremenLs of reasonab|eness Moreover Lhe ConsLlLuLlon allows
merely Lhe
regulaLlon and supervlslon of educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons noL Lhe deprlvaLlon
of Lhelr rlghLs
111


%Miriom o//eqe oundotion lnc vs l48 5 25)
SecLlon 3 (2) ArLlcle xlv provldes LhaL AcoJemlc fteeJom soll be eojoyeJ
lo oll
lostltotloos of lqet leotoloq
Academ|c Ireedom
1he rlghL of Lhe school or college Lo declde for lLself lLs alms and
ob[ecLlves and
how besL Lo aLLaln Lhemfree from ouLslde coerclon or lnLerference save
posslbly when
loqe 2927/12/2008 soyr
292
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lhe overrldlng publlc welfare calls for some resLralnL lL has a wlde sphere
of auLonomy
cerLalnly exLendlng Lo Lhe cholce of sLudenLs Sald consLlLuLlonal provlslon
ls noL Lo be
consLrued ln a nlggardly manner or ln a grudglng fashlon 1haL would be Lo
frusLraLe lLs
purpose and nulllfy lLs lnLenL
1he essenLlal freedoms subsumed ln Lhe Lerm academlc freedom"
encompass
Lhe freedom Lo deLermlne for lLself on academlc grounds
1 Who may Leach
2 WhaL may be LaughL
3 Pow lL shall be LaughL
4 Who may be admlLLed Lo sLudy
1he rlghL of a school Lo dlsclpllne lLs sLudenLs ls aL once apparenL ln Lhe
Lhlrd
freedom le how lL shall be LaughL" A school cerLalnly cannoL funcLlon
ln an
aLmosphere of anarchy
lncldenLally Lhe school noL only has Lhe rlghL buL Lhe duLy Lo develop
dlsclpllne ln
lLs sLudenLs 1he ConsLlLuLlon no less lmposes such duLy SecLlon 3 (2)
ArLlcle xlv
All eJocotloool lostltotloos soll locolcote pottlotlsm ooJ
ootlooollsm fostet love of omoolty tespect fot omoo tlqts
oppteclotloo of te
tole of ootloool etoes lo te lstotlcol Jevelopmeot of te coootty teoc
te
tlqts ooJ Jotles of cltlzeoslp stteoqteo etlcol ooJ spltltool voloes
Jevelop
motol cotoctet ooJ petsoool Jlsclplloe eocootoqe ctltlcol ooJ cteotlve
tlokloq
btooJeo scleotlflc ooJ tecooloqlcol koowleJqe ooJ ptomote vocotloool
efflcleocy
1hree (3) Aspects of Academ|c Ireedom
1 Irom the standpo|nt of the educat|ona| |nst|tut|onLo provlde LhaL
aLmosphere whlch ls mosL conduclve Lo speculaLlon experlmenLaLlon and
creaLlon
2 Irom the standpo|nt of the facu|ty
a lreedom ln research and ln Lhe publlcaLlon of Lhe resulLs sub[ecL Lo Lhe
adequaLe performance of hls oLher academlc duLles
b lreedom ln Lhe classroom ln dlscusslng hls sub[ecL less conLroverslal
maLLers whlch bear no relaLlon Lo Lhe sub[ecL
c lreedom from lnsLlLuLlonal censorshlp or dlsclpllne llmlLed by hls
speclal poslLlon ln Lhe communlLy
3 Irom the standpo|nt of the studentrlghL Lo en[oy ln school
guaranLeed by Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs %Non vs uomes Moy 20 1990)
rMoy o university vo/id/y revoke o deqree or onor it os conferred to o
student
ofter te qroduotion of te /otter ofter findinq tot suc deqree or onor
wos
loqe 29J7/12/2008 soyr
293
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
obtoined trouq froud?
r1he SC polnLed ouL LhaL academlc freedom of lnsLlLuLlons of hlgher
learnlng ls a
freedom granLed Lo lnsLlLuLlons of hlgher learnlng" whlch ls Lhus glven a
wlde sphere of
auLhorlLy cerLalnly exLendlng Lo Lhe cholce of sLudenLs" lf such lnsLlLuLlon
of hlgher
learnlng can declde who can and who cannoL sLudy ln lL lL cerLalnly can
also deLermlne
on whom lL can confer Lhe honor and dlsLlncLlon of belng lLs graduaLes
%6orcio vs
ocu/ty dmission ommittee Loyo/o 5coo/ of @eo/oqy 8 5 277)
Where lL ls shown LhaL Lhe confermenL of an honor or dlsLlncLlon was
obLalned
Lhrough fraud a unlverslLy has Lhe rlghL Lo revoke or wlLhdraw Lhe honor
or dlsLlncLlon lL
has Lhus conferred 1hls freedom of a unlverslLy does noL LermlnaLe upon
Lhe
graduaLlon" of a sLudenL for lL ls preclsely Lhe graduaLlon" of such a
sLudenL LhaL ls ln
quesLlon %uP 8oord of eqents vs ond rokioswomy Ji//iom
Morqoret e/ine
6 No 1l425 uqust l1 1999)
ln admlnlsLraLlve cases such as lnvesLlgaLlons of sLudenLs found vlolaLlng
school
dlsclpllne Lhere are wlLhal mlnlmum sLandards whlch musL be meL before
Lo saLlsfy Lhe
demands of procedural due process and Lhese are
1 1he sLudenL musL be lnformed ln wrlLlng of Lhe naLure and cause of any
accusaLlon agalnsL Lhem
2 1hey shall have Lhe rlghL Lo answer Lhe charges agalnsL Lhem and wlLh
Lhe
asslsLance of counsel lf deslred
3 1hey shall be lnformed of Lhe evldence agalnsL Lhem
4 1hey shall have Lhe rlghL Lo adduce evldence ln Lhelr own behalf and
3 1he evldence musL be duly consldered by Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng commlLLee
or offlclal
deslgnaLed by Lhe school auLhorlLles Lo hear and declde Lhe case
Academlc freedom encompasses Lhe lndependence of an academlc
lnsLlLuLlon Lo
deLermlne for lLself
r Who may Leach
r WhaL may be LaughL
r Pow lL shall Leach and
r Who may be admlLLed Lo sLudy %uL5u lnc vs 6 No 127980
uecember 19 2007)
loqe 2947/12/2008 soyr
294
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e kV
1nL IAMIL
Iam||yls Lhe baslc soclal lnsLlLuLlon 1he SLaLe recognlzes Lhe llllplno
famlly as Lhe
foundaLlon of Lhe naLlon
Care for the e|der|y
1he duLy Lo care for Lhe elderly ls glven Lo boLh Lhe famlly and Lhe SLaLe
An
effecLlve soclal securlLy sysLem ls an lndlspensable componenL of any
effecLlve carlng
for Lhe elderly
112


Art|c|e kVI
GLNLkAL kCVISICNS
I|ag
1he deslgn of our flag may be changed only by consLlLuLlonal amendmenL
DCC1kINL CI S1A1L IMMUNI1 IkCM SUI1
Sec 3 Art|c|e kVI 1he SLaLe may noL be sued wlLhouL lLs consenL
lL ls based on Lhe very essence of soverelgnLy lL ls derlslvely called the
roya|
prerogat|ve of d|shonesty" because lL granLs Lhe sLaLe Lhe prerogaLlve Lo
defeaL any
leglLlmaLe clalm agalnsL lL by slmply lnvoklng lLs nonsuablllLy
loqe 2957/12/2008 soyr
293
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1here can be no legal rlghL agalnsL Lhe auLhorlLy whlch makes Lhe law on
whlch
Lhe rlghL depends %epub/ic vs vi//osor 54 5 8l) Powever lL may be
sued lf lL
glves consenL wheLher express or lmplled
uoes Lhls docLrlne apply as well Lo forelgn governmenL? ?LS because of
Lhe
soverelgn equallLy of all Lhe sLaLe lmmunlLy ls en[oyed by oLher SLaLes
consonanL wlLh
Lhe publlc lnLernaLlonal law prlnclple of A8 ln A8LM nCn PA8L1
lML8luM 1he
head of SLaLe who ls deemed Lhe personlflcaLlon of Lhe SLaLe ls
lnvlolable and Lhus
en[oys lmmunlLy from sulL
u5 vs 6uinto 182 5 44 lablan Cenove flled a complalnL for
damages
agalnsL peLlLloners Lamachla 8elsa CarLalla and Crasclon for hls dlsmlssal
as cook ln
Lhe uS Alr lorce 8ecreaLlon CenLer aL Camp !ohn Pay Alr SLaLlon ln 8agulo
ClLy lL had
been ascerLalned afLer lnvesLlgaLlon from Lhe LesLlmony of 8elsa CarLalla
and Crasclon
LhaL Cenove had poured urlne lnLo Lhe soup sLock used ln cooklng Lhe
vegeLables
served Lo Lhe club cusLomers Lamachla as club manager suspended hlm
and
LhereafLer referred Lhe case Lo a board of arblLraLors conformably Lo Lhe
collecLlve
bargalnlng agreemenL beLween Lhe cenLer and lLs employees 1he board
unanlmously
found hlm gullLy and recommended hls dlsmlssal Cenove's reacLlon was
Lo flle hls
complalnL agalnsL Lhe lndlvldual peLlLloners
SC 1he rule LhaL a SLaLe may noL be sued wlLhouL lLs consenL ls one of Lhe
generally
accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law LhaL we have adopLed as parL of
our law Lven
wlLhouL such afflrmaLlon we would sLlll be bound by Lhe generally
accepLed prlnclples of
lnLernaLlonal law under Lhe docLrlne of lncorporaLlon under Lhls docLrlne
as accepLed by
Lhe ma[orlLy of sLaLes such prlnclples are deemed lncorporaLed ln Lhe law
of every
clvlllzed sLaLe as a condlLlon and consequence of lLs membershlp ln Lhe
socleLy of
naLlons All sLaLes are soverelgn equals and cannoL asserL [urlsdlcLlon over
one anoLher
When Lhe governmenL enLers lnLo a conLracL lL ls deemed Lo have
descended Lo
Lhe level of Lhe oLher conLracLlng parLy and dlvesLed of lLs soverelgn
lmmunlLy ls
expressed wlLh more speclflclLy ln Lhe 8uS 8ases 1reaLy 1here ls no
quesLlon LhaL
Lhe uS llke any oLher sLaLe wlll be deemed Lo have lmplledly walved lLs
nonsuablllLy lf
lL has enLered lnLo a conLracL ln lLs proprleLary or prlvaLe capaclLy lL ls
only when Lhe
conLracL lnvolves lLs soverelgn or governmenLal capaclLy LhaL no such
walver may be
lmplled
now moy cooseot be qlveo?
A 1he SLaLe's consenL may be glven elLher Lx8LSSL? or lMLlLuL?
LkkLSS CCNSLN1 may be made Lhrough enacLmenL by Congress of a
general law
or speclal law walvlng Lhe lmmunlLy
loqe 297/12/2008 soyr
296
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rGenera| Law
eg Act No 3083 where Lhe hlllpplne governmenL consenLs and submlLs
Lo be
sued upon any money clalm lnvolvlng llablllLy arlslng from conLracL
express or lmplled
whlch could serve as a basls of a clvll acLlon beLween Lhe prlvaLe parLles"
(correlaLe AcL 3083 wlLh CA 327 as amended by u 1443)
Commonwea|th Act 327 (Genera| Aud|t|ng Law as amended by D 144S
requlres LhaL all money clalms agalnsL Lhe governmenL musL flrsL be flled
wlLh Lhe CCA
whlch musL acL upon lL wlLhln 60 days 8e[ecLlon of Lhe clalm wlll
auLhorlze Lhe clalmanL
Lo elevaLe Lhe maLLer Lo SC on cerLlorarl and ln effecL sue Lhe SLaLe
Lhereby
ueportment of qricu/ture vs NL 227 5 9l uA may be sued for
money clalms based on a conLracL enLered lnLo ln lLs governmenLal
capaclLy because of
Lhe express consenL conLalned ln AcL 3083 provlded LhaL Lhe clalm be flrsL
broughL Lo Lhe
CCA ln accordance wlLh CA 327 as amended
Ministerio vs ity of ebu 40 5 44 SulL may lle because Lhe docLrlne
of
SLaLe lmmunlLy cannoL be used Lo perpeLraLe an ln[usLlce
ue/os 5ontos vs l 22l 5 11 publlc respondenLs' bellef LhaL Lhe
properLy ls publlc even lf buLLressed by sLaLemenLs of oLher publlc
offlclals ls no reason
for Lhe un[usL Laklng of Lhe peLlLloner's properLy afLer all Lhe 1C1 was ln
Lhe name of Lhe
peLlLloner
u5 vs uit 1l 5 487 where Lhe quesLloned LransacLlon dealL wlLh
Lhe
lmprovemenLs on Lhe wharves ln Lhe naval lnsLallaLlon aL Sublc 8ay SC
held LhaL Lhe
LradlLlonal rule of lmmunlLy exempLs a sLaLe from belng sued ln Lhe courLs
of anoLher
sLaLe wlLhouL lLs consenL or walver 1hls rule ls a necessary consequence
of Lhe
prlnclple of lndependence and equallLy of sLaLes Powever Lhe rules of
lnLernaLlonal
Law are noL peLrlfled Lhey are consLanLly developlng and evolvlng
Acta Iure Imper|| Acta Iure Gest|on|s
1here ls no walver 1he SLaLe ls acLlng ln
lLs soverelgn governmenLal capaclLy
1here ls walver of SLaLe lmmunlLy from
sulL 1he SLaLe enLered lnLo a conLracL ln lLs
commerclal or proprleLary capaclLy 1he
SLaLe descended Lo Lhe level of a prlvaLe
enLlLy
113


