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Wireless Technology

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Wireless Technology
2 Mark Questions

UNIT-I 1. What is a signal and what are the signal parameters?

Signals are the physical representation of data. Signal parameters are the amplitude, frequency and the phase shift.

2. What are the three ways to represent the signals? Explain.

The three ways to represent the signals are time domain, frequency domain and phase domain. In time domain the amplitude of a signal is shown versus time. In frequency domain the amplitude of a certain frequency part of the signal is shown versus the frequency. In phase domain the amplitude of the signal is shown versus the phase in polar coordinates. 3. What does the antenna do? An antenna can be defined as an electrical conductor used either for radiating electromagnetic energy into space or for collecting electromagnetic energy from space.

4. Explain the types of antenna. The different types of antenna isotropic radiator, dipole antenna and Marconi antenna. Isotropic antenna radiates equal power in all directions. The dipole antenna consists of two collinear conductors of equal length, separated by a small feeding gap. The length of the dipole is half the wavelength of the signal to transmit. If the length is /4 then it is known as Marconi antenna.

5. Explain the transmission, detection and interference range.

Transmission range: Within a certain radius of the sender, transmission is possible, i.e., a receiver receives the signals with an error rate low enough to be able to communicate and can also act as sender. Detection range: Within a second radius, detection of the transmission is possible, i.e., the transmitted power is large enough to differ from

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background noise. However, the error rate is too high to establish communication. Interference range: Within a third even larger radius, the sender may interfere with other transmission by adding to the background noise. A receiver will not be able to detect the signals, but the signals may disturb other signals. 6. Explain line of sight and inverse square law. In free space radio signals propagate as light does (independently of their frequency), i.e., they follow a straight line (besides gravitational effects). If such a straight line exists between a sender and a receiver it is called line-ofsight (LOS). The received power Pr is proportional to 1/d2 with d being the distance between sender and receiver (inverse square law). 7. What are the three ways of propagation of radio waves? Explain. Ground wave (<2 MHz): Waves with low frequencies follow the earths surface and can propagate long distances. These waves are used for, e.g., submarine communication or AM radio. Sky wave (230 MHz): Many international broadcasts and amateur radio use these short waves that are reflected at the ionosphere. This way the waves can bounce back and forth between the ionosphere and the earths surface, travelling around the world. Line-of-sight (>30 MHz): Mobile phone systems, satellite systems, cordless telephones etc. use even higher frequencies. The emitted waves follow a (more or less) straight line of sight. This enables direct communication with satellites (no reflection at the ionosphere) or microwave links on the ground.

8. What is meant by inter symbol interference? If impulse should be represented as a symbol, and one or several symbols could represent a bit, the energy intended for one symbol now spills over to the adjacent symbol, an effect which is called intersymbol interference (ISI).
9. Explain short time fading.

if receivers, or senders, or both, move. Then the channel characteristics change over time, and the paths a signal can travel along vary. This effect is well known (and audible) with analog radios while driving. The power of the received signal changes considerably over time. These quick changes in the received power are also called short-term fading.

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10.

What is meant by multiplexing?

Multiplexing is one where several users can share a medium with minimum or no interference. One example, is highways with several lanes. Many users (car drivers) use the same medium (the highways) with hopefully no interference (i.e., accidents).
11.

What are the four dimensions in which multiplexing can be carried out ?

The four dimensions in multiplexing are space division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, frequency division multiplexing and code division multiplexing. 12. Define antenna gain.

Antenna gain is defined as the power output in a particular direction compared to that produced in any direction by a perfect omni-directional antenna.

13. State the reasons why the baseband signals cannot be directly transmitted in a wireless system. Antennas: An antenna must be the order of magnitude of the signals wavelength in size to be effective. For the 1 MHz signal ,an antenna should be some hundred metershigh, which is obviously not very practical for handheld devices. With 1 GHz, antennas a few centimeters in length can be used. Frequency division multiplexing: Using only baseband transmission, FDM could not be applied. Analog modulation shifts the baseband signals to different carrier frequencies. The higher the carrier frequency, the more bandwidth that is available for many baseband signals. Medium characteristics: Path-loss, penetration of obstacles, reflection, scattering, and diffraction depend heavily on the wavelength of the signal. Depending on the application, the right carrier frequency with the desired characteristics has to be chosen: long waves for submarines, short waves for handheld devices, very short waves for directed microwave transmission etc.
14.

What are techniques.

the

ways

of

evaluating

the

encoding

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The ways of evaluating the encoding techniques are signal spectrum, clocking, signal interference and noise immunity and cost and complexity.

15.

Explain PSK, ASK, FSK.

In ASK , the two binary values are represented by two different amplitudes of the carrier frequency. The two binary values 1 and 0 are represented by two different amplitudes. A modulation scheme often used for wireless transmission is frequency shift keying (FSK). The simplest form of FSK, also called binary FSK (BFSK), assigns one frequency f1 to the binary 1 and another frequency f2 to the binary 0. Phase shift keying (PSK) uses shifts in the phase of a signal to represent data. A phase shift of 180 or as the 0 follows the 1 and the same happens as the 1 follows the 0. State the disadvantages of FDM& TDM when combined. A disadvantage is the necessary coordination between different senders. One has to control the sequence of frequencies and the time of changing to another frequency. Two senders will interfere as soon as they select the same frequency at the same time.
16.

17.

Explain amplitude, phase and frequency modulation.

Amplitude modulation is a type of modulation where the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the information bearing signal. Frequency modulation is a type of modulation where the frequency of the carrier is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. The amplitude of the carrier remains constant. Phase modulation (PM) is a method of impressing data onto an alternating-current (AC) waveform by varying the instantaneous phase of the wave.

18.

Explain Pulse Code Modulation.

PCM is based on sampling theory. If a signal f(t) is sampled at a regular intervals of time and at a rate higher than that twice the highest signal frequency then the samples contains all the information of the original signal. 19. What is delta modulation?

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With delta modulation an analog input is approximated by a stair case function that moves up or down by one quantization level and each sampling interval staircase function is overlaid on the original analog waveform.

20. State the advantages of digital transmission over the analog transmission.

In analog transmission the signals suffer from attenuation and they use the amplifier to boost the energy in the signal and it boost the noise components but in digital transmission the repeaters are used and by this the attenuation is overcome. TDM is used for digital signals instead of the FDM used for analog signals. The conversion to digital signaling allos the use of the more efficient digital switching techniques.

21.

What is a codec?

codec is a device which is used for both coding and decoding of signals.

22. What is the reason for analog modulation for analog signals?

The two principal reasons for analog modulation of analog signals are: 1. A higher frequency may be needed for effective transmission. 2. Modulation permits frequency division multiplexing.

23. What is the relationship between the bandwidth of signals before and after it has been encoded using spread spectrum? The bandwidth of the signal will be higher after it has been encoded using spread spectrum. 24. State the important things that can be gained from the apparent waste of spectrum. (or) What are the benefits of spread spectrum?

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1. We can gain immunity from various kind of noise and multipath distortion. 2. It can be used fo hiding and encrypting signals. Only a recipient who knows the separating code ca recover the encoded information. 3. Several users can independently use the same higher bandwidth with very little interference.

25.

What are the two types of spread spectrum? Explain.

The two types of spread spectrum are frequency hopping spread spectrum and direct sequence spread spectrum. In frequency hopping the signal is broadcasted over a random series of radio frequencies hopping from frequency to frequency at regular intervals. In direct sequence each bit in the original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal using a spreading code which spreads the signal across a wider frequency band in direct proportion to the no. of bits used. 26. Differentiate between slow FHSS and fast FHSS.

For slow FHSS, the time Tc is greater than or equal to time Ts whereas in fast FHSS the time Tc is lesser than the time Ts. 27. What are hidden and exposed terminals?

Consider the scenario with three mobile phones. The transmission range of A reaches B, but not C. The transmission range of C reaches B, but not A. Finally, the transmission range of B reaches A and C, i.e., A cannot detect C and vice versa. A starts sending to B, C does not receive this transmission. C also wants to send something to B and senses the medium. The medium appears to be free, the carrier sense fails. C also starts sending causing a collision at B. But A cannot detect this collision at B and continues with its transmission. A is hidden for C and vice versa. Consider the situation that B sends something to A and C wants to transmit data to some other mobile phone outside the interference ranges of A and B. C senses the carrier and detects that the carrier is busy . C postpones its transmission until it detects the medium as being idle again. In this situation, C is exposed to B.(draw diagram) 28. What is SDMA,FDMA,TDMA and CDMA. SDMA stands for Space Division Multiple Access, FDMA stands for Frequency Division Multiple Access and CDMA stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access. 29. Explain what is meant by downlink and uplink.

FDM is used for simultaneous access to the medium by base station and mobile station in cellular networks. Here the two stations establish a duplex channel, i.e., a channel that allows for simultaneous transmission

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in both directions. The two directions, mobile station to base station and vice versa are now separated using different frequencies. Both stations have to know the frequencies in advance; they cannot just listen into the medium. The two frequencies are also known as uplink, i.e., from mobile station to base station or from ground control to satellite, and as downlink, i.e., from base station to mobile station or from satellite to ground control. 30. What is meant by Demand Assigned Multiple access? Code division multiple access (CDMA) systems use exactly these codes to separate different users in code space and to enable access to a shared medium without interference. The problem is how to find good codes and how to separate the signal from noise generated by other signals and the environment. 31. Explain p-persistent, 1 persistent, non-persistent CSMA,CSMA/CA. In non-persistent CSMA, stations sense the carrier and start sending immediately if the medium is idle. If the medium is busy, the station pauses a random amount of time before sensing the medium again and repeating this pattern. In p-persistent CSMA systems nodes also sense the medium, but only transmit with a probability of p, with the station deferring to the next slot with the probability 1-p, i.e., access is slotted in addition. In 1-persistent CSMA systems, all stations wishing to transmit access the medium at the same time, as soon as it becomes idle. This will cause many collisions if many stations wish to send and block each other. CSMA with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is one of the access schemes used in wireless LANs following the standard IEEE 802.11. Here sensing the carrier is combined with a back-off scheme in case of a busy medium to achieve some fairness among competing stations. 32. Explain the different categories of TDMA. The different categories of TDMA are Fixed TDM, Classical Aloha, Slotted Aloha, Carrier sense multiple access, Demand assigned multiple access, PRMA packet reservation multiple access, Reservation TDMA, Multiple access with collision avoidance, Polling, Inhibit sense multiple access. UNIT-II
1. What are the three categories of services provided by GSM.

The three categories of services provided by GSM are bearer,tele and supplementary services.
2. State some of the tele-services and explain.

The main service is telephony, the primary goal of GSM was the provision of high quality digital voice transmission. The another service offered is emergency number and this connection has highest priority. Another service for simple message transfer is the short message service which offers transmission of messages upto 160 characters. Some other services
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are enhanced service(MMS).

message

service(EMS)

and

multimedia

message

3. Explain some of the supplementary services of the GSM.

Supplementary services are user identification, call redirection, or forwarding of ongoing calls. Standard ISDN features such as closed user groups and multiparty communication may be available. 4. State the components of radio subsystem and explain. The components of radio sub systems are: Base station subsystem (BSS): A GSM network comprises many BSSs, each controlled by a base station controller (BSC). The BSS performs all functions necessary to maintain radio connections to an MS, coding/decoding of voice, and rate adaptation to/from the wireless network part. Base transceiver station (BTS): A BTS comprises all radio equipment, i.e.,antennas, signal processing, amplifiers necessary for radio transmission. Base station controller (BSC): The BSC basically manages the BTSs. It reserves radio frequencies, handles the handover from one BTS to another within the BSS, and performs paging of the MS. 5. Explain the Um interface and Abis interface. A BTS can form a radio cell and is connected to MS via the Um interface, and to the BSC via the Abis interface. The Um interface contains all the mechanisms necessary for wireless transmission. The Abis interface consists of 16 or 64 kbit/s connections. 6. What is the function of base station controller? Base station controller (BSC): The BSC basically manages the BTSs. It reserves radio frequencies, handles the handover from one BTS to another within the BSS, and performs paging of the MS. The BSC also multiplexes the radio channels onto the fixed network connections at the A interface. 7. Explain SIM and IMEI. Subscriber identity module (SIM), stores all user-specific data that is relevant to GSM. An MS(mobile station) can be identified via the international mobile equipment identity (IMEI), a user can personalize any MS using his or her SIM, i.e., userspecific mechanisms like charging and authentication are based on the SIM, not on the device itself.

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8. What is the heart of the GSM system and explain. The heart of the GSM system is formed by the network and switching subsystem (NSS). The NSS connects the wireless network with standard public networks, performs handovers between different BSSs, comprises functions for worldwide localization of users and supports charging, accounting, and roaming of users between different providers in different countries. 9. Explain MSC, HLR, VLR. MSC stands for Mobile Services Switching Center and they are used to set up connection to other MSCs and to the BSCs via the A interface.HLR stands for Home Location Register and it is used to store all relevant information such as Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number and International Mobile Subscriber Identity etc. VLR stands for Visitor Location Register and is associated to each MSC which stores all important information needed for the MS(mobile station) users currently in the LA(location area). 10. Explain the entities of operation subsystem. The entities of the operating subsystem are: Operation and maintenance center (OMC): The OMC monitors and controls all other network entities via the O interface. Authentication centre (AuC): AuC has been defined to protect user identity and data transmission. Equipment identity register (EIR): The EIR is a database for all IMEIs, i.e., it stores all device identifications registered for this network. 11. What is a burst and explain the different types of burst. Data is transmitted in small portions, called bursts. A frequency correction burst allows the MS to correct the local oscillator to avoid interference with neighboring channels, a synchronization burst with an extended training sequence synchronizes the MS with the BTS in time, an access burst is used for the initial connection setup between MS and BTS, and a dummy burst is used if no data is available for a slot. 12. What are the two groups of logical channel in GSM? Explain. GSM specifies two basic groups of logical channels, i.e., traffic channels and control channels. Traffic channels (TCH): GSM uses a TCH to transmit user data (e.g., voice,fax). Two basic categories of TCHs are full-rate TCH(TCH/F) and half-rate TCH (TCH/H). A TCH/F has a data rate of 22.8 kbit/s,whereas TCH/H only has 11.4 kbit/s. Control channels (CCH): CCHs are used in a GSM system to control medium access, allocation of traffic channels or mobility management.

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13.

What are the three types of control channel? Explain.

The three tyes of control channels are: Broadcast control channel (BCCH): A BTS uses this channel to signal information to all MSs within a cell. Common control channel (CCCH): All information regarding connection setup between MS and BS is exchanged via the CCCH. Dedicated control channel (DCCH): While the previous channels have all been unidirectional, the following channels are bidirectional. 14. Explain the functions of layer 1 in GSM protocol architecture. Layer 1, the physical layer, handles all radio-specific functions. This includes the creation of bursts according to the five different formats, multiplexing of bursts into a TDMA frame, synchronization with the BTS, detection of idle channels, and measurement of the channel quality on the downlink. 15. Explain the protocol defined in layer 2 of GSM protocol architecture.
The

LAPDm protocol has been defined at the Um interface for layer two. LAPDm, has been derived from link access procedure for the D-channel (LAPD) in ISDN systems. LAPDm is a lightweight LAPD because it does not need synchronization flags or checksumming for error detection. LAPDm offers reliable data transfer over connections, re-sequencing of data frames, and flow control. LAPDm include segmentation and reassembly of data and acknowledged/unacknowledged data transfer. 16. Explain the sublayers of network layer in GSM. The network layer in GSM, layer three, comprises several sublayers . The lowest sublayer is the radio resource management (RR). The main tasks of RR are setup, maintenance, and release of radio channels.Mobility management (MM) contains functions for registration, authentication, identification, location updating, and the provision of a temporary mobile subscriber identity (TMSI) that replaces the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and which hides the real identity of an MS user over the air interface. 17. Explain the entities of call management. The call management (CM) layer contains three entities: call control (CC), short message service (SMS), and supplementary service (SS). SMS allows for message transfer using the control channels SDCCH and SACCH (if no signaling data is sent), while SS offers the services such as user identification, call redirection, or forwarding of ongoing calls.CC provides a point-to-point connection between two terminals and is used by higher layers for call establishment, call clearing and change of call parameters. 18. What is the function of SS7?
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Signaling system No. 7 (SS7) is used for signaling between an MSC and a BSC. This protocol also transfers all management information between MSCs, HLR, VLRs, AuC, EIR, and OMC. 19. What is MSISDN, IMSI, TMSI, MSRN. MSISDN stands for Mobile station international ISDN number, IMSI stands for International mobile subscriber identity, TMSI stands for Temporary mobile subscriber identity and MSRN stands for Mobile station7 roaming number.
20.

What are the four handover scenarios in GSM? Explain.

The four handover scenarios are: Intra-cell handover: Within a cell, narrow-band interference could make transmission at a certain frequency impossible. The BSC could then decide to change the carrier frequency (scenario 1). Inter-cell, intra-BSC handover: The mobile station moves from one cell to another, but stays within the control of the same BSC. The BSC then performs a handover, assigns a new radio channel in the new cell and releases the old one (scenario 2). Inter-BSC, intra-MSC handover: As a BSC only controls a limited number of cells; GSM also has to perform handovers between cells controlled by different BSCs. This handover then has to be controlled by the MSC (scenario 3). Inter MSC handover: A handover could be required between two cells belonging to different MSCs. Now both MSCs perform the handover together (scenario 4). 21. Explain the security services offered by GSM.

The security services offered by GSM are: Access control and authentication: The first step includes the authentication of a valid user for the SIM. The user needs a secret PIN to access the SIM. The next step is the subscriber authentication. This step is based on a challenge-response . Confidentiality: All user-related data is encrypted. After authentication, BTS and MS apply encryption to voice, data, and signaling. This confidentiality exists only between MS and BTS, but it does not exist end-to-end or within the whole fixed GSM/telephone network. Anonymity: To provide user anonymity, all data is encrypted before transmission, and user identifiers are not used over the air. 22. What are the algorithms used for providing the security services?

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Three algorithms have been specified to provide security services in GSM. Algorithm A3 is used for authentication, A5 for encryption, and A8 for the generation of a cipher key. 23. What are the environments of the cordless systems?

The environments of the cordless systems are residential, office and telepoint.

24.

What are the advantages of the wireless local loop?

The advantages are : Cost: Wireless systems are less expensive than wired systems. With WLL the cost of installing kms of cable either underground or on poles is avoided as well as the cost of maintaining the wired infra structure. Installation time: WLL systems typically can be installed rapidly i.e in a small fraction of time required for a new wired system. Selective installation: Radio units are installed subscribers who want the service at a given time. only for those

25. What are the design considerations of the cordless standards?

The design consideration are: 1. The range of the handset from the base station is modest up to about 200 m. Thus low power designs are used. The power output is one or two orders of magnitude lower than for cellular networks.
2. The handset and the base station need to be inexpensive. 3. Frequency flexibility is limited because the user owns the base

station as well as the mobile portion and can install these in a variety of environments.

26.

Explain the effect of rain and effect of vegetation in WLL.

Effect of rain:The presence of rain drops can severly degrade the reliability and performance of communication links and during periods of heavy rain may out weigh all other factors.
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Effect of vegetation: The presence of trres near subscribers can lead to multi path fading. The principal multipath effects from the tree canopy are diffraction and scattering. 27. What is meant by DECT? Explain.

