Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

e2 po ung mga tanong.... CHEMISTRY!!!(: note:HANDWRITTEN>>> 1.)How to identify problem in Scientific Method? Give Ex. 2.

) How to make hypothesis on Scientific Method? 3.) Differentiate Dependent Variable from Independent Variable.( Give Ex) 4.)Differentiate Control Setup from Experimental Setup. ( Give Ex.) 5.)What is a line Graph. ( Give Ex.) 6.)What is a Bar Graph. ( Give Ex.) 7.)What is/are bivalves. ( Give Ex.)

1. Identify a Problem or Question


What questions do you have about your topic? What do you want to know? State the problem as a question. In some cases you may want to research your topic before you identify an exact problem. Examples: How does amount of water effect plant growth? Can solar panels supply electricity to anything? How fast does Mars orbit the Sun?

The Scientific Method State the problem and observe conditions Observe or wonder about something in your world, or in your class, and wonder how, why, when, something occurs Create a short, meaningful title of your project Write out a statement of purpose that describes what you want to do Make a careful, step-by-step notation of your observation Be objective! and do not guess why something is happening. That takes place later Gather information of similar research This is a literature review Identify significant conditions or factors of the situation Summarize the problem in a clear, simple statement. Emphasize the end result or effec Ex:

2. Develop a Hypothesis
Now that you have done your research, develop a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a prediction. What is your prediction of the answer to your question? What do you think will happen? Guess at what the answer to your question will be. This is not a mystery. You have educated yourself on the topic and by now you should be able to make a guess at the answer based on your learning. This is also called an "Educated Guess". Examples of hypothesis statements: I predict that a plant that does not get enough water will die. I predict that the same one solar panel can be used to replace AA and C cell batteries but not D cell batteries.

A hypothesis is just a possible answer, an educated guess, to the question you formulated in step 2. Your hypothesis must be testable. Example: If eating chocolate causes people to break out, then people who eat more chocolate will have a greater instance of breaking out. 3. a dependent variable is something that you cannot change but comes out as a result/an
independent variable is something that you change in your experiment like the temperature of something or the amount of something independent: is not affected by any effects in the experiment dependent: its reaction does depend on other variables dependent: factors of a experiment that scientist observe, and can be changed by the outcome of the independent variable independent: a factor of a experiment that changes because you change it on purpose n an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that can be altered or controlled to produce a change. The result being studied is the dependent variable, which is observed to change as the independent variable is changed. Example : In an experiment testing the effect of caffeine on reaction times, the amount of caffeine consumed is the independent variable and can be varied. The reaction times are the dependent variable, and a correlation (change in times) with the independent (amount given) is the information being sought. 4. Control Setup The constant control set up is where you have every thing "normal" to use to compare your experimental set up with the variable to. This has no variables and is always constant. For example if you wanted to see if plants would grow faster watered with sugar water or plain tap water, your constant control set up would be the plant watered with plain water. Since this is the "normal" condition with no changes it is the control setup.

Additionally there are two kinds of controls, positive and negative. Positive controls will have an indication or contain the specific substance that the test or instrument is used for. On the other hand, negative controls don't contain that specific substance or instrument. For example if you were testing the effects of aspirin on inflammation and you gave a group, 20 mgs of a placebo, that would be a negative control. Opposite to that would be a positive control, if you were testing the same thing and instead gave the group 20 mgs of the aspirin. Experimental Setup In short the part of the experiment that contains the variable is called the experimental setup. This is identical to the control setup except in one way. One change is made to the set up, this change is called the variable. In the example of the plants watered with tap or sugar water, the experimental set up would be the plant watered in the sugar water. Since this is the setup an which you are testing this, it is called the experimental (think of the experimental setup as a test) setup. 5. In graph theory, the line graph L(G) of undirected graph G is another graph L(G) that

represents the adjacencies between edges of G. The name line graph comes from a paper by Harary & Norman (1960) although both Whitney (1932) and Krausz (1943) used the construction before this.[1] Other terms used for the line graph include edge graph,[2] the thetaobrazom,[3] the covering graph,[3] the derivative,[3]the edge-to-vertex dual,[3] the interchange graph,[2] the adjoint graph,[2] the conjugate,[3] the derived graph,[2] and therepresentative graph.[3]
ex:

Example construction

The following figures show a graph (left, with blue vertices) and its line graph (right, with green vertices). Each vertex of the line graph is shown labeled with the pair of endpoints of the corresponding edge in the original graph. For instance, the green vertex on the right labeled 1,3 corresponds to the edge on the left between the blue vertices 1 and 3. Green vertex 1,3 is adjacent to three other green vertices: 1,4 and 1,2 (corresponding to edges sharing the endpoint 1 in the blue graph) and 4,3 (corresponding to an edge sharing the endpoint 3 in the blue graph). A source of examples from geometry are the line graphs of the graphs of simple polyhedra. Taking the line graph of the graph of thetetrahedron one gets the graph of the octahedron; from the graph of the cube one gets the graph of a cuboctahedron; from the graph of thedodecahedron one gets the graph of the icosidodecahedron, etc. Geometrically, the operation consists in cutting each vertex of the polyhedron with a plane cutting all edges adjacent to the vertex at their midpoints; it is sometimes named rectification.

Bar graphs are an excellent way to show results that are one time, that aren't continuous - especially samplings such as surveys, inventories, etc. Below is a typical survey asking students about their favorite after school activity. Notice that in this graph each column is labeled - it is also possible to label the category to the left of the bar.
6.

In this case, the numbers for each category are across the bottom of the chart.

A bar chart is marked off with a series of lines called grid lines. These lines typically mark off a numerical point in the series of numbers on the axis or line. In this case, each grid line going up and down marks a multiple of 20 as the graph is divided such. More gridlines can make it easier to be exact with the amounts being shown on the bar graph, but too many can make it confusing. Notice that for data that does not fall evenly on a multiple of 20, the bar is in between two grid lines. Bar graphs are useful to get an overall idea of trends in responses which categories get many versus few responses.

Ex.