kLS1kIC1IVL DCC1kINL CI S1A1L IMMUNI1 IkCM SUI1noL all
conLracLs
enLered lnLo by Lhe governmenL consLlLuLe a walver
1he resLrlcLlve appllcaLlon of SLaLe lmmunlLy ls proper only when Lhe
proceedlngs
loqe 2977/12/2008 soyr
297
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
arlse ouL of commerclal LransacLlons of Lhe forelgn soverelgn lLs
commerclal acLlvlLles or
economlc affalrs SLaLed dlfferenLly a sLaLe may be sald Lo have
descended Lo Lhe level
of an lndlvldual and can Lhus be deemed Lo have LaclLly glven lLs consenL
Lo be sued
only when lL enLers lnLo buslness conLracLs lL does noL apply where Lhe
conLracLs relaLe
Lo Lhe exerclse of lLs soverelgn funcLlons ln Lhls case Lhe pro[ecLs are
lnLegral parLs of
Lhe naval base whlch ls devoLed Lo Lhe defense of boLh uS and hlllpplnes
lndlspuLably
a funcLlon of Lhe governmenL of Lhe hlghesL order Lhey are noL uLlllzed for
nor dedlcaLed
Lo commerclal or buslness purposes
1he conLracL for Lhe repalr of wharves was a conLracL ln Iu lMlkll
because
Lhe wharves were Lo be used ln naLlonal defense a governmenLal
funcLlon 1here ls no
walver Cnly Lhe Amerlcan governmenL can walved AcL 3083 ls noL
appllcable 1he
remedy ls Lo convlnce Lhe ueparLmenL of lorelgn Affalrs Lo Lake up Lhe
clalm Lo Lhe uS
governmenL (sLaLe Lo sLaLe)
u5 vs 6uinto 182 5 44 a conLracL for resLauranL servlces wlLhln
Lhe Camp
!ohn Pay Alr SLaLlon was held commerclal ln characLer 1he case should
noL be
dlsmlssed 1he cafeLerla caLers noL only Amerlcans buL also Lhe general
publlc 1here ls
walver of SLaLe lmmunlLy from sulL 1hls ls a case of Acto Iote Cestlools
epub/ic vs 5ondiqonboyon 204 5 212 Lven lf ln exerclslng Lhe
power of
emlnenL domaln Lhe SLaLe exerclses a power jos lmpetll as dlsLlngulshed
from lLs
proprleLary rlghL of jos qestlools where properLy has been Laken wlLhouL
[usL
compensaLlon belng pald Lhe defense of lmmunlLy from sulL cannoL be
seL up ln an
acLlon for paymenL by Lhe owner
rSpec|a| Law
1hls form of consenL musL be embodled ln a sLaLuLe and cannoL be glven
by a
mere counsel
eg Art|c|es 2180 and 2189 of the C|v|| Code
Art|c|e 2180 of the C|v|| Code(paragraph 6) @e tote ls tespooslble lo
llke
moooet weo lt octs ttooq o speclol oqeot bot oot weo te Jomoqe
os beeo
cooseJ by te offlclol to wom te tosk Jooe ptopetly pettolos lo wlc
cose wot ls
ptovlJeJ lo Attlcle 217 soll be oppllcoble
Art|c|e 2189 ltovloces cltles ooJ moolclpolltles soll be lloble fot
Jomoqes fot
te Jeot of ot lojotles soffeteJ by ooy petsoo by teosoo of te Jefectlve
cooJltloo of
tooJs stteets btlJqes pobllc bollJloqs ooJ otet pobllc wotks ooJet telt
coottol ooJ
sopetvlsloo
@eotico vs ity of Moni/o a man fell ln a manhole Sec 24 Loca|
Government Code
Local governmenL unlLs and Lhelr offlclals are noL exempL from llablllLy
for deaLh or
ln[ury Lo persons or damage Lo properLy"
loqe 2987/12/2008 soyr
298
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
May Lhe CSC valldly walved?
A epub/ic vs Purisimo 78 5 470 a mere lawyer (CSC) may noL
valldly walved
Lhe lmmunlLy from sulL of Lhe SLaLe Cnly Congress can
IMLILD CCNSLN1
1 When Lhe SLaLe commences Lhe llLlgaLlon lL becomes vulnerable Lo a
counLerclalm lnLervenLlon by Lhe SLaLe would consLlLuLe commencemenL
of
llLlgaLlon LkCL1 when Lhe SLaLe lnLervenes noL for Lhe purpose of asklng
for
any afflrmaLlve rellef buL only for Lhe purpose of reslsLlng Lhe clalm
preclsely
because of lmmunlLy from sulL %llm vs 8towoell 107 lll J45%
2 When Lhe SLaLe enLers lnLo a buslness conLracL %ee uA vs Coloto
uA vs
kolz%
(1hls ls Lhe 8LS18lC1lvL uCC18lnL Cl S1A1L lMMunl1?)
Mun of 5on ernondo Lo union vs ludqe irme195 5 92 Lhe dump
Lruck
owned by Lhe munlclpallLy was drlven by lLs offlclal drlver lL was used for
haullng gravel
for Lhe repalr/consLrucLlon of Lhe munlclpal road 1he Lruck colllded wlLh a
[eepney 1he
helrs of Lhe [eepney drlver sued Lhe MunlclpallLy of San lernando La
unlon 1he SC
held LhaL munlclpal corporaLlons are agencles of Lhe SLaLe when Lhey are
engaged ln
governmenLal funcLlons 8epalr of munlclpal road ls a governmenLal
funcLlon 1herefore
should en[oy Lhe lmmunlLy from sulL Powever Lhey are sub[ecL Lo sulL
even ln Lhe
performance of such funcLlons because Lhelr respecLlve charLers provlde
LhaL Lhey can
sue and be sued
Sec 22 (a2) of the Loca| Government Code @o soe ooJ be soeJ
SUA8ILI1 vs LIA8IL1
SUA8ILI1 LIA8IL1
SLaLe walvlng Lhe lmmunlLy glves Lhe clalmanL Lhe opporLunlLy Lo prove a
clalm agalnsL Lhe SLaLe for a posslble llablllLy
wlll have Lo be deLermlned by Lhe courL on Lhe
basls of evldence and Lhe appllcable laws
Jen is o suit oqoinst o pub/ic officio/ deemed to be o suit oqoinst te
5tote?
A 1he docLrlne of SLaLe lmmunlLy from sulL applles Lo complalnLs flled
agalnsL publlc
offlclals for acLs done ln Lhe performance of Lhelr duLles wlLhln Lhe scope
of Lhelr
auLhorlLy
1he rule ls LhaL Lhe sulL musL be regarded as one agalnsL Lhe sLaLe where
Lhe
saLlsfacLlon of Lhe [udgmenL agalnsL Lhe publlc offlclal concerned wlll
requlre Lhe sLaLe Lo
perform a poslLlve acL such as approprlaLlon of Lhe amounL necessary Lo
pay Lhe
114


damages awarded Lo Lhe plalnLlff
loqe 2997/12/2008 soyr
299
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r1he rule does noL apply where Lhe publlc offlclal ls charged ln hls offlclal
capaclLy for acLs LhaL are unlawful and ln[urlous Lo Lhe rlghLs of oLhers
ubllc offlclals
are noL exempL ln Lhelr personal capaclLy from llablllLy arlslng from acLs
commlLLed ln
bad falLh
nelLher does lL apply where Lhe publlc offlclal ls clearly belng sued noL ln
hls
offlclal capaclLy buL ln hls personal capaclLy alLhough Lhe acLs complalned
of may have
been commlLLed whlle he occupled a publlc poslLlon %L/onsonq vs
eb 2l 2000%
ln Lhls case peLlLloner was sued for allegedly personal moLlves" ln
orderlng Lhe
e[ecLmenL of Lhe general Assembly of Lhe 8llnds lnc (CA8l) from Lhe 8lzal
ark Lhus
Lhe case was noL deemed a sulL agalnsL Lhe sLaLe
Lorkins vs NL 241 5 598 prlvaLe respondenLs were dlsmlssed from
Lhelr employmenL by LL Col lrankhauser acLlng for and ln behalf of Lhe
uS governmenL
whlch by rlghL of soverelgn power operaLed and malnLalned Lhe
dormlLorles aL Lhe
Clark Alrbase for uSAl Members
Instances when a su|t aga|nst a State |s proper
1 When Lhe 8epubllc ls sued by name
2 When Lhe sulL ls agalnsL an unlncorporaLed governmenL agencylnqulre
lnLo Lhe
prlnclpal funcLlons of Lhe agency
a lf governmenLal nC Sul1 Wl1PCu1 CCnSLn1
b lf proprleLary Sul1 WlLL LlL
3 When Lhe sulL ls on lLs face agalnsL a governmenL offlcer buL Lhe case ls
such LhaL
ulLlmaLe llablllLy wlll belong noL Lo Lhe offlcer buL Lo Lhe governmenL
epub/ic vs 5ondovo/ 220 5 124 Lhls ls noL a sulL agalnsL Lhe sLaLe
wlLh lLs
consenL Lven as Lhe SC dlsmlssed Lhe sulL agalnsL Lhe 8 Lhe acLlon for
Lhe damages
agalnsL Lhe mlllLary personnel and Lhe pollcemen responslble for Lhe 1989
Mendlola
Massacre was uphe|d lnasmuch as Lhe lnlLlal flndlngs of Lhe uavlde
Commlsslon
showed LhaL Lhere was aL leasL negllgence on Lhelr parL when Lhey flred
Lhelr guns
1hey exceeded Lhelr auLhorlLy 1he mlllLary personnel and Lhe pollcemen
were held Lo
be llable ln Lhelr lndlvldual capaclLy
*haullng lumber for Lhe repalr of Lhe publlc markeLbuslness enLerprlse
of Lhe
governmenL (local governmenL)
*celebraLlon of Lown flesLa@orio vs ontoni//onoL a governmenLal
funcLlon buL a
proprleLary funcLlon
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r1he docLrlne of SLaLe lmmunlLy from sulL exLends only up Lo rendlLlon of
Lhe [udgmenL
When lL comes Lo execuLlon Lo saLlsfy Lhe [udgmenL lL wlll requlre anoLher
walver 1he
remedy ls Lo make Lhe necessary represenLaLlon wlLh Lhe lawmaklng
auLhorlLy
*duty to appropr|atedlscreLlonary and Lherefore cannoL be compelled
by mandamus
Powever ln Mun of Mokoti vs 190 5 20 where Lhe munlclpallLy
falls or
refuses wlLhouL [usLlflable reasons Lo effecL paymenL of a flnal money
[udgmenL
rendered agalnsL lL Lhe clalmanL may avall of Lhe remedy of mondomus ln
order Lo
compel Lhe enacLmenL and approval of Lhe necessary approprlaLlon
ordlnance and Lhe
correspondlng dlsbursemenL of munlclpal funds Lherefor
miqob/e vs uenco 4l 5 l0 an acLlon for Lhe recovery of Lhe value
of Lhe
properLy Laken by Lhe governmenL and converLed lnLo a publlc sLreeL
wlLhouL paymenL of
[usL compensaLlon was allowed desplLe Lhe fallure of Lhe properLy owner
Lo flle hls clalm
wlLh Lhe AudlLor Ceneral 1he governmenL should have followed flrsL lLs
own rule (lL
should have flled an exproprlaLlon case) before lL enLered Lhe properLy
Pad lL done so
Lhe sulL can be walved 1he sLaLe opened lLself Lo a posslble sulL agalnsL lL
SCCL CI CCNSLN1
ConsenL Lo be sued does noL lnclude consenL Lo Lhe execuLlon of [udgmenL
agalnsL lL
a Such execuLlon wlll requlre anoLher walver because Lhe power of Lhe
courL
ends when Lhe [udgmenL ls rendered
b 8uL funds belonglng Lo governmenL corporaLlons (whose charLers
provlde LhaL
Lhey can sue and be sued) LhaL are deposlLed wlLh a bank are not exempt
from garnlshmenL
Lxcept|ons Municipo/ity of 5on Mique/ 8u/ocon vs ernondet 1l0
5 5 funds of a munlclpallLy are publlc ln characLer and may noL be
garnlshed UNLLSS Lhere ls a correspondlng approprlaLlon ordlnance duly
passed by Lhe Sanggunlang 8ayan
PN8 vs Pobo/on 8l 5 595 funds belonglng Lo
governmenL corporaLlons whlch can sue and be sued LhaL are deposlLed
wlLh
a bank
Un|ncorporated Agency Incorporated Agency
lL has no legal personallLy separaLe and
dlsLlncL from Lhe governmenL When sued
lL ls deemed a sulL agalnsL Lhe SLaLe Lhere
ls no walver of SLaLe lmmunlLy
lL does noL have lLs own charLer llke
8ureau of CusLoms 8l8 uA n8l
performs governmenLal funcLlons noL
lL has a personallLy separaLe and dlsLlncL
from Lhe governmenL
lL has lLs own charLer such as SSS CSlS
Land 8ank u8
lf lLs charLer provldes LhaL lL has Lhe rlghL
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
suable wlLhouL SLaLe consenL even lf
performlng proprleLary funcLlon lncldenLally
%8ureou of Printinq vs 8ureou of
Printinq mp/oyees ssociotion 1
5 l40)
113


lf performlng proprleLary funcLlons suable
%ivi/ eronoutics dministrotion vs
17 5 28)
Lo sue and be sued lL ls an express
consenL and lL ls suable %555 vs 120
5 707)
lf lLs charLer ls sllenL lnqulre lnLo lLs
funcLlon based on Lhe purpose for whlch lL
was creaLed %Mo/onq vs PN 1l8 5
l)
rproprleLarylf Lhe purpose ls Lo obLaln
speclal corporaLe beneflLs or earn
pecunlary proflL suable
rgovernmenLallf lL ls ln Lhe lnLeresL of
healLh safeLy and for Lhe advancemenL of
publlc good and welfare affecLlng Lhe
publlc ln general noL suable %8o/quero
vs /co/o 295 5 l)
ku|es kegard|ng ayment of Interests by Government |n Money
Iudgments
Aga|nst It
GkCovernmenL cannoL be made Lo pay lnLeresLs
Lxcept|ons
1 LmlnenL domaln
2 Lrroneous collecLlon of Laxes
3 Where governmenL agrees Lo pay lnLeresL pursuanL Lo law
AkMLD ICkCLS CI 1nL nILIINLS (AI)
1he Al ls Lhe proLecLor of Lhe people and Lhe SLaLe lLs goal ls Lo secure
Lhe
soverelgnLy of Lhe SLaLe and Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe naLlonal LerrlLory
lL conslsL of clLlzen armed force and a regular force
Cne po||ce force
kepub||c Act 697S
Mass Med|a
lL lncludes
1 8adlo
2 1elevlslon
3 rlnLed medla
loqe J027/12/2008 soyr
302
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Iu|| I|||p|n|zat|on SecLlon 11 (1) arLlcle xvlte owoetslp ooJ
moooqemeot of
moss meJlo soll be llmlteJ to cltlzeos of te llllpploes ot to
cotpototloos
coopetotlves ot ossoclotloos wollyowoeJ ooJ moooqeJ by soc cltlzeos
lL prohlblLs comblnaLlon ln resLralnL of Lrade and unfalr compeLlLlon and
commands Congress Lo regulaLe or prohlblL monopolles ln commerclal
mass medla
Advert|s|ngnoL LreaLed as mass medla buL use of mass medla
Ak1ICLL kVII
AMLNDMLN1S Ck kLVISICNS
%Amendment vs kev|s|on
Amendment kev|s|on
plecemeal or lsolaLed change ln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon lL ls Lhe generlc Lerm used Lo
denoLe change ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
revamp or rewrlLlng of Lhe enLlre
ConsLlLuLlon lL means overhaullng of Lhe
governmenL
**Lombino vs OML changlng Lhe form of governmenL from
presldenLlal Lo
parllamenLary lnvolves a revlslon and noL amendmenL
2 Stages of Amendment
1 roposa| (Secs 13 ArL xvll)Lhe adopLlon of Lhe suggesLed change ln
Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon A proposed amendmenL may come from(3 ways of
proposlng
amendmenLs Lo or revlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon under ArLlcle xvll)
(a) Congress
| (Sec 1 Art kVII) AcLlng as Const|tut|ona| Assemb|y and noL as a
leglslaLlve body Cne of Lhe nonleglslaLlve powers
|| 8y a voLe of 3/4 of all lLs members (3/4 of Lhe SenaLe 3/4 of Lhe Pouse
of 8epresenLaLlves
(b) Const|tut|ona| Convent|on whlch may be called lnLo exlsLence elLher
| 8y dlrecLly calllng a ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlon by a 2/3 voLe of all Lhe
Members of Congress or
|| 8y submlLLlng Lhe lssue Lo Lhe people ln a pleblsclLe lf Lhe LwoLhlrds
(2/3) voLe ls noL obLalned by a ma[orlLy voLe of all Lhe members of
Congress
wlLh Lhe quesLlon of wheLher or noL Lo call a ConvenLlon Lo be resolved by
Lhe
people ln a pleblsclLe (Sec3 Art kVII)
rsuper|or people 1heory of ConvenLlonal SoverelgnLy
r|nfer|or lL ls a mere creaLlon of Congress
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
r coequa| to and |ndependent of the 3 branches
Occeno vs OML 104 5 1 Lhe cholce of meLhod of proposal le
wheLher made dlrecLly by Congress or Lhrough a ConsLlLuLlonal
ConvenLlon ls wlLhln Lhe
full dlscreLlon of Lhe leglslaLure
(c) eop|e through the ower of In|t|at|ve (Sec2 Art kVII) A peLlLlon of
aL
leasL 12 of Lhe LoLal number of reglsLered voLers of whlch every
leglslaLlve dlsLrlcL
musL be represenLed by aL leasL 3 of Lhe reglsLered voLers Lhereln
1hls ls noL a selfexecuLlng provlslon lL wlll requlre an enacLmenL of law
kA 673S In|t|at|ve and keferendum Law
INI1IA1IVLLhe power of Lhe people Lo propose amendmenLs Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
or Lo propose and enacL leglslaLlons Lhrough an elecLlon called for Lhe
purpose
*3 k|nds of |n|t|at|ve
1 lnlLlaLlve on Lhe ConsLlLuLlon refers Lo a peLlLlon proposlng
amendmenLs Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
2 lnlLlaLlve on sLaLuLes refers Lo a peLlLlon proposlng Lo enacL a naLlonal
leglslaLlon
3 lnlLlaLlve on local leglslaLlon refers Lo a peLlLlon proposlng Lo enacL a
reglonal
provlnclal munlclpal clLy or barangay law resoluLlon or ordlnance
Sec2(a)kA673S
Sect|on 2 (b) kA 673S provldes for
lnul8LC1 lnl1lA1lvL exerclse of lnlLlaLlve by Lhe people Lhrough a
proposlLlon
senL Lo Congress or Lhe local leglslaLlve body for acLlon and
ul8LC1 lnl1lA1lvL Lhe people Lhemselves flled Lhe peLlLlon wlLh Lhe
CCMLLLC
and noL wlLh Congress
1he CCMLLLC cannoL valldly promulgaLe rules and regulaLlons Lo
lmplemenL Lhe
exerclse of Lhe rlghL of Lhe people Lo dlrecLly propose amendmenLs Lo Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon
Lhrough Lhe sysLem of lnlLlaLlve lL does noL have Lhe power under 8A
6733 8ellance on
Lhe CCMLLLC's power under SecLlon 2 (1) ArLlcle lxC ls mlsplaced for Lhe
laws and
116