DECT stands for digital enhanced cordless telecommunications . DECT replaces older analog cordless phone systems such as CT1 and CT1+. These analog systems only ensured security to a limited extent as they did not use encryption for data transmission and only offered a relatively low capacity. DECT is also a more powerful alternative to the digital system CT2.DECT is mainly used in offices, on campus, at trade shows, or in the home. 28. Explain the functions of local and global network in DECT. A global network connects the local communication structure to the outside world and offers its services via the interface D1. Global networks could be integrated services digital networks (ISDN), public switched telephone networks (PSTN), public land mobile networks (PLMN), e.g., GSM, or packet switched public data network (PSPDN). The services offered by these networks include transportation of data and the translation of addresses and routing of data between the local networks. Local networks in the DECT context offer local telecommunication services that can include everything from simple switching to intelligent call forwarding, address translation etc.
29.

What are the different layers in DECT .

The different layers in DECT are physical layer, medium access control layer, data link control layer and network layer.

30.

What is meant by TETRA?

Trunked radio systems constitute another method of wireless data transmission. These systems use many different radio carriers but only assign a specific carrier to a certain user for a short period of time according to demand. 31. What are the channels provided by TETRA?

The channels are provided by TETRA are traffic channels (TCH) and control channels (CCH).

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32.

State the applications of satellites.

Satellites have been used in the following areas: Weather forecasting: Several satellites deliver pictures of the earth using, e.g., infra red or visible light. Without the help of satellites, the forecasting of hurricanes would be impossible. Radio and TV broadcast satellites: Hundreds of radio and TV programs are available via satellite. This technology competes with cable in many places, as it is cheaper to install and, in most cases, no extra fees have to be paid for this service. Military satellites: One of the earliest applications of satellites was their use for carrying out espionage. Many communication links are managed via satellite because they are much safer from attack by enemies. Satellites for navigation The system allows for precise localization worldwide, and with some additional techniques, the precision is in the range of some metres.
33.

What are the communications?

four

types

of

orbits

in

satellite

The four types of orbit Geostationary Earth Orbit(GEO), Medium Earth Orbit(MEO), Low Earth Orbit(LEO) and High Elliptical Orbit(HEO). 34.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of GEO?

Advantages: Three GEO satellites are enough for a complete coverage of almost any spot on earth. Senders and receivers can use fixed antenna positions, no adjusting is needed. GEOs are ideal for TV and radio broadcasting. Lifetime expectations for GEOs are rather high, at about 15 years. GEOs typically do not need a handover due to the large footprint. GEOs do not exhibit any Doppler shift because the relative movement is zero. Disadvantages: Northern or southern regions of the earth have more problems receiving these satellites due to the low elevation above a latitude of 60, i.e., larger antennas are needed in this case. Shading of the signals in cities due to high buildings and the low elevation further away from the equator limit transmission quality. The transmit power needed is relatively high (some 10 W) which causes problems for battery powered devices. These satellites cannot be used for small mobile phones. The biggest problem for voice and also data communication is the high latency of over 0.25 s one-way many retransmission schemes which are known from fixed networks fail. Due to the large footprint, either frequencies cannot

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be reused or the GEO satellite needs special antennas focusing on a smaller footprint. Transferring a GEO into orbit is very expensive. 35. State the advantages and disadvantages of LEO. Advantages: Using advanced compression schemes, transmission rates of about 2,400 bit/s can be enough for voice communication. LEOs even provide this bandwidth for mobile terminals with omni-directional antennas using low transmit power in the range of 1W. The delay for packets delivered via a LEO is relatively low (approx 10 ms). The delay is comparable to long-distance wired connections (about 510 ms). LEOs can provide a much higher elevation in polar regions and so better global coverage. Disadvantages: The biggest problem of the LEO concept is the need for many satellites if global coverage is to be reached. Several concepts involve 50200 or even more satellites in orbit. The short time of visibility with a high elevation requires additional mechanisms for connection handover between different satellites. The high number of satellites combined with the fast movements results in a high complexity of the whole satellite system. One general problem of LEOs is the short lifetime of about five to eight years due to atmospheric drag and radiation from the inner Van Allen belt1. Due to the large footprint, a GEO typically does not need this type of routing, as senders and receivers are most likely in the same footprint. 36. State the advantages and disadvantages of MEO.

Advantages: Using orbits around 10,000 km, the system only requires a dozen satellites which is more than a GEO system, but much less than a LEO system. These satellites move more slowly relative to the earths rotation allowing a simpler system design. Depending on the inclination, a MEO can cover larger populations, so requiring fewer handovers. Disadvantages: Due to the larger distance to the earth, delay increases to about 7080 ms. The satellites need higher transmit power and special antennas for smaller footprints. 37. What are two hand overs in UMTS?

The two hand overs in UMTS are hard handover and soft hand over.

38.

Specify the tasks of RNC in UMTS.

The tasks in UMTS are Call admission control, Congestion control, Encryption/decryption, ATM switching and multiplexing, protocol conversion, Radio resource control, Radio bearer setup and release, Code allocation, Power control, Handover control and RNS relocation, Management.

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39.

Explain what is UTRAN?

UTRAN stands for UTRA Network.This consists of several radio network subsystems (RNS). Each RNS is controlled by a radio network controller (RNC) and comprises several components that are called node B. 40. Explain what is Localization?

Localization of users in satellite networks is similar to that of terrestrial cellular networks. The problem arises is the fact that now the base stations, i.e., the satellites, move as well. The gateways of a satellite network maintain several registers. A home location register (HLR) stores all static information about a user as well as his or her current location. The last known location of a mobile user is stored in the visitor location register (VLR). 41. What are the ways to increase the capacity in cellular networks. The ways to increase the capacity in cellular networks are by adding new channels, frequency borrowing, cell splitting, cell sectoring, microcells.
42.

What are systems.

the functions performed

by the cellular

The functions performed by the cellular systems are call blocking, call termination, call drop, calls to/from fixed and remote mobile subscriber.
43.

What are the various handoff determine the instant of the hand off?

strategies

used

to

The various handoff strategies are cell blocking probability, call dropping probability, call completion probability, call completion probability, probability of unsuccessful handoff, handoff blocking probability, rate of handoff, interruption duration and handoff delay. 44. List the key differences between the two generations.

The key differences between the two generations are digital traffic channels, encryption, error detection and correction and channel access. 45. Specify the requirements of the Mobile Wireless TDMA.

The requirements of the Mobile Wireless TDMA are no. of logical channels, max. cell radius, frequency, max. vehicle speed, max. coding delay, max. delay spread, bandwidth. UNIT-III 1. What are the two sub layers of physical layer in IEEE 802.11?

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The two sublayers are: Physical layer Convergence Procedure. Physical medium dependent sublayer.

2. What are the three services provided by LLC? The services are: Unacknowledged connectionless service Connection mode service Acknowledged connectionless service

3. What is the term used for certified 802.11B products? The term used for certified 802.11b products is Wi-Fi.(Wireless Fidelity). 4. What is the smallest building block of wireless LAN? The smallest building block of a wireless Lan is a BASIC SERVICE SET(BSS).It consists of stations executing the MAC protocol and competing for access for the shared wireless medium. 5. What is ESS? It stands for Extended Service Set.It consists of two or more basic service sets interconnected by a distribution system. 6. What are the three functional areas for MAC layer? The three functional areas are: Reliable data delivery. Medium access control. Security.

7. What are the two types of proposals for a MAC algorithm? The two types of protocols are: 1. Distributed Access Protocols-distribute the decision to transmit over all the nodes using a carrier sense mechanism. 2. Centralized Access Protocols-regulation of transmission by a centralized decision maker. 8. Expand DFW MAC? Distributed Foundation Wireless Medium Access Control.

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It provides a distributed access control mechanism with an optional centralized control built on top of that. 9. What are the four stages in physical layer of IEEE 802.11? IEEE 802.11-includes the MAC layer and three physical layer specifications,two in 2.4GHz band and one in Infrared. 10. 11. IEEE 802.11a operates in 5-GHz band . IEEE 802.11b-operates in 2.4GHz band. IEEE 802.11g operates in 2.4GHz band. What are three physical media in IEEE 802.11 standards? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. Frequency hopping Spread spectrum Infrared What is a Barker Sequence?

A Barker sequence is a binary{-1,+1} sequence {s(t)}of length n with the property that its autocorrelation values R(T) satisfy |R(T)|<=1 for all |T| <=n-1. 12. What is modulation scheme for 1 Mbps data rate?

The modulation scheme for 1-Mbps data rate is known as 16-PPM(Pulsa Position Modulation).In PPM the input value determines the position of a narrow pulse relative to clocking time. 13. What is UNNI?

Universal Networking Information Infrastructure. IEEE 802.11a makes use of this frequency band.It is divided into three parts UNNI-1 band UNNI-2 band UNNI-3 band 14. What is the modulation scheme used in IEEE 802.11b?

The modulation scheme used in IEEE 802.11b is Complementary Code Keying (CCK).

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15.

What is Bluetooth?

Bluetooth provides universal short range wireless capability(10m). It is intended to support an open-ended list of applications including audio,data,graphics and video. 16. 17. State the general applications of Bluetooth? Data and voice access Points. Cable replacement. Ad hoc networking What are the two groups of Bluetooth Standards? Core specifications-details of various layers of Bluetooth protocol architecture. Profile specifications-Use of Bluetooth technology to support various applications. 18. What is TCS BIN? (or) Define TCS BIN.

Telephony Control Protocol. It is a bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of speech and data calls between Bluetooth devices. 19. What is usage model and explain some of usage models in Bluetooth? A usage model is set of protocols that implement a particular Bluetooth based application.Some of usage models are File transfer. Internet bridge LAN access Synchronization

20. What is Piconet? The basic unit of networking in Bluetooth is a Piconet.It consists of one master and one to seven active slave devices. 21. What is Scatternet?

19

Wireless Technology

A device in one piconet may also exist as part of another piconet and may fuction as either a slave or master in each piconet.This form of overlapping is called a Scatternet. 22. Define three classes of transmission in radio specification. Class 1-Outputs 100mW for maximum range,with a minimum of 1mW. Class 2-Outputs 2.4mW at maximum,with a minimum of 0.25mW. Class 3-Lowest power.Nominal output is 1mW.

23.What is TDD? Ans: Time Division Duplex. TDD is a link transmission technique in which data are transmitted in one direction at a time,with transmission alternating between the two directions. 24.What are the two types of physical links in baseband level? Synchronous connection oriented. Asynchronous connectionless. 25.What are the security services provided by LMP? Authentication Pairing Change link key Encryption
26. What is an access code?

Access code is used for timing synchronization, offset compensation, paging and inquiry.
27. What are the three error correction schemes at baseband level?

The error correction schemes are 1/3 FEC( forward error correction), 2/3 FEC, ARQ(automatic repeat request).
28. What

are the specification?

three

types

of

access

codes

in

baseband

The three types of access codes are channel access code, device access code, inquiry access code.

20

Wireless Technology 29. What is L2CAP and what are two services provided by it?

L2CAP stands for Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol. The two services provided are connection mode service and connectionless service.
30. What are the three types of logical channels provided by L2CAP?

The three types of logical channels provided by L2CAP are connectionless, connection-oriented, and signaling.
31. What is flow specification in QoS and list its parameters?

The QoS parameter in L2CAP defines a traffic flow specification based on RFC. A flow specification is a set of parameters that indicates a performance level that the transmitter will attempt to achieve. The parameters are service type, token rate, token bucket size, peak bandwidth, latency, delay variation.

UNIT-IV
1. What it the difference between CPCD and Mobile IP? CDPD assumes that the network is centrally administered, managed and operated by cooperating cellular Service Providers. CDPD was designed to not only support IP, but also to be a multi-protocol mobility solution. Mobile IP assumes no additional constraints beyond the existing mode of operation of the Internet Mobile IP is a pure IP solution. 2. What is meant by agent discovery? When a mobile node is first turned on, it cannot assume that it is still at home the way normal IP devices do. It must first determine where it is, and if it is not at home, begin the process of setting up datagram forwarding from its home network. This process is accomplished by communicating with a local router serving as an agent, through the process called agent discovery. 3. What are the main goals of agent discovery? Agent/Node Communication Orientation Care-Of Address Assignment 4. What is Agent/Node Communication? Agent discovery is the method by which a mobile node first establishes contact with an agent on the local network to which it is attached. Messages are sent from the agent to the node containing important information about the agent; a message can also be sent from the node to the agent asking for this information to be sent. 5. What is meant by orientation?

21

Wireless Technology The node uses the agent discovery process to determine where it is. Specifically, it learns whether it is on its home network or a foreign network by identifying the agent that sends it messages 6. What is meant by Care-Of Address Assignment? The agent discovery process is the method used to tell a mobile node the care-of address it should use, when foreign agent care-of addressing is used. 7. Explain Mobile IP Registration process?

Request forwarding services when visiting a foreign network Inform the home agent of the current care-of address Renew a registration that is about to expire Deregister when the mobile node returns home Request a reverse tunnel 8. Discuss about the various messages exchanged during the registration process The mobile node sends a registration request to the prospective foreign agent to begin the registration process. The foreign agent processes the registration request and then relays the request to the home agent. The home agent sends a registration reply to the foreign agent to grant or deny the request. The foreign agent processes the registration reply and then relays the reply to the mobile node to inform the mobile node of the disposition of the request. 9. Explain the mobile IP encapsulation technique? Encapsulation process used in Mobile IP is called IP Encapsulation Within IP, defined in RFC 2003 and commonly abbreviated IP-in-IP. It is a relatively simple method that describes how to take an IP datagram and make it the payload of another IP datagram 10. What are the encapsulation techniques used in mobile IP IP Encapsulation Within IP Minimal Encapsulation Within IP Generic Routing Encapsulation 11. What is a tunnel? The encapsulation process creates a logical construct called a tunnel between the device that encapsulates and the one that decapsulates. The tunnel represents a conduit over which datagrams are forwarded across an arbitrary internetwork, with the details of the encapsulated datagram (meaning the original IP headers) temporarily hidden
12. What is Foreign Agent Care-Of Address?

The foreign agent is the end of the tunnel. It receives encapsulated messages from the home agent, strips off the outer IP header and then delivers the datagram to the mobile node. This is generally done using layer two, because the mobile node and foreign agent are on the same local network 13. What sort of care-of address is being used by the end of tunnel? Foreign Agent Care-Of Address Co-Located Care-Of Address 14. What is IPv6? It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address

22

Wireless Technology exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460. 15. What is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4? IPv6 has a vastly larger address space than IPv4. This results from the use of a 128-bit address, whereas IPv4 uses only 32 bits. The new address space thus supports 2128 (about 3.41038) addresses. This expansion provides flexibility in allocating addresses and routing traffic and eliminates the primary need for network address translation 16. What are the distinguishing features of IPv6? Simplifying aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from Link Layer media addressing information (MAC address). Network security is integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. 17. What is DHCP? The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a computer networking protocol used by hosts (DHCP clients) to retrieve IP address assignments and other configuration information.DHCP uses a client-server architecture. The client sends a broadcast request for configuration information. The DHCP server receives the request and responds with configuration information from its configuration database. 18. What is routing? Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks

19. What is Packet forwarding? The transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes; typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. 20. Mention the different types of routing algorithms. Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Hierarchical routing 21. What are the advantage of DSDV Routing? DSDV was one of the early algorithms available. It is quite suitable for creating ad hoc networks with small number of nodes. Since no formal specification of this algorithm is present there is no commercial implementation of this algorithm. Many improved forms of this algorithm have been suggested. 22. Mention the disadvantages of DSDV Routing. DSDV requires a regular update of its routing tables, which uses up battery power and a small amount of bandwidth even when the network is idle.Whenever the topology of the network changes, a new sequence number is necessary

23

Wireless Technology before the network re-converges; thus, DSDV is not suitable for highly dynamic networks. (As in all distance-vector protocols, this does not perturb traffic in regions of the network that are not concerned by the topology change.) 23. What is DSR? Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route on-demand when a transmitting computer requests one. However, it uses source routing instead of relying on the routing table at each intermediate device. 24. What are the advantage of DSR? This protocol uses a reactive approach which eliminates the need to periodically flood the network with table update messages which are required in a table-driven approach. In a reactive (on-demand) approach such as this, a route is established only when it is required and hence the need to find routes to all other nodes in the network as required by the table-driven approach is eliminated. The intermediate nodes also utilize the route cache information efficiently to reduce the control overhead 25. Mention the disadvantages of DSR. The disadvantage of this protocol is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link. Stale route cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route reconstruction phase. The connection setup delay is higher than in table-driven protocols. Even though the protocol performs well in static and low-mobility environments, the performance degrades rapidly with increasing mobility. Also, considerable routing overhead is involved due to the source-routing mechanism employed in DSR. This routing overhead is directly proportional to the path length. 26. What is Hierarchical Routing Hierarchical routing is the procedure of arranging routers in a hierarchical manner. A good example would be to consider a corporate intranet. Most corporate intranets consist of a high speed backbone network. 27. What are the advantages of Hierarchical Routing? Decreases the complexity of network topology, increases routing efficiency, and causes much less congestion because of fewer routing advertisements 28. Mention the disadvantages of Hierarchical Routing. Only core routers connected to the backbone are aware of all routes. Routers that lie within a LAN only know about routes in the LAN. Unrecognized destinations are passed to the default route. 29. What is I TCP I-TCP, which is an indirect transport layer protocol for mobile hosts. I-TCP utilizes the resources of Mobility Support Routers (MSRs) to provide transport layer communication between mobile hosts and hosts on the fixed network. 30. Explain Fast Retransmit It is an enhancement to TCP which reduces the time a sender waits before retransmitting a lost segment. If a TCP sender receives three duplicate acknowledgements with the same acknowledge number the sender can be reasonably confident that the segment with the next higher sequence number was dropped, and will not arrive out of

24

Wireless Technology order. The sender will then retransmit the packet that was presumed dropped before waiting for its timeout. 31. What is Selective Retransmission HPR support uses a selective retransmission mechanism where data is not retransmitted unless instructed to do so by the remote RTP endpoint. Additionally, the remote RTP endpoint indicates which messages must be retransmitted. 32. What are the layers of WAP architecture Application Session Transaction Security Transport 33. What is WAP Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open international standard for application-layer network communications in a wireless-communication environment. Most use of WAP involves accessing the mobile web from a mobile phone or from a PDA. 34. Mention the activities aided by WAP Email by mobile phone Tracking of stock-market prices Sports results News headlines Music downloads 35. Draw the WAP Architecture

UNIT-V

1. What are MAC protocols.


The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is used to provide the data link layer of the Ethernet LAN system. The MAC protocol encapsulates a SDU (payload data) by adding a 14 byte header (Protocol Control Information (PCI)) before the data and appending a 4-byte (32-bit) Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) after the data.

2. Define cyclic redundancy check.


25

Wireless Technology cyclic redundancy check, a common technique for detecting data transmission errors. Transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths that are divided by a fixed divisor. According to the calculation, the remainder number is appended onto and sent with the message. When the message is received, the computer recalculates the remainder and compares it to the transmitted remainder. If the numbers do not match, an error is detected.

A number of file transfer protocols, including Zmodem, use CRC in addition to checksum.

3. Define inter frame gap


After transmission of each frame, a transmitter must wait for a period of 9.6 microseconds (at 10 Mbps) to allow the signal to propagate through the receiver electronics at the destination. This period of time is known as the Inter-Frame Gap (IFG).

4. Define CSMA /CD The Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) with Collision Detection (CD) protocol is used to control access to the shared Ethernet medium. A switched network (e.g. Fast Ethernet) may use a full duplex mode giving access to the full link speed when used between directly connected NICs, Switch to NIC cables, or Switch to Switch cables.

