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Pre-stressing is the application of an initial load (compressive stress) on a structure before application of working loads, to enable it to counteract the stresses (tensile stresses) arising from subsequent loads during its service period.

Advantages of Pre-stressing
1) Section remains un-cracked under service loads Reduction of steel corrosion -Increase in durability. Full section is utilised -Higher moment of inertia (higher stiffness) -Less deformations (improved serviceability). Increase in shear capacity. Suitable for use in pressure vessels, liquid retaining structures. Improved performance (resilience) under dynamic and fatigue loading. 2) High span-to-depth ratios For the same span, less depth compared to RC member. Reduction in self weight More aesthetic appeal due to slender sections More economical sections. Larger spans possible (bridges, buildings with large column-free spaces) 3) Suitable for precast construction The advantages of precast construction are as follows. Rapid construction Better quality control Reduced maintenance Suitable for repetitive construction Multiple use of formwork -Reduction of formwork Availability of standard shapes

Limitations of Pre-stressing
Pre-stressing needs skilled technology. Hence, it is not as common as reinforced concrete. The use of high strength materials is costly. There is additional cost in auxiliary equipments. There is need for quality control and inspection.

Types of Pre-stressing
Pre-stressing of concrete can be classified in several ways. Source of prestressing force External and internal pre-stressing Linear and circular pre-stressing Pre-tensioning and post-tensioning

(A) Source of pre-stressing force This classification is based on the method by which the pre-stressing force is generated. 1) Hydraulic Pre-stressing This is the simplest type of pre-stressing, producing large pre-stressing forces. The hydraulic jack used for the tensioning of tendons, comprises of calibrated pressure gauges which directly indicate the magnitude of force developed during the tensioning. In this type of pre-stressing, the devices includes weights with or without lever transmission, geared transmission in conjunction with pulley blocks, screw jacks with or without gear drives and wire-winding machines. This type of pre-stressing is adopted for mass scale production. In this type of pre-stressing, the steel wires are electrically heated and anchored before placing concrete in the moulds. This type of prestressing is also known as thermo-electric pre-stressing.

2) Mechanical Pre-stressing

3) Electrical Pre-stressing

(B) External or internal pre-stressing This classification is based on the location of the pre-stressing tendon with respect to the concrete section. 1) External Pre-stressing When the pre-stressing is achieved by elements located outside the concrete, it is called external pre-stressing. The tendons can lie outside the member (for example in I-girders or walls) or inside the hollow space of a box girder. This technique is adopted in bridges and strengthening of buildings. When the pre-stressing is achieved by elements located inside the concrete member (commonly, by embedded tendons), it is called internal pre-stressing. Most of the applications of pre-stressing are internal prestressing.

2) Internal Pre-stressing

(C) Linear or Circular Pre-stressing This classification is based on the shape of the member pre-stressed. 1) Linear Pre-stressing When the pre-stressed members are straight or flat, in the direction of pre-stressing, the pre-stressing is called linear pre-stressing. For example, pre-stressing of beams, piles, poles and slabs. When the pre-stressed members are curved, in the direction of prestressing, the pre-stressing is called circular pre-stressing. For example, circumferential pre-stressing of tanks, silos, pipes.

2) Circular Pre-stressing

(D) Pre-tensioning and Post-tensioning This is the most important classification and is based on the sequence of casting the concrete and applying tension to the tendons. 1) Pretensioning 2) Posttensioning The tension is applied to the tendons before casting of the concrete. The pre-compression is transmitted from steel to concrete through bond over the transmission length near the ends. The tension is applied to the tendons after hardening of the concrete. The pre-compression is transmitted from steel to concrete by the anchorage device

(A) Sectional Arrangement



(B) Stages In pre-tensioning system, the highstrength steel tendons are pulled between two end abutments prior to the casting of concrete. The abutments are fixed at the ends of a pre-stressing bed. Once the concrete attains the desired strength for pre-stressing, the tendons are cut loose from the abutments. The pre-stress is transferred to the concrete from the tendons, due to the bond between them. In post-tensioning systems, the ducts for the tendons are placed along with the reinforcement before the casting of concrete. The tendons are placed in the ducts after the casting of concrete. The duct prevents contact between concrete and the tendons during the tensioning operation. The tendons are pulled with the reaction acting against the hardened concrete and anchored. After anchoring a tendon at one end, the tension is applied at the other end by a jack. The tensioning of tendons and pre-compression of concrete occur simultaneously. A system of self-equilibrating forces develops after the stretching of the tendons.