regulaLlons referred Lo Lhereln are Lhose promulgaLed by Lhe CCMLLLC
under SecLlon 3
of ArLlcle lxC or a law where subordlnaLe leglslaLlon ls auLhorlzed and
whlch saLlsfles
Lhe compleLeness" and Lhe sufflclenL sLandard LesLs" %5ontioqo vs
OML 270
5 10)
2 kat|f|cat|on (Sec 4 ArL xvll) 1he proposed amendmenL shall become
parL of
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon when raLlfled by a ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a
p|eb|sc|te held noL
earller Lhan 60 nor laLer Lhan 90 days afLer Lhe approval of Lhe proposal by
Congress or
Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlon or afLer Lhe cerLlflcaLlon by Lhe CCMLLLC
of Lhe
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
sufflclency of Lhe peLlLlon for lnlLlaLlve under Sec 2 ArL xvll
kLILkLNDUM Lhe power of Lhe elecLoraLe Lo approve or re[ecL leglslaLlon
Lhrough an elecLlon called for LhaL purpose
1wo (2) C|asses
1 8 eferendum on SLaLuLes refers Lo a peLlLlon Lo approve or re[ecL a law
or parL
Lhereof passed by Congress
2 8 eferendum on Local Law refers Lo a peLlLlon Lo approve or re[ecL a
law
resoluLlon or ordlnance enacLed by reglonal assemblles and local
leglslaLlve
bodles
Doctr|ne of roper Subm|ss|on (proper frame of reference)
8ecause Lhe ConsLlLuLlon lLself prescrlbes Lhe Llme frame wlLhln whlch Lhe
pleblsclLe ls Lo
be held Lhere can no longer be a quesLlon on wheLher Lhe Llme glven Lo
Lhe people Lo
deLermlne Lhe merlLs and demerlLs of Lhe proposed amendmenLs ls
adequaLe
r1he pleblsclLe may be held on Lhe same day as regular elecLlons
ludicio/ eview of mendments 1he quesLlon ls now regarded as sub[ecL
Lo [udlclal
revlew because lnvarlably Lhe lssue wlll boll down Lo wheLher or noL Lhe
consLlLuLlonal
provlslons had been followed %oolJoJ vs comelec 78 ckA JJJ
Iovellooo vs
xec ectetoty 50 ckA 50%
roh|b|ted Measures 1he followlng cannoL be Lhe sub[ecL of an lnlLlaLlve
or
referendum
1 no peLlLlon embraclng more Lhan one sub[ecL shall be submlLLed Lo Lhe
elecLoraLe and
2 SLaLuLes lnvolvlng emergency measures Lhe enacLmenL of whlch ls
speclflcally vesLed ln Congress by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon cannoL be sub[ecL of
referendum unLll nlneLy (90) days afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy (Sec 10 8A 6733)
Loca| In|t|at|ve noL less Lhan 2000 reglsLered voLers ln case of
auLonomous reglons
1000 ln case of provlnces and clLles 100 ln case of munlclpallLles and 30
ln case of
barangays may flle a peLlLlon wlLh Lhe 8eglonal Assembly or local
leglslaLlve body
respecLlvely proposlng Lhe adopLlon enacLmenL repeal or amendmenL
of any law
ordlnance or resoluLlon (Sec 13 8A 6733)
LlmlLaLlons on Local lnlLlaLlve
a 1he power of local lnlLlaLlve shall noL be exerclsed more Lhan once a
year
b lnlLlaLlve shall exLend only Lo sub[ecLs or maLLers whlch are wlLhln Lhe
legal
powers of Lhe local leglslaLlve bodles Lo enacL and
c lf aL any Llme before Lhe lnlLlaLlve ls held Lhe local leglslaLlve body shall
adopL lo
toto Lhe proposlLlon presenLed Lhe lnlLlaLlve shall be cancelled Powever
Lhose
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
agalnsL such acLlon may lf Lhey so deslre apply for lnlLlaLlve
LlmlLaLlon on Local LeglslaLlve 8ody vlsvls Local lnlLlaLlve
rSec 12S kA 7160any proposlLlon or ordlnance approved Lhrough an
lnlLlaLlve and referendum shall noL be repealed modlfled or amended by
Lhe
Sangggunlan wlLhln 6 monLhs from Lhe daLe of approval Lhereof and may
be amended
modlfled or repealed wlLhln 3 years LhereafLer by a voLe of of all lLs
members ln case
of barangays Lhe perlod shall be 18 monLhs afLer approval
kev|s|on
ln Lhe case of Lombino vs OML 6 No 17415l October 25 200
Lhe SC held LhaL a people's lnlLlaLlve Lo change Lhe ConsLlLuLlon applles
only Lo an
amendmenL of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and noL Lo lLs revlslon CerLalnly Lhe
Lamblno Croup's
lnlLlaLlve ls a revlslon and noL merely an amendmenL CuanLlLaLlvely Lhe
Lamblno
Croup's proposed changes overhaul Lwo arLlclesArLlcle vl on Lhe
LeglslaLure and
ArLlcle vll on Lhe LxecuLlveaffecLlng a LoLal of 103 provlslons ln Lhe
enLlre ConsLlLuLlon
CuallLaLlvely Lhe proposed changes alLer subsLanLlally Lhe baslc plan of
governmenL
from presldenLlal Lo parllamenLary and from a blcameral Lo a unlcameral
leglslaLure
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Art|c|e kVIII
1kANSI1Ck kCVISICNS
Sect|on 7 Art|c|e kVIII
unti/ o /ow is possed te President moy fi// by oppointment from o /ist of
nominees by te respective sectors te seot reserved for sectoro/
representotives
in poroqrop 2 5ection 5 of rtic/e vl of tis onstitution
uintosue/es vs ommittee on onstitutiono/ ommissions
ommission on
ppointments 177 5 259 Lhe appolnLmenL of a secLoral
represenLaLlve by Lhe
resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes ls speclflcally provlded ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
1hus Lhe
appolnLmenL of a secLoral represenLaLlve falls under Lhe 4Lh caLegory
Lhose offlcers
whose appolnLmenLs are vesLed ln hlm ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
Sect|on 2S Art|c|e kVIIIdlsallows forelgn mlllLary bases Lroops or
faclllLles ln Lhe
counLry unless Lhe followlng condlLlons are sufflclenLly meL
1 lL musL be under a LreaLy
2 1he LreaLy musL be duly concurred ln by Lhe SenaLe and when so
requlred by
117


Congress raLlfled by a ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL by Lhe people ln a
naLlonal
referendum and
3 8ecognlzed as a LreaLy by Lhe oLher conLracLlng sLaLe
r Concurrence requlremenL" musL be consLrued ln relaLlon Lo Lhe
provlslons of SecLlon
21 ArLlcle vll 1he concurrence of Lhe SenaLe conLemplaLed under SecLlon
23 ArLlcle
xvlll means LhaL aL leasL LwoLhlrds (2/3) of all Lhe members of Lhe SenaLe
favorably
voLe Lo concur wlLh LreaLy 1hls provlslon ls a speclal provlslon LhaL applles
Lo LreaLles
whlch lnvolve Lhe presence of forelgn mlllLary bases Lroops or faclllLles ln
Lhe
hlllpplnes under Lhls provlslon Lhe concurrence of Lhe SenaLe ls only
one of Lhe
requlslLes Lo render compllance wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal requlremenLs and
Lo conslder Lhe
agreemenL blndlng on Lhe hlllpplnes %8oyon vs 2omoro l42 5 449)
1he requlslLes under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon before forelgn mlllLary bases
Lroops or
faclllLles shall be allowed ln Lhe hlllpplnes are
1 1here musL be a LreaLy duly concurred ln by Lhe SenaLe
2 When Congress so requlres sald LreaLy musL be raLlfled by a ma[orlLy of
Lhe
loqe J077/12/2008 soyr
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2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
voLes casL by Lhe pe0ple ln a naLlonal referendum held for Lhe purpose
and
3 Sald LreaLy should be recognlzed as a LreaLy also by Lhe oLher
conLracLlng
SLaLe (Sect|on 2S Art|c|e kVIII)
ADMINIS1kA1IVL LAW
LC 292
1haL branch of publlc law whlch flxes Lhe organlzaLlon deLermlnes Lhe
compeLence of admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles who execuLes Lhe law and
lndlcaLes Lo Lhe
lndlvldual remedles for Lhe vlolaLlon of hls rlghL
k|nds
1 SLaLuLes seLLlng up admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
2 8ules regulaLlons or orders of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
promulgaLed
pursuanL Lo Lhe purposes for whlch Lhey were creaLed
3 ueLermlnaLlons declslons and orders of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
made ln
Lhe seLLlemenL of conLroversles arlslng ln Lhelr parLlcular flelds
4 8ody of docLrlnes and declslons deallng wlLh Lhe creaLlon operaLlon
and effecL of
deLermlnaLlons and regulaLlons of such admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
Adm|n|strat|ve Code of 1987
1he Code ls a general law and lncorporaLes ln a unlfled documenL Lhe
ma[or
sLrucLural funcLlonal and procedural prlnclples of governance and
embodles changes ln
admlnlsLraLlve sLrucLures and procedures deslgned Lo serve Lhe people lL
covers Lhe
lnLernal admlnlsLraLlon le lnLernal organlzaLlon personnel and
recrulLmenL
supervlslon and dlsclpllne and Lhe effecLs of Lhe funcLlons performed by
admlnlsLraLlve
offlclals on prlvaLe lndlvlduals or parLles ouLslde governmenL
Adm|n|strat|ve ower
lL ls concerned wlLh Lhe work of applylng pollcles and enforclng orders as
deLermlned by proper governmenLal organs lL enables Lhe resldenL Lo flx
a unlform
sLandard of admlnlsLraLlve efflclency and check Lhe offlclal conducL of hls
agenLs 1o Lhls
end he can lssue admlnlsLraLlve orders rules and regulaLlons
Adm|n|strat|ve Crder
lL ls an ordlnance lssued by Lhe resldenL whlch relaLes Lo speclflc aspecLs
ln Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve operaLlon of governmenL lL musL be ln harmony wlLh Lhe
law and should
be for Lhe sole purpose of lmplemenLlng Lhe law and carrylng ouL Lhe
leglslaLlve pollcy
Adm|n|strat|on
a A s a luncLlon
loqe J087/12/2008 soyr
308
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lL ls Lhe execuLlon ln non[udlclal maLLers of Lhe law or wlll of Lhe SLaLe as
expressed by compeLenL auLhorlLy
b A s an CrganlzaLlon
1haL group or aggregaLe of persons ln whose hands Lhe relns of
governmenL
are for Lhe Llme belng
Government of the h|||pp|nes
lL refers Lo Lhe corporaLe governmenLal enLlLy Lhrough whlch Lhe funcLlons
of Lhe
governmenL are exerclsed LhroughouL Lhe hlllpplnes lncludlng save as
Lhe conLrary
appears from Lhe conLexL Lhe varlous arms Lhrough whlch pollLlcal
auLhorlLy ls made
effecLlve ln Lhe hlllpplnes wheLher perLalnlng Lo Lhe auLonomous
reglons Lhe
provlnclal clLy munlclpal or barangay subdlvlslons or oLher forms of local
governmenL
klnds of governmenL
1 ln1L8nALlegal slde of publlc admlnlsLraLlon eg maLLers concernlng
personnel flscal and plannlng acLlvlLles
2 Lx1L8nALdeals wlLh problems of governmenL regulaLlons eg
regulaLlon
of lawful calllng of professlon lndusLrles or buslnesses
Government Instrumenta||ty
lL refers Lo any agency of Lhe naLlonal governmenL noL lnLegraLed wlLhln
Lhe
deparLmenL framework vesLed wlLh speclal funcLlons or [urlsdlcLlon by
law endowed
wlLh some lf noL all corporaLe powers admlnlsLerlng speclal funds
en[oylng operaLlonal
auLonomy usually Lhrough a charLer lL lncludes regulaLory agencles
charLered
lnsLlLuLlons and CCCCs
GovernmentCwned or Contro||ed Corporat|ons (GCCCs)
lL refers Lo any agency organlzed as a sLock or nonsLock corporaLlon
vesLed wlLh
funcLlons relaLlng Lo publlc needs wheLher governmenLal or proprleLary ln
naLure and
owned by Lhe CovernmenL dlrecLly or Lhrough lLs lnsLrumenLallLles elLher
wholly or
where appllcable as ln Lhe case of sLock corporaLlons Lo Lhe exLenL of aL
leasL flfLyone
percenL (31) of lLs caplLal sLock
a ropr|etarylf Lhe purpose ls Lo obLaln speclal corporaLe beneflLs or
earn
pecunlary proflL
b Governmenta|lf lL ls ln Lhe lnLeresL of healLh safeLy and for Lhe
advancemenL of publlc good and welfare affecLlng publlc ln general
118


%8/oquero vs /co/o 295 5 l 5eptember 11 1998)
1hose wlLh speclal charLers are governmenL corporaLlons sub[ecL Lo lLs
provlslons and
lLs employees are under Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe CSC 1he n8C was noL
lmplledly
converLed Lo a prlvaLe corporaLlon slmply because lLs charLer was
amended Lo vesL ln lL
Lhe auLhorlLy Lo secure loans be exempLed from paymenL of all duLles
Laxes fees and
oLher charges eLc %omporedondo vs NL 6 No 129049 uqust
1999)
loqe J097/12/2008 soyr
309
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Agency of the Government
lL refers Lo any of Lhe varlous unlLs of Lhe CovernmenL lncludlng a
deparLmenL
bureau offlce lnsLrumenLallLy or governmenLowned or conLrolled
corporaLlon or a
local governmenL or a dlsLlncL unlL Lhereln
Adm|n|strat|ve 8od|es or Agenc|es
Crgan of governmenL oLher Lhan a courL and oLher Lhan a leglslaLure
whlch
affecLs Lhe rlghLs of prlvaLe parLles elLher Lhrough ad[udlcaLlon or rule
maklng
1hey are creaLed elLher by
1 ConsLlLuLlonal provlslons
2 LeglslaLlve enacLmenLs or
3 AuLhorlLy of law
A body or agency ls admlnlsLraLlve where lLs funcLlon ls prlmarlly
regulaLory even
lf lL conducLs hearlngs and deLermlnes conLroversles Lo carry ouL lLs
regulaLory duLy Cn
lLs rulemaklng auLhorlLy lL ls admlnlsLraLlve when lL does noL have
dlscreLlon Lo
deLermlne whaL Lhe law shall be buL merely prescrlbes deLalls for Lhe
enforcemenL of Lhe
law
Adm|n|strat|ve kegu|at|onsalso known as lLCLS Cl Su8C8ulnA1L
LLClSLA1lCn CuASlLLClSLA1lvL CWL8S
lL cannoL exLend Lhe law or amend a leglslaLlve enacLmenL for seLLled ls
Lhe rule
LhaL admlnlsLraLlve regulaLlons musL be ln harmony wlLh Lhe provlslons of
Lhe law %Lond
8onk vs 249 5 149)
k|nds of Adm|n|strat|ve ku|es]kegu|at|ons
a S upplemenLary or deLalled leglslaLlonLo flx Lhe deLalls ln Lhe
execuLlon and
enforcemenL of a pollcy seL ouL ln Lhe law
b l nLerpreLaLlve leglslaLlonconsLrulng or lnLerpreLlng Lhe provlslons of
a sLaLuLe Lo
be enforced
c C onLlngenL leglslaLlonmade by admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLy on Lhe
exlsLence of
cerLaln facLs or Lhlngs upon whlch Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe law depends
kequ|s|tes for A Va||d Adm|n|strat|ve kegu|at|on
1 romulgaLlon musL be auLhorlzed by Lhe leglslaLure
2 1he admlnlsLraLlve 88 musL be ln accordance wlLh Lhe auLhorlLy granLed
by Lhe
leglslaLurelL musL noL exceed musL be wlLhln Lhe scope or purvlew of
Lhe law
loqe J107/12/2008 soyr
310
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 romulgaLlon musL be ln accordance wlLh Lhe duly prescrlbed
procedures
r U8LICA1ICN %@oodo vs @uvero) ArLlcle 2 of Lhe Clvll Code
ubllcaLlon ls lndlspensable lL speaks of laws and refers as well as Lo
admlnlsLraLlve 88 promulgaLed by admlnlsLraLlve bodles except
a 1hose merely lnLernal ln naLure
b 1hose merely lnLerpreLaLlve
r ArLlcle 3 of Lhe Clvll Code presupposes LhaL Lhe law has been
publlshed ln Lhe CC or ln a newspaper of general clrculaLlon
4 1he admlnlsLraLlve 88 musL be 8LASCnA8LLnoL whlmslcal noL
caprlclous
noL oppresslve lL musL pass Lhe LesL of reasonableness
r Adm|n|strat|ve ku|es and kegu|at|ons w|th ena| sanct|ons Add|t|ona|
kequ|s|tes
3 1he law musL lLself declare as punlshable Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe A88
6 1he law should deflne or flx Lhe penalLy for Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe A88
owers of Adm|n|strat|ve 8od|es
1 CuaslLeglslaLlve or 8ulemaklng power
2 Cuasl!udlclal or Ad[udlcaLory power and
3 ueLermlnaLlve powers
uas|Leg|s|at|ve funct|on uas|Iud|c|a| funct|on
rconslsLs of lssuances of rules and
regulaLlons
rgeneral appllcablllLy
rprospecLlve lL envlsages Lhe
promulgaLlon of a rule or regulaLlon
generally appllcable ln Lhe fuLure
rrefers Lo lLs end producL called order
reward or declslon
rapplles Lo speclflc slLuaLlon
rpresenL deLermlnaLlon of rlghLs prlvlleges
or duLles as of prevlous or presenL Llme or
occurrence
no/y 5pirit nomeowners ssociotion vs 5ecretory uefensor 6 No
1l980
uqust l 200 prohlblLlon lles agalnsL [udlclal or mlnlsLerlal funcLlons
buL noL agalnsL
leglslaLlve or quaslleglslaLlve funcLlons ln subordlnaLe leglslaLlon as long
as Lhe
passage of Lhe rule or regulaLlon had Lhe beneflL of a hearlng Lhe
procedural due
process requlremenL ls deemed complled wlLh
uas|Leg|s|at|ve ower
1hls ls Lhe exerclse of delegaLed leglslaLlve power lnvolvlng no dlscreLlon
as Lo
whaL Lhe law shall be buL merely Lhe auLhorlLy Lo flx Lhe deLalls ln Lhe
execuLlon or
enforcemenL of a pollcy seL ouL ln Lhe law lLself
1he rules and regulaLlons (88) lssued by admlnlsLraLlve auLhorlLles
pursuanL Lo
Lhe powers delegaLed Lo Lhem have Lhe force and effecL of law Lhey are
blndlng on all
persons sub[ecL Lo Lhem and Lhe courLs wlll Lake [udlclal noLlce of Lhem
loqe J117/12/2008 soyr
311
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
P5u5 vs 5ec ue lesus 6 No 15728 lune 1 200 lL musL be
sLressed LhaL Lhe power of admlnlsLraLlve offlclals Lo promulgaLe rules ln
lmplemenLaLlon
of a sLaLuLe ls necessarlly llmlLed Lo whaL ls provlded for ln Lhe leglslaLlve
enacLmenL
119