5. What is runt frame.


Any frame which is received and which is less than 64 bytes is illegal, and is called a "runt". In most cases, such frames arise from a collision, and while they indicate an illegal reception, they may be observed on correctly functioning networks. A receiver must discard all runt frames. Some modern Gigabit Ethernet NICs support frames that are larger than the traditional 1500 bytes specified by the IEEE. This new mode requires support by both ends of the link to support Jumbo Frames. Path MTU Discovery is required for a router to utilise this feature, since there is no other way for a router to determine that all systems on the end-to-end path will support these larger sized frames.

6. What is jumbo frame

7. What is giant frame


Any frame which is received and which is greater than the maximum frame size, is called a "giant". In theory, the jabber control circuit in the transceiver should prevent any node from generating such a frame, but certain failures in the physical layer may also give rise to over-sized Ethernet frames. Like runts, giants are discarded by an Ethernet receiver. Any frame which does not contain an integral number of received bytes (bytes) is also illegal. A receiver has no way of knowing which bits are legal, and how to compute the CRC-32 of the frame. Such frames are therefore also discarded by the Ethernet receiver.

8. What is misaligned frame

9. Define IEEE 802


The 802.1X standard is designed to enhance the security of wireless local area networks (WLANs) that follow the IEEE 802.11 standard. 802.1X provides an authentication framework for wireless LANs, allowing a user to be authenticated by a central authority. The actual algorithm that is used to determine whether a user is authentic is left open and multiple algorithms are possible. A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network, the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms.

10. What is routing protocol.

26

Wireless Technology

11. What is interior gateway routing.


Abbreviated as IGRP, a proprietary network protocol, developed by Cisco Systems, designed to work on autonomous systems. IGRP is a distance-vector routing protocol, which means that each router sends all or a portion of its routing table in a routing message update at regular intervals to each of its neighboring routers. A router chooses the best path between a source and a destination. Since each path can comprise many links, the system needs a way to compare the links in order to find the best path. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a protocol for exchanging routing information between two neighbor gateway hosts (each with its own router) in a network of autonomous systems. EGP is commonly used between hosts on the Internet to exchange routing table information. The routing table contains a list of known routers, the addresses they can reach, and a cost metric associated with the path to each router so that the best available route is chosen. Each router polls its neighbor at intervals between 120 to 480 seconds and the neighbor responds by sending its complete routing table. EGP-2 is the latest version of EGP.

12. What is exterior gateway routing

13. What are the characteristics of routing protocol.

them

14. Describe routing in CSGR

The specific characteristics of routing protocols include the manner in which they either prevent routing loops from forming or break up if they do the manner in which they select preferred routes, using information about hop costs the time they take to converge how well they scale up many other factors If a node has to route a packet, it finds the nearest clusterhead along the route to the destination according to the cluster member table and the routing table. Then it will consult its routing table to find the next hop in order to reach the clusterhead selected above and transmits the packet to that node.

Thus, the routing principle looks as follows: Lookup of the clusterhead of the destination node Lookup of next hop Packet send to destination Destination clusterhead delivers packet First, the source has to transmit the packet to its clusterhead. Then, this clusterhead sends the packet to the gateway node that connects this clusterhead and the next clusterhead along the route to the destination. The gateway sends the packet to the next clusterhead. This will go on until the destination clusterhead is reached. The destination clusterhead then transmits the packet to the destination node.

27

Wireless Technology

Routing in CSGR is more effective than DSDV because it is done through the clusterheads and gateways.

15. What is CDMA


Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply CDMA), which use CDMA as an underlying channel access method. One of the basic concepts in data communication is the idea of allowing several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). This concept is called multiplexing. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time, while frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated. An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room (channel) in which people wish to communicate with each other. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking (time division), speak at different pitches (frequency division), or speak in different languages (code division). CDMA is analogous to the last example where people speaking the same language can understand each other, but not other people. Similarly, in radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code. Many codes occupy the same channel, but only users associated with a particular code can communicate.

16. What is Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing


Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing is a routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and other wireless ad-hoc networks. It is jointly developed in Nokia Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Cincinnati by C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer and S. Das. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is a reactive routing protocol, meaning that it establishes a route to a destination only on demand. In contrast, the most common routing protocols of the Internet are proactive, meaning they find routing paths independently of the usage of the paths. AODV is, as the name indicates, a distancevector routing protocol. AODV avoids the counting-to-infinity problem of other distance-vector protocols by using sequence numbers on route updates, a technique pioneered by DSDV. The main advantage of this protocol is that routes are established on demand and destination sequence numbers are used to find the latest route to the destination. The connection setup delay is lower. One of the disadvantages of this protocol is that intermediate nodes can lead to inconsistent routes if the source sequence number is very old and the intermediate nodes have a higher but not the latest destination sequence number, thereby having stale entries. Also multiple RouteReply

17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of AODV

28

Wireless Technology packets in response to a single RouteRequest packet can lead to heavy control overhead. Another disadvantage of AODV is that the periodic beaconing leads to unnecessary bandwidth consumption. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route on-demand when a transmitting computer requests one. However, it uses source routing instead of relying on the routing table at each intermediate device. Many successive refinements have been made to DSR, including DSRFLOW. Determining source routes requires accumulating the address of each device between the source and destination during route discovery. The accumulated path information is cached by nodes processing the route discovery packets. The learned paths are used to route packets. To accomplish source routing, the routed packets contain the address of each device the packet will traverse. This may result in high overhead for long paths or large addresses, like IPv6. To avoid using source routing, DSR optionally defines a flow id option that allows packets to be forwarded on a hop-by-hop basis. This protocol uses a reactive approach which eliminates the need to periodically flood the network with table update messages which are required in a table-driven approach. In a reactive (ondemand) approach such as this, a route is established only when it is required and hence the need to find routes to all other nodes in the network as required by the table-driven approach is eliminated. The intermediate nodes also utilize the route cache information efficiently to reduce the control overhead. The disadvantage of this protocol is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link. Stale route cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route reconstruction phase. The connection setup delay is higher than in table-driven protocols. Even though the protocol performs well in static and low-mobility environments, the performance degrades rapidly with increasing mobility. Also, considerable routing overhead is involved due to the source-routing mechanism employed in DSR. This routing overhead is directly proportional to the path length.

18. What is dynamic source routing protocol.

19. What are the advantages and disadvantages of DSR

20. Define temporally ordered routing. 21. How is scalability achieved using TORA.
The Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is an algorithm for routing data across Wireless Mesh Networks or Mobile ad-hoc networks. The TORA attempts to achieve a high degree of scalability using a "flat", non-hierarchical routing algorithm. In its operation the algorithm attempts to suppress, to the greatest extent possible, the generation of far-reaching control message propagation. In order to achieve this, the TORA does not use a shortest path solution, an approach which is unusual for routing algorithms of this type.

22. Define power aware routing


Energy required to transmit a signal is approximately proportional to d , where d is the distance and is the attenuation factor or path loss exponent, which depends on the transmission medium. When = 2 (which is the optimal case), transmitting a signal half the distance requires one fourth of the energy and if there is a node in the middle willing spend another fourth of its energy for the second half, data would be transmitted for half of the energy than through a direct transmission - a fact that follows directly from the inverse square law of physics.

23. What is attenuation factor


The ratio of the incident radiation dose or dose rate to the radiation dose or dose rate transmitted through a shielding material. This is the reciprocal of the transmission factor. (or ) A measure of the opacity of a layer of material for radiation transversing it, the ratio of the incident intensity to the transmitted intensity. It is equal to Io/I, where Io and I are the intensities of the incident and emergent radiation, respectively. In the usual sense of exponential absorption (I = Ioe- m x), the attenuation factor is e- m x, where x is the thickness of the material and m is the absorption coefficient. Zone Routing Protocol or ZRP was the first hybrid routing protocol with both a proactive and a reactive routing component. ZRP was first introduced by Haas in 1997. ZRP is proposed to reduce the control overhead of proactive routing protocols and decrease the latency caused by routing

24. What is zone routing protocol.

29

Wireless Technology discover in reactive routing protocols. ZRP defines a zone around each node consisting of its kneighbourhood (e. g. k=3). In ZRP, the distance and a node , all nodes within -hop distance from node belongs to the routing zone of node . ZRP is formed by two sub-protocols, a proactive routing protocol: Intra-zone Routing Protocol (IARP), is used inside routing zones and a reactive routing protocol: Inter-zone Routing Protocol (IERP), is used between routing zones, respectively. A route to a destination within the local zone can be established from the proactively cached routing table of the source by IARP, therefore, if the source and destination is in the same zone, the packet can be delivered immediately. Most of the existing proactive routing algorithms can be used as the IARP for ZRP. The Source Tree Adaptive Routing protocol was the first proactive routing protocol that works with link-state information and was faster then on-demand protocols. It was also the first proactive routing protocol where LORA principle was implemented. STAR doesnt take shortest paths for keeping control messages low. STAR identifies every node with a fix address. Big advantage is that no periodically updates are needed.

25. Define STAR - Source Tree Adaptive Routing protocol

26.

What is location aided routing.

LAR is an on-demand protocol who is based on the DSR (Dynamique Source Routing)! The Location - Aided Routing Protocol uses location information to reduce routing overhead of the ad-hoc network! Normally the LAR protocol uses the GPS (Global Positioning System) to get these location informations. With the availability of GPS, the mobile hosts knows there physical location. To reduce the complexity of the protocol, we assume, that every host knows his position exactly, the difference between the exact position and the calculated position of GPS will no be considered! We also assume that the mobile nodes are only moving in a two-dimensional plane!

27.

Diagram of MAC header

28. What is signal stability routing.


SSA tries to discover stronger routes based on signal strength and location stability of the nodes. The location stability defines paths which have existed for a longer period of time. SSA is beaconbased like ABR which means, that the signal strength of the beacons is measured for determining the link stability between the nodes. With the help of the link stability and the location stability the links are classified as stable or unstable. The signal strengths of the neighbor beacons are stored in a table named SST (signal stability table). Each node is constantly updating his SST with the beacon messages. The informations from the SST are used to forward the RouteRequest messages only over stable links to the destination. SSA uses next-hop routing, which means that each node keeps a routing table where the next hop to the target is stored. When we compare SSA to ABR, one difference is that nodes only forward the RouteRequest messages if they receive them over stable links. In the other case the packets are dropped. Another difference is that SSA only minds on one metric which is the signal strength between the nodes. The main objective of SSA is to only use routes that have stronger connectivity.
Expected Zone

29. What are expected zones and request zones.

30

Wireless Technology First, we consider that the node S (source) needs to find a way to node D (destination) ! Node S knows that D was at position L. Then, the "expected zone" of node D, from the viewpoint of node S, is the region that node S expects to contain node D! When node S knows, that node D travels with a several speed, node S considers this speed to determine the expected zone of D! When node S has no information about the position of D, the entire region of the ad-hoc network is assumed to the expected zone! Then the algorithm reduces to the basic flooding algorithm! In general we can say, as more as the node S knows about D, as smaller can be considered the expected zone!

a) The circular expected zone of node D b) When node S knows that D is moving north, then the circular expected zone can be reduced to a semi-circle. RequestZone Again, we consider that node S needs to find a path to node D. Node S defines a Request Zone like in figure 1 (a)! After that S sends a route request like in the normal flooding algorithm. With the difference, that a node only forwards this route request when it is in the Request Zone! But there are two different reasons, that regions outside the request zone havge to be include in the Request Zone: 1) Node S is not in the Expected Zone of D, then this Expected Zone has to be enlarged to the Request Zone like in figure 2 (a). 2) But now we ask us if this Request Zone of figure 2 (a) is a good Request Zone! We see in figure 2 (b) that all the nodes between S and D are outside of the Request Zone! So it is not guaranteed, that a path between S and D can be found. LAR allows to expand the Request Zone, so that it easier to find a path. But we have to consider, when we increase the Expected Zone like in figure 2 (c), the route discovery overhead will also increase.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

What is OSI model. What is BGI What are table driven approach Define DSDV What are the advantages of DSDV. What are the disadvantages of DSDV

31

Wireless Technology

36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

How is AODV different from DSDV What is CSGR What is Least cluster change What are wireless channels Define time to live. why is it used. Where is TORA used. What directed acylic graph Define broadcast clear packet Define IERP and IARP How and where is Link-State Update Unit used. How is LORA implemented in STAR protocol. How are the update rules sent in star What is relative distance micro diversity routing. Define WRP What are the advantages and disadvantages of SSA

Department of Computer Science and Engineering Wireless Technology Big Questions UNIT I Radio frequency Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.[1] Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.
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Wireless Technology

Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 30 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of electrical signals normally used to produce and detect radio waves. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations, although mechanical RF systems do exist Media Access Control The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a sublayer of the Data Link Layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model (layer 2). It provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multi-point network, typically a local area network (LAN) or metropolitan area network (MAN). The hardware that implements the MAC is referred to as a Medium Access Controller. The MAC sub-layer acts as an interface between the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer and the network's physical layer. The MAC layer emulates a full-duplex logical communication channel in a multi-point network. This channel may provide unicast, multicast or broadcast communication service.
1) Explain about the Antenna and its types ?

Antenna An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. In other words, antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electrical current, or vice versa. Antennas generally deal in the transmission and reception of radio waves, and are a necessary part of all radio equipment. Antennas are used in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless LAN, cell phones, radar, and spacecraft communication. Antennas are most commonly employed in air or outer space, but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. Physically, an antenna is an arrangement of one or more conductors, usually called elements in this context. In transmission, an alternating current is created in the elements by applying a voltage at the antenna terminals, causing the elements to radiate an electromagnetic field. In reception, the inverse occurs: an electromagnetic field from another source induces an alternating current in the elements and a corresponding voltage at the antenna's terminals. Some receiving antennas (such as parabolic and horn types) incorporate shaped reflective surfaces to collect the radio waves striking them and direct or focus them onto the actual conductive elements. Some of the first rudimentary antennas were built in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz (18571894) in his pioneering experiments to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James Clerk Maxwell. Hertz placed the emitter dipole in the focal point of a parabolic reflector. He published his work and installation drawings in Annalen der Physik und Chemie Resonant frequency The "resonant frequency" and "electrical resonance" is related to the electrical length of an antenna. The electrical length is usually the physical length of the wire divided by its velocity factor (the ratio of the speed of wave propagation in the wire to c0, the speed of light in a vacuum). Typically an antenna is tuned for a specific frequency, and is effective for a range of frequencies that are usually centered on that resonant frequency. However, other properties of an antenna change with frequency, in particular the radiation pattern and impedance, so the

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antenna's resonant frequency may merely be close to the center frequency of these other more important properties. Antennas can be made resonant on harmonic frequencies with lengths that are fractions of the target wavelength; this resonance gives much better coupling to the electromagnetic wave, and makes the aerial act as if it were physically larger. Some antenna designs have multiple resonant frequencies, and some are relatively effective over a very broad range of frequencies. The most commonly known type of wide band aerial is the logarithmic or log periodic, but its gain is usually much lower than that of a specific or narrower band aerial. Antenna gain Gain as a parameter measures the efficiency of a given antenna with respect to a given norm, usually achieved by modification of its directionality. An antenna with a low gain emits radiation with about the same power in all directions, whereas a high-gain antenna will preferentially radiate in particular directions. Specifically, the Gain, Directive gain or Power gain of an antenna is defined as the ratio of the intensity (power per unit surface) radiated by the antenna in a given direction at an arbitrary distance divided by the intensity radiated at the same distance by a hypothetical isotropic antenna. The gain of an antenna is a passive phenomenon - power is not added by the antenna, but simply redistributed to provide more radiated power in a certain direction than would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna. If an antenna has a gain greater than one in some directions, it must have a gain less than one in other directions, since energy is conserved by the antenna. An antenna designer must take into account the application for the antenna when determining the gain. Highgain antennas have the advantage of longer range and better signal quality, but must be aimed carefully in a particular direction. Low-gain antennas have shorter range, but the orientation of the antenna is relatively inconsequential. For example, a dish antenna on a spacecraft is a highgain device that must be pointed at the planet to be effective, whereas a typical Wi-Fi antenna in a laptop computer is low-gain, and as long as the base station is within range, the antenna can be in any orientation in space. It makes sense to improve horizontal range at the expense of reception above or below the antenna. Thus most antennas labelled "omnidirectional" really have some gain. In practice, the half-wave dipole is taken as a reference instead of the isotropic radiator. The gain is then given in dBd (decibels over dipole): NOTE: 0 dBd = 2.15 dBi. It is vital in expressing gain values that the reference point be included. Failure to do so can lead to confusion and error. 2) Explain the types of Propagation models? Radio propagation Radio propagation describes how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another. Like light waves, radio waves are affected by the phenomena of reflection, refraction, diffraction, absorption, polarization and scattering. Radio propagation is affected by the daily changes of water vapor in the troposphere and ionization in the upper atmosphere, due to the Sun. Understanding the effects of varying conditions on radio propagation has many practical applications, from choosing frequencies for
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international shortwave broadcasters, to designing reliable mobile telephone systems, to radio navigation, to operation of radar systems. Radio propagation is also affected by several other factors determined by its path from point to point. This path can be a direct line of sight path or an over-the-horizon path aided by refraction in the ionosphere. Factors influencing ionosphere radio signal propagation can include sporadic-E, spread-F, solar flares, geomagnetic storms, ionospheric layer tilts, and solar proton events. Radio waves at different frequencies propagate in different ways. The interaction of radio waves with the ionized regions of the atmosphere makes radio propagation more complex to predict and analyze than in free space. Ionospheric radio propagation has a strong connection to space weather. A sudden ionospheric disturbance or shortwave fadeout is observed when the x-rays associated with a solar flare ionize the ionospheric D-region. Enhanced ionization in that region increases the absorption of radio signals passing through it. During the strongest solar x-ray flares, complete absorption of virtually all ionospherically propagated radio signals in the sunlit hemisphere can occur. These solar flares can disrupt HF radio propagation and affect GPS accuracy. Predictions of the average propagation conditions were needed and made during the Second world war. A most detailed code developed by Karl Rawer was applied in the German Wehrmacht, and after the war by the French Navy. Since radio propagation is not fully predictable, such services as emergency locator transmitters, in-flight communication with ocean-crossing aircraft, and some television broadcasting have been moved to communications satellites. A satellite link, though expensive, can offer highly predictable and stable line of sight coverage of a given area. 3)Write about Modulation technique? Modulation In electronics, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with respect to a modulating signal. This is done in a similar fashion as a musician may modulate a tone (a periodic waveform) from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch. The three key parameters of a periodic waveform are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency signal to obtain the modulated signal. Typically a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal, but a square wave pulse train may also occur. Analog modulation methods In analog modulation, the modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal.