Includes Includes 1) Anchoring of tendons against the end 1) Casting of concrete. abutments 2) Placement of the tendons. 2) Placing of jacks 3) Placement of the anchorage block and 3) Applying tension to the tendons jack. 4) Casting of concrete 4) Applying tension to the tendons. 5) Cutting of the tendons. 5) Seating of the wedges. 6) Cutting of the tendons.

(C) Advantages Pre-tensioning is suitable for precast members produced in bulk. In pre-tensioning large anchorage device is not present. Post-tensioning is suitable for heavy cast-in-place members. The waiting period in the casting bed is less. The transfer of pre-stress is independent of transmission length.

(D) Disadvantages A pre-stressing bed is required for the pre-tensioning operation. There is a waiting period in the prestressing bed, before the concrete attains sufficient strength. There should be good bond between concrete and steel over the transmission length. The requirement of anchorage device and grouting equipment.

The Future of PPC Material properties, such as corrosion resistance, fire resistance and durability are being continuously improved and exploited. These inherent qualities of precast pre-stressed concrete and its considerable design flexibility also make it ideal for a wide variety of other applications: poles, piles, culverts, storage tanks, retaining walls, sound barriers and even railroad ties.

These include reduced initial construction costs that result from wider girder spacing and longer spans as well as reduced long-term costs due to fewer replacements and fewer repairs. High Performance Concrete is being increasingly specified for the nations bridges and structures. One form of HPC is high strength concrete, was specified for the beams of the Louetta Road Bridge, a demonstration project, located in Houston, Texas. High strength concrete was also used in this bridge for the stay-in-place deck panels, the cast-in-place concrete deck and precast segmental piers.

The Giles Road Bridge in Sarpy County, Nebraska also was constructed using High Strength Concrete, Completed in 1996. The Federal Highway Administration, together with PCI and several states, continues to promote the use of High Performance Concrete in bridge applications. However, other factors, such as low permeability and resistance to freeze-thaw not

just strength may be features of High Performance Concrete depending on the geographic location of the bridge and the component for which it is used. Lightweight aggregate concrete with strengths is also being used on some newer bridges. Lightweight concrete provides reduced dead-loads and seismic forces. Strands of larger diameters and higher strengths are becoming more common as higher strength concretes are used and the demand for higher tensile force increases. Even larger and stronger strand are on the horizon. Corrosion-resistant steels and coatings promise unlimited durability. Non-metallic reinforcement such as glass, carbon and aramid fiber composites will be increasingly used for special applications. Synthetic, organic and steel fibers have been shown to improve toughness and shrinkage cracking. Recent developments in high performance fiber-reinforced concrete hold promise in terms of performance and cost-effectiveness. MMFX is not a stainless steel but Step 1 of its production adds chromium and reduces the carbon content. Benefits of adding chromium to reduce the steels corrosion rate. Self Consolidating concrete is an extremely unified and flow able material capable of being placed without vibration. It can be placed very fast at a very dramatic reduction in noise. Another development has been the use of precast deck panels. Used as stay-in-place forms, the panels reduce labor for field placement of reinforcing steel and concrete for bridge decks, resulting in considerable savings. The panels become composite with the field-placed concrete for live loads. Theyre made of high-quality, plantproduced concrete and contain the primary tensile reinforcement between beams. They remain crack-free, protecting this important reinforcing steel. Another innovation is the development of horizontally curved precast concrete bridges which is creating exciting new options in contemporary bridge designs. This technique involves post-tensioning precast elements together in the plants before shipment or in the field after erection.