1he lmplemenLlng rules and regulaLlons of a law cannoL exLend Lhe law or
expand lLs
coverage as Lhe power Lo amend or repeal a sLaLuLe ls vesLed ln Lhe
leglslaLure lL bears
sLresslng however LhaL Lhe admlnlsLraLlve bodles are allowed under Lhelr
power of
subordlnaLe leglslaLlon Lo lmplemenL Lhe broad pollcles lald down ln a
sLaLuLe by fllllng
ln" Lhe deLalls All LhaL ls requlred ls LhaL Lhe regulaLlon be germane Lo Lhe
ob[ecLlves and
purposes of Lhe law LhaL Lhe regulaLlon does noL conLradlcL buL conforms
wlLh Lhe
sLandards prescrlbed by law
under Lhe law lL ls Lhe uC1C whlch ls auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer and
enforced all
laws rules and regulaLlons ln Lhe fleld of LransporLaLlon and Lo regulaLe
relaLed acLlvlLles
Slnce Lhe uWP has no auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe acLlvlLles relaLed Lo
LransporLaLlon Lhe
1ollways 8egulaLory 8oard cannoL derlve lLs power from Lhe uWP Lo
lssue regulaLlons
governlng llmlLed access faclllLles %mes Miroso/ vs uPJn 6 No
15879l 200)
necesslLy of noLlce and Pearlng
1here ls no consLlLuLlonal requlremenL for a hearlng ln Lhe promulgaLlon
of a
general regulaLlon by an admlnlsLraLlve body
ln orono vs united norbor Pi/ots ssociotion of te Pi/ippines 6 No
11195l uecember 12 1997 Lhe SC relLeraLed Lhe rule LhaL prlor hearlng
ls noL
necessary for Lhe lssuance of an A88
Doctr|ne of Leg|s|at|ve Approva| by keLnactmentLhe rules and
regulaLlons
promulgaLed by Lhe proper admlnlsLraLlve agency lmplemenLlng Lhe law
are deemed
conflrmed and approved by Lhe LeglslaLure when sald law was reenacLed
by laLer
leglslaLlon or Lhrough codlflcaLlon 1he LeglslaLure ls presumed Lo have full
knowledge
of Lhe conLenLs of Lhe regulaLlons Lhen aL Lhe Llme of reenacLmenL
Determ|nat|ve owers
1 LnabllngLo permlL or allow someLhlng whlch Lhe law underLakes Lo
regulaLe
2 ulrecLlnglllusLraLed by Lhe power of assessmenL of Lhe 8l8 or 8ureau
of
CusLoms
3 ulspenslngLo exempL from a general prohlblLlon or relleve an
lndlvldual or
corporaLlon from an afflrmaLlve duLy
4 LxamlnlnglnvesLlgaLory powerconslsLs ln requlrlng producLlon of
books
papers eLc
3 Summarypower Lo apply compulslon or force agalnsL persons or
properLy Lo
effecLuaLe a legal purpose wlLhouL a [udlclal warranL Lo auLhorlze such
acLlon
uas|Iud|c|a| or Ad[ud|catory ower
loqe J127/12/2008 soyr
312
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he admlnlsLraLlve agency ls acLlng as a courL of [usLlce conducLlng
hearlngs and
renderlng declslons 1he proceedlngs parLakes Lhe characLer of [udlclal
proceedlngs
5ec 1%1) rtic/e vlll@e joJlclol powet soll be vesteJ lo ooe c ooJ lo
soc lowet
cootts os moy be estobllseJ by low ouLslde of Lhls Lhey refer Lo Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve
agency performlng quasl[udlclal funcLlons
kequ|s|tes for a va||d exerc|se of uas|Iud|c|a| Iunct|on of
Adm|n|strat|ve
Agency
1 Conferment of [ur|sd|ct|on[urlsdlcLlon ls conferred by Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon or law
lL cannoL be lmplled cannoL be walved lL cannoL be lefL Lo Lhe wlll of Lhe
people
1he power Lo promulgaLe rules of procedure
Cnce vesLed wlLh quasl[udlclal power by vlrLue of Lhe DCC1kINL CI
NLCLSSAk IMLICA1ICN lL provldes Lhe power Lo promulgaLe Lhe rules
of
procedure 1he rules of procedure are sub[ecL Lo Lhe revlew power of Lhe
SC
5ec 5%5) rt vlll ltomolqote toles coocetoloq te ptotectloo
ooJ eofotcemeot of coostltotloool tlqts pleoJloq ptoctlce ooJ
ptoceJote
lo oll cootts te oJmlssloo to te ptoctlce of low te loteqtoteJ
8ot ooJ leqol osslstooce to te ooJetptlvlleqeJ oc toles soll ptovlJe
o slmpllfleJ ooJ loexpeoslve ptoceJote fot te speeJy Jlsposltloo of
coses soll be oolfotm fot oll cootts of te some qtoJe ooJ soll oot
Jlmlols locteose ot moJlfy sobstootlve tlqts u/es of procedure of
specio/ courts ond quosijudicio/ bodies so// remoin effective un/ess
disopproved by te 5upreme ourt
ln orio vs n 204 5 48l Lhe power Lo lnvesLlgaLe ls dlfferenL
from Lhe
power Lo ad[udlcaLe 1he courL has observed LhaL lL ls only Lhe flrsL of Lhe
enumeraLed
powers and funcLlons LhaL bears any resemblance Lo ad[udlcaLlon" buL
LhaL
resemblance can ln no way be synonymous Lo Lhe ad[udlcaLory power
lLself
ower to |nvest|gate ower to ad[ud|cate
8ecelvlng evldence and make flndlngs of
facL ln a conLroversy (ln Lhe case of CP8
clalmed human rlghLs vlolaLlons lnvolvlng
clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs)
1he faculLy of recelvlng evldence and
make facLual concluslons ln a conLroversy
accompanled by Lhe auLhorlLy of applylng
Lhe law Lo Lhose facLual concluslons Lo Lhe
end LhaL Lhe conLroversy may be declded
or deLermlned auLhorlLaLlvely flnally and
deflnlLely sub[ecL Lo appeals or modes of
revlew as may be provlded by law
loqe J1J7/12/2008 soyr
313
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
2 Cbservance of Adm|n|strat|ve Due rocessmandaLory 1he requlslLes
of
admlnlsLraLlve due process as enumeraLed ln nq @iboy vs l 40 O6
7t
5upp 128 are
7 Card|na|]r|mary k|ghts |n AD
a 1here musL be a hearlng
b 1he Lrlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence presenLed
c ueclslon musL have someLhlng Lo supporL lLself
d 1he evldence musL be subsLanLlalquanLum of evldence
e 1he declslon musL be based on Lhe evldence adduced aL Lhe hearlng or
aL
leasL conLalned ln Lhe record and dlsclosed Lo Lhe parLles
120


f 1he 8oard or lLs [udges musL acL on lLs or Lhelr lndependenL
conslderaLlon
of Lhe facLs and Lhe law of Lhe case and noL slmply accepL Lhe vlews of a
subordlnaLe ln arrlvlng aL a declslon and
g 1he declslon musL be rendered ln such a manner LhaL Lhe parLles Lo Lhe
conLroversy can know Lhe varlous lssues lnvolved and Lhe reason for Lhe
declslon rendered
Montemoyor vs roneto university oundotion %1977)MonLemayor
was a
fullLlme professor Charged wlLh lmmoral advances he was lnvesLlgaLed
wlLh Lhe
asslsLance of counsel and dlsmlssed ln accordance wlLh Lhe Manual of
pollcles of Lhe
unlverslLy Cn appeal Lo Lhe nL8C he was ordered relnsLaLed 1he SC held
LhaL hls
removal was wlLh due process 1here was no vlolaLlon of due process ln
Lhe labor
proceedlng buL lL dld noL preclude MonLemayor from sulng Lhe unlverslLy
for damages
ln Lumiqued vs xeveo 6 No 11755 November 18 1997 Lhe CA8
8eglonal ulrecLor was charged admlnlsLraLlvely Pe was asked several
Llmes lf he would
llke Lo be asslsLed by counsel buL he refused alleglng LhaL he can handle
hls case as he
was from u AfLer he was found gullLy he dled 1he helrs now clalmed
LhaL Lhe enLlre
proceedlng was null and vold 1hey alleged LhaL Lumlqued was noL
properly asslsLed by
counsel lL ls Lhe rlghL of Lhe accused Lo be asslsLed by counsel 1he SC
held LhaL Lhe
rlghL of Lhe accused LhaL was belng alleged by Lhe helrs ls a rlghL of Lhe
accused durlng
cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon whlch ls parL of a crlmlnal proceedlng 1hls ls noL a
crlmlnal
proceedlng AdmlnlsLraLlve due process does noL necessarlly requlre Lhe
asslsLance of
counsel A parLy ln an admlnlsLraLlve proceedlng has Lhe opLlon of
engaglng a counsel
or noL Pe may or may noL be asslsLed by counsel ln Lhls case Lhe
8eglonal ulrecLor
was even asked lf he would llke Lo be asslsLed by counsel buL he refused
Lo 1he rlghL Lo
counsel ls noL lndlspensable Lo due process unless requlred by Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon or Lhe
law
ln 6onto/es vs NL ond teneo de uovoo university 6 No 1257l5
uqust 2 1999 Lhe SC held LhaL Lhere was a vlolaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve
due process
loqe J147/12/2008 soyr
314
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
where Lhe Leacher was dlsmlssed by Lhe unlverslLy wlLhouL havlng been
glven full
opporLunlLy Lo confronL Lhe wlLnesses agalnsL her
1he essence of due process ls slmply an opporLunlLy Lo be heard or as
applled
Lo admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs an opporLunlLy Lo seek reconslderaLlon of
Lhe acLlon or
rullng complalned of %ue/o rut vs bi//e 6 No 1l019 ebruory 2
2001) or
an opporLunlLy Lo explaln one's slde %Pi/ipinos Loon ompony vs 5 6
No
104720 pri/ 4 2001%
ln admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs procedural due process slmply means Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo explaln one's slde or Lhe opporLunlLy Lo seek a
reconslderaLlon of Lhe
acLlon or rullng complalned of 1o be heard" does noL mean only verbal
argumenLs ln
courL one may also be heard Lhrough pleadlngs Where opporLunlLy Lo be
heard elLher
Lhrough oral argumenLs or pleadlngs ls accorded Lhere ls no denlal of
procedural due
process %osimiro vs @ondoq 6 No 141l7 lune 8 2005)
5 vs 6 No 1108 November 24 200 ln admlnlsLraLlve
proceedlngs Lhe flllng of charges and glvlng reasonable opporLunlLy for
Lhe person so
charged Lo answer Lhe accusaLlons agalnsL hlm consLlLuLe Lhe mlnlmum
requlremenLs of
due process As long as a parLy was glven opporLunlLy Lo defend hls
lnLeresLs ln due
course he was noL denled due process
ower of Contempt[udlclal lnherenL power of Lhe courL lL musL be
used on
Lhe preservaLlve noL on Lhe vlndlcLlve prlnclple An admlnlsLraLlve body
may exerclse Lhe
power of conLempL lf expressly granLed/vesLed by law Lo Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency 1he
docLrlne of necessary lmpllcaLlon cannoL be applled here
ln 6uevorro vs OML 104 Pi/ 28 Lhe power Lo punlsh conLempL
musL
be expressly granLed Lo Lhe admlnlsLraLlve body and when so granLed
may be
exerclsed only when Lhe admlnlsLraLlve body ls acLually performlng quasl
[udlclal
funcLlons
ln 5imon lr vs n 229 5 117 Lhe CP8 ls consLlLuLlonally auLhorlzed
Lo
adopL lLs operaLlonal guldellnes and rules of procedure and clLe for
conLempL for
vlolaLlons Lhereof ln accordance wlLh Lhe 8ules of CourL" Accordlngly Lhe
CP8 acLed
wlLhln lLs auLhorlLy ln provldlng ln lLs revlsed rules lLs power Lo clLe or
hold any person
ln dlrecL or lndlrecL conLempL and Lo lmpose Lhe approprlaLe penalLles ln
accordance
wlLh Lhe procedure and sancLlons provlded for ln Lhe 8ules of CourL" 1haL
power Lo clLe
for conLempL however should be undersLood Lo apply only Lo vlolaLlons
of lLs adopLed
operaLlonal guldellnes and rules of procedure essenLlal Lo carry ouL lLs
lnvesLlgaLorlal
powers 1o exempllfy Lhe power Lo clLe for conLempL could be exerclsed
agalnsL
persons who refuse Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe sald body or who unduly
wlLhhold relevanL
lnformaLlon or who decllne Lo honor summons and Lhe llke ln pursulng
lLs lnvesLlgaLlve
work 1he order Lo deslsL" (a semanLlc lnLerplay for a resLralnlng order) ls
noL
loqe J157/12/2008 soyr
313
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
lnvesLlgaLorlal ln characLer buL presclnds from an ad[udlcaLlve power LhaL
lL does noL
possess
ln Lhls case Lhe power of conLempL arose from an erroneous assumpLlon
of
[urlsdlcLlon lL ls noL valld 1here ls grave abuse of dlscreLlon Lo boLh
lssues
121