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A low-frequency message signal (top) may be carried by an AM or FM radio wave. Common analog modulation techniques are:

Amplitude modulation (AM) (here the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal) o Double-sideband modulation (DSB) Double-sideband modulation with unsuppressed carrier (DSB-WC) (used on the AM radio broadcasting band) Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSB-SC) Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC) o Single-sideband modulation (SSB, or SSB-AM), SSB with carrier (SSB-WC) SSB suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC) o Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM) o Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Angle modulation o Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous frequency of the modulating signal) o Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the instantaneous phase shift of the modulating signal)

Digital modulation methods In digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is modulated by a digital bit stream. Digital modulation methods can be considered as digital-to-analog conversion, and the corresponding demodulation or detection as analog-to-digital conversion. The changes in the carrier signal are chosen from a finite number of M alternative symbols (the modulation alphabet). A simple example: A telephone line is designed for transferring audible sounds, for example tones, and not digital bits (zeros and ones). Computers may however communicate over a telephone line by means of modems, which are representing the digital bits by tones, called symbols. If there are four alternative symbols (corresponding to a musical instrument that can generate four different tones, one at a time), the first symbol may represent the bit sequence 00, the second 01, the third 10 and the fourth 11. If the modem plays a melody consisting of 1000 tones per second, the symbol rate is 1000 symbols/second, or baud. Since each tone represents a message consisting of two digital bits in this example, the bit rate is twice the symbol rate, i.e. 2000 bits per second. According to one definition of digital signal, the modulated signal is a digital signal, and according to another definition, the modulation is a form of digital-to-analog conversion. Most textbooks would consider digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission; very few would consider it as analog transmission. 4) What is Multipluxing? Explain Multiplexing In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (also known as muxing) is a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource. For example, in

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telecommunications, several phone calls may be transferred using one wire. It originated in telegraphy, and is now widely applied in communications. The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel, which may be a physical transmission medium. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the low-level communication channel into several higher-level logical channels, one for each message signal or data stream to be transferred. A reverse process, known as demultiplexing, can extract the original channels on the receiver side. A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX), and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX). Inverse multiplexing (IMUX) has the opposite aim as multiplexing, namely to break one data stream into several streams, transfer them simultaneously over several communication channels, and recreate the original data stream.

5) Discuss about Spread spectrum signal?

Spread spectrum Spread-spectrum techniques are methods by which a signal (e.g. an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal ) generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. These techniques are used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference and jamming, to prevent detection, and to limit power flux density (e.g. in satellite downlinks).
1. Types of spread spectrum

The two types of spread spectrum are frequency hopping spread spectrum and direct sequence spread spectrum. In frequency hopping the signal is broadcasted over a random series of radio frequencies hopping from frequency to frequency at regular intervals. In direct sequence each bit in the original signal is represented by multiple bits in the transmitted signal using a spreading code which spreads the signal across a wider frequency band in direct proportion to the no. of bits used.
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For slow FHSS, the time Tc is greater than or equal to time Ts whereas in fast FHSS the time Tc is lesser than the time Ts. 6) Explain about SDMA,FDMA,TDMA,CDMA Space-division multiple access Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) is a channel access method based on creating parallel spatial pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple access communication systems. In traditional mobile cellular network systems, the base station has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio coverage. This results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no mobile units to reach, in addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in reception, the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and interference signals. By using smart antenna technology and differing spatial locations of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of the base station, both in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often done using phased array techniques. In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the mobile phone's position by use of a technique called Timing Advance (TA). The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) can determine how distant the Mobile Station (MS) is by interpreting the reported TA. This information, along with other parameters, can then be used to power down the BTS or MS, if a power control feature is implemented in the network. The power control in either BTS or MS is implemented in most modern networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures a better battery life for the MS and thus a better user experience (in that the need to charge the battery becomes less frequent). This is why it may actually be safer to have a BTS close to you as your MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is more power being transmitted from the MS than what you would receive from the BTS even if you are 6 m away from a mast. However, this estimation might not consider all the MS's that a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation at any given time. Frequency-division multiple access Frequency Division Multiple Access or FDMA is a channel access method used in multipleaccess protocols as a channelization protocol. FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency bands, or channels. Multiple Access systems coordinate access between multiple users. The users may also share access via different methods such as TDMA, CDMA, or SDMA. These protocols are utilized differently, at different levels of the theoretical OSI model. Disadvantage: Crosstalk which causes interference on the other frequency and may disrupt the transmission. Features

FDMA requires high-performing filters in the radio hardware, in contrast to TDMA and CDMA. FDMA is not vulnerable to the timing problems that TDMA has. Since a predetermined frequency band is available for the entire period of communication, stream data (a continuous flow of data that may not be packetized) can easily be used with FDMA.
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Due to the frequency filtering, FDMA is not sensitive to near-far problem which is pronounced for CDMA. Each user transmits and receives at different frequencies as each user gets a unique frequency slot

It is important to distinguish between FDMA and frequency-division duplexing (FDD). While FDMA allows multiple users simultaneous access to a certain system, FDD refers to how the radio channel is shared between the uplink and downlink (for instance, the traffic going back and forth between a mobile-phone and a base-station). Furthermore, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) should not be confused with FDMA. The former is a physical layer technique that combines and transmits low-bandwidth channels through a high-bandwidth channel. FDMA, on the other hand, is an access method in the data link layer. FDMA also supports demand assignment in addition to fixed assignment. Demand assignment allows all users apparently continuous access of the radio spectrum by assigning carrier frequencies on a temporary basis using a statistical assignment process. The first FDMA demand-assignment system for satellite was developed by COMSAT for use on the Intelsat series IVA and V satellites. Time division multiple access Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. The users transmit in rapid succession, one after the other, each using his own time slot. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e.g. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel capacity. TDMA is used in the digital 2G cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), IS-136, Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) and iDEN, and in the Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard for portable phones. It is also used extensively in satellite systems, and combatnet radio systems. For usage of Dynamic TDMA packet mode communication, see below.

TDMA frame structure showing a data stream divided into frames and those frames divided into time slots. TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing, with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver, there are multiple transmitters. In the case of the uplink from a mobile phone to a base station this becomes particularly difficult because the mobile phone can move around and vary the timing advance required to make its transmission match the gap in transmission from its peers.

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TDMA characteristics Shares single carrier frequency with multiple users Non-continuous transmission makes handoff simpler Slots can be assigned on demand in dynamic TDMA Less stringent power control than CDMA due to reduced intra cell interference Higher synchronization overhead than CDMA Advanced equalization may be necessary for high data rates if the channel is "frequency selective" and creates Intersymbol interference Cell breathing (borrowing resources from adjacent cells) is more complicated than in CDMA Frequency/slot allocation complexity Pulsating power envelop: Interference with other devices

7) Explain the concepts of CDMA? Code division multiple access Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply CDMA), which use CDMA as an underlying channel access method. A CDMA mobile phone

One of the early applications for code division multiplexing is in GPS. This predates and is distinct from cdmaOne. The Qualcomm standard IS-95, marketed as cdmaOne. The Qualcomm standard IS-2000, known as CDMA2000. This standard is used by several mobile phone companies, including the Globalstar satellite phone network. CDMA has been used in the OmniTRACS satellite system for transportation logistics.

Steps in CDMA Modulation CDMA is a spread spectrum multiple access technique. A spread spectrum technique is one which spreads the bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power. Spreading code is a pseudo-random code which has a narrow Ambiguity function unlike other narrow pulse codes. In CDMA a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. Data for transmission is simply logically XOR (exclusive OR) added with the faster code. The figure shows how spread spectrum signal is generated. The data signal with pulse duration of Tb is XOR added with the code signal with pulse duration of Tc. (Note: bandwidth is proportional to 1 / T where T = bit time) Therefore, the bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / Tb and the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is 1 / Tc. Since Tc is much smaller than Tb, the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is much larger than the bandwidth of the original signal. The ratio Tb / Tc is called spreading factor or processing gain and determines to a certain extent the upper limit of the total number of users supported simultaneously by a base station. Each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their signal. Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is very important in the performance of CDMA systems. The best performance will occur when there is good separation between the signal of a desired user and the signals of other users. The separation of the signals is made by correlating the received signal with the locally generated code of the desired user. If the signal matches the desired user's code then the correlation function will be high and the system can extract that signal.
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If the desired user's code has nothing in common with the signal the correlation should be as close to zero as possible (thus eliminating the signal); this is referred to as cross correlation. If the code is correlated with the signal at any time offset other than zero, the correlation should be as close to zero as possible. This is referred to as auto-correlation and is used to reject multi-path interference. In general, CDMA belongs to two basic categories: synchronous (orthogonal codes) and asynchronous (pseudorandom codes). Code division multiplexing (synchronous CDMA) Synchronous CDMA exploits mathematical properties of orthogonality between vectors representing the data strings. For example, binary string 1011 is represented by the vector (1, 0, 1, 1). Vectors can be multiplied by taking their dot product, by summing the products of their respective components. If the dot product is zero, the two vectors are said to be orthogonal to each other (note: if u = (a, b) and v = (c, d), the dot product uv = ac + bd). Some properties of the dot product aid understanding of how W-CDMA works. If vectors a and b are orthogonal, then and:

Each user in synchronous CDMA uses a code orthogonal to the others' codes to modulate their signal. An example of four mutually orthogonal digital signals is shown in the figure. Orthogonal codes have a cross-correlation equal to zero; in other words, they do not interfere with each other. In the case of IS-95 64 bit Walsh codes are used to encode the signal to separate different users. Since each of the 64 Walsh codes are orthogonal to one another, the signals are channelized into 64 orthogonal signals. The following example demonstrates how each users signal can be encoded and decoded. Asynchronous CDMA The previous example of orthogonal Walsh sequences describes how 2 users can be multiplexed together in a synchronous system, a technique that is commonly referred to as code division multiplexing (CDM). The set of 4 Walsh sequences shown in the figure will afford up to 4 users, and in general, an NxN Walsh matrix can be used to multiplex N users. Multiplexing requires all
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of the users to be coordinated so that each transmits their assigned sequence v (or the complement, v) so that they arrive at the receiver at exactly the same time. Thus, this technique finds use in base-to-mobile links, where all of the transmissions originate from the same transmitter and can be perfectly coordinated. On the other hand, the mobile-to-base links cannot be precisely coordinated, particularly due to the mobility of the handsets, and require a somewhat different approach. Since it is not mathematically possible to create signature sequences that are orthogonal for arbitrarily random starting points, unique "pseudo-random" or "pseudo-noise" (PN) sequences are used in asynchronous CDMA systems. A PN code is a binary sequence that appears random but can be reproduced in a deterministic manner by intended receivers. These PN codes are used to encode and decode a user's signal in Asynchronous CDMA in the same manner as the orthogonal codes in synchronous CDMA (shown in the example above). These PN sequences are statistically uncorrelated, and the sum of a large number of PN sequences results in multiple access interference (MAI) that is approximated by a Gaussian noise process (following the central limit theorem in statistics). Gold codes are an example of a PN suitable for this purpose, as there is low correlation between the codes. If all of the users are received with the same power level, then the variance (e.g., the noise power) of the MAI increases in direct proportion to the number of users. In other words, unlike synchronous CDMA, the signals of other users will appear as noise to the signal of interest and interfere slightly with the desired signal in proportion to number of users. All forms of CDMA use spread spectrum process gain to allow receivers to partially discriminate against unwanted signals. Signals encoded with the specified PN sequence (code) are received, while signals with different codes (or the same code but a different timing offset) appear as wideband noise reduced by the process gain. Example

An example of four mutually orthogonal digital signals. Start with a set of vectors that are mutually orthogonal. (Although mutual orthogonality is the only condition, these vectors are usually constructed for ease of decoding, for example columns or rows from Walsh matrices.) An example of orthogonal functions is shown in the picture on the
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left. These vectors will be assigned to individual users and are called the code, chip code, or chipping code. In the interest of brevity, the rest of this example uses codes, v, with only 2 bits. Each user is associated with a different code, say v. A 1 bit is represented by transmitting a positive code, v, and a 0 bit is represented by a negative code, v. For example, if v = (1, 1) and the data that the user wishes to transmit is (1, 0, 1, 1), then the transmitted symbols would be v (1, 1, 1, 1) = (v0, v1, v0, v1, v0, v1, v0, v1) = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), where is the Kronecker product. For the purposes of this article, we call this constructed vector the transmitted vector. Each sender has a different, unique vector v chosen from that set, but the construction method of the transmitted vector is identical. Now, due to physical properties of interference, if two signals at a point are in phase, they add to give twice the amplitude of each signal, but if they are out of phase, they subtract and give a signal that is the difference of the amplitudes. Digitally, this behaviour can be modelled by the addition of the transmission vectors, component by component. If sender0 has code (1, 1) and data (1, 0, 1, 1), and sender1 has code (1, 1) and data (0, 0, 1, 1), and both senders transmit simultaneously, then this table describes the coding steps: Step 0 1 Encode sender0 Encode sender1

code0 = (1, 1), data0 = (1, 0, 1, 1) code1 = (1, 1), data1 = (0, 0, 1, 1) encode0 = 2(1, 0, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) encode1 = 2(0, 0, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 1, 1) signal0 = code0 encode0 = (1, 1, 1, 1) signal1 = code1 encode1

= (1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) = (1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) Because signal0 and signal1 are transmitted at the same time into the air, they add to produce the raw signal: (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) + (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) = (0, 2, 2, 0, 2, 0, 2, 0) This raw signal is called an interference pattern. The receiver then extracts an intelligible signal for any known sender by combining the sender's code with the interference pattern, the receiver combines it with the codes of the senders. The following table explains how this works and shows that the signals do not interfere with one another: Step Decode sender0 0 1 2 Decode sender1

code0 = (1, 1), signal = (0, 2, 2, 0, 2, 0, 2, code1 = (1, 1), signal = (0, 2, 2, 0, 2, 0, 2, 0) 0) decode0 = pattern.vector0 decode1 = pattern.vector1

decode0 = ((0, 2), (2, 0), (2, 0), (2, 0)).(1, decode1 = ((0, 2), (2, 0), (2, 0), (2, 0)).(1, 1) 1)

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3 4

decode0 = ((0 + 2), (2 + 0), (2 + 0), (2 + 0)) decode1 = ((0 2), (2 + 0), (2 + 0), (2 + 0)) data0=(2, 2, 2, 2), meaning (1, 0, 1, 1) data1=(2, 2, 2, 2), meaning (0, 0, 1, 1)

Further, after decoding, all values greater than 0 are interpreted as 1 while all values less than zero are interpreted as 0. For example, after decoding, data0 is (2, 2, 2, 2), but the receiver interprets this as (1, 0, 1, 1). Values of exactly 0 means that the sender did not transmit any data, as in the following example: Assume signal0 = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) is transmitted alone. The following table shows the decode at the receiver: Step Decode sender0 0 1 2 3 4 Decode sender1

code0 = (1, 1), signal = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, code1 = (1, 1), signal = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) 1) decode0 = pattern.vector0 decode1 = pattern.vector1

decode0 = ((1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1)).(1, decode1 = ((1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1)). 1) (1, 1) decode0 = ((1 + 1), (1 1),(1 + 1), (1 + 1)) data0 = (2, 2, 2, 2), meaning (1, 0, 1, 1) decode1 = ((1 1), (1 + 1),(1 1), (1 1)) data1 = (0, 0, 0, 0), meaning no data

When the receiver attempts to decode the signal using sender1's code, the data is all zeros, therefore the cross correlation is equal to zero and it is clear that sender1 did not transmit any data.

UNIT II

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1) Explain in detail about GSM Architecture and protocols? (15) 2) Discuss about the security in GSM mobile technique? (8) 3) Write short notes on Cordless system? (5) 4) Explain the concepts of Wireless local loop? (5) 5) Write short notes on DECT and TETRA? (8) (NOV 07) 6) Write short notes on UMTS and MIT 2000? (7) (NOV 07) 7) Explain about telecommunication systems in detail. (15) (NOV 07) 8) Write short notes on satellite parameters,FDM,TDM,GEO,LEO,MEO? (15) (NOV 07) (MAY 08) 9) Explain in detail about Routing and Localization? (7) 10) Write about First Generation systems (7) (NOV 07) 11) Discuss about Cellular Networks ? (7) 12) Write about Second Generation TDMA? (7) (NOV 07) 13) Write about Second Generation CDMA? (7) (NOV 07) 14) Write about Third Generation systems. Radio Interface Layer The Radio Interface Layer (RIL) provides an interface that handles the communication between the CellCore system software and the radio hardware. The RIL provides an abstraction layer that enables you to create a single driver that can be implemented on different radios. The RIL abstracts the details of the hardware dependent components of a device to enable OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment, offering an opportunity for product differentiation. This single driver then allows all of the radios to work under a single set of CellCore components. RIL consists of two modules: the RIL proxy and the RIL driver. The proxy layer is a dynamiclink library (DLL) that manages callback notifications and inter-process function calls into the driver layer. CellCore modules use the RIL application programming interface (API) by linking to this proxy DLL. The RIL driver layer is implemented as a device driver that is managed by the Device Manager (Device.exe). The RIL driver services system requests for radio functionality, including voice, data, and Short Message Service (SMS). The RIL driver also notifies the system of changes in the radio state, such as coverage, signal strength, and incoming calls. The RIL proxy is provided by Microsoft. You have to write a customized RIL driver to work with your radio hardware. Microsoft provides a sample implementation of a RIL driver that works with several Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) radios.

IEEE 802 IEEE 802.16 is a series of Wireless Broadband standards authored by the IEEE. The current version is IEEE 802.16-2009 amended by IEEE 802.16j-2009.

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IEEE 802.16 is written by a working group established by IEEE Standards Board in 1999 to develop standards for the global deployment of broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. The Workgroup is a unit of the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee. Although the 802.16 family of standards is officially called Wireless MAN in IEEE, it has been commercialized under the name WiMAX (from "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access") by the industry alliance called the WiMAX Forum. The mission of the Forum is to promote and certify compatibility and interoperability of broadband wireless products based on the IEEE 802.16 standards. The most popular implementation of the IEEE 802.16 standard is the Mobile WirelessMAN originally defined by the 802.16e-2005 amendment that is now in process of being deployed around the world in more than 140 countries by more than 475 operators. 1)Write short notes on DECT and TETRA? Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) is a digital communication standard, Primarily used for creating cordless phone systems. It originated in Europe, where it is the universal standard, replacing earlier cordless phone standards, such as the 900MHz analogue CT1 and the earlier 900MHz digital technology CT2. It been adopted by Australia, and most countries in Asia and South America. Adoption in North America was delayed by United States radio licensing regulations. Because of this, a variation of DECT, called DECT 6.0, was developed using a slightly different frequency range; the technology is nearly identical, but the frequency difference makes the technology inoperable with otherwise compatible systems in other areas, even from the same manufacturer. While DECT has almost universally replaced other standards in countries where it is in use, this is not true in North America, where earlier technologies are still competitive. DECT is used primarily in home/small office systems, but is also available in many PBX systems for medium and large businesses. DECT can also be used for purposes other than cordless phones. Voice applications, such as baby monitors, are becoming common. Data applications also exist, but have been eclipsed by Wi-Fi. 3G cellular also competes with both DECT and Wi-Fi for both voice and data. DECT handsets may interoperate, at a simple level of functionality, with base stations from different manufacturers. The DECT standard includes a standardised interoperability profile for simple telephone capabilities, called the GAP which most manufacturers implement. The standard also contains several other interoperability profiles, for data and for radio local-loop services. Terrestrial Trunked Radio TErrestrial Trunked RAdio (TETRA) (formerly known as Trans European Trunked RAdio) is a specialist Professional Mobile Radio and two-way transceiver (colloquially known as a walkie talkie) specification. TETRA was specifically designed for use by government agencies, emergency services, (police forces, fire departments, ambulance), rail transportation staff, transport services and the military. TETRA is an ETSI standard, first version published 1995. ETSI were the body that published the standard for GSM which is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world, TETRA

