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Alternator basics

Alternator Basic Theory

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics
For generating electricity/induction we require Coil Magnet Relative motion between the two

Fundamentals

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics

Fundamentals

Bicycle Dynamo

Principle

Simplest & most basic form of alternator is bicycle dynamo Rotor is a Two Pole Permanent Magnet Voltage Speed Voltage Strength of the magnet. (Preset, not adjustable)

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics

Fundamentals

Brush System
Advantages Permanent magnet replaced by an electromagnet

Principle

Output voltage can be adjusted without changing prime mover speed by regulating DC supply to main field Disadvantages Two Carbon brushes are required to be used

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics Brushless Separate excitation System


Advantages

Fundamentals Principle

A small alternator named Exciter is used to avoid the brushes Main field, exciter armature & rectifier are mounted on same shaft Excitation supply comes to exciter field instead of main field DC power required for excitation is much lesser Disadvantages This is an open loop system & input to exciter does not vary for variation in output voltage
WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics

Fundamentals

Self Excited & Regulated Shunt System

Principle

In order to give correction in the exciter input according to the voltage output, AVR are being used

Different types of AVRs are being used in DG sets Analog Digital

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics
Utility Main Field Surge Suppressor

Fundamentals
Rotating Rectifiers

PT
Droop CT Main Armature Exciter Armature

AVR
Short Circuit Back Up CTs

Rotor
Exciter Field

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

DCT

SCC

Alternator basics
Utility Main Field Surge Suppressor

Fundamentals
Rotating Rectifiers

PT
Booster Unit Main Armature

AVR
Short Circuit Back Up CTs

Exciter Armature

Rotor
Exciter Field

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End

BOOST

Alternator basics
S t at o r Winding

Fundamentals

N Main Field

V
AC

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics Separate Excitation Brush System


S t at o r Winding

Fundamentals

Main Field

Slip Rings Carbon Brushes

V
AC DC
WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

S +

Alternator basics Separate Excitation Brushless System


S t at o r Winding

Fundamentals

Rotating Rectifiers Exciter Main Field

S + AC DC -

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics Self Excitation Brushless System S t at o r Winding N Main Field

Fundamentals

Rotating Exciter Rectifiers

AC DC
WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics
Function Of Droop CT

Droop CT

Droop CT is normally connected in the second ( V or Y or B) phase Output of the CT secondary is connected to the AVR , and the AVR gets the load information through this input Helps the AVR to maintain voltage as per the Droop curve in solo mode Helps for load sharing according to droop curve during parallel mode Generally disabled during solo mode by single/parallel selector switch/ relay If enabled in solo mode causes generator output voltage to drop as per droop curve

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics
Caution about Droop CT connection
In Solo mode

Droop CT

Change in polarity results in increase of voltage with increase in load In Parallel mode Results in erratic Reactive load sharing Power factor can not be maitained Might result in cascade tripping due to over current because of unequal KVAr load sharing

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics
Function Of SC back up CT- External faults

Short Circuit Back up CT

During an external faults the terminal voltage tends to reach zero, which makes the fault current sensed by a protection relay also tend to zero, & this results in the defeat of the protection To sustain the fault current during the time delay period set in the relay, the terminal voltage also should sustain & hence additional excitation power is needed This additional power requirement might exceed the capacity of the AVR & might damage the AVR Since the current during faults is very high, and the secondary output of the SCC CT is also high AVR Circuit is so designed that during the fault conditions, the additional excitation power needed is supplied from the high output of the SCC CT, while the AVR supplies the minimum power As a result, the AVR is protected and the voltage and hence the fault current are sustained to operate the protection relay
WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics

Short Circuit Back up CT

Function Of SC back up CT- Heavy Motor starts


When a large Induction motor drawing a very large starting current is started, the alternator, in addition to the existing base load, is forced to supply a large current , even though the terminal voltage of alternator does not tend to zero This increased current demand and the very low lagging power factor during motor start, requires field forcing i.e increase in excitation power The high secondary output of the SC back up CT, due to large primary current , is used to supply the field forcing power Field forcing during motor starts also helps the voltage to recover much faster helping the motor to attain the rated speed As the motor speed increases the back emf produced by the motor also increases and hence the current drawn by motor reduces, reducing the excitation power

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006

Alternator basics

Short Circuit Back up CT

Function Of SC back up CT- Heavy Motor starts


As the motor speed increases the back emf produced by the motor also increases and hence the current drawn by motor reduces, reducing the excitation power The net result is that during heavy motor starts or during application of heavy loads, the additional excitation power required for field forcing is drawn from the high starting or load current in proportion through the SCC CT, and the power supplied by the AVR directly through it`s internal circuitry remains within its rated value Generally the output of the SCC CT is connected to the excitation circuit by a voltage controlled relay, whose contacts maintain the secondary of the SCC shorted when the voltage of the alternator is above a preset value, normally 70%

WLSA-INDIA/ASP/2006