Adm|n|strat|ve determ|nat|ons where not|ce and hear|ng are not
necessary for
due process
1 CranL of provlslonal auLhorlLy for lncreased raLes or Lo engage ln a
parLlcular llne
of buslness
2 Summary proceedlngs of dlsLralnL and levy upon Lhe properLy of a
dellnquenL
Laxpayer
3 CancellaLlon of a passporL where no abuse of dlscreLlon ls commlLLed by
Lhe
SecreLary of lorelgn Affalrs
4 Summary abaLemenL of a nulsance pet se whlch affecLs Lhe lmmedlaLe
safeLy of
persons or properLy
3 revenLlve suspenslon of a publlc offlcer or employee pendlng
lnvesLlgaLlon of
admlnlsLraLlve charges flled agalnsL hlm
ln P8 vs l 6 No 112024 lonuory 28 1999 ArLlcle 8 of Lhe Clvll
Code
recognlzes [udlclal declslons applylng or lnLerpreLlng sLaLuLes as parL of
Lhe legal
sysLem of Lhe counLry 8uL admlnlsLraLlve declslons do noL en[oy LhaL level
of
recognlLlon A memorandumclrcular of a bureau head could noL operaLe
Lo vesL a
Laxpayer wlLh a shleld agalnsL [udlclal acLlon lor Lhere are no vesLed
rlghLs Lo speak of
respecLlng a wrong consLrucLlon of Lhe law by admlnlsLraLlve offlclals and
such wrong
lnLerpreLaLlon could noL place Lhe CovernmenL ln estoppel Lo correcL or
overrule Lhe
same
Adm|n|strat|ve Appea| and kev|ew
a Where provlded by law appeal from an admlnlsLraLlve deLermlnaLlon
may be
made Lo a hlgher or superlor admlnlsLraLlve offlcer or body
b 8y vlrLue of Lhe power of conLrol by whlch Lhe resldenL exerclses over
all
execuLlve deparLmenLs Lhe resldenLby hlmselfor Lhrough Lhe
ueparLmenL
SecreLarles (pursuanL Lo Lhe AlLerLgo uocLrlne) may afflrm modlfy alLer
or
reverse Lhe admlnlsLraLlve declslon of subordlnaLe offlclals and
employees
%roneto vs 6otmoiton 101 Pi/ l28)
c 1he appellaLe admlnlsLraLlve agency may conducL addlLlonal hearlngs ln
he
appealed case lf deemed necessary %eyes vs 2omoro 90 5 92)
Doctr|ne of kes Iud|cata
lL does noL apply Lo admlnlsLraLlve declslons
lL forblds Lhe reopenlng of a maLLer once deLermlned by compeLenL
auLhorlLy
acLlng wlLhln Lhelr excluslve [urlsdlcLlon %smoe/ vs ueputy xecutive
5ecretory 190
5 7l)
loqe J17/12/2008 soyr
316
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Doctr|ne of r|mary Iur|sd|ct|on (or r|or kesort)
CourLs cannoL and wlll noL resolve a conLroversy lnvolvlng a quesLlon
whlch ls
wlLhln Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of an admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunal especlally where Lhe
quesLlon
demands Lhe exerclse of sound admlnlsLraLlve dlscreLlon requlrlng Lhe
speclal
knowledge experlence and servlces of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunal Lo
deLermlne Lechnlcal
and lnLrlcaLe maLLers of facL
ln recenL years lL has been applled Lo maLLers LhaL demand Lhe speclal
compeLence of admlnlsLraLlve agencles even lf Lhe quesLlon lnvolved ls
also [udlclal ln
characLer lL applles where a clalm ls orlglnally cognlzable ln Lhe courLs
and comes lnLo
play whenever enforcemenL of Lhe clalm requlres Lhe resoluLlon of lssues
whlch under a
regulaLory scheme have been placed wlLhln Lhe speclal compeLence of an
admlnlsLraLlve body ln such case Lhe [udlclal process ls suspended
pendlng referral of
such lssues Lo Lhe admlnlsLraLlve body for lLs vlew"
ln cases where Lhe docLrlne of prlmary [urlsdlcLlon ls clearly appllcable Lhe
courL
cannoL arrogaLe unLo lLself Lhe auLhorlLy Lo resolve a conLroversy Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon over
whlch ls lodged wlLh an admlnlsLraLlve body of speclal compeLence
%vi//of/or vs
280 5 287)
Doctr|ne of Lxhaust|on of Adm|n|strat|ve kemed|es
8efore a parLy ls allowed Lo seek Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe courL lL ls a pre
condlLlon
LhaL he should have avalled of all Lhe means of admlnlsLraLlve processes
afforded hlm
Pence lf a remedy wlLhln Lhe admlnlsLraLlve machlnery can sLlll be
resorLed Lo by glvlng
Lhe admlnlsLraLlve offlcer concerned every opporLunlLy Lo declde on a
maLLer LhaL comes
wlLhln hls [urlsdlcLlon Lhen such remedy should be exhausLed flrsL before
Lhe courL's
[udlclal power can be soughL 1he premaLure lnvocaLlon of courL's
[urlsdlcLlon ls faLal Lo
one's cause of acLlon
Sec 187 LGCexpressly provldes LhaL admlnlsLraLlve remedles musL be
exhausLed flrsL before Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy or legallLy of a Lax ordlnance
may be
challenged ln courL
ln Pi/ippine oconut uesiccotors vs Pi/o 6 No 11052 ebruory
10 1998 only declslons of admlnlsLraLlve agencles made ln Lhe exerclse of
quasl[udlclal
powers are sub[ecL Lo Lhe rules of exhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles
ln llke
manner Lhe docLrlne of prlmary admlnlsLraLlve [urlsdlcLlon applles only
where Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve agency exerclses quasl[udlclal or ad[udlcaLory powers
1hus where whaL ls assalled ls Lhe valldlLy or consLlLuLlonallLy of a rule or
regulaLlon lssued by Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency ln Lhe performance of lLs
quaslleglslaLlve
funcLlon Lhe regular courLs have [urlsdlcLlon Lo pass upon Lhe same
%5mort
ommunicotions vs N@ 6 No 151908 uqust 12 200l)
loqe J177/12/2008 soyr
317
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Doctr|ne of r|mary Iur|sd|ct|on (r|or
kesort
Doctr|ne of Lxhaust|on of
Adm|n|strat|ve kemed|es
Lack of [urlsdlcLlon cannoL be walved
[urlsdlcLlon ls conferred by law
Lack of Cause of acLlon walvable
122


premaLure resorL Lo Lhe courLs necessarlly
becomes faLal Lo Lhe CCA
Genera| ru|e LxhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles musL flrsL be made
before
resorLlng Lo courL acLlons lallure Lo exhausL wlll noL affecL Lhe [urlsdlcLlon
of Lhe courL
buL Lhe complalnanL ls deprlved of a CCA whlch ls a ground for a moLlon
Lo dlsmlss
Powever lf no moLlon Lo dlsmlss ls flled on Lhls ground Lhere ls deemed
Lo be a walver
Lxcept|ons
1 lf Lhe lssue lnvolves a pure quesLlon of lawuseless Lo exhausL Cnly
Lhe courLs
can declare wlLh flnallLy whaL are purely legal quesLlon
ln ostro vs 5ecretory 6/orio 6 No 1l2174 uqust 20 2001 Lhe SC
sald
LhaL Lhere ls a quesLlon of law when Lhe doubLs or dlfferences arlse as Lo
whaL Lhe law ls
on a cerLaln sLaLe of facLs 1here ls quesLlon of facL when Lhe doubLs or
dlfferences arlse
as Lo Lhe LruLh or falslLy of alleged facLs
2 lf Lhe law does noL provlde for an admlnlsLraLlve remedy[usL go Lo Lhe
regular
courLs In stuerte vs 19l 5 541 Lhe SC sald LhaL ln a clvll acLlon
for
damages Lhe courL's concern ls wheLher or noL damages personal Lo Lhe
plalnLlff were caused by Lhe acLs of Lhe defendanLs lL can proceed
lndependenLly
of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve acLlon Accordlngly Lhe docLrlne of exhausLlon of
admlnlsLraLlve remedy does noL apply
3 uocLrlne of Cuallfled ollLlcal AgencyAL1L8 LCC uCC18lnL ln
Notoreno
vs 27 5 589 Lhe SC held LhaL when Lhe undersecreLary of uLn8
denled Lhe moLlon for reconslderaLlon he was acLlng on behalf of Lhe
SecreLary
of uLn8 accordlngly admlnlsLraLlve remedles had been exhausLed
4 Where Lhere ls unreasonable delay or offlclal lnacLlon
ln epub/ic vs 5ondiqonboyon 255 5 4l8 Lhe lnacLlon of Lhe CCC
on
Lhe moLlon flled by Lhe respondenL and corespondenL lL Look 7 years
before Lhe CCC
flled lLs moLlon Lo dlsmlss based on fallure Lo exhausL admlnlsLraLlve
remedles gave
rlse Lo unreasonable delay
3 1he admlnlsLraLlve acLlon ls paLenLly lllegal amounLlng Lo lack or excess
of
[urlsdlcLlon
ln obodo vs /unon 20 5 8l8 Lhe SC sald LhaL Lhe Commlssloner of
Lhe nACLCCM who denled peLlLloners' appeal Lo Lhe SecreLary of ulLC
acLed ln a
loqe J187/12/2008 soyr
318
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
paLenLly lllegal manner because only Lhe SecreLary of ulLC could acL on
Lhe appeal
and Lhe nACLCCM belng a colleglal body cannoL be bound by Lhe acL of
an
lndlvldual Commlssloner
6 When Lhere ls lrreparable ln[ury or LhreaL Lhereof unless [udlclal
recourse ls
lmmedlaLely made
7 When lL would amounL Lo a nulllflcaLlon of Lhe clalm
8 When Lhe sub[ecL maLLer ls a prlvaLe land ln land case proceedlng
9 When Lhere are clrcumsLances lndlcaLlng Lhe urgency of [udlclal
lnLervenLlon
10When due process of law ls clearly vlolaLed
11When Lhere ls esLoppel on Lhe parL of Lhe admlnlsLraLlve agency
concerned
ln vdo de @on vs veterons 8ockpoy ommission 105 Pi/ l77
peLlLloner
as wldow of a Chlnese guerllla veLeran who rendered mlllLary servlce
durlng Lhe
!apanese occupaLlon flled an appllcaLlon for back pay before Lhe veLerans
8ack ay
Commlsslons xxx 1he respondenL Commlsslon ls ln esLoppel conslderlng
LhaL ln lLs
resoluLlon @e oploloos ptomolqoteJ by te ectetoty of Iostlce ote
oJvlsoty lo
ootote wlc moy eltet be occepteJ ot lqooteJ by te offlce seekloq te
oploloo ooJ
ooy oqqtleveJ potty os te coott fot tecootse xxx Lhereby leadlng Lhe
peLlLloner Lo
conclude LhaL only flnal [udlclal rullng ln her favor would be accepLed by
Lhe
Commlsslon
nonexhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles ls noL [urlsdlcLlonal lL only
renders Lhe acLlon
premaLure le clalmed cause of acLlon ls noL rlpe for [udlclal
deLermlnaLlon and for LhaL
reason a parLy has no cause of acLlon Lo venLllaLe ln courL %oro/e vs
borintos 29
5 1l2)
1he docLrlne of exhausLlon of admlnlsLraLlve remedles and Lhe corollary
docLrlne
of prlmary [urlsdlcLlon whlch are based on sound pollcy and pracLlcal
conslderaLlons
are noL lnflexlble rules 1here are many accepLed excepLlons such as
unreasonable
delay or offlclal lnacLlon LhaL wlll lrreLrlevably pre[udlce Lhe complalnanL
and when Lhe
quesLlon lnvolved ls purely legal and wlll ulLlmaLely have Lo be declded by
Lhe courLs of
[usLlce %P @ vs Locop 6 No 15825l Morc 2 2007)
Iud|c|a| kev|ew of Adm|n|strat|ve Dec|s|ons When Made
1 1o deLermlne consLlLuLlonallLy or valldlLy of any LreaLy law ordlnance
execuLlve
order or regulaLlon
2 1o deLermlne [urlsdlcLlon of any admlnlsLraLlve board commlsslon or
offlcer
loqe J197/12/2008 soyr
319
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 1o deLermlne any oLher quesLlons of facLs when necessary Lo deLermlne
elLher
a ConsLlLuLlonal or [urlsdlcLlonal lssue
b Commlsslon of abuse of auLhorlLy and
c When admlnlsLraLlve facLflndlng body ls unduly resLrlcLed by an error of
law
4 1o deLermlne any oLher quesLlons of law
Genera| ku|e llndlngs of facLs of admlnlsLraLlve agencles accorded greaL
welghL by
Lhe courLs
Lxcept|ons
1 lacLual flndlng ls noL supporLed by evldence
2 llndlngs are vlLlaLed by fraud lmposlLlon or colluslon
3 rocedure whlch led Lo facLual flndlngs ls lrregular
4 alpable errors are commlLLed
3 Crave abuse of dlscreLlon arblLrarlness or caprlclousness ls manlfesL
Nn vs Poscuo/ 6 No 158l4 November 28 2007 Lhe declslons and
orders of
123


admlnlsLraLlve agencles rendered pursuanL Lo Lhelr quasl[udlclal
auLhorlLy have upon
Lhelr flnallLy Lhe force and blndlng effecL of a flnal [udgmenL wlLhln Lhe
purvlew of Lhe
docLrlne of tes joJlcoto
8kANDLIS DCC1kINL CI ASSIMILA1ICN CI IAC1Swhere whaL purporLs
Lo be a
flndlng upon a quesLlon of facL ls so lnvolved wlLh and dependenL upon a
quesLlon of law
as Lo be ln subsLance and effecL declslon on Lhe laLLer Lhe CourL wlll ln
order Lo declde
Lhe legal quesLlon examlne Lhe enLlre record lncludlng Lhe evldence lf
necessary
U8LIC IN1LkNA1ICNAL LAW
Law LhaL deals wlLh Lhe conducL of SLaLes and lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlons
Lhelr relaLlons wlLh each oLher and ln cerLaln clrcumsLances
Lhelr relaLlons wlLh persons naLural or [urldlcal
loqe J207/12/2008 soyr
320
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Internat|ona| Lawbody of prlnclples norms and processes whlch
regulaLes he
relaLlons of SLaLes and oLher lnLernaLlonal persons and governs Lhelr
conducL affecLlng
Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe lnLernaLlonal communlLy of SLaLes as a whole
1hls concepL manlfesLs ln Lhe codlflcaLlon of jos coqeos or
perempLory norms as parL of poslLlve lnLernaLlonal law 1he vlenna
ConvenLlon on Lhe
Law of 1reaLles speclfles jos coqeos norms as a ground for nulllflcaLlon or
LermlnaLlon of
LreaLles lor Lhls purpose arLlcle 33 of Lhe ConvenLlon deflnes a jos coqeos
norm Lhus
a perempLory norm of general lnLernaLlonal law ls a norm occepteJ ooJ
tecoqolzeJ by
te lotetootloool commoolty of totes os o wole as a norm from whlch no
derogaLlon ls
permlLLed and whlch can be modlfled only by a subsequenL norm of
general
lnLernaLlonal law havlng Lhe same characLer
8as|s of Internat|ona| Law
1 Law of Nature Schoo|based on rules of conducL dlscoverable by every
lndlvldual ln hls own consclence and Lhrough appllcaLlon of rlghL reasons
2 os|t|v|st Schoo|agreemenL of soverelgn sLaLes Lo be bound by lL
(express ln
convenLlonal law lmplled ln cusLomary law and presumed ln general
prlnclples)
3 Lc|ect|c or Groat|an Schoo|a compromlse beLween Lhe flrsL 2 schools
and
submlLs LhaL lnLernaLlonal law ls blndlng parLly because lL ls good and rlghL
and
parLly because sLaLes agreed Lo be bound by lL
Iunct|ons of Internat|ona| Law
1 romoLe lnLernaLlonal peace and securlLy
2 losLer frlendly relaLlons among naLlons and dlscourage use of force l
Lhe
resoluLlon of dlfference among Lhem
3 rovlde for orderly regulaLlon of conducL of sLaLes ln Lhelr muLual
deallngs and
4 Lnsure lnLernaLlonal cooperaLlon ln pursulL of cerLaln common
purposes of
economlc soclal culLural or humanlLarlan characLer
8as|c norms or pr|nc|p|es of |nternat|ona| |aw
1 SLaLes shall refraln ln Lhelr lnLernaLlonal relaLlons from Lhe LhreaL or use
of force
agalnsL Lhe LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy or pollLlcal lndependence of any SLaLe or
any oLher
manner lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe purposes of Lhe un
2 SLaLes shall seLLle Lhelr lnLernaLlonal dlspuLes by peaceful means ln such
a
manner LhaL lnLernaLlonal peace and securlLy and [usLlce are noL
endangered
loqe J217/12/2008 soyr
321
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 1he duLy of SLaLes noL Lo lnLervene ln maLLers wlLhln Lhe domesLlc
[urlsdlcLlon of
any SLaLe
4 1he duLy of SLaLes Lo cooperaLe wlLh one anoLher
3 1he prlnclple of equal rlghLs and selfdeLermlnaLlon of peoples
6 1he prlnclple of soverelgn equallLy of SLaLes
7 SLaLes shall fulflll ln good falLh Lhe obllgaLlons assumed by Lhem
Sources of Internat|ona| Law
a lnLernaLlonal LreaLles and convenLlons wheLher general or parLlcular
esLabllshlng
rules expressly recognlzed by Lhe conLesLlng SLaLes
rvlenna ConvenLlon on Lhe Law of 1reaLles Pague ConvenLlon
1reaLy
LlemenLs
1 lnLernaLlonal agreemenL
2 SLaLes
3 WrlLLen
4 Coverned by lnLernaLlonal law
Maklng Ceneral rule lull powers needed
LxcepLlons 1 Peads of sLaLes/governmenLs
2 lorelgn affalrs
3 Peads of dlplomaLlc mlsslonsllmlLed
4 8epresenLaLlves Lo lnLernaLlonal conferencesllmlLed
(noLe SubsequenL conflrmaLlon of acLs of represenLaLlves
wlLhouL full powers valldaLes acLlon on behalf of sLaLe)
AdopLlon Ceneral rule lf bllaLeral or few sLaLes all musL concur
LxcepLlon lnLernaLlonal conference (2/3)
LxcepLlon Lo Lhe LxcepLlon lf 2/2 provlde dlfferenL rule
b lnLernaLlonal cusLoms as evldence of a general pracLlce accepLed as
law
L|ements of Internat|ona| Custom
1 Ceneral pracLlce characLerlzed by unlformlLy and conslsLency
rrevalllng pracLlce by a # of sLaLes repeaLed over a conslderable perlod
of Llme
2 Oplolo jotls slve oecessltotls or recognlLlon of LhaL pracLlce as legally
blndlng
ruocLrlne of sLaLe lmmunlLy prohlblLlon agalnsL slavery prlnclple of
exLerrlLorlallLy
loqe J227/12/2008 soyr
322
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Instant Customa blndlng cusLomary rule esLabllshed by Lhe
sponLaneous
acLlvlLy of a greaL number of sLaLes and need noL be observed for a
conslderable
perlod
eq appllcaLlon of selfdefense ln lnvadlng AfghanlsLan afLer 911
c 1he general prlnclples of law recognlzed by clvlllan naLlons
ruerlved from law of naLure and are observed by Lhe ma[orlLy of sLaLes
because
Lhey are belleved Lo be good and [usL
124