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works in a very similar way to GSM the main differences being, the handsets have a longer range and there is more bandwidth allocated for data. TETRA is endorsed by the European Radio Communications Committee (ERC) and mandated for use in Europe. Description The common mode of operation for them is in a group calling mode in which a single button push will connect the user to the users in a selected callgroup and/or a dispatcher. It is also possible for the terminal to act as a one-to-one walkie talkie but without the normal range limitation since the call still uses the network. If enabled by the Subscriber Management TETRA terminals can act as mobile phones (cell phones), with a full-duplex direct connection to other TETRA Users or the PSTN. Emergency buttons, provided on the terminals, enable the users to transmit emergency signals, to the dispatcher, overriding any other activity taking place at the same time. TETRA uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) with four user channels on one radio carrier and 25 kHz spacing between carriers. Both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint transfer can be used. Digital data transmission is also included in the standard though at a low data rate. TETRA Mobile Stations (MS) can communicate Direct Mode or using Trunked infrastructure (Switching and Management Infrastructure or SwMI) made of TETRA Base Stations (TBS). As well as allowing direct communications in situations where network coverage is not available, Direct Mode or DMO also includes the possibility of using one (or a chain) of TETRA terminals as relays for a signal. This functionality is called DMO gateway (from DMO to TMO) or DMO Repeater (DMO to DMO). In Emergency situations this feature allows direct communications underground or in areas of bad coverage. In addition to voice and dispatch services, the TETRA system supports several types of data communication. Status messages and Short Data Services (SDS) are provided over the system's main control channel, while Packet Data or Circuit switched data communication uses specifically assigned traffic channels. TETRA provides Authentication Mechanisms of Terminals towards Infrastructure and vice versa. For protection against eavesdropping, air interface encryption and end-to-end encryption is available. Advantages of TETRA The main advantages of TETRA over other technologies (such as GSM) are:

the much lower frequency used gives longer range, which in turn permits very high levels of geographic coverage with a smaller number of transmitters, thus cutting infrastructure costs. High spectral efficiency - 4 channels in 25 kHz and no guard bands, compared to GSM with 8 channels in 200 kHz and guard bands. very fast call set-up - a one to many group call is generally set-up within 0.5 seconds (typical less than 250 msec for a single node call) compared with the many seconds (typically 7 to 10s) that are required for a GSM network. Works at high speeds >400 km/h. TETRA was used during the French TGV train speed record on 3 April 2007 at 574.8 km/h. the system contains several mechanisms, designed into the protocols and radio parameters, to ensure communication success even during overload situations (e.g. during

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major public events or disaster situations), thus calls will always get through unlike in cellular systems. The system also supports a range of emergency calling modes. TETRA infrastructure is usually separate from (but connected to) that of the public (mobile) phone networks, resulting in (normally) no call charges for the system owners, substantially more diverse and resilient communications and it is easy to customise and integrate with data applications (vehicle location, GIS databases, dispatch systems etc). unlike most cellular technologies, TETRA networks typically provide a number of fallback modes such as the ability for a base station to process local calls. So called Mission Critical networks can be built with TETRA where all aspects are fail-safe/multipleredundant. in the absence of a network mobiles/portables can use 'direct mode' whereby they share channels directly (walkie-talkie mode). gateway mode - where a single mobile with connection to the network can act as a relay for other nearby mobiles that are out of range of the infrastructure. TETRA also provides a point-to-point function that traditional analogue emergency services radio systems did not provide. This enables users to have a one-to-one trunked 'radio' link between sets without the need for the direct involvement of a control room operator/dispatcher. unlike the cellular technologies, which connect one subscriber to one other subscriber (one-to-one) then TETRA is built to do one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. These operational modes are directly relevant to the public safety and professional users. TETRA supports both air-interface encryption and End-to-end encryption Rapid deployment (transportable) network solutions are available for disaster relief and temporary capacity provision. Equipment is available from many suppliers around the world, thus providing the benefits of competition Network solutions are available in both the older circuit-switched (telephone like) architectures and flat, IP architectures with soft (software) switches.

2) Write short notes on UMTS and MIT 2000? Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile telecommunications technologies, which is also being developed into a 4G technology. The first deployment of the UMTS is the release99 (R99) architecture. It is specified by 3GPP and is part of the global ITU IMT-2000 standard. The most common form of UMTS uses WCDMA (IMT Direct Spread) as the underlying air interface but the system also covers TDCDMA and TD-SCDMA (both IMT CDMA TDD). Being a complete network system, UMTS also covers the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN) and the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP), as well as authentication of users via USIM cards (Subscriber Identity Module). Unlike EDGE (IMT Single-Carrier, based on GSM) and CDMA2000 (IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations. However, it is closely related to GSM/EDGE as it borrows and builds upon concepts from GSM. Further, most UMTS handsets also support GSM, allowing seamless dual-mode operation. Therefore, UMTS is sometimes marketed as 3GSM, emphasizing the close relationship with GSM and differentiating it from competing technologies. The name UMTS, introduced by ETSI, is usually used in Europe. Outside of Europe, the system is also known by other names such as FOMA or W-CDMA. In marketing, it is often just referred to as 3G.

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Measurement of satellite communication parameters: Satellite antenna measurements The in-orbit testing of a communication satellite involves the measurement of key communication parameters, which determine communication subsystem behavior and verify the design. Some of the tests, specifically those involving the satellite's antennas, are unique in that they require satellite antenna motion in both azimuth and elevation. They can only be conducted in the postlaunch period prior to the operational phase of the satellite. The focus is on the antenna tests, in order to verify antenna pattern design and put a bound on satellite antenna crosspolarization isolation, or lack of it, by comparing in-orbit test results with computer predictions and range measurements. Measurement procedures and instrumentation for the in orbit measurement of satellite antenna parameters are considered. The measurement procedures are reflected in equations in which the unknown parameter is expressed by measurable or calculatable quantities. The measurement error is evaluated on the basis of the parameter equation and component error estimates. 3) Explain about FDM and TDM. Frequency-division multiplexing Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a form of signal multiplexing which involves assigning non-overlapping frequency ranges to different signals or to each "user" of a medium. Non telephone FDM can also be used to combine multiple signals before final modulation onto a carrier wave. In this case the carrier signals are referred to as subcarriers: an example is stereo FM transmission, where a 38 kHz subcarrier is used to separate the left-right difference signal from the central left-right sum channel, prior to the frequency modulation of the composite signal. A television channel is divided into subcarrier frequencies for video, color, and audio. DSL uses different frequencies for voice and for upstream and downstream data transmission on the same conductors, which is also an example of frequency duplex.

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Where frequency-division multiplexing is used as to allow multiple users to share a physical communications channel, it is called frequency-division multiple access (FDMA). FDMA is the traditional way of separating radio signals from different transmitters. In the 1860s and 70s, several inventors attempted FDM under the names of Acoustic telegraphy and Harmonic telegraphy. Practical FDM was only achieved in the electronic age. Meanwhile their efforts led to an elementary understanding of electroacoustic technology, resulting in the invention of the telephone. Telephone For long distance telephone connections, 20th century telephone companies used L-carrier and similar co-axial cable systems carrying thousands of voice circuits multiplexed in multiple stages by channel banks. For shorter distances,cheaper balanced pair cables were used for various systems including Bell System K- and N-Carrier. Those cables didn't allow such large bandwidths, so only 12 voice channels (Double Sideband) and later 24 (Single Sideband) were multiplexed into four wires, one pair for each direction with repeaters every several miles, approximately 10 km. See 12-channel carrier system. By the end of the 20th Century, FDM voice circuits had become rare. Modern telephone systems employ digital transmission, in which time-division multiplexing (TDM) is used instead of FDM. Since the late 20th century Digital Subscriber Lines have used a Discrete multitone (DMT) system to divide their spectrum into frequency channels. The concept corresponding to frequency-division multiplexing in the optical domain is known as wavelength division multiplexing. Time-division multiplexing Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1, sub-channel 2 during timeslot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one timeslot per sub-channel. After the last sub-channel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc. Application examples

The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (Tcarrier or E-carrier) or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network The SDH and synchronous optical networking (SONET) network transmission standards, that have surpassed PDH. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis The left-right channel splitting in use for stereoscopic liquid crystal shutter glasses

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TDM can be further extended into the time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme, where several stations connected to the same physical medium, for example sharing the same frequency channel, can communicate. Application examples include:

The GSM telephone system

TDM versus packet mode communication In its primary form, TDM is used for circuit mode communication with a fixed number of channels and constant bandwidth per channel. Bandwidth Reservation distinguishes time-division multiplexing from statistical multiplexing such as packet mode communication (also known as statistical time-domain multiplexing, see below) i.e. the time-slots are recurrent in a fixed order and pre-allocated to the channels, rather than scheduled on a packet-by-packet basis. Statistical time-domain multiplexing resembles, but should not be considered the same as time-division multiplexing. In dynamic TDMA, a scheduling algorithm dynamically reserves a variable number of timeslots in each frame to variable bit-rate data streams, based on the traffic demand of each data stream. Dynamic TDMA is used in

HIPERLAN/2; Dynamic synchronous Transfer Mode; IEEE 802.16a.

4)Explain in detail about Routing and Localization? Routing Routing (or routeing) is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology. In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes; typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the routers' memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time, but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks, and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet, though bridging is still widely used within localized environments. 5) Discuss about Cellular Networks ?

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Cellular network A cellular network is a radio network made up of a number of cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver known as a cell site or base station. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (mobile phones, pagers, etc) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission. Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions:

increased capacity reduced power usage larger coverage area reduced interference from other signals

An example of a simple non-telephone cellular system is an old taxi driver's radio system where the taxi company has several transmitters based around a city that can communicate directly with each taxi.

In a cellular radio system, a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into regular shaped cells, which can be hexagonal, square, circular or some other irregular shapes, although hexagonal cells are conventional. Each of these cells is assigned multiple frequencies (f1 - f6) which have corresponding radio base stations. The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells, provided that the same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference. The increased capacity in a cellular network, compared with a network with a single transmitter, comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a different area for a completely different transmission. If there is a single plain transmitter, only one transmission can be used on any given frequency. Unfortunately, there is inevitably some level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency. This means that, in a standard FDMA system, there must be at least a one cell gap between cells which reuse the same frequency. In the simple case of the taxi company, each radio had a manually operated channel selector knob to tune to different frequencies. As the drivers moved around, they would change from channel to channel. The drivers know which frequency covers approximately what area. When they do not
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receive a signal from the transmitter, they will try other channels until they find one that works. The taxi drivers only speak one at a time, when invited by the base station operator (in a sense TDMA). 6) Write about First Generation systems First generation analog cellular systems begin The Bahrain Telephone Company (Batelco external link) in May, 1978 began operating a commercial cellular telephone system. It probably marks the first time in the world that individuals started using what we think of as traditional, mobile cellular radio. The two cell system had 250 subscribers, 20 channels in the 400Mhz band to operate on, and used all Matsushita equipment. (Panasonic is the name of Matsushita in the United States.) [Gibson]Cable and Wireless, now Global Crossing, installed the equipment. In July, 1978 Advanced Mobile Phone Service or AMPS started operating in North America. In AT&T labs in Newark, New Jersey, and most importantly in a trial around Chicago, Illinois Bell and AT&T jointly rolled out analog based cellular telephone service. Ten cells covering 21,000 square miles made up the Chicago system. This first equipment test began using 90 Bell System employees. After six months, on December 20th, 1978, a market trial began with paying customers who leased the car mounted telephones. This was called the service test. The system used the newly allocated 800 MHz band. [Blecher] Although the Bell System bought an additional 1,000 mobile phones from Oki for the lease phase, it did place orders from Motorola and E.F. Johnson for the remainder of the 2100 radios needed. [Business Week2] This early network, using large scale integrated circuits throughout, a dedicated computer and switching system, custom made mobile telephones and antennas, proved a large cellular system could work.

Picture originally from http://park.org:8888/Japan/NTT/MUSEUM/html_ht/HT979020_e.html "The car telephone service was introduced in the 23 districts of Tokyo in December 1979 (Showa 54). Five years later, in 1984 (Showa 59), the system became available throughout the country. Coin operated car telephones were also introduced to allow convenient calling from inside buses or taxis." NTT Worldwide commercial AMPS deployment followed quickly. An 88 cell system in Tokyo began in December, 1979, using Matsushita and NEC equipment. The first North American system in Mexico City, a one cell affair, started in August, 1981. United States cellular development did not keep up since fully commercial systems were still not allowed, despite the fact that paying customers were permitted under the service test. The Bell System's impending breakup and a new FCC competition requirement (external link) delayed cellular once again. The Federal Communication Commission's 1981 regulations required the Bell System or a regional operating company, such as Bell Atlantic, to have competition in every cellular market. That's unlike the landline monopoly those companies had. The theory being that competition would provide better service and keep prices low. Before moving on, let's discuss Japanese cellular development a little more.

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TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) is a second-generation technology used in digital cellular telephone communication, which divides each cellular channel into individual time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be carried. Several different mutually incompatible implementations of TDMA technologies are in use worldwide, the most prolific being GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). However, the implementation that is commonly referred to as TDMA is that defined by IS-136 by the Telecommunication Industries Association (TIA). TDMA forms part of the evolution from first-generation analog systems to second- and then third-generation digital systems. It builds upon the original analog Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), using the same frequency band of 800MHz, but also operates in the Personal Communication Services (PCS) band of 1,900MHz in the US. Although TDMA could be considered as the least technologically advanced of the second-generation mobile systems, it has proven very popular in the US and developing world as a simple upgrade from analog to digital services. As of December 1999, there were approximately 36 million TDMA subscriptions, accounting for 9% of the digital market. Although TDMA is currently incompatible with other second-generation systems, there is now a common upgrade path to IMT-2000, which should become the world-wide standard for thirdgeneration mobile communication. TDMA TECHNICAL DETAILS TDMA enhances the AMPS service by dividing each of the original 30kHz analog channels into three digital time-division channels, thereby tripling the capacity of the system (called D-AMPS). Like AMPS, D-AMPS uses frequency ranges within the 800 and 900 MHz spectrum. Each service provider can use half of the 824-849MHz range for receiving signals from cellular phones and half the 869-894MHz range for transmitting to cellular phones. The receiving channels are called reverse channels and the sending channels are called forward channels. The division of the spectrum into sub-band channels is achieved by using frequency division multiple access (FDMA). The TDMA processing is added to each sub-band channel created with FDMA to triple the number of channels available. TDMA IS-136 was first specified in 1994 and is an evolution of the older IS-54 (also known as Digital AMPS or D-AMPS) standard. IS-54 used the three time-division channels for the voice information only, while IS-136 also used TDMA on the control channel. A Digital Control Channel (DCCH) increases paging capacity, and sharing TDMA traffic and control on the same digital radio improves efficiency and reduces hardware costs. DCCH also provides the platform for a new generation of advanced wireless capabilities. TDMA supports text messaging, caller identification and closed-user groups. Using a hierarchical cell structure, it is possible to overlay extra capacity in particular hotspots and offer different services to particular subscribers or areas within the network. IS-136 supports a variety of digital value-added services, at the same time as being able to coexist with the AMPS network. The inherent compatibility between AMPS and TDMA, coupled with

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the deployment of dual-mode wireless handsets, ensures ubiquitous network access for the subscriber whether in an analog or digital serving area. TDMA is designed to allow for seamless interworking and infrastructure sharing with IS-136 TDMA networks at 800MHz and 1,900MHz, as well as the analog AMPS networks. This allows new PCS operators to offer full wide-area coverage from day one through infrastructure sharing or roaming agreements with 800MHz operators in the same geographical area. The newer IS-136+ and IS-136HS (based upon Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution [EDGE] standards) allow a higher bit rate transmission, along with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) data throughput can be increased to over 473Kbs per channel. This packet-switched upgrade can be overlaid on existing networks and allows the system to retain its backward compatibility. A combined GPRS-136HS technology, known simply as EGPRS, is an ideal bearer for any packet-switched application, including internet connections using TCP/IP. From the end user's point of view, the EGPRS network is an extension of the internet via wireless access.

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UNIT III 1) Compare Infrared vs. Radio Frequency Infrared vs. Radio Frequency The success of any classroom wireless microphone system lies in the transmitter-receiver technology. A signal carried over infrared light offers several advantages over Radio Frequency systems, such as its immunity to outside RF interference, the elimination of "cross-talk" when using multiple systems in the same building, and being freed from frequency management hassles. Infrared technology is clearly the best choice for classrooms of today and tomorrow. 2) Explain in detail about 802.11 protocol architecture? IEEE 802.11s 802.11 mesh architecture An 802.11s mesh network device is labelled as Mesh Station (mesh STA). Mesh STAs form mesh links with one another, over which mesh paths can be established using a routing protocol. 802.11s defines a default mandatory routing protocol (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol, or HWMP), yet allows vendors to operate using alternate protocols. HWMP is inspired by a combination of AODV and tree-based routing. Mesh STAs are individual devices using mesh services to communicate with other devices in the network. They can also collocate with 802.11 Access Points (APs) and provide access to the mesh network to 802.11 stations (STAs), which have broad market availability. Also, mesh STAs can collocate with an 802.11 portal that implements the role of a gateway and provides access to one or more non-802.11 networks. In both cases, 802.11s provides a proxy mechanism to provide addressing support for non-mesh 802 devices, allowing for end-points to be cognizant of external addresses. 802.11s also includes mechanisms to provide deterministic network access, a framework for congestion control and power save.

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Mesh Security There are no defined roles in a mesh no clients and servers, no initiators and responders. Security protocols used in a mesh must, therefore, be true peer-to-peer protocols where either side can initiate to the other or both sides can initiate simultaneously.

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802.11s defines a secure password-based authentication and key establishment protocol called "Simultaneous Authentication of Equals" (SAE). SAE is based on a zero knowledge proof and is resistant to active attack, passive attack, and dictionary attack. When peers discover each other (and security is enabled) they take part in an SAE exchange. If SAE completes successfully, each peer knows the other party possesses the mesh password and, as a by-product of the SAE exchange, the two peers establish a cryptographically strong key. This key is used with the "Authenticated Mesh Peering Exchange" (AMPE) to establish a secure peering and derive a session key to protect mesh traffic, including routing traffic. IEEE 802.11 Services The 802.11 standard defines services that provide the functions that the LLC layer requires for sending MAC Service Data Units (MSDUs) between two entities on the network. These services, which the MAC layer implements, fall into two categories:

Station Services These include Authentication, Deauthentication, Privacy, and MSDU delivery. Distribution System Services These include Association, Disassociation, Distribution, Integration, and Reassociation.

The following sections define the station and distribution system services. Station Services The 802.11 standard defines services for providing functions among stations. A station may be within any wireless element on the network, such as a handheld PC or handheld scanner. In addition, all access points implement station services. To provide necessary functionality, these stations need to send and receive MSDUs and implement adequate levels of security. Authentication Because wireless LANs have limited physical security to prevent unauthorized access, 802.11 defines authentication services to control LAN access to a level equal to a wired link. Every 802.11 station, whether part of an independent BSS or an ESS network, must use the authentication service prior to establishing a connection (referred to as an association in 802.11 terms) with another station with which it will communicate. Stations performing authentication send a unicast management authentication frame to the corresponding station. The IEEE 802.11 standard defines the following two authentication services:

Open system authentication This is the 802.11 default authentication method. It is a very simple two-step process. First the station wanting to authenticate with another station sends an authentication management frame containing the sending station's identity. The receiving station then sends back a frame indicating whether it recognizes the identity of the authenticating station. Shared key authentication This type of authentication assumes that each station has received a secret shared key through a secure channel independent from the 802.11 network. Stations authenticate through shared knowledge of the secret key. Use of shared key authentication requires implementation of the Wired Equivalent Privacy algorithm (WEP).

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Deauthentication When a station wants to disassociate from another station, it invokes the deauthentication service. Deauthentication is a notification and cannot be refused. A station performs deauthentication by sending an authentication management frame (or group of frames to multiple stations) to advise of the termination of authentication. Privacy With a wireless network, all stations and other devices can hear data traffic taking place within range on the network, seriously affecting the security level of a wireless link. IEEE 802.11 counters this problem by offering a privacy service option that raises the security level of the 802.11 network to that of a wired network. The privacy service, applying to all data frames and some authentication management frames, is based on the 802.11 Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm that significantly reduces risks if someone eavesdrops on the network. This algorithm performs encryption of messages, as shown in Figure 3.9. With WEP, all stations initially start unencrypted. Refer to the section "Private Frame Transmissions," in Chapter 4, "IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer," for a description of how WEP works.

