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Turbine Controls Study: August 1, 2011 Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation The purpose of this document is to define the minimum

parameters that should be deployed on the Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation System (TSI). The purpose of Main Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation System is to monitor the health of the rotating element of the turbine. Control functions and trip functions will be addressed in the system functional requirements. Generally, these instruments are connected to a centralized monitoring in order to capture thousands of data points in one second intervals and correlate the corresponding information. In order to accomplish this function, the following parameters are the minimum inventory of instruments to deploy: Radial Vibration: Radial vibration typically, measures the perpendicular displacement of the rotor shaft. Displacement, Velocity and acceleration are components of the radial vibration measurement. This measurement gets the most attention and generally gives the first indication of out of specification conditions. Most OEM TSI systems utilized a shaft rider transducer system to monitor vibration with a shaft absolute output signal. The minimum radial measurement shall have two sensor systems per bearing with the sensors located 90 from each other (X-Y Configuration). Future system deployments should consider the use of dual probes (non-contact probe and velocity probe) for all X-Y measurements. The probe allows 3 types of radial vibration data to be recorded: Shaft Relative motion of the shaft within the bearing. Also used for shaft centerline position indication. Seismic motion of the bearing housing. Shaft Absolute motion of the shaft relative to free space. Used for machine alarm and trip criteria. Thrust Vibration: Thrust position indication observes the position of the thrust collar within its bearings. Thrust position cannot always be read from the thrust collar, but can be installed where ever the thrust bearing wear detector is mounted. This system is an internal installation and need not replace the existing system because many original installations utilize a differential pressure system that interfaces with the turbine hydraulic control system. The minimum thrust position inputs shall be two measurement points.

Shell Expansion: The Shell Expansion measurement is utilized by operators to monitor the proper thermal growth of the turbine's shell during startup, operation, and shutdown. The turbine's shell is anchored to the foundation at one end of the machine and allowed to expand or grow

Turbine Controls Study: August 1, 2011 Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation by sliding towards the opposite end. The expansion or growth of the turbine's shell Shell Expansion is the measurement of how much the turbine's shell expands or grows as it is heated. Used in conjunction with a Differential Expansion (DE) measurement (Case to Rotor) the thermal growth of both the case and rotor can be monitored to prevent costly rubs between the rotating and stationary parts of the turbine. The recommended Shell Expansion measurement device is a LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) engineered and manufactured to provide long measurement ranges, long life and simple installation.

Occasionally due to improper turbine shell pre-heating, maintenance or the location of the steam inlets being used to preheat the turbine the turbine shell may become distorted which can cause internal damage. Turbine "Cocking" occurs when the turbine slider hangs up or sticks on one side of the foundation and continues to grow or slide on the other. This condition sometimes corrects itself by breaking loose quite dramatically. To monitor for distortion or cocking two (2) LVDT's may be utilized and are installed on either side of the Front Standard or turbine case. If the Turbine Case does not grow evenly the case is allowed to cool and then reheated with more even heat distribution. The minimum Shell Expansion inputs shall be two measurement points.

Differential Expansion: Although the application of Differential Expansion and Rotor Expansion have much in common, it is important to understand the difference between the two measurements. Differential Expansion on a turbine is the relative measurement of the rotor's axial thermal growth with respect to the case. Rotor Expansion on a turbine is the absolute measurement of the rotor's axial thermal growth with respect to the turbine's foundation. A typical large steam turbine power generation unit will have a thick case, on the order of 12" to 18". Due to the mass of this case, it will expand and contract at a slower rate than the relatively thin (hollow) rotor. During turbine startup, extra care must be used to ensure that the case has been properly heated and expanded sufficiently to prevent contact between the rotor and the case. Several DE or a combination of DE and RE measurements may be employed on a single large turbine generator. Differential expansion measurements are an important parameter receiving much attention during turbine startup and warming. This parameter measures how the turbine

Turbine Controls Study: August 1, 2011 Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation rotor expands in relation to the turbine shell, or casing. The minimum Differential Expansion inputs shall be four measurement points.

Eccentricity: Eccentricity measurements are used to determine when a combination of slow roll and heating have reduced the rotor eccentricity to the point where the turbine can safely be brought up to speed without damage from excessive vibration or rotor to stator contact. Eccentricity is the measurement of Rotor Bow at rotor slow roll which may be caused by any or a combination of: Fixed mechanical bow Temporary thermal bow Gravity bow In extreme cases of thermal/gravity bow, caused by a sudden trip of the unit and failure of the turning gear to engage, the rotor may be positioned and stopped 180 out of phase (bow up) to allow gravity to work entirely on the bow and substantially shorten the time required to reduce the bow. Eccentricity is measured while the turbine is on slow roll (1 to 240 RPM below the speed at which the rotor becomes dynamic and rises in the bearing on the oil wedge) and requires special circuitry to detect the peak- to-peak motion of the shaft. This is accomplished using circuitry with long update times selectable between 20 seconds (> 3 RPM) and 2 minutes (<3 RPM). As the eccentricity measurement is not required after a turbine is brought to speed and under load provisions are made to lock the measurement to zero. This can be accomplished without external contacts through the use of a speed measurement channel with underspeed or overspeed alarms. The minimum eccentricity inputs shall be two measurement points.

Speed: Turbine speed indication may come in many forms: observing a gear wheel located inside the front standard, electrically converting the generator output frequency, or monitoring the turning gear. Speed indication may be specified as an analog display or as a digital display and can be interfaced to a zero speed system for turning gear engagement. The minimum speed input shall be one active probe and one passive probe. The speed data used here is intended to be used for vibration analysis and correlation only.

Turbine Controls Study: August 1, 2011 Turbine Supervisory Instrumentation Bearing Temperature: Bearing temperature is a measure of the how hot a bearing is operating. It may be due to overloading, misalignment, improper lubricant pressure and/or flow. Nearly all turbine generator bearings were originally installed or retro-fitted with bearing temperature sensors. The minimum temperature input shall be the bearing metal temperature and return oil temperature at each bearing. Rate of Acceleration (derived signal): The rate of acceleration parameter is usually monitored during startup to prevent overtorquing the rotors, as the turbine approaches critical speeds, and as the operating speed is reached prior to line synchronization. Once the generator has been synchronized and is being controlled by load dispatchers the acceleration rate is not monitored. Acceleration rate measurements use a speed input to derive its output display. The minimum requirement is that the system is capable of deriving rotor acceleration.

Phase (derived signal): Phase, or phase angle, is a measure of the relationship of how one vibration signal relates to another vibration signal and is commonly used to calculate the placement of a balance weight. This parameter is not usually displayed continuously but is monitored periodically to determine changes in the rotor balance condition, deviations in system stiffness such as a cracked shaft. The minimum requirement is that the system is capable of deriving the phase angle between vibration signals. Key Phasor: A transducer that produces a pulsed output for each turn of the shaft, called the Key Phasor signal. This signal is used primarily to measure Shaft rotative speed and serves as a reference for measuring vibration Phase lag angle. The keyphasor transducer is typically a proximity probe. The Keyphasor is a very useful tool when diagnosing machinery problems.