d ! udlclal declslons and Lhe Leachlngs and wrlLlngs of Lhe mosL hlghly
quallfled
publlclsLs of Lhe varlous naLlons and advlsory oplnlons of Lhe lC! as
subs|d|ary
means for Lhe deLermlnaLlon of rules of law
e L qulLyArLlcle 38 (2) provldes LhaL Lhe lC! may declde cases ex o poo
et booo
(by whaL ls falr and good)
Sources of law refer Lo norms derlved from lnLernaLlonal convenLlons or
LreaLles
cusLom and general prlnclples of law 1he dlsLlncLlve characLer of Lhese
norms ls LhaL
Lhey are creaLed or Lhey acqulre blndlng effecL Lhrough Lhe meLhods
polnLed ouL above
Iorma| Sources Mater|a| Sources
conslsLs of Lhe meLhods and procedures
for Lhe creaLlon of norms
may refer Lo cusLomary norms
are Lhe subsLanLlve evldence of Lhe
exlsLence of norms
may refer Lo [udlclal declslons and Lhe
works of hlghly quallfled publlclsLs or
[urlsLs whlch embody norms of
lnLernaLlonal law
1nL LAW CN 1kLA1ILS
%ee Atty ooJovols 2008 ooJoots lo lotetootloool low poqe 9%
lu5 O6N5a (perempLory) norm whlch SLaLes cannoL derogaLe or
devlaLe from ln
Lhelr agreemenLs lL ls Lherefore a mandaLory norm and sLands on a hlgher
caLegory
Lhan a jos Jlsposltlvom norm whlch sLaLes can seL aslde or modlfy by
agreemenL
loqe J2J7/12/2008 soyr
323
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Ceneral 8ule arLles cannoL enLer lnLo a LreaLy conLrary Lo jos coqeos or
norms
recognlzed and accepLed by lnLernaLlonal communlLy nonderogable
Lxamples unlawful use of force commlsslon of a crlmlnal acL Lrade ln
slaves plracy
genoclde human rlghLs vlolaLlons equallLy of sLaLes and self
deLermlnaLlons
r|nc|p|es wh|ch determ|ne the order of precedence |n the app||cat|on of
ru|es or
norms of Internat|ona| Law
1 lex sopetlot Jetoqote lofetlotlrules from one source of law prevall
over Lhose
derlved from anoLher source
2 lex postetlot Jetoqote ptlotllaLer rules prevall over Lhe earller
3 lex speclolls Jetoqote qeoetollparLlcular rules prevall over Lhe
general
Internat|ona| Law Mun|c|pa| Law
rLaw of coordlnaLlon
rregulaLes relaLlon of sLaLes and oLher
lnLernaLlonal persons
rderlved prlnclpally from LreaLles
lnLernaLlonal cusLoms and general
prlnclples of law
rresolved Lhru sLaLeLosLaLe LransacLlons
rcollecLlve responslblllLy because lL
aLLaches dlrecLly Lo Lhe sLaLe and noL Lo lLs
naLlonals
rLaw of subordlnaLlon (lssued by pollLlcal
superlor)
rregulaLes relaLlons of lndlvlduals among
Lhemselves or wlLh Lhelr own sLaLes
rconslsLs malnly of sLaLuLory enacLmenLs
and Lo a lesser exLenL execuLlve orders
and [udlclal pronouncemenLs
rredressed Lhru local admlnlsLraLlve and
[udlclal processes
rbreach of whlch enLalls lndlvldual
responslblllLy
rku|es |n case of conf||ct between IL and ML
LfforLs should flrsL be exerLed Lo harmonlze Lhem so as Lo glve effecL Lo
boLh
slnce lL ls Lo be presumed LhaL munlclpal law was enacLed wlLh proper
regard for Lhe
generally accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law ln observance of Lhe
lncorporaLlon
Clause ln SecLlon 2 ArLlcle ll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
r lf a local courL ls decldlng
loqe J247/12/2008 soyr
324
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
rlf confllcL ls wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lhe laLLer prevalls Sec S(2a) Art|c|e
VIII of
Lhe ConsLlLuLlon provldes LhaL Lhe SC has Lhe power Lo declare a LreaLy or
execuLlve
agreemenL unconsLlLuLlonal
rlf confllcL ls wlLh a sLaLuLe lL should be glven equal sLandlng wlLh buL
noL
superlor Lo naLlonal leglslaLlve enacLmenLs
r lf a n lnLernaLlonal Lrlbunal ls decldlng
lnLernaLlonal law ls superlor Lo munlclpal law because lnLernaLlonal law
provldes
Lhe sLandard by whlch Lo deLermlne Lhe legallLy of a SLaLe's conducL 8y
Lhe docLrlne of
pocto soot setvooJo a sLaLe may noL lnvoke lLs lnLernal law Lo avold a
LreaLy obllgaLlon
ke|at|on of IL to ML (2 V|ews)
1 Mon|stlL ls Lhe same as ML
2 Dua||stLhey are dlscLlncL from each oLher by purpose lL becomes parL
of
ML by lncorporaLlon or LransformaLlon
INCCkCkA1ICN CLAUSLSect|on 2 Art|c|e II of the Const|tut|on @e
llllpploe teooooces wot os oo losttomeot of ootloool pollcy odopts te
qenero//y
occepted princip/es of internotiono/ /ow os port of te /ow of te /ond
ooJ oJetes
to te pollcy of peoce epoollty jostlce fteeJom coopetotloo ooJ omlty
wlt oll ootloos
under Lhe docLrlne of lncorporaLlon rules of lnLernaLlonal law form parL
of Lhe law
of Lhe land and no furLher leglslaLlve acLlon ls needed Lo make such rules
appllcable ln
Lhe domesLlc sphere
rnow is it opp/ied by /oco/ courts?
r 1he docLrlne ls applled whenever munlclpal Lrlbunals (or local courLs)
are confronLed
wlLh slLuaLlons ln whlch Lhere appears Lo be a confllcL beLween a rule of
lnLernaLlonal law
and Lhe provlslons of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or sLaLuLe of Lhe local sLaLe LfforLs
should flrsL be
exerLed Lo harmonlze Lhem so as Lo glve effecL Lo boLh slnce lL ls Lo be
presumed LhaL
munlclpal law was enacLed wlLh proper regard for Lhe generally accepLed
prlnclples of
lnLernaLlonal law ln observance of Lhe lncorporaLlon Clause ln SecLlon 2
ArLlcle ll of Lhe
123


ConsLlLuLlon ln a slLuaLlon however where Lhe confllcL ls lrreconcllable
and a cholce
has Lo be made beLween a rule of lnLernaLlonal law and munlclpal law
[urlsprudence
dlcLaLes LhaL munlclpal law should be upheld by Lhe munlclpal courLs for
Lhe reason LhaL
such courLs are organs of munlclpal law and are accordlngly bound by lL ln
all
clrcumsLances 1he facL LhaL lnLernaLlonal law has been made parL of Lhe
law of Lhe land
does noL perLaln Lo or lmply Lhe prlmacy of lnLernaLlonal law over naLlonal
or munlclpal
law ln Lhe munlclpal sphere 1he docLrlne of lncorporaLlon as applled ln
mosL counLrles
loqe J257/12/2008 soyr
323
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
decrees LhaL rules of lnLernaLlonal law are glven equal sLandlng wlLh buL
are noL
superlor Lo naLlonal leglslaLlve enacLmenLs Accordlngly Lhe prlnclple of
lex postetlot
Jetoqote ptlotl Lakes effecLa LreaLy may repeal a sLaLuLe and a sLaLuLe
may repeal a
LreaLy ln sLaLes where Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls Lhe hlghesL law of Lhe land such
as Lhe
8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes boLh sLaLuLes and LreaLles may be lnvalldaLed
lf Lhey are ln
confllcL wlLh Lhe ConsLlLuLlon %5ecretory of lustice vs non o/p Lontion
6 No
1l945 lonuory 18 2000)
1he lncorporaLlon clause assumes Lhe exlsLence of lnLernaLlonal law whlch
blnds
Lhe hlllpplnes as a SLaLe lL Lhus becomes a meLhod by whlch Lhe
hlllpplnes can carry
ouL lLs obllgaLlons under lnLernaLlonal law wlLhln lLs LerrlLorlal [urlsdlcLlon
lL creaLes legal rlghLs and obllgaLlons wlLhln hlllpplne LerrlLory and
regulaLes Lhe
conducL of governmenL offlclal and organs as well as Lhe relaLlons of
lndlvldual clLlzens
wlLh each oLher and wlLh Lhe governmenL CuesLlons of lnLernaLlonal law
may be
submlLLed Lo hlllpplne courLs for declslon 1he ouLcome of llLlgaLlon
however does noL
affecL Lhe blndlng naLure of lnLernaLlonal law ln Lhe relaLlon of Lhe
hlllpplnes wlLh oLher
SLaLes and oLher lnLernaLlonal persons
!udlclal noLlce dlspenses wlLh Lhe burden of provlng generally accepLed
prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law" 1heoreLlcally aL leasL lLs cumulaLlve effecL
as comblned
wlLh Lhe lncorporaLlon clause ls Lo requlre no proof aL all for Lhe
appllcaLlon of generally
accepLed prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal law Lo become operaLlve as hlllpplne
law ln a case
before a hlllpplne courL ln shorL lL ls as good as sLaLuLory law ln Lerms of
probaLlve
value
Ident|f|ed arts of Domest|c Law as Der|ved from "Genera||y Accepted
r|nc|p|es
of Internat|ona| Law"
1 8ules and prlnclples of land warfare and of humanlLarlan law under
Pague and
Ceneva ConvenLlons
2 locto soot setvooJo
3 Puman rlghLs
4 A forelgn army allowed Lo march Lhrough a frlendly counLry or Lo be
sLaLloned ln
lL by permlsslon of lLs governmenL or soverelgn ls exempL from Lhe clvll
and
crlmlnal [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe place
loqe J27/12/2008 soyr
326
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 !udlclal acLs noL of a pollLlcal complexlon of a de facLo governmenL
esLabllshed
by Lhe mlllLary occupanL ln an enemy LerrlLory ls valld under lnLernaLlonal
law
6 rlvaLe properLy selzed and used by Lhe enemy ln Llmes of war under
clrcumsLances noL consLlLuLlng valld requlslLlon does noL become enemy
properLy
and lLs prlvaLe ownershlp ls reLalned Lhe enemy havlng acqulred only lLs
Lemporary use
7 1he SLaLe has Lhe rlghL Lo proLecL lLself and lLs revenues a rlghL noL
llmlLed Lo lLs
own LerrlLory buL exLendlng Lo Lhe hlgh seas
8 rlnclple of resLrlcLlve soverelgn lmmunlLy
9 rlnclple ln dlplomaLlc law LhaL Lhe recelvlng sLaLe has Lhe speclal duLy
Lo proLecL
Lhe premlses of Lhe dlplomaLlc mlsslon of Lhe sendlng SLaLe
101he rlghL of a clLlzen Lo reLurn Lo hls counLry
no/y 5ee vs de/ osorio Lhe CourL has declared ln an obltet Jlctom LhaL
even wlLhouL
afflrmaLlon ln Lhe lncorporaLlon clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon such
prlnclples of
lnLernaLlonal law are deemed as parL of Lhe law of Lhe land as a condlLlon
and
consequence of our admlsslon ln Lhe socleLy of naLlons' under Lhe
docLrlne of
lncorporaLlon And upon admlsslon ln Lhe lnLernaLlonal socleLy Lhe sLaLe
ls auLomaLlcally
obllgaLed Lo comply wlLh Lhese prlnclples
DCC1kINL CI 1kANSICkMA1ICNrequlres Lhe enacLmenL by Lhe
leglslaLlve body
of such lnLernaLlonal law prlnclples as are soughL Lo be parL of munlclpal
law
ln Lhe case of Loquno Loke ueve/opment utority vs 2l1 5 292
lL
was held LhaL SecLlon 6 ArLlcle ll of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon was Laken from Lhe
unlversal
ueclaraLlon of Puman 8lghLs and Lhe Alma Conference ueclaraLlon of
1978 recognlzlng
healLh as a fundamenLal human rlghL 1hus Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe LLuA Lo
lssue a cease
and deslsL order Lo prevenL polluLlon of Marllao 8lver was upheld on Lhe
basls of Lhe
pr|nc|p|e of necessary |mp||cat|on
rov|s|ons of the Const|tut|on wh|ch concern Internat|ona| Law
1 ArLlcle lnaLlonal 1errlLory
2 ArLlcle ll SecLlon 2lncorporaLlon Clause
3 ArLlcle ll SecLlon 4defense of sLaLe
4 ArLlcle ll SecLlon 7lndependenL forelgn pollcy
3 ArLlcle ll SecLlon 8freedom from nuclear weapons
6 ArLlcle lll SecLlon 6llberLy of abode
7 ArLlcle lvClLlzenshlp
loqe J277/12/2008 soyr
327
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
126


Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
8 ArLlcle vl SecLlon 23SLaLe of war
9 ArLlcle vll SecLlon 21LreaLy
10ArLlcle vlll SecLlon 3cases affecLlng ambassadors
11ArLlcle xll SecLlon 2ownershlp of lands and exploraLlon of resources
12ArLlcle xvlll SecLlon 4LreaLles
13ArLlcle xvlll SecLlon 23forelgn mlllLary Lroops
Sub[ect of Internat|ona| Lawls an enLlLy wlLh capaclLy of possesslng
lnLernaLlonal
rlghLs and duLles and of brlnglng lnLernaLlonal clalms 1hls enLlLy ls sald Lo
be an
lnLernaLlonal person or one havlng an lnLernaLlonal personallLy on Lhe
basls of
cusLomary or general lnLernaLlonal law lL lncludes
1 SLaLe
2 Colonles and dependenclesLhey are consldered as parL and parcel of
Lhe parenL
sLaLe Lhrough whlch all lLs exLernal relaLlons are LransacLed wlLh oLher
sLaLes
3 1errlLorles under lnLernaLlonal conLrol or supervlslonLhese are non
selfgovernlng
LerrlLorles whlch have been placed under lnLernaLlonal supervlslon Lo
lnsure Lhelr pollLlcal economlc soclal and educaLlonal advancemenL
Mandatesformer LerrlLorlal possesslons of sLaLes defeaLed ln World War
l and
placed under Lhe conLrol of Lhe League of naLlons
1rust terr|tor|essome of Lhe mandaLes LhaL were placed under Lhe
1rusLeeshlp
Councll of Lhe un
Condom|n|umls a LerrlLory [olnLly admlnlsLered by Lwo sLaLes
4 8elllgerenL communlLlesgroup of rebels under an organlzed clvll
governmenL
who have Laken up arms agalnsL Lhe leglLlmaLe governmenL When
recognlzed
consldered as a separaLe sLaLe for purposes of confllcL and enLlLled Lo all
Lhe rlghLs
and sub[ecLed Lo all Lhe obllgaLlons of a fullpledged belllgerenL under Lhe
laws of
war
3 lnLernaLlonal admlnlsLraLlve bodlescreaLed by agreemenL among
sLaLes may be
vesLed wlLh lnLernaLlonal personallLy when Lwo condlLlons concur
a 1helr purposes are malnly nonpollLlcal
b 1hey are auLonomous and noL sub[ecL Lo Lhe conLrol of any sLaLe
6 1he unlLed naLlons%ee Jlscossloo below%
7 1he vaLlcan ClLy and Lhe Poly See
r1he Poly See has all Lhe consLlLuenL elemenLs of SLaLehood lL has all Lhe
rlghLs of a
sLaLe lncludlng dlplomaLlc lnLercourse lmmunlLy from forelgn [urlsdlcLlon
eLc 1he
vaLlcan was consLlLuLed as a LerrlLory under Lhe SoverelgnLy of Poly See
ln Lhe case of no/y 5ee vs de/ osorio 2l8 5 524 Lhe SC dlsLlngulshed
vaLlcan ClLy from Poly See whereln Lhe laLLer ls an lnLernaLlonal person
wlLh whlch
Lhe hlllpplnes had dlplomaLlc Lles slnce 1937
loqe J287/12/2008 soyr
328
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
8 lndlvlduals Lo a cerLaln exLenLLhey have also been granLed a cerLaln
degree of
lnLernaLlonal personallLy under a number of lnLernaLlonal agreemenLs
a UN Charter provlslon on falLh ln fundamenLal human rlghLs dlgnlLy
and
worLh of Lhe human person and ln Lhe equal rlghLs of men and women"
b Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of numan k|ghts provlslon on Lhe lnherenL
dlgnlLy
and Lhe equal and lnallenable rlghLs of all members of Lhe human famlly"
c Some LreaLles1reaty of Versa|||es whlch confer on lndlvlduals Lhe
rlghL Lo
brlng sulL agalnsL SLaLes before naLlonal or lnLernaLlonal Lrlbunals
d 1he need of SLaLes Lo malnLaln |nternat|ona| standard of [ust|ce ln Lhe
LreaLmenL of allens
e 1he Genoc|de Convent|on whlch condemns Lhe mass exLermlnaLlon of
naLlonal eLhnlc raclal or rellglous groups
f 1he 1930 nague Convent|on wlLh lLs rules Lo prevenL Lhe anomalous
condlLlon of sLaLelessness and Lhe 19S4 Covenant ke|at|ng to the Status
of
State|ess ersons whlch granLs sLaLeless lndlvlduals cerLaln baslc rlghLs
and
g 1he 19S0 Luropean Convent|on on numan k|ghts and fundamenta|
Ireedoms whlch granLs prlvaLe assoclaLlons and lndlvlduals Lhe rlghL Lo
flle
complalnLs before Lhe Luropean CourL on Puman 8lghLs
lf an enLlLy ls noL a sub[ecL of lnLernaLlonal law as such lL may sLlll assume
cerLaln
characLerlsLlcs of lnLernaLlonal personallLy buL ln a speclal or resLrlcLed
conLexL such as
LhaL deflned by agreemenL recognlLlon or acqulescence
An lndlvldual may be a sub[ecL of lnLernaLlonal law (lndependenLly of hls
SLaLe an
lndlvldual may be Lrled for Lerrorlsm (8ln Laden) war crlmes 1he 8ome
SLaLuLe has
creaLed a permanenL lnLernaLlonal crlmlnal courL
rMoy individuo/s ossume te stotus of subjects of internotiono/ /ow?
r ?es buL on Lhe basls of agreemenL or ln speclflc conLexL and noL ln
accordance wlLh
general or cusLomary lnLernaLlonal law
6overnment of nonq konq 5pecio/ dministrotive eqion vs non O/o/io
lr 6
No 15l75 pri/ 19 2007 %ee Atty ooJovols 2008 ooJoots lo
lotetootloool low poqe 1%
rre internotiono/ orqonitotions considered subjects of internotiono/
/ow?
r ?es Lhelr sLaLus ls deLermlned by agreemenL and noL by general or
cusLomary
lnLernaLlonal law 1he crlLerla of a legal personallLy have Lo be meL
1 A permanenL assoclaLlon of sLaLes wlLh lawful sub[ecLs equlpped wlLh
organs
2 A dlsLlncLlon ln Lerm of legal powers and purposes beLween Lhe
organlzaLlon
and lLs member sLaLes
loqe J297/12/2008 soyr
329
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 1he exlsLence of legal powers exerclsable on Lhe lnLernaLlonal plane and
noL
solely wlLhln Lhe naLlonal sysLems of one or more sLaLes
S1A1La communlLy of persons more or less numerous permanenLly
occupylng a
deflnlLe porLlon of LerrlLory lndependenL of exLernal conLrol and
possesslng a
governmenL Lo whlch a greaL body of lnhablLanLs render hablLual
obedlence %clk vs
compos koeJo 42 ckA 2J%
lL ls a group of people llvlng LogeLher ln a flxed LerrlLory organlzed for
pollLlcal
ends under an lndependenL governmenL and capable of enLerlng lnLo
lnLernaLlonal
relaLlons wlLh oLher sLaLes
127


8as|c Cr|ter|a for Statehood (e|ements)
1 ermanenL populaLlon
reop|ea group of lndlvlduals of boLh sexes llvlng LogeLher as a
communlLy 1hey
musL be sufflclenL ln number Lo malnLaln and perpeLuaLe Lhemselves
2 ueflned LerrlLorya flxed porLlon of Lhe earLh's surface occupled by Lhe
lnhablLanLs
3 CovernmenLmusL be organlzed exerclslng conLrol over and capable
of malnLalnlng
law and order wlLhln Lhe LerrlLory and
4 CapaclLy Lo enLer lnLo relaLlons wlLh oLher SLaLesrefers Lo
lndependence LhaL ls
freedom from ouLslde conLrol ln Lhe conducL of lLs forelgn (and lnLernal)
affalrs whlch
many hlghly quallfled publlclsLs conslder as Lhe declslve crlLerlon of
sLaLehood
3 ClvlllzaLlon oLher suggesLed/addlLlonal
6 8ecognlLlon elemenLs
Creat|on of State
1 8y revoluLlon
2 unlflcaLlon
3 Secesslon
4 AsserLlon of lndependence
3 AgreemenL and
6 ALLalnmenL of clvlllzaLlon
Lxt|nct|on of States
loqe JJ07/12/2008 soyr
330
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1 8y exLlncLlon or emlgraLlon eo mosse of lLs populaLlon
2 Loss of LerrlLory and
3 CverLhrow of governmenL resulLlng ln anarchy
r|nc|p|e of State Cont|nu|tyas long as Lhe elemenLs of Lhe SLaLe are
presenL Lhe
SLaLe shall conLlnue ln exlsLence
r S uccesslon of SLaLes May be unlversal or arLlal
Consequences
1 ollLlcal laws are abrogaLed
2 Munlclpal laws remaln ln force
3 1reaLles are dlsconLlnued excepL Lhose deallng wlLh local rlghLs and
duLles such as Lhose esLabllshlng easemenLs and servlLudes
4 All rlghLs of Lhe predecessor sLaLe are lnherlLed buL successor sLaLe
can assume and re[ecL llablllLles aL lLs dlscreLlon
r S uccesslon of CovernmenLs
r1he lnLegrlLy of Lhe SLaLe ls noL affecLed 1he SLaLe conLlnues as Lhe same
lnLernaLlonal person excepL LhaL lLs lawful represenLaLlve ls changed
Consequences
1 All rlghLs of Lhe predecessor governmenL are lnherlLed by Lhe
successor
2 Where Lhe new governmenL was organlzed by vlrLue of consLlLuLlonal
reform duly raLlfled ln a pleblsclLe all obllgaLlons of Lhe predecessor
are llkewlse assumed however
3 Where Lhe new governmenL ls esLabllshed Lhrough vlolence Lhe new
governmenL may lawfully re[ecL purely personal or pollLlcal obllgaLlons
of Lhe predecessor buL noL Lhose obllgaLlons conLracLed by lL ln Lhe
ordlnary course of offlclal buslness
C|asses of States
A INDLLNDLN1has freedom Lo dlrecL and conLrol forelgn relaLlons
wlLhouL
resLralnL from oLhers sLaLes lL may be
a S|mp|eslngle cenLral governmenL wlLh power over lnLernal and
exLernal
affalrs
b Compos|te2 or more soverelgn sLaLes [olned LogeLher Lo consLlLuLe
one
lnLernaLlonal person whlch may be
loqe JJ17/12/2008 soyr
331
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
l kea| Un|on2 or more sLaLes merged under a unlfled auLhorlLy so
LhaL Lhey form a slngle lnLernaLlonal person Lhrough whlch Lhey acL
as one enLlLy 1he sLaLes reLaln Lhelr separaLe ldenLlLles buL Lhelr
respecLlve lnLernaLlonal personallLles are exLlngulshed and blended
ln Lhe new lnLernaLlonal person
ll Iedera| Un|oncomblnaLlon of 2 or more sLaLes whlch upon
merger ceased Lo be sLaLes resulLlng ln Lhe creaLlon of new sLaLe
wlLh full lnLernaLlonal personallLy Lo represenL Lhem ln Lhelr exLernal
relaLlons as well as a cerLaln degree of power over Lhelr domesLlc
affalrs and Lhelr lnhablLanLs
AuLhorlLy over lnLernal affalrs dlvlded beLween federal auLhorlLles
and Lhe membersLaLes
AuLhorlLy over exLernal affalrs handled solely by federal auLhorlLles
8 DLLNDLN1alLhough LheoreLlcally a sLaLe does noL have full freedom
ln Lhe
dlrecLlon of lLs exLernal affalrs such as a protectorote (whlch ls
esLabllshed aL
Lhe requesL of Lhe weaker sLaLe for Lhe proLecLlon by a sLrong power eg
anama Andorra Monaco) or a suterointy (whlch ls Lhe resulL of a
concesslon
from a sLaLe Lo a former colony LhaL ls allowed Lo be lndependenL sub[ecL
Lo Lhe
reLenLlon by Lhe former soverelgn of cerLaln powers over Lhe exLernal
affalrs of
Lhe laLLer eg 8ulgarla and 8umanla boLh suzeralnLles of SulLan of 1urkey
by
vlrLue of 1reaLy of 8erlln of 1878)
C NLU1kALI2LDwhose lndependence and lnLegrlLy are guaranLeed by
an
lnLernaLlonal LreaLy on Lhe condlLlon LhaL such sLaLe obllgaLes lLself never
Lo Lake
up arms agalnsL oLher sLaLe (excepL ln selfdefense) or Lo enLer lnLo an
lnLernaLlonal obllgaLlon as would lndlrecLly lnvolved lL ln war eg
SwlLzerland
and AusLrla
rJo os te power to recoqnite o 5tote or 6overnment?
r 1he LxecuLlve Pead has Lhe power Lo recognlze as pollLlcal acL a SLaLe
or
CovernmenL and Lhe recognlLlon ls permanenL and cannoL be wlLhdrawn
Iundamenta| r|ghts of States |n Internat|ona| Law
1 8lghL Lo soverelgnLy and lndependence
2 8lghL Lo properLy and [urlsdlcLlon
loqe JJ27/12/2008 soyr
332
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
3 8lghL Lo exlsLence and selfpreservaLlon/selfdefenseSec 4 ArLlcle ll
of hll
ConsLlLuLlon ArLlcle 31 un CharLerrecognlze Lhe lnherenL rlghL Lo
lndlvldual or collecLlve selfdefense
lf an armed aLLack occurs agalnsL such sLaLe
4 8lghL Lo equallLy and
S 8lghL Lo dlplomaLlc lnLercourse
Iundamenta| Dut|es of States |n Internat|ona| Law
1 nonlnLervenLlon
2 Cbserve rlghLs of oLher sLaLes
3 Comply wlLh LreaLy sLlpulaLlons and oLher obllgaLlons arlslng from
membershlp ln
128