Media Access Control The Media Access Control (MAC) data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a sublayer of the Data Link Layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model (layer 2). It provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multi-point network, typically a local area network (LAN) or metropolitan area network (MAN). The hardware that implements the MAC is referred to as a Medium Access Controller. The MAC sub-layer acts as an interface between the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer and the network's physical layer. The MAC layer emulates a full-duplex logical communication channel in a multi-point network. This channel may provide unicast, multicast or broadcast communication service. Addressing mechanism The MAC layer addressing mechanism is called physical address or MAC address. A MAC address is a unique serial number. Once a MAC address has been assigned to a particular piece of network hardware (at time of manufacture), that device should be uniquely identifiable amongst all other network devices in the world. This guarantees that each device in a network will have a different MAC address (analogous to a street address). This makes it possible for data packets to be delivered to a destination within a subnetwork, i.e. a physical network consisting of several network segments interconnected by repeaters, hubs, bridges and switches, but not by IP routers. An IP router may interconnect several subnets. An example of a physical network is an Ethernet network, perhaps extended by wireless local area network (WLAN) access points and WLAN network adapters, since these share the same 48-bit MAC address hierarchy as Ethernet.

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A MAC layer is not required in full-duplex point-to-point communication, but address fields are included in some point-to-point protocols for compatibility reasons. Channel access control mechanism The channel access control mechanisms provided by the MAC layer are also known as a multiple access protocol. This makes it possible for several stations connected to the same physical medium to share it. Examples of shared physical media are bus networks, ring networks, hub networks, wireless networks and half-duplex point-to-point links. The multiple access protocol may detect or avoid data packet collisions if a packet mode contention based channel access method is used, or reserve resources to establish a logical channel if a circuit switched or channelization based channel access method is used. The channel access control mechanism relies on a physical layer multiplex scheme. The most widespread multiple access protocol is the contention based CSMA/CD protocol used in Ethernet networks. This mechanism is only utilized within a network collision domain, for example an Ethernet bus network or a hub network. An Ethernet network may be divided into several collision domains, interconnected by bridges and switches. A multiple access protocol is not required in a switched full-duplex network, such as today's switched Ethernet networks, but is often available in the equipment for compatibility reasons.

Briefly explain the concepts of Bluetooth Technology in mobile communication?

Bluetooth Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short length radio waves) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Invented by telecoms vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Today Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.

Bluetooth Baseband The Baseband is the physical layer of the Bluetooth. It manages physical channels and links apart from other services like error correction, data whitening, hop selection and Bluetooth security. The Baseband layer lies on top of the Bluetooth radio layer in the bluetooth stack. The baseband protocol is implemented as a Link Controller , which works with the link manager for carrying out link level routines like link connection and power control. The baseband also manages asynchronous and synchronous links, handles packets and does paging and inquiry to access and inquire Bluetooth devices in the area. The baseband transceiver applies a timedivision duplex (TDD) scheme. (alternate transmit and receive). Therefore apart from different hopping frequency (frequency division), the time is also slotted.

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Physical Characteristics Packets Channel Control


Physical Channel Physical Links Logical Channels Device Addressing Packet Types Packet Format

Controller States Connection Setup Connection Modes Scatternet

Other Baseband Functions Error Correction Flow Control

The Link Manager Protocol Specifications: The Bluetooth protocol stack, in common with all such standards, is specified as several separate layers. By their very nature, communication protocols do not lend themselves to brief summaries, so here we will simply explain the structure of the protocol stack and its basic functionality - each part is described in detail in the relevant chapter of the core specification. The lowest level of the protocol stack is the physical layer, summarised above, which serves to implement the physical communications interface, including RF aspects such as the modulation. Much of this may be typically implemented in a single RF integrated circuit, such as may be found here. Above the physical layer sits the baseband layer, again typically implemented as a single integrated circuit, see here for example devices. The baseband layer essentially implements the timing, sequence and order of transmission of physical bits across the wireless bit-pipe from one Bluetooth device to another, including channel coding. Some manufacturers have now implemented true single-chip Bluetooth devices, which implement both RF and baseband functionaility into a single package. The Link Manager (LM or LMP) is the next layer, which manages the behaviour of the wireless link on a realtime basis, controlling the baseband device and serving to allow service discovery and thereby to establish communication between two Bluetooth devices as they come in communication range of each other.

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The upper part of the Link Manager, together with the next layer, the the HCI, or Host Controller Interface, is responsible for the data transport mechanisms, once the link is established, multiplexing the data as required by the relevant application. The Link Manager and HCI Layers are essentially written as software, but often embodied as embedded firmware, to secure a lower power and simpler implementation. L2CAP, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, sits above the HCI layer and provides data flow control and management. Above L2CAP the stack splits, with the link to the Applications Layer going via the SDP (Service Discovery Protocol ) or TCS (Telephony Control protocol Specification) blocks, or via RFCOMM and then via OBEX (Generalised Multi-Transport Object Exchange Protocol) , WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) or simple AT Commands. Protocol stack software is available from multiple vendors to implement the various layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack.In addition, a variety of additional application layer software, security software and other such functionality is also becoming increasingly available. Voice and Data Transmission Capabilities Bluetooth multiplexes different link or packet types designed to be optimum for either voice or data using two types of link protocol - ACL and SCO. ACL - The Asynchronous Connectionless Link allows bits to be transmitted on a per available slot basis SCO - the Synchronous Connection Oriented link provides guaranteed time- bounded communication for time-sensitive services such as voice.

Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) takes data from the higher layers of the Bluetooth stack and from applications and sends it over the lower layers of the stack. L2CAP passes packets either to the Host Controller Interface (HCI), or in a host-less system, L2CAP passes packets directly to the Link Manager. The following figure shows the L2CAPs position in the Bluetooth stack.

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a) Multiplexing between different higher layer protocols, allowing them to share lower layer links b) Segmentation and reassembly to allow transfer of larger packets than lower layers support c) Group management, providing one-way transmission to a group of other Bluetooth devices d) Quality of service management for higher layer protocols. Establishing a Connection over HCI L2CAP uses ACL link to reliably pass data without errors across the lower layers of the Bluetooths broadcast transmission is not reliable, so broadcast should not be used, and L2CAP implementations should use point to point ACL links.

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UNIT IV
1) Explain Mobile IP: Goals,Assumption Requirement in detail?
GOALS, ASSUMPTIONS OF MOBILE IP

Both CDPD and Mobile IP require mobile hosts to be able to communicate with other systems that do not implement mobility functions. No changes or enhancements are required for systems that do not support mobility, to be able to communicate with mobile hosts. Underlying Data Link Layer Mobile IP makes no assumption about any particular link layer technology. One of the driving requirements for design of Mobile IP was that it should be completely independent of the data link. In the case of CDPD, there were no external requirements for support of data links other than the CDPD airlink (an overlay on AMPS). From the onset the CDPD architects recognized that mobility for CDPD could be independent of CDPD's airlink. To this end, CDPD was designed under a self-imposed requirement for CDPD mobility to be independent of the airlink. Link Layer Efficiency CDPD treats the airlink as a precious resource and minimizes the number of bytes transferred over the air. Trade-offs made between layering integrity (Layer 3 vs. Layer 2) and airlink efficiency in CDPD favor airlink efficiency. Mobile IP is contained strictly within Layer 3. Mobile IP recognizes that the link by which a mobile node is attached to the Internet may often be a precious wireless link, which should be optimized where possible by the Layer 3 protocol (in this case Mobile IP). Network Layer Support CDPD was designed to not only support IP, but also to be a multi-protocol mobility solution. Mobile IP is a pure IP solution. Both CDPD and Mobile IP require that mobility be supported without the mobile system needing to change its IP address. This is a departure from existing IP networks.

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Network Administration and Management CDPD assumes that the network is centrally administered, managed and operated by cooperating cellular Service Providers. Mobile IP assumes no additional constraints beyond the existing mode of operation of the Internet. This is probably the most fundamental difference between CDPD and Mobile IP and has serious ramifications on address assignment and security. MOBILE IP AGENT DISCOVERY, AND AGENT ADVERTISEMENT AND SOLICITATION MESSAGES When a mobile node is first turned on, it cannot assume that it is still at home the way normal IP devices do. It must first determine where it is, and if it is not at home, begin the process of setting up datagram forwarding from its home network. This process is accomplished by communicating with a local router serving as an agent, through the process called agent discovery. Agent Discovery Process Agent discovery encompasses the first three steps in the simplified five-step Mobile IP operational summary I gave in the topic on general operation. The main goals of agent discovery include the following:
o

Agent/Node Communication: Agent discovery is the method by which a mobile node first establishes contact with an agent on the local network to which it is attached. Messages are sent from the agent to the node containing important information about the agent; a message can also be sent from the node to the agent asking for this information to be sent. Orientation: The node uses the agent discovery process to determine where it is. Specifically, it learns whether it is on its home network or a foreign network by identifying the agent that sends it messages. Care-Of Address Assignment: The agent discovery process is the method used to tell a mobile node the care-of address it should use, when foreign agent care-of addressing is used.

Mobile IP agents are routers that have been given additional programming to make them Mobile IP aware. The communication between a mobile node and the agent on its local network is basically the same as the normal communication required between a device on an IP network and its local router, except more information needs to be sent when the router is an agent. Mobile IP Registration Mobile nodes detect when they have moved from one subnet to another subnet through the use of agent advertisements. When the mobile node receives an agent advertisement that indicates that the mobile node has changed locations, the mobile node registers through a foreign agent. Even though the mobile node might have acquired its own colocated care-of address, this feature is provided to enable sites to restrict access to mobility services.

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Mobile IP registration provides a flexible mechanism for mobile nodes to communicate the current reachability information to the home agent. The registration process enables mobile nodes to perform the following tasks:

Request forwarding services when visiting a foreign network Inform the home agent of the current care-of address Renew a registration that is about to expire Deregister when the mobile node returns home Request a reverse tunnel

Registration messages exchange information between a mobile node, a foreign agent, and the home agent. Registration creates or modifies a mobility binding at the home agent. Registration associates the home address of the mobile node with the care-of address of the mobile node for the specified lifetime. The registration process also enables mobile nodes to do the following functions:

Register with multiple foreign agents Deregister specific care-of addresses while retaining other mobility bindings Discover the address of a home agent if the mobile node is not configured with this information

Mobile IP defines the following registration processes for a mobile node:


If a mobile node registers a foreign agent care-of address, the mobile node is informing the home agent that it is reachable through that foreign agent. If a mobile node receives an agent advertisement that requires the mobile node to register through a foreign agent, the mobile node can still attempt to obtain a colocated care-of address. The mobile node can also register with that foreign agent or any other foreign agent on that link. If a mobile node uses a colocated care-of address, the mobile node registers directly with the home agent. If a mobile node returns to the home network, the mobile node deregisters with the home agent.

These registration processes involve the exchange of registration requests and registration reply messages. When the mobile node registers by using a foreign agent, the registration process takes the following steps, which the subsequent figure shows: 1. The mobile node sends a registration request to the prospective foreign agent to begin the registration process. 2. The foreign agent processes the registration request and then relays the request to the home agent. 3. The home agent sends a registration reply to the foreign agent to grant or deny the request. 4. The foreign agent processes the registration reply and then relays the reply to the mobile node to inform the mobile node of the disposition of the request. Mobile IP Registration Process

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When the mobile node registers directly with the home agent, the registration process requires only the following steps:

The mobile node sends a registration request to the home agent. The home agent sends a registration reply to the mobile node that grants or denies the request.

Also, either the foreign agent or the home agent might require a reverse tunnel. If the foreign agent supports reverse tunneling, the mobile node uses the registration process to request a reverse tunnel. The mobile node sets the reverse tunnel flag in the registration request to request a reverse tunnel. 3) Explain about tunneling and encapsulation mechanisms MOBILE IP DATA ENCAPSULATION AND TUNNELING Once a mobile node on a foreign network has completed a successful registration with its home agent, the Mobile IP datagram forwarding process described in the general operation topic will be fully activated. The home agent will intercept datagrams intended for the mobile node as they are routed to its home network, and forward them to the mobile node. This is done by encapsulating the datagrams and then sending them to the node's care-of address. Mobile IP Data Encapsulation Techniques Encapsulation is required because each datagram we intercept and forward needs to be resent over the network to the device's care-of address. In theory, the designers might conceivably have done this by just having the home agent change the destination address and stick it back out on

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the network, but there are various complications that make this unwise. It makes more sense to take the entire datagram and wrap it in a new set of headers before retransmitting. In our mail analogy, this is comparable to taking a letter received for our traveling consultant and putting it into a fresh envelope for forwarding, as opposed to just crossing off the original address and putting a new one on. The default encapsulation process used in Mobile IP is called IP Encapsulation Within IP, defined in RFC 2003 and commonly abbreviated IP-in-IP. It is a relatively simple method that describes how to take an IP datagram and make it the payload of another IP datagram. In Mobile IP, the new headers specify how to send the encapsulated datagram to the mobile node's care-of address. In addition to IP-in-IP, two other encapsulation methods may be optionally used: Minimal Encapsulation Within IP, defined in RFC 2004, and Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), defined in RFC 1701. To use either of these, the mobile node must request the appropriate method in its Registration Request and the home agent must agree to use it. If foreign agent careof addressing is used, the foreign agent also must support the method desired. The Mobile IP Data Delivery Tunnel The encapsulation process creates a logical construct called a tunnel between the device that encapsulates and the one that decapsulates. This is the same idea of a tunnel used in discussions of virtual private networks (VPNs), IPSec tunnel mode, or the various other tunneling protocols used for security. The tunnel represents a conduit over which datagrams are forwarded across an arbitrary internetwork, with the details of the encapsulated datagram (meaning the original IP headers) temporarily hidden. In Mobile IP, the start of the tunnel is the home agent, which does the encapsulation. The end of the tunnel depends on what sort of care-of address is being used:
o

Foreign Agent Care-Of Address: The foreign agent is the end of the tunnel. It receives encapsulated messages from the home agent, strips off the outer IP header and then delivers the datagram to the mobile node. This is generally done using layer two, because the mobile node and foreign agent are on the same local network, and of course, the mobile node does not have its own IP address on that network (it is using that of the foreign agent.) Co-Located Care-Of Address: The mobile node itself is the end of the tunnel and strips off the outer header.

4) Explain about IPv6? IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is an Internet Protocol version which will succeed IPv4, the first implementation which is still in dominant use currently. It is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworks. The main driving force for the redesign of Internet Protocol is the foreseeable IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 was defined in December 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) with the publication of an Internet standard specification, RFC 2460. IPv6 has a vastly larger address space than IPv4. This results from the use of a 128-bit address, whereas IPv4 uses only 32 bits. The new address space thus supports 2128 (about 3.41038)

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addresses. This expansion provides flexibility in allocating addresses and routing traffic and eliminates the primary need for network address translation (NAT), which gained widespread deployment as an effort to alleviate IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 also implements new features that simplify aspects of address assignment (stateless address autoconfiguration) and network renumbering (prefix and router announcements) when changing Internet connectivity providers. The IPv6 subnet size has been standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits to facilitate an automatic mechanism for forming the host identifier from Link Layer media addressing information (MAC address). Network security is integrated into the design of the IPv6 architecture. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was originally developed for IPv6, but found widespread optional deployment first in IPv4 (into which it was back-engineered). The IPv6 specifications mandate IPsec implementation as a fundamental interoperability requirement. 5) Explain in detail about Dynamic host Configuration Protocol? Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a computer networking protocol used by hosts (DHCP clients) to retrieve IP address assignments and other configuration information. DHCP uses a client-server architecture. The client sends a broadcast request for configuration information. The DHCP server receives the request and responds with configuration information from its configuration database. In the absence of DHCP, all hosts on a network must be manually configured individually - a time-consuming and often error-prone undertaking. DHCP is popular with ISP's because it allows a host to obtain a temporary IP address. Routing Routing (or routeing) is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology. In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes; typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers with multiple network cards can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the routers' memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time, but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured

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addressing (bridging) in large networks, and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet, though bridging is still widely used within localized environments.

6) Explain about IP Packet delivery? TRADITIONAL IP TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered around the ARPAnet. Certainly the ARPAnet is the best- known TCP/IP network. However as of June, 87, at least 130 different vendors had products that support TCP/IP, and thousands of networks of all kinds use it. First some basic definitions. The most accurate name for the set of protocols we are describing is the "Internet protocol suite". TCP and IP are two of the protocols in this suite. (They will be described below.) Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP or IP/TCP to refer to the whole family. It is probably not worth fighting this habit. However this can lead to some oddities. For example, I find myself talking about NFS as being based on TCP/IP, even though it doesn't use TCP at all. (It does use IP. But it uses an alternative protocol, UDP, instead of TCP. All of this alphabet soup will be unscrambled in the following pages.) The Internet is a collection of networks, including the Arpanet, NSFnet, regional networks such as NYsernet, local networks at a number of University and research institutions, and a number of military networks. The term "Internet" applies to this entire set of networks. The subset of them that is managed by the Department of Defense is referred to as the "DDN" (Defense Data Network). This includes some research-oriented networks, such as the Arpanet, as well as more strictly military ones. (Because much of the funding for Internet protocol developments is done via the DDN organization, the terms Internet and DDN can sometimes seem equivalent.) All of these networks are connected to each other. Users can send messages from any of them to any other, except where there are security or other policy restrictions on access. Officially speaking, the Internet protocol documents are simply standards adopted by the Internet community for its own use. More recently, the Department of Defense issued a MILSPEC definition of TCP/IP. This was intended to be a more formal definition, appropriate for use in purchasing specifications. However most of the TCP/IP community continues to use the Internet standards. The MILSPEC version is intended to be consistent with it. I-TCP: Indirect TCP for Mobile Hosts IP based solutions to accommodate mobile hosts within existing internetworks do not address the distinctive features of wireless mobile computing. IP-based transport protocols thus suffer from poor performance when a mobile host communicates with a host on the fixed network. This is caused by frequent disruptions in network layer connectivity due to i) mobility and ii) unreliable nature of the wireless link. We describe I-TCP, which is an indirect transport layer protocol for mobile hosts. I-TCP utilizes the resources of Mobility Support Routers (MSRs) to provide transport layer communication between mobile hosts and hosts on the fixed network. With ITCP, the problems related to mobility and unreliability of wireless link are handled entirely within the wireless link; the TCP/IP software on the fixed hosts is not modified. Using I-TCP on our testbed, the throughput between a fixed host and a mobile host improved substantially in comparison to regular TCP. Fast retransmit

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Fast Retransmit is an enhancement to TCP which reduces the time a sender waits before retransmitting a lost segment. A TCP sender uses timer to recognize lost segments. If an acknowledgement is not received for a particular segment within a specified time (a function of the estimated Round-trip delay time), the sender will assume the segment was lost in the network, and will retransmit the segment. The fast retransmit enhancement works as follows: if a TCP sender receives three duplicate acknowledgements with the same acknowledge number (that is, a total of four acknowledgements with the same acknowledgement number), the sender can be reasonably confident that the segment with the next higher sequence number was dropped, and will not arrive out of order. The sender will then retransmit the packet that was presumed dropped before waiting for its timeout. Selective retransmission When an RTP endpoint sends an NLP, a copy of the data portion of the NLP is kept until the remote RTP endpoint acknowledges receipt of the data. If NLPs are lost in the network, the data needs to be retransmitted by the RTP endpoint. HPR support uses a selective retransmission mechanism where data is not retransmitted unless instructed to do so by the remote RTP endpoint. Additionally, the remote RTP endpoint indicates which messages must be retransmitted. This sophisticated approach has the following distinct advantages over other algorithms:

Comparing selective retransmission to the "go back N" approach, assume 10 messages are sent and messages 3 and 6 were lost in the network. Using "go back N", the remote node would indicate that the next message it is expecting is message 3, which would cause the sending node to retransmit messages 310 even though only two messages were lost. With HPR selective retransmission, the remote node would indicate that the next expected message is message 3, but the remote node did receive messages 45 and 710, which have been queued. This way, only messages 3 and 6 are retransmitted. When a node in the network is overloaded, data will be discarded and lost. If retransmission is triggered by a timer popping in the sending node, the same message would be sent over and over, which makes the network congestion problem even worse. In HPR support, the trigger for retransmission lies in the remote node, not the sending node. If the sending node does not receive an acknowledgement, that triggers a path switch rather than retransmission.

7) Explain detail about the architecture of WAP? WAP - Architecture WAP is designed in a layered fashion so that it can be extensible,flexible, and scalable. As a result, the WAP protocol stack is divided into five layers:

ApplicationLayer Wireless Application Environment (WAE). This layer is of most interest to content developers because it contains, among other things, device specifications and the content development programming languages, WML and WMLScript. SessionLayer Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). Unlike HTTP, WSP has been designed by the WAP Forum to provide fast connection suspension and reconnection.

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TransactionLayer Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP). The WTP runs on top of a datagram service such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and is part of the standard suite of TCP/IP protocols used to provide a simplified protocol suitable for low bandwidth wireless stations. SecurityLayer Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS). WTLS incorporates security features that are based upon the established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol standard. It includes data integrity checks, privacy, service denial, and authentication services. TransportLayer Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP). The WDP allows WAP to be bearer-independent by adapting the transport layer of the underlying bearer. The WDP presents a consistent data format to the higher layers of the WAP protocol stack, thereby offering the advantage of bearer independence to application developers.

Each of these layers provides a well-defined interface to the layer above it. This means that the internal workings of any layer are transparent or invisible to the layers above it. The layered architecture allows other applications and services to utilise the features provided by the WAPstack as well. This makes it possible to use the WAP-stack for services and applications that currently are not specified by WAP. The WAP protocol architecture is shown below alongside a typical Internet Protocol stack.

Note that the mobile network bearers in the lower part of the figure above are not part of the WAP protocol stack. Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is an open international standard[1] for application-layer network communications in a wireless-communication environment. Most use of WAP involves accessing the mobile web from a mobile phone or from a PDA. A WAP browser provides all of the basic services of a computer-based web browser but simplified to operate within the restrictions of a mobile phone, such as its smaller view screen. Users can connect to WAP sites: websites written in, or dynamically converted to, WML (Wireless Markup Language) and accessed via the WAP browser.

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Before the introduction of WAP, service providers had extremely limited opportunities to offer interactive data services, but needed interactivity to support now-commonplace activities such as:

Email by mobile phone Tracking of stock-market prices Sports results News headlines Music downloads

UNIT V
1) What is an Ad-hoc network? Explain the types of Mobile host movements?
AD-HOC NETWORKS

An ad hoc network is one where there are no access points passing information between participants. Infrastructure networks pass information through a central information hub which can be a hardware device or software on a computer. 2) Explain about Media Access Protocols. MAC PROTOCOLS The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is used to provide the data link layer of the Ethernet LAN system. The MAC protocol encapsulates a SDU (payload data) by adding a 14 byte header (Protocol Control Information (PCI)) before the data and appending a 4-byte (32-bit) Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) after the data. The entire frame is preceded by a small idle period (the minimum inter-frame gap, 9.6 microsecond (S)) and a 8 byte preamble (including the start of frame delimiter). The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is used to provide the data link layer of the Ethernet LAN system. The MAC protocol encapsulates a SDU (payload data) by adding a 14 byte header (Protocol Control Information (PCI)) before the data and appending a 4-byte (32-bit) Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) after the data. The entire frame is preceded by a small idle period (the minimum inter-frame gap, 9.6 microsecond (S)) and a 8 byte preamble (including the start of frame delimiter).

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Header

MAC encapsulation of a packet of data The header consists of three parts:

A 6-byte destination address, which specifies either a single recipient node (unicast mode), a group of recipient nodes (multicast mode), or the set of all recipient nodes (broadcast mode). A 6-byte source address, which is set to the sender's globally unique node address. This may be used by the network layer protocol to identify the sender, but usually other mechanisms are used (e.g. arp). Its main function is to allow address learning which may be used to configure the filter tables in a bridge. A 2-byte type field, which provides a Service Access Point (SAP) to identify the type of protocol being carried (e.g. the values 0x0800 is used to identify the IP network protocol, other values are used to indicate other network layer protocols). In the case of IEEE 802.3 LLC, this may also be used to indicate the length of the data part. Th type field is also be used to indicate when a Tag field is added to a frame.

CRC The final field in an Ethernet MAC frame is called a Cyclic Redundancy Check (sometimes also known as a Frame Check Sequence). A 32-bit CRC provides error detection in the case where line errors (or transmission collisions in Ethernet) result in corruption of the MAC frame. Any frame with an invalid CRC is discarded by the MAC receiver without further processing. The MAC protocol does not provide any indication that a frame has been discarded due to an invalid CRC. The link layer CRC therefore protects the frame from corruption while being transmitted over the physical mediuym (cable). A new CRC is added if the packet is forwarded by the router on another Ethernet link. While the packet is being processed by the router the packet data is not protected by the CRC. Router processing errors must be detected by network or transport-layer checksums.

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Inter Frame Gap After transmission of each frame, a transmitter must wait for a period of 9.6 microseconds (at 10 Mbps) to allow the signal to propagate through the receiver electronics at the destination. This period of time is known as the Inter-Frame Gap (IFG). While every transmitter must wait for this time between sending frames, receivers do not necessarily see a "silent" period of 9.6 microseconds. The way in which repeaters operate is such that they may reduce the IFG between the frames which they regenerate. Byte Order It is important to realise that nearly all serial communications systems transmit the least significant bit of each byte first at the physical layer. Ethernet supports broadcast, unicast, and multicast addresses. The appearance of a multicast address on the cable (in this case an IP multicast address, with group set to the bit pattern 0xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx) is therefore as shown below (bits transmitted from left to right): 0 | 23 IP Multicast Address Group 47 | <--------------------------->|

1000 0000 0000 0000 0111 1010 xxxx xxx0 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx | Multicast Bit | 0 = Internet Multicast 1 = Assigned for other uses However, when the same frame is stored in the memory of a computer, the bits are ordered such that the least significant bit of each byte is stored in the right most position (the bits are transmitted right-to-left within bytes, bytes transmitted left-to-right): 0 | | 23 | 47

0000 0001 0000 0000 0101 1110 0xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx | Multicast Bit CSMA /CD The Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) with Collision Detection (CD) protocol is used to control access to the shared Ethernet medium. A switched network (e.g. Fast Ethernet) may use a full duplex mode giving access to the full link speed when used between directly connected NICs, Switch to NIC cables, or Switch to Switch cables.
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Receiver Processing Algorithm

Runt Frame Any frame which is received and which is less than 64 bytes is illegal, and is called a "runt". In most cases, such frames arise from a collision, and while they indicate an illegal reception, they may be observed on correctly functioning networks. A receiver must discard all runt frames. Giant Frame Any frame which is received and which is greater than the maximum frame size, is called a "giant". In theory, the jabber control circuit in the transceiver should prevent any node from generating such a frame, but certain failures in the physical layer may also give rise to over-sized Ethernet frames. Like runts, giants are discarded by an Ethernet receiver. Jumbo Frame Some modern Gigabit Ethernet NICs support frames that are larger than the traditional 1500 bytes specified by the IEEE. This new mode requires support by both ends of the link to support Jumbo Frames. Path MTU Discovery is required for a router to utilise this feature, since there is no other way for a router to determine that all systems on the end-to-end path will support these larger sized frames. A Misaligned Frame Any frame which does not contain an integral number of received bytes (bytes) is also illegal. A receiver has no way of knowing which bits are legal, and how to compute the CRC-32 of the frame. Such frames are therefore also discarded by the Ethernet receiver. Other Issues The Ethernet standard dictates a minimum size of frame, which requires at least 46 bytes of data to be present in every MAC frame. If the network layer wishes to send less than 46 bytes of data the MAC protocol adds sufficient number of zero bytes (0x00, is also known as null padding
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characters) to satisfy this requirement. The maximum size of data which may be carried in a MAC frame using Ethernet is 1500 bytes (this is known as the MTU in IP). A protocol known as the "Address Resolution Protocol" (arp) is used to identify the MAC source address of remote computers when IP is used over an Ethernet LAN. Exception to the Rule An extension to Ethernet, known as IEEE 802.1p allows for frames to carry a tag. The tag value adds an extra level of PCI to the Ethernet frame header. This increases the size of the total MAC frame when the tag is used. A side effect of this is that NICs and network devices designed to support this extension require a modification to the jabber detection circuit. 3) Explain about Routing Protocols? A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network, the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. For a discussion of the concepts behind routing protocols, see: Routing. The term routing protocol may refer specifically to one operating at layer three of the OSI model, which similarly disseminates topology information between routers. Although there are many types of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks:

Interior gateway routing via link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS Interior gateway routing via path vector or distance vector protocols, such as RIP, IGRP and EIGRP Exterior gateway routing. BGP v4 is the routing protocol used by the public Internet.

Many routing protocols are defined in documents called RFCs.[1][2][3][4] The specific characteristics of routing protocols include

the manner in which they either prevent routing loops from forming or break them up if they do the manner in which they select preferred routes, using information about hop costs the time they take to converge how well they scale up many other factors

Routed versus routing protocols In some cases, routing protocols can themselves run over routed protocols: for example, BGP runs over TCP which runs over IP; care is taken in the implementation of such systems not to create a circular dependency between the routing and routed protocols. That a routing protocol runs over particular transport mechanism does not mean that the routing protocol is of layer (N+1) if the transport mechanism is of layer (N). Routing protocols, according to the OSI
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Routing framework, are layer management protocols for the network layer, regardless of their transport mechanism:

IS-IS runs over the data link layer OSPF, IGRP, and EIGRP run directly over IP; OSPF and EIGRP have their own reliable transmission mechanism while IGRP assumed an unreliable transport RIP runs over UDP BGP runs over TCP

TABLE DRIVEN APPROACHES Introduction In many programs, there is a need to deal with entities whose handling requires a variety of distinct behaviors. A straight-forward approach to algorithm design deals with the different kinds of entities using case statements or extended if-then-else statements. However, if the number of types of the entities is large then this approach lead to large amounts of code, often with poor run time characteristics. A table driven approach uses tables to classify the different kinds of entities, aiming at a reduction of the number of cases requiring distinct code. For example, an assembler needs to translate a variety of machine instructions into machine code. These instructions often have varying numbers of operands and varying operands types. Translating an instruction involves combining information based on the instruction mnemonic and the operands into a binary coded instruction. For fixed-length instruction coding, the binary code instruction is constructed by starting with a base code for the mnemonic and adding operand data using bitwise or operations. One obvious use of a table in algorithm design is the for retrieving the base code for an instruction. However, this use does not involve any classification of instructions. With careful classification, tables can often be put to more profitable uses. Classification The heart of table-driven design is a classification of the kinds of entities that the software needs to handle. For example, in some simple assembly languages, there are only a few types of instructions when classified according to the number and types of their operands. If the programming language supports enumerated types then an enumerated type can be defined with a value for each type of instruction. Then a table of instruction data can be constructed that contains operand type information in addition to the base code for each instruction. The operand type can be used in a case or switch statement to control handling of operands. For languages, such as C, that allow functions to be treated like other kinds of data, functions for handling operands can be stored in the instruction table. Each instruction has the particular function that is needed for dealing with its operands stored in its instruction data entry. Often, there are different levels of granularity possible in the classification involved in a tabledriven design. For example, in an assembler the machine instructions may be assigned a single classification based on all of the operands (course granularity), or individual operands can be classified (finer granularity). 5) Explain a) Destination sequenced distance vector b) Cluster gateway routing c)Ad-hoc On Demand distance Vector routing

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Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) is a table-driven routing scheme for ad hoc mobile networks based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm. It was developed by C. Perkins and P.Bhagwat in 1994. The main contribution of the algorithm was to solve the routing loop problem. Each entry in the routing table contains a sequence number, the sequence numbers are generally even if a link is present; else, an odd number is used. The number is generated by the destination, and the emitter needs to send out the next update with this number. Routing information is distributed between nodes by sending full dumps infrequently and smaller incremental updates more frequently.

For example the routing table of Node A in this network is Destination Next Hop Number of Hops Sequence Number Install Time A B C A B B 0 1 2 A 46 B 36 C 28 001000 001200 001500

Naturally the table contains description of all possible paths reachable by node A, along with the next hop, number of hops and sequence number. Selection of Route If a router receives new information, then it uses the latest sequence number. If the sequence number is the same as the one already in the table, the route with the better metric is used. Stale entries are those entries that have not been updated for a while. Such entries as well as the routes using those nodes as next hops are deleted. Advantages DSDV was one of the early algorithms available. It is quite suitable for creating ad hoc networks with small number of nodes. Since no formal specification of this algorithm is present there is no commercial implementation of this algorithm. Many improved forms of this algorithm have been suggested. Disadvantages DSDV requires a regular update of its routing tables, which uses up battery power and a small amount of bandwidth even when the network is idle. Whenever the topology of the network changes, a new sequence number is necessary before the network re-converges; thus, DSDV is not suitable for highly dynamic networks. (As in all distance-vector protocols, this does not perturb traffic in regions of the network that are not concerned by the topology change.) Influence While DSDV itself does not appear to be much used today,other protocols have used similar techniques. The best-known sequenced distance vector protocol is AODV, which, by virtue of being a reactive protocol, can use simpler sequencing heuristics. Babel is an attempt at making DSDV more robust, more efficient and more widely applicable while staying within the framework of proactive protocols. CLUSTER-HEAD GATEWAY SWITCH ROUTING PROTOCOL (CGSR)

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The Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) uses DSDV as an underlying protocol. General Mobile nodes are partioned into clusters and a clusterhead is elected using a distributed algorithm. All nodes in the communication range of the clusterhead belong to its cluster. A node that is in the communication range of two or more clusterheads is called a gateway node. CGSR uses a Least Cluster Change (LCC) clustering algorithm. A clusterhead change occurs only when two clusterheads come into one cluster or one of the nodes moves out of the range of all the clusterheads. A clusterhead is able to control a group of ad-hoc hosts, this means that it is in charge of broadcasting within the cluster, forwarding messages and dynamic channel scheduling. Each node maintains 2 tables: a cluster member table, containing the cluster head for each destination node a DV-routing table, containing the next hop to the destination. The cluster member table is broadcasted periodically. A node will update the entries in its cluster member table on receiving a new one from its neighbors. Sequence numbers are used as in DSDV. Routing in CGSR If a node has to route a packet, it finds the nearest clusterhead along the route to the destination according to the cluster member table and the routing table. Then it will consult its routing table to find the next hop in order to reach the clusterhead selected above and transmits the packet to that node. Thus, the routing principle looks as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Lookup of the clusterhead of the destination node Lookup of next hop Packet send to destination Destination clusterhead delivers packet

First, the source has to transmit the packet to its clusterhead. Then, this clusterhead sends the packet to the gateway node that connects this clusterhead and the next clusterhead along the route to the destination. The gateway sends the packet to the next clusterhead. This will go on until the destination clusterhead is reached. The destination clusterhead then transmits the packet to the destination node.

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Routing in CSGR is more effective than DSDV because it is done through the clusterheads and gateways. Allocate Wireless Channels The clustering method provides an effective way to allocate wireless channels among different clusters. Its possible to enhance spatial reuse amongst clusters by using different spreading codes CDMA Token approach A token approach is used within a cluster. The goal consists of giving priority to clusterheads in order to maximize channel utilization and minimize delay. A clusterhead should get more chances to transmit as it is in charge of broadcasting within the cluster and of forwarding packets between nodes. The channel access scheme looks as follows: 1. Initially, the clusterhead will get the permission token. It transmits any messages it has in its transmission queue. 2. The clusterhead gives the token to one of its neighbors according to a scheduling algorithm. 3. That node returns the token to its clusterhead after it has transmitted its messages, if there are any. 4. These steps will be repeated. Priority Token Scheduling (CGSR+PTS) allows to give higher priority to neighbor nodes from which a packet was recently received.The clusterhead handles the permission token to the upstream neighbor (could be a gateway) in a way that the packets will be sent with least delay. Initially, every neighbor of a clusterhead has the same priority to receive the token. When a packet is transmitted by a node, the clusterhead increases the priority of that node. When the token returns from an empty queue at a neighbor, the clusterhead will decreases the nodes priority. PTS helps to forward high priority traffics with least delay, in order to give more transmission opportunities for real time and multimedia sources.

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The next step is gateway code scheduling (CGSR+PTS+GCS), in order to give more priority to the upstream clusterhead of a gateway. One has to note that a gateway must switch its code to hear the upstream / downstream clusterhead, thus losing time. A final step consists of path reserving (CGSR+PTS+GCS+PR). This keeps a path more stable by reserving it until its disconnected (or a pseudo link appears, see CDMA) The mentioned token approach has some known weaknesses. Only one node, which gets the permission token, can access the channel with an assigned code (CDMA) for each cluster. In some cases the permission token may be lost:

The node with the permission token moves outside the cluster. The host is a gateway (belonging to more than one cluster). It might be tuned to a different code (i.e. different cluster), thus missing the permission token.

In order to overcome the listed problems, the clusterhead reissues the permission token after a timeout. One could avoid gateway problems by using gateways that are able to simultaneously communicate over 2 interfaces. Routing in CSGR is more effective than in other DV protocols, meaning that the routing table size is reduced by only keeping one entry for one whole destination cluster. This reduces the broadcast packet size aswell. The least cluster change (LCC) algorithm provides the stablest cluster structure for grouping mobile nodes and allocating radio channel codes. Clusterhead controlled token protocol is efficient for channel access within a cluster and packet forwarding. Packets are delivered efficiently in CGSR.Heuristic token scheduling, gateway code scheduling and path reservation speed up packet delivery along multihop paths, this makes CGSR capable of transmitting multimedia traffic. But the performance is degraded by the following facts: The selection of the clusterheads may cause complexity and overhead, as it is difficult to maintain the cluster structure in mobile environment. Also, there are traffic bottleneck and single point failures at the clusterheads and gateways. (higher computation and communication load than other nodes, path length increases also) CGSR is instable at high mobility when the rate of change of clusterheads is high. All this would degrade the scalability of the network, which is highly undesirable. AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing is a routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and other wireless ad-hoc networks. It is jointly developed in Nokia Research Center, University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Cincinnati by C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer and S. Das[1]. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is a reactive routing protocol, meaning that it establishes a route to a destination only on demand. In contrast, the most common routing protocols of the Internet are proactive, meaning they find routing paths independently of the usage of the paths. AODV is, as the name indicates, a distance-vector routing protocol. AODV avoids the counting-to-infinity problem of other distance-vector protocols by using sequence numbers on route updates, a technique pioneered by DSDV.