lnLernaLlonal organlzaLlons
4 MalnLaln peace and
3 8especL Lhe lnLernaLlonal laws
IN1LkVLN1ICN
lL ls Lhe dlcLaLorlal lnLerference by one SLaLe ln Lhe lnLernal affalrs of
anoLher
SLaLe or ln deallngs wlLh oLher SLaLes usually backed up by force or LhreaL
of force 1he
klnd of lnLerference musL be dlcLaLorlal A SLaLe may noL lnLerfere unless lL
has force
lnLervenLlon ls noL allowed ln lnLernaLlonal Law Powever lL musL be
dlsLlngulshed from mere lnLercesslon such as Lhe Lender of advlce or Lhe
flllng of
dlplomaLlc proLesL whlch ls noL prohlblLed
Instances of Iust|f|ed Intervent|on
1 lnLervenLlon as an acL of lndlvldual or collecLlve selfdefense
2 lnLervenLlon by LreaLy sLlpulaLlon or by lnvlLaLlon
3 lnLervenLlon by un auLhorlzaLlon
4 lnLervenLlon on humanlLarlan grounds (whlch accordlng Lo auLhorlLles
ln
lnLernaLlonal law has now evolved lnLo an lnLernaLlonal cusLom)
DkAGC DCC1kINLlL prohlblLs lnLervenLlon for Lhe purpose of collecLlng
conLracLual
debLs lL was formulaLed by ArgenLlnlan lorelgn MlnlsLer Luls urago as a
reacLlon Lo
whaL happened ln venezuela ln 1902 where Lhe porLs of venezuela were
blockaded by
Lhe comblned naval fleeLs of Cermany lLaly and CreaL 8rlLaln (Lhe super
powers of Lhe
Llme) Lo compel Lhe venezuelan governmenL Lo pay lLs conLracLual debLs
State Sovere|gntyls Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse ln a deflnlLe porLlon of Lhe
globe Lhe
funcLlons of a SLaLe Lo Lhe excluslon of any oLher SLaLe
loqe JJJ7/12/2008 soyr
333
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
SoverelgnLy ln relaLlons beLween SLaLes slgnlfles lndependence
lndependence ln
regard Lo a porLlon of Lhe globe ls Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse Lhereln Lo Lhe
excluslon of any
oLher SLaLe Lhe funcLlons of a SLaLe %ludqe nuber te 5o/e rbitrotor in
te ls/ond
of Los Po/mos ose)
W|de|y accepted e|ements of Sovere|gn Lqua||ty of States r|nc|p|e
1 SLaLes are [urldlcally equal
2 Lach SLaLe shall en[oy Lhe rlghLs lnherenL ln full soverelgnLy
3 Lach SLaLe has Lhe duLy Lo respecL Lhe personallLy of oLher SLaLes
4 1he LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy and pollLlcal lndependence of Lhe SLaLe are
lnvlolable
3 Lach SLaLe has Lhe rlghL freely Lo choose and develop lLs pollLlcal soclal
economlcal and culLural sysLems and
6 Lach SLaLe has Lhe duLy Lo comply fully and ln good falLh wlLh lLs
lnLernaLlonal
obllgaLlons and Lo llve ln peace wlLh oLher SLaLes
kecogn|t|on1he acL by whlch Lhe sLaLe acknowledges Lhe exlsLence of
anoLher sLaLe
a governmenL or a belllgerenL communlLy and lndlcaLes lLs wllllngness Lo
deal wlLh Lhe
enLlLy as such under lnLernaLlonal law
1heorles on 8ecognlLlon
1 ConsLlLuLlve (MlnorlLy vlew)recognlLlon ls Lhe acL whlch consLlLuLes
Lhe
enLlLy Lo an lnLernaLlonal person 8ecognlLlon ls compulsory and legal lL
may
be compelled once Lhe elemenLs of a sLaLe are esLabllshed
2 ueclaraLlve (Ma[orlLy vlew)recognlLlon merely afflrms an exlsLlng facL
llke
Lhe possesslon by Lhe SLaLe of Lhe essenLlal elemenLs lL ls dlscreLlonary
and
pollLlcal
8aslc 8ules on 8ecognlLlon
lL ls a pollLlcal acL and malnly a maLLer of pollcy on Lhe parL of each SLaLe
lL ls
dlscreLlonary on Lhe parL of Lhe recognlzlng auLhorlLy and lL ls exerclsed
by Lhe pollLlcal
(execuLlve) deparLmenL of Lhe sLaLe 1hus Lhe legallLy and wlsdom of
recognlLlon ls noL
sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew
1obar or W||son Doctr|ne(musL show sLable governmenL and people
supporL)Lhe
docLrlne precludes recognlLlon of governmenL esLabllshed by
revoluLlonary means unLll
Lhe consLlLuLlonal reorganlzaLlon by Lhe free elecLlon of represenLaLlves
loqe JJ47/12/2008 soyr
334
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Lstrada Doctr|nelL provldes LhaL lf a sLaLe wlll deal wlLh represenLaLlves
of Lhe
governmenL ln acLual conLrol of anoLher counLry for Lhe proLecLlon of lLs
clLlzens ln Lhe
LerrlLory of Lhe laLer sLaLe Lhls does noL necessarlly mean recognlLlon of
Lhe sald
governmenL
St|mson Doctr|neno recognlLlon of a governmenL esLabllshed Lhrough
exLernal
aggresslon
klnds of 8ecognlLlon
1 ue lacLo(of facL) exLended by Lhe recognlzlng sLaLe whlch belleves
LhaL
some of Lhe requlremenLs for recognlLlon are absenL 1he recognlLlon ls
generally provlslonal and llmlLed Lo cerLaln [urldlcal relaLlons lL does noL
brlng
abouL full dlplomaLlc lnLercourse and does noL glve LlLle Lo asseLs of Lhe
sLaLe
held/slLuaLed abroad
2 ue !ure(of Law) exLended Lo a governmenL fulfllllng Lhe requlremenLs
for
recognlLlon When Lhere ls no speclflc lndlcaLlon recognlLlon ls generally
de
[ure 1he recognlLlon ls relaLlvely permanenL brlng abouL full dlplomaLlc
lnLercourse and observance of dlplomaLlc lmmunlLles and confers LlLle Lo
asseLs abroad
LffecLs of 8ecognlLlon
1 ulplomaLlc relaLlons
2 8lghL Lo sue ln Lhe courLs of recognlzlng sLaLe
ln Lhe case of 8onco Nociono/ de ubo vs 5obottino l7 u5 l98
unfrlendly
relaLlons or Lhe lack of reclproclLy was held lmmaLerlal
3 lmmunlLy from [urlsdlcLlon
4 LnLlLlemenL Lo properLy wlLhln Lhe recognlzlng sLaLe and
3 8eLroacLlve valldaLlon of Lhe acLs of Lhe recognlzed saLe/governmenL
Cond|t|ons for recogn|t|on of a be|||gerent state
1 Crganlzed clvll governmenL havlng conLrol and supervlslon over Lhe
armed
sLruggle
2 Serlous and wldespread sLruggle
3 CccupaLlon of a subsLanLlal porLlon of Lhe naLlonal LerrlLory
4 Wllllngness on Lhe parL of Lhe rebels Lo observe rules/cusLoms of war
rAbsence of any of Lhe above condlLlons Lhere ls no belllgerency buL only
sLaLe of
129


lnsurgency whlch ls rarely recognlzed because Lhls wlll be lnLervenLlon ln
Lhe domesLlc
affalrs of anoLher sLaLe
loqe JJ57/12/2008 soyr
333
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
LffecLs of 8ecognlLlon of 8elllgerency
1 8esponslblllLy for acLs of rebels resulLlng ln ln[ury Lo naLlonals of Lhe
recognlzlng sLaLe shall be shlfLed Lo Lhe rebel governmenL
2 1he leglLlmaLe governmenL recognlzlng Lhe rebels shall observe Lhe laws
of
war ln conducLlng hosLlllLles oLherwlse any parLy LhaL wlll vlolaLe Lhe laws
of
war shall be consldered as war crlmlnals
3 1hlrd sLaLes recognlzlng Lhe belllgerency shall malnLaln neuLrallLy and
4 8ecognlLlon ls only provlslonal (for Lhe duraLlon of Lhe armed sLruggle)
and
only for Lhe purpose of hosLlllLles
Iur|sd|ct|on of StateslL ls Lhe power auLhorlLy soverelgnLy or legal
conLrol exerclsed
by a sLaLe over land persons properLy LransacLlons and evenLs ln lLs
LerrlLory
1 As a concepLlL ls Lhe capaclLy Lo
a LeglslaLe or Lo prescrlbe laws/rules
b Lnforce laws/rules
2 As powerlL ls exerclsed over
a ersons
b roperLy
c LvenLs
Iur|sd|ct|on over 1err|tory
l 1lLle Lo 1errlLory
ls/ond of Po/mos ose %Neter/onds vs u5 2 l 829) LesL of LlLle ln
lnLernaLlonal law ls conLlnuous and peaceful dlsplay of LerrlLorlal
soverelgnLy"
forms of acqulslLlon of LlLle are
a CccupaLlon coupled wlLh effecLlveness
b ConquesL
c Cesslon and
d AccreLlon
r 1lLle ls noL sufflclenL wlLhouL Lhe flrsL elemenL of dlsplay of SLaLe
funcLlons
|| Alrspace (fllghL space)
arls ConvenLlon CcLober 13 1919SLaLe wlLh excluslve soverelgnLy
ConvenLlon on lnLernaLlonal Clvll AvlaLlonsprohlblLs enLry of sLaLe
alrcrafL
wlLhouL auLhorlzaLlon by speclal agreemenL
loqe JJ7/12/2008 soyr
336
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1okyo ConvenLlon of 1963for exLradlLlon purposes a crlme may be
consldered
as havlng been commlLLed ln Lhe SLaLe of reglsLry of Lhe AlrcrafL" but
[urlsdlcLlon by
anoLher ConLracLlng SLaLe may be had lf Lhe offense
a Pas an effecL on lLs LerrlLory
b Pas been commlLLed by or agalnsL lLs naLlonal or a permanenL resldenL
Lhereln
c ls agalnsL lLs naLlonal securlLy
d 8elaLes Lo a breach of lLs naLlonal rules on fllghL
e ls Lhe sub[ecL of an exerclse of [urlsdlcLlon necessary Lo ensure Lhe
observance
of an obllgaLlon of such sLaLe under a mulLllaLeral agreemenL
||| lnLernal and 1errlLorlal WaLers
llsherles caseSLralghL 8asellne allowed and dellmlLaLlon of LerrlLorlal
waLers
Corfu Channel CaselnnocenL passage ln lnLernaLlonal sLralLs allowed
Iur|sd|ct|on over Ad[acent Mar|t|me Seas
| ConLlnenLal shelf
North Sea Cont|nenta| she|f CaseswhaL confers LlLle lpso [ure Lo
conLlnenLal shelf ls Lhe facL LhaL Lhe submarlne areas concerned may be
deemed Lo be acLually parL of Lhe LerrlLory of Lhe coasLal sLaLe ln Lhe sense
LhaL alLhough covered wlLh waLer Lhey are a prolongaLlon or
conLlnuaLlon of
LhaL LerrlLory
|| Lxcluslve Lconomlc Zone
llsherles !urlsdlcLlon caseexcluslve rlghLs over flshery zone musL Lake
lnLo
accounL lnLeresLs of oLher SLaLes
%ee Jlscossloo ooJet u-clO below%
Iur|sd|ct|on over ersons and Lconom|c Act|v|ty
1heorles
1 naLlonallLyclvll law follows naLlonal wherever he/she may be
2 asslve ersonallLypunlsh allens abroad who ln[ures one's clLlzen
3 SecurlLy rlnclplepunlsh allens for acLs agalnsL SLaLe's securlLy
lndependence
and LerrlLorlal lnLegrlLy
4 unlversallLyeg plracy crlmes agalnsL humanlLy eLc
3 Cb[ecLlve 1errlLorlallLyelemenLs of crlme occurred ln 2 sLaLes
loqe JJ77/12/2008 soyr
337
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Areas not sub[ect to the Iur|sd|ct|on of Ind|v|dua| States
1 Plgh Seas
2 ueep Seabed
3 CuLer SpaceLhe reglon beyond Lhe earLh's aLmosphere
rov|nce of a|| mank|ndnoL sub[ecL Lo naLlonal approprlaLlon no
nuclear
weapons ln orblL asLronauLs are envoys of manklnd" and SLaLe shall
obllged Lo
render asslsLance Lo Lhem ln emergency landlng Lhere ls lnLernaLlonal
responslblllLy for naLlonal acLlvlLles ln ouLer space absoluLe llablllLy for
damage
caused by space ob[ecLs
CuLer space lncludlng Lhe moon and oLher celesLlal bodles shall be free
for exploraLlon and use by all sLaLes wlLhouL dlscrlmlnaLlon of any klnd on
Lhe
basls of equallLy and ln accordance wlLh lnLernaLlonal law
SpaLlal LesL96 up Lo 110 kms
Modes of Acqu|r|ng 1err|tory
%ee poqe 7 of tls tevlew ootes%
Modes of Los|ng 1err|tory
1 uerellcLlon
2 Cesslon
3 Lroslon or oLher naLural causes
4 prescrlpLlon
NA1ICNALI1 AND S1A1LLLSSNLSS
Mu|t|p|e Nat|ona||tylL ls Lhe possesslon by an lndlvldual of more Lhan
one
naLlonallLy lL ls acqulred as a resulL of Lhe concurrenL appllcaLlon Lo hlm
of Lhe confllcLlng
munlclpal laws or Lwo or more sLaLes clalmlng hlm as Lhelr naLlonal
Cenerally a sLaLe has no [urlsdlcLlon over lLs naLlonals resldlng abroad
excepL ln
naLlonallLy law Lheory le ArLlcle 13 of Lhe Clvll Code ArLlcle 2 of Lhe
8evlsed enal
Code LaxaLlon of clLlzens abroad
130


loqe JJ87/12/2008 soyr
338
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
Doctr|ne of Inde||b|e A||eg|ancean lndlvldual may be compelled Lo
reLaln hls
orlglnal naLlonallLy noLwlLhsLandlng LhaL he has already renounced lL
under Lhe laws of
anoLher sLaLe whose naLlonallLy he has acqulred
Doctr|ne of Lffect|ve Nat|ona||tya person havlng more Lhan one
naLlonallLy
shall be LreaLed as lf he had only oneelLher Lhe naLlonallLy of Lhe
counLry ln whlch he ls
hablLually and prlnclpally resldenL or Lhe naLlonallLy of Lhe counLry wlLh
whlch ln Lhe
clrcumsLances he appears Lo be ln facL mosL closely connecLed %rivo/do
vs
OML lune 2l 1989)
State|essnesscondlLlon or sLaLus of an lndlvldual who ls born wlLhouL
any naLlonallLy
or who loses hls naLlonallLy wlLhouL reLalnlng or acqulrlng anoLher
A sLaLeless person ls enLlLled Lo among oLhers Lhe rlghL Lo rellglon and
rellglous
lnsLrucLlon access Lo courLs elemenLary educaLlon publlc rellef and
asslsLance
raLlonlng of producLs ln shorL supply and LreaLmenL of no less favorable
Lhan LhaL
accorded allens ln general
Pe ls Lo be LreaLed more or less llke Lhe sub[ecLs of a forelgn sLaLe
Any wrong suffered by a sLaLeless person Lhrough Lhe acL or omlsslon of a
sLaLe
would be Jomoom obspoe lojotlo for ln Lheory no sLaLe has been
offended and no
lnLernaLlonal dellcL commlLLed
Doctr|ne of State kespons|b|||ty to A||ensSLaLe has Lhe prlmary
obllgaLlon Lo afford
proLecLlon Lo allens A sLaLe ls responslble for ln[ury lnfllcLed upon an allen
lf caused by
an acL or omlsslon lmpuLable Lo Lhe sLaLe ln vlolaLlon of lnLernaLlonal
sLandard of [usLlce
Ind|rect State kespons|b|||tywhere Lhe offense ls commlLLed by lnferlor
governmenL
offlclals or by prlvaLe lndlvlduals Lhe sLaLe wlll be held llable only lf by
reason of lLs
lndlfference ln prevenLlng or punlshlng lL lL can be consldered Lo have
connlved ln
effecLlng lLs commlsslon
Internat|ona| Standard of Iust|ce(LlemenLs of due process under
ordlnary norms of
offlclal conducL) 1o consLlLuLe an lnLernaLlonal dellnquency Lhe LreaLmenL
of an allen
should amounL Lo an ouLrage bad falLh wlllful neglecL of duLy and
lnsufflclency of
governmenLal acLlon LhaL every reasonable and lmparLlal man would
readlly recognlze
lLs lnsufflclency
loqe JJ97/12/2008 soyr
339
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he hlllpplnes ls noL llable for deaLh or ln[ury Lo allen hosLages of Lhe abu
sayyaf unless lL ls shown Lo have parLlclpaLed dlrecLly or was remlss or
negllgenL ln
Laklng measures Lo prevenL ln[ury lnvesLlgaLlng Lhe case punlshlng Lhe
gullLy or Lo
enable Lhe vlcLlm or hls helrs Lo pursue clvll remedles
ln case of ln[urles lnfllcLed upon forelgner ln Lhe course of quelllng a
rebelllon
sLaLe responslblllLy wlll aLLach only lf rebelllon succeeds and Lhe rebels wlll
Lake conLrol
of Lhe sLaLe buL noL when Lhe leglLlmaLe governmenL remalns ln power as
Lhe acL of
quelllng a rebelllon ls a valld exerclse of defense SLaLe llablllLy wlll aLLach
only lf lL falls
Lo observe Lhe mlnlmum lnLernaLlonal sLandard for Lhe proLecLlon of
allens
Ca|vo doctr|neprovlslon frequenLly lnserLed ln conLracLs where
naLlonals of anoLher
sLaLe renounce any clalm upon hls naLlonal sLaLe for proLecLlon Such
walver can only be
made legally by allen's sLaLe
k|ght of the State to adm|t and expe| a||ens
r no sLaLe ls under obllgaLlon Lo admlL allens
r SLaLe lmposes condlLlons on Lhe admlsslon of allens
r SLaLe can expel allens from lLs LerrlLorydeporLaLlon/reconducLlon
r Allen musL accepL Lhe lnsLlLuLlons of Lhe SLaLe as he flnds Lhem
r Allens may be deprlved of cerLaln rlghLs
r Local law may granL allens cerLaln rlghLs prlvlleges based on
a 8eclproclLy
b MosLfavorednaLlon LreaLmenL
c naLlonal LreaLmenL
r rlvlleges conferred may be revoked
Deportat|onexpulslon of an allen consldered undeslrable by local sLaLe
usually buL
noL necessarlly Lo hls own sLaLe
keconduct|onforclble conveylng of allens back Lo Lhelr home sLaLe
wlLhouL any
formallLles
ASLUM |n Internat|ona| Law
1he rlghL of asylum ls Lhe compeLence of every SLaLe lnferred from lLs
LerrlLorlal
supremacy Lo allow a prosecuLed allen Lo enLer and Lo remaln on lLs
LerrlLory under lLs
proLecLlon and Lhereby Lo granL asylum Lo hlm
loqe J407/12/2008 soyr
340
2008 o||t|ca| Law and ub||c Internat|ona| Law
ersona| kev|ew Notes (taken from var|ous sources Sandova| |ectures
Nachura 8ernas Cruz Agpa|o S8C SSCk
rev|ew mater|a|s wwwp|noy|awnet etc)
Ma Lu|sa Ange|es kamos
1he rlghL of asylum ls noL a rlghL possessed by an allen Lo demand LhaL a
SLaLe
proLecL hlm and granL hlm asylum AL presenL lL ls [usL a prlvllege granLed
by a SLaLe Lo
allow an allen escaplng from Lhe persecuLlon of hls counLry for pollLlcal <