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Workings In AODV, the network is silent until a connection is needed. At that point the network node that needs a connection broadcasts a request for connection. Other AODV nodes forward this message, and record the node that they heard it from, creating an explosion of temporary routes back to the needy node. When a node receives such a message and already has a route to the desired node, it sends a message backwards through a temporary route to the requesting node. The needy node then begins using the route that has the least number of hops through other nodes. Unused entries in the routing tables are recycled after a time. When a link fails, a routing error is passed back to a transmitting node, and the process repeats. Much of the complexity of the protocol is to lower the number of messages to conserve the capacity of the network. For example, each request for a route has a sequence number. Nodes use this sequence number so that they do not repeat route requests that they have already passed on. Another such feature is that the route requests have a "time to live" number that limits how many times they can be retransmitted. Another such feature is that if a route request fails, another route request may not be sent until twice as much time has passed as the timeout of the previous route request. The advantage of AODV is that it creates no extra traffic for communication along existing links. Also, distance vector routing is simple, and doesn't require much memory or calculation. However AODV requires more time to establish a connection, and the initial communication to establish a route is heavier than some other approaches. Technical description The AODV Routing protocol uses an on-demand approach for finding routes, that is, a route is established only when it is required by a source node for transmitting data packets. It employs destination sequence numbers to identify the most recent path. The major difference between AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) stems out from the fact that DSR uses source routing in which a data packet carries the complete path to be traversed. However, in AODV, the source node and the intermediate nodes store the next-hop information corresponding to each flow for data packet transmission. In an on-demand routing protocol, the source node floods the RouteRequest packet in the network when a route is not available for the desired destination. It may obtain multiple routes to different destinations from a single RouteRequest. The major difference between AODV and other on-demand routing protocols is that it uses a destination sequence number (DestSeqNum) to determine an up-to-date path to the destination. A node updates its path information only if the DestSeqNum of the current packet received is greater than the last DestSeqNum stored at the node. A RouteRequest carries the source identifier (SrcID), the destination identifier (DestID), the source sequence number (SrcSeqNum), the destination sequence number (DestSeqNum), the broadcast identifier (BcastID), and the time to live (TTL) field. DestSeqNum indicates the freshness of the route that is accepted by the source. When an intermediate node receives a RouteRequest, it either forwards it or prepares a RouteReply if it has a valid route to the destination. The validity of a route at the intermediate node is determined by comparing the sequence number at the intermediate node with the destination sequence number in the RouteRequest packet. If a RouteRequest is received multiple times, which is indicated by the BcastID-SrcID pair, the duplicate copies are discarded. All intermediate nodes having valid routes to the destination, or the destination node itself, are allowed to send RouteReply packets to the source. Every intermediate node, while forwarding a RouteRequest, enters the previous node address and its BcastID. A timer is used to delete this entry in case a RouteReply is not received
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before the timer expires. This helps in storing an active path at the intermediate node as AODV does not employ source routing of data packets. When a node receives a RouteReply packet, information about the previous node from which the packet was received is also stored in order to forward the data packet to this next node as the next hop toward the destination. Advantages and disadvantages The main advantage of this protocol is that routes are established on demand and destination sequence numbers are used to find the latest route to the destination. The connection setup delay is lower. One of the disadvantages of this protocol is that intermediate nodes can lead to inconsistent routes if the source sequence number is very old and the intermediate nodes have a higher but not the latest destination sequence number, thereby having stale entries. Also multiple RouteReply packets in response to a single RouteRequest packet can lead to heavy control overhead. Another disadvantage of AODV is that the periodic beaconing leads to unnecessary bandwidth consumption.

6) Explain a) Dynamic Source Routing b) Temporally ordered Routing Algorithm c) Hierarchical routing DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route on-demand when a transmitting computer requests one. However, it uses source routing instead of relying on the routing table at each intermediate device. Many successive refinements have been made to DSR, including DSRFLOW. Determining source routes requires accumulating the address of each device between the source and destination during route discovery. The accumulated path information is cached by nodes processing the route discovery packets. The learned paths are used to route packets. To accomplish source routing, the routed packets contain the address of each device the packet will traverse. This may result in high overhead for long paths or large addresses, like IPv6. To avoid using source routing, DSR optionally defines a flow id option that allows packets to be forwarded on a hop-by-hop basis. This protocol is truly based on source routing whereby all the routing information is maintained (continually updated) at mobile nodes. It has only 2 major phases which are Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. Route Reply would only be generated if the message has reached the intended destination node (route record which is initially contained in Route Request would be inserted into the Route Reply). To return the Route Reply, the destination node must have a route to the source node. If the route is in the Destination Node's route cache, the route would be used. Otherwise, the node will reverse the route based on the route record in the Route Reply message header (this requires that all linkes are symmetric). In the event of fatal transmission, the Route Maintenance Phase is initiated whereby the Route Error packets are generated at a node. The erroneous hop will be removed from the node's route cache, all routes containing the hop are truncated at that point. Again, the Route Discovery Phase is initiated to determine the most viable route.

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For information on other similar protocols, see the ad hoc routing protocol list. Dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) is an on-demand protocol designed to restrict the bandwidth consumed by control packets in ad hoc wireless networks by eliminating the periodic table-update messages required in the table-driven approach. The major difference between this and the other on-demand routing protocols is that it is beacon-less and hence does not require periodic hello packet (beacon) transmissions, which are used by a node to inform its neighbors of its presence. The basic approach of this protocol (and all other on-demand routing protocols) during the route construction phase is to establish a route by flooding RouteRequest packets in the network. The destination node, on receiving a RouteRequest packet, responds by sending a RouteReply packet back to the source, which carries the route traversed by the RouteRequest packet received. Consider a source node that does not have a route to the destination. When it has data packets to be sent to that destination, it initiates a RouteRequest packet. This RouteRequest is flooded throughout the network. Each node, upon receiving a RouteRequest packet, rebroadcasts the packet to its neighbors if it has not forwarded it already, provided that the node is not the destination node and that the packets time to live (TTL) counter has not been exceeded. Each RouteRequest carries a sequence number generated by the source node and the path it has traversed. A node, upon receiving a RouteRequest packet, checks the sequence number on the packet before forwarding it. The packet is forwarded only if it is not a duplicate RouteRequest. The sequence number on the packet is used to prevent loop formations and to avoid multiple transmissions of the same RouteRequest by an intermediate node that receives it through multiple paths. Thus, all nodes except the destination forward a RouteRequest packet during the route construction phase. A destination node, after receiving the first RouteRequest packet, replies to the source node through the reverse path the RouteRequest packet had traversed. Nodes can also learn about the neighboring routes traversed by data packets if operated in the promiscuous mode (the mode of operation in which a node can receive the packets that are neither broadcast nor addressed to itself). This route cache is also used during the route construction phase. If an intermediate node receiving a RouteRequest has a route to the destination node in its route cache, then it replies to the source node by sending a RouteReply with the entire route information from the source node to the destination node. Advantages and Disadvantages This protocol uses a reactive approach which eliminates the need to periodically flood the network with table update messages which are required in a table-driven approach. In a reactive (on-demand) approach such as this, a route is established only when it is required and hence the need to find routes to all other nodes in the network as required by the table-driven approach is eliminated. The intermediate nodes also utilize the route cache information efficiently to reduce the control overhead. The disadvantage of this protocol is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link. Stale route cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route reconstruction phase. The connection setup delay is higher than in table-driven protocols. Even though the protocol performs well in static and low-mobility environments, the performance degrades rapidly with increasing mobility. Also, considerable routing overhead is involved due to the source-routing mechanism employed in DSR. This routing overhead is directly proportional to the path length. TEMPORALLY ORDERED ROUTING The Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is an algorithm for routing data across Wireless Mesh Networks or Mobile ad-hoc networks.

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It was developed by Vincent Park at the University of Maryland and the Naval Research Laboratory. Park has patented his work, and it was licensed by Nova Engineering, who are marketing a wireless router product based on Parks algorithm. The TORA attempts to achieve a high degree of scalability using a "flat", non-hierarchical routing algorithm. In its operation the algorithm attempts to suppress, to the greatest extent possible, the generation of far-reaching control message propagation. In order to achieve this, the TORA does not use a shortest path solution, an approach which is unusual for routing algorithms of this type. TORA builds and maintains a Directed Acyclic Graph rooted at a destination. No three nodes may have the same height. Information may flow from nodes with higher heights to nodes with lower heights. Information can therefore be thought of as a fluid that may only flow downhill. By maintaining a set of totally-ordered heights at all times, TORA achieves loop-free multipath routing, as information cannot 'flow uphill' and so cross back on itself. the key design concepts of TORA is localization of control messages to a very small set of nodes near the occurrence of a topological change. To accomplish this, nodes need to maintain the routing information about adjacent (one hop) nodes. The protocol performs three basic functions:

Route creation Route maintenance Route erasure

During the route creation and maintenance phases, nodes use a height metric to establish a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at destination. Thereafter links are assigned based on the relative height metric of neighboring nodes. During the times of mobility the DAG is broken and the route maintenance unit comes into picture to reestablish a DAG routed at the destination. Timing is an important factor for TORA because the height metric is dependent on the logical time of the link failure. TORA's route erasure phase is essentially involving flooding a broadcast clear packet (CLR) throughout the network to erase invalid routes. HIERARCHICAL ROUTING Hierarchical routing: Routing that is based on addressing in the hierarchical way Note: Most Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) routing is based on a twolevel hierarchical routing in which an IP address is divided into a network portion and a host portion. Gateways use only the network portion until an IP datagram reaches a gateway that can deliver it directly. Additional levels of hierarchical routing are introduced by the addition of subnetworks. Hierarchical routing is the procedure of arranging routers in a hierarchical manner. A good example would be to consider a corporate intranet. Most corporate intranets consist of a high speed backbone network. Connected to this backbone are routers which are in turn connected to a particular workgroup. These workgroups occupy a unique LAN. The reason this is a good arrangement is because even though there might be dozens of different workgroups, the span of this particular description is only 2. The span of a network is the maximum hop count to get from

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one host to any other host on the network. Even if the workgroups divided their LAN network into smaller partitions, the span could only increase to 4 in this particular example. Considering alternative solutions with every router connected to every other router, or if every router was connected to 2 routers, shows the convenience of hierarchical routing. It decreases the complexity of network topology, increases routing efficiency, and causes much less congestion because of fewer routing advertisements. With hierarchical routing, only core routers connected to the backbone are aware of all routes. Routers that lie within a LAN only know about routes in the LAN. Unrecognized destinations are passed to the default route. 6) Explain a) Zonal Routing Protocol b) Power aware routing c) Source Tree adaptive routing POWER AWARE ROUTING Energy required to transmit a signal is approximately proportional to d, where d is the distance and is the attenuation factor or path loss exponent, which depends on the transmission medium. When = 2 (which is the optimal case), transmitting a signal half the distance requires one fourth of the energy and if there is a node in the middle willing spend another fourth of its energy for the second half, data would be transmitted for half of the energy than through a direct transmission - a fact that follows directly from the inverse square law of physics. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are: 1. This method induces a delay for each transmission. 2. No relevance for energy network powered transmission operated via sufficient repeater infrastructure. 3. Zone Routing Protocol or ZRP was the first hybrid routing protocol with both a proactive and a reactive routing component. ZRP was first introduced by Haas in 1997. ZRP is proposed to reduce the control overhead of proactive routing protocols and decrease the latency caused by routing discover in reactive routing protocols. ZRP defines a zone around each node consisting of its k-neighbourhood (e. g. k=3). In ZRP, the distance and a node , all nodes within -hop distance from node belongs to the routing zone of node . ZRP is formed by two sub-protocols, a proactive routing protocol: Intra-zone Routing Protocol (IARP), is used inside routing zones and a reactive routing protocol: Inter-zone Routing Protocol (IERP), is used between routing zones, respectively. A route to a destination within the local zone can be established from the proactively cached routing table of the source by IARP, therefore, if the source and destination is in the same zone, the packet can be delivered immediately. Most of the existing proactive routing algorithms can be used as the IARP for ZRP. 4. For routes beyond the local zone, route discovery happens reactively. The source node sends a route requests to its border nodes, containing its own address, the destination address and a unique sequence number. Border nodes are nodes which are exactly the maximum number of hops to the defined local zone away from the source. The border nodes check their local zone for the destination. If the requested node is not a member of this local zone, the node adds its own address to the route request packet and forwards the packet to its border nodes. If the destination is a member of the local zone of the node, it sends a route reply on the reverse path back to the source. The source node uses the path saved in the route reply packet to send data packets to the destination. This type of protocols maintains fresh lists of destinations and their routes by periodically distributing routing tables throughout the network. The main disadvantages of such algorithms are: 1. Respective amount of data for maintenance.
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2. Slow reaction on restructuring and failures. ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL OR ZRP It was the first hybrid routing protocol with both a proactive and a reactive routing component. ZRP was first introduced by Haas in 1997. ZRP is proposed to reduce the control overhead of proactive routing protocols and decrease the latency caused by routing discover in reactive routing protocols. ZRP defines a zone around each node consisting of its kneighbourhood (e. g. k=3). In ZRP, the distance and a node , all nodes within -hop distance from node belongs to the routing zone of node . ZRP is formed by two sub-protocols, a proactive routing protocol: Intra-zone Routing Protocol (IARP), is used inside routing zones and a reactive routing protocol: Inter-zone Routing Protocol (IERP), is used between routing zones, respectively. A route to a destination within the local zone can be established from the proactively cached routing table of the source by IARP, therefore, if the source and destination is in the same zone, the packet can be delivered immediately. Most of the existing proactive routing algorithms can be used as the IARP for ZRP. For routes beyond the local zone, route discovery happens reactively. The source node sends a route requests to its border nodes, containing its own address, the destination address and a unique sequence number. Border nodes are nodes which are exactly the maximum number of hops to the defined local zone away from the source. The border nodes check their local zone for the destination. If the requested node is not a member of this local zone, the node adds its own address to the route request packet and forwards the packet to its border nodes. If the destination is a member of the local zone of the node, it sends a route reply on the reverse path back to the source. The source node uses the path saved in the route reply packet to send data packets to the destination.

SOURCE-TREE ADAPTIVE ROUTING PROTOCOL STAR The Source Tree Adaptive Routing protocol was the first proactive routing protocol that works with link-state information and was faster then on-demand protocols. It was also the first proactive routing protocol where LORA principle was implemented. STAR doesnt take shortest paths for keeping control messages low. STAR identifies every node with a fix address. Big advantage is that no periodically updates are needed. After the start procedure a source tree contains links to every neighbor. Next step, means first update step, STAR sends his own source tree immediately as update to all other neighbors. So every router can built with his own source tree and the received ones, a topology graph containing the whole network. Those updates consist of one or more LSU (Link-State Update Unit). All update information is broadcast information. If an update has to be sent differs of ORA or LORA has been implemented. At ORA updates are only needed when the routers own source tree changes. In the STAR protocol LORA is implemented and updates are send out, when:

the receiver is unreachable


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a new receiver is detected when it seems that loops where built the metric of link exceed the limitAll of these cases are discovered by comparing the received with the own source tree.

Testing Validity of Updates STAR uses sequence numbers to valid updates. STAR prevents that update information goes around with a counter increased only by the emitter.A LSU is valid when the sequence number is higher than the last saved LSUs sequence number for the same connection. Father advantage LSUs neednt to be updated periodically. Update rules determined by STAR A router I sends an update when:

a) a path seems to end in a loop b) a new chosen successor of router I has an higher address than router I, or c) the distance to the receiver over the chosen successor is bigger then the old one.All these rules STAR needed to prevent loops.

Example for rule a) If router I gets an update from neighbor X the source tree will be actualized. Next step is to test for which receiver neighbor X uses router I, and if router I uses neighbor X to the same receiver a loop accrues. Example for rule b) Every router has a fix address. If router I has to choose e new successor he always takes one with a higher address then hiss. After choosing a successor with a higher address an update has to be send out. Example for rule c) Without rule c

Illustration (b)(d) shows the source trees of the marked routers. Now imagine link (c, d) fails so illustration (e) shows the source tree of router c. No update is needed, because the successor has a lower address than router c. In this case there is no possibility to apply rule b because there is no
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available router with a higher address. Then link (b, e) fails, (f) shows the source tree of router b once more no update is needed, because the successor has a lower address. To reach router d, router b tries to send over a and c. At the same time router c knows only the route to router d over b. A loop occurs! Example for rule c) With rule c

As soon as link (c, d) fails an update is sent, because the metric to f increased (b). Router a rectifiers his source tree (c). If now link (b, e) fails, router b sends an update with the metric of (b, e) = infinite, because he knows that (c, d) also fails and therefore router d, e, f are no more reachable.

Wireless Technology QUESTION BANK UNIT-1 1) Explain the types of Propagation models? 2) Write short notes on Line of sight communication? 3) Discuss about Signal encoding technique? 4) Write about Modulation technique? 5) Explain the concepts of CDMA? 6) Discuss about Spread spectrum signal? 7) Explain about SDMA,FDMA,TDMA,CDMA 8) Explain about the Antenna and its types 9) Write about the problems of wireless signals UNIT-2 14) Explain in detail about GSM Architecture and protocols? 15) Discuss about the security in GSM mobile technique? 16) Write short notes on Cordless system? (15) (8) (15) (NOV 07) (8) (NOV 07) (7)(NOV 07) (10) (15) (7)(Nov 09) (8)(Nov 09) (15) (8) (5)

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Explain the concepts of Wireless local loop? (5) 18) Write short notes on DECT and TETRA? (8) (NOV 07) 19) Write short notes on UMTS and MIT 2000? (7) (NOV 07) 20) Explain about telecommunication systems in detail. (15) (NOV 07) 21) Write short notes on satellite parameters,FDM,TDM,GEO,LEO,MEO?(15) (NOV 7) (MAY 08) 22) Explain in detail about Routing and Localization? (7) 23) Write about First Generation systems (7) (NOV 07) 24) Discuss about Cellular Networks ? (7) 25) Write about Second Generation TDMA? (7) (NOV 07) 26) Write about Second Generation CDMA? (7) (NOV 07) 14) Write about Third Generation systems. (7) (NOV 07) (MAY 08)
17)

UNIT-3 1) Explain in detail about 802.11 protocol architecture? (15) (NOV 07) (MAY 08) 2) Briefly explain the concepts of Bluetooth Technology in mobile communication? (15)(MAY 08) 3) Explain about Wireless LAN Technology? (15) (NOV 07) 4) Discuss about Logical link control and Adaptation Protocol? (8) 5) Write short notes on Infrared LANs? (8) 6) Explain in detail about Link Manager Specification? (7) 7) Explain about Bluetooth protocol stack in detail. (15)(Nov 09) UNIT-4 1) Explain Mobile IP: Goals,Assumption Requirement in detail? (7) 2) Explain about tunneling and encapsulation mechanisms (8)(Nov 09) 3) Explain the concepts of Adhoc Networking in detail? (15) (MAY 08) 4) Write about Mobile TCP with detailed explanation? (15) (NOV 07) 5) Explain detail about the architecture of WAP? (15) (MAY 08) 6) Explain about IP Packet delivery? (8) 7) Explain in detail about Dynamic host Configuration Protocol? (15) (NOV 07)

UNIT-5 1) What is an Ad-hoc network? Explain the types of Mobile host movements? (8) 2) Explain about Media Access Protocols. (7) 3) Explain briefly Media Access with Reduced Handshake (15) 4) Explain a) Destination sequenced distance vector b) Cluster gateway routing c)Ad-hoc On Demand distance Vector routing (15) 5) Explain a) Dynamic Source Routing b) Temporally ordered Routing Algorithm c) Location aided routing (15) 6) Explain a) Zonal Routing Protocol b) Power aware routing c) Source Tree adaptive routing (15)

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