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HYDRAULIC ELEMENTS OF CIRCULAR SEWERS

Project Title: Guzha Sewer Reticulation Click here for chart

Pipe h/D angle a/A p/P m/m0 v/V q/Q Pipe No. D A PO m0 a p m Q v q Slope (1:x) Pipe No. Section
1 0.500 180.000 0.500 0.500 1.000 1.000 0.500 1 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.01 0.29 0.0468 0.0188 0.6821 0.0094 300 1 mh1
2 0.750 240.000 0.804 0.667 1.207 1.133 0.912 2 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.02 0.39 0.0565 0.0230 0.9469 0.0210 200 2
3 0.720 232.208 0.771 0.645 1.195 1.126 0.868 3 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.02 0.38 0.0560 0.0230 0.9407 0.0200 200 3 to
4 0.566 195.170 0.584 0.542 1.077 1.051 0.613 4 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.02 0.32 0.0504 0.0326 1.2412 0.0200 100 4
5 0.474 174.039 0.467 0.483 0.966 0.977 0.456 5 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.01 0.28 0.0452 0.0439 1.5565 0.0200 55 5 mh7
6 0.548 191.018 0.561 0.531 1.057 1.038 0.582 6 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.02 0.31 0.0495 0.0326 1.2262 0.0190 100 6
7 1.000 360.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 7 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.03 0.59 0.0469 0.0326 1.1814 0.0326 100 7 mh7
8 0.513 182.980 0.517 0.508 1.016 1.011 0.522 8 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.01 0.3 0.0476 0.0364 1.3352 0.0190 80 8 to
9 0.460 170.823 0.449 0.475 0.947 0.964 0.433 9 0.1874 0.03 0.59 0.05 0.01 0.28 0.0443 0.0439 1.5357 0.0190 55 9 mh11
10 1.000 360.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 10 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.02 0.47 0.0375 0.0138 0.7812 0.0138 170 10
11 0.610 205.418 0.639 0.571 1.120 1.078 0.689 11 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.27 0.0420 0.0138 0.8423 0.0095 170 11 mh12a
12 0.574 197.022 0.594 0.547 1.085 1.056 0.627 12 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.26 0.0407 0.0152 0.9090 0.0095 140 12 to
13 0.445 167.369 0.430 0.465 0.925 0.949 0.408 13 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.22 0.0347 0.0232 1.2484 0.0095 60 13 mh23
14 0.302 133.343 0.255 0.370 0.688 0.779 0.198 14 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.17 0.0258 0.0329 1.4485 0.0065 30 14
15 0.415 160.424 0.392 0.446 0.880 0.919 0.360 15 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.21 0.0330 0.0180 0.9355 0.0065 100 15 mh12a
16 0.455 169.673 0.443 0.471 0.939 0.959 0.425 16 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.22 0.0352 0.0152 0.8257 0.0065 140 16 to
17 0.464 171.742 0.454 0.477 0.952 0.968 0.440 17 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0.01 0.22 0.0357 0.0147 0.8048 0.0065 150 17 mh36
18 0.380 152.227 0.349 0.423 0.825 0.879 0.307 18 0.1314 0.01 0.41 0.03 0 0.17 0.0271 0.0097 0.6289 0.0030 170 18
19 0.372 150.334 0.339 0.418 0.811 0.870 0.295 19 0.1314 0.01 0.41 0.03 0 0.17 0.0267 0.0103 0.6623 0.0030 150 19 mh36
20 0.330 140.246 0.288 0.390 0.739 0.817 0.235 20 0.1314 0.01 0.41 0.03 0 0.16 0.0243 0.0126 0.7620 0.0030 100 20 to
21 0.290 130.331 0.241 0.362 0.665 0.762 0.183 21 0.1314 0.01 0.41 0.03 0 0.15 0.0218 0.0163 0.9170 0.0030 60 21 mh46
22 0.230 114.633 0.174 0.318 0.546 0.668 0.116 22 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.15 0.0205 0.0255 0.9618 0.0030 50 22
23 0.259 122.368 0.205 0.340 0.605 0.715 0.147 23 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.16 0.0227 0.0201 0.8141 0.0030 80 23 All
24 0.278 127.281 0.227 0.354 0.642 0.744 0.169 24 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.17 0.0241 0.0180 0.7578 0.0030 100 24 collector
25 0.290 130.331 0.241 0.362 0.665 0.762 0.183 25 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.17 0.0249 0.0164 0.7083 0.0030 120 25 pipes
26 0.308 134.837 0.262 0.375 0.699 0.787 0.206 26 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.18 0.0262 0.0147 0.6548 0.0030 150 26
27 0.318 137.308 0.273 0.381 0.717 0.801 0.219 27 0.1500 0.02 0.47 0.04 0 0.18 0.0269 0.0138 0.6258 0.0030 170 27

where
Q = Discharge at full flow
q = Discharge at partial flow
V = Velocity at full flow
v = Velocity at partial flow
A = Full cross sectional area at full flow
a = wetted area of flow
P = Perimeter at full flow
p = Perimeter at partial flow
h = depth of flow
D = diameter of pipe
m0 = Hydraulic mean depth
m = hydraulic mean depth

Prepared by joma 10/18/2008 Page 1


Manning Formula:
V = (1/N)*(m2/3 x √i.)

N slope 1:X 1/X 1/N m m2/3 V


0.01 300 0 90.91 0.04685 0.13 0.6821
0.01 200 0.01 90.91 0.04685 0.13 0.8354
0.01 200 0.01 90.91 0.04685 0.13 0.8354
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.04685 0.13 1.1814
0.01 55 0.02 90.91 0.05 0.13 1.5931
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.05 0.13 1.1814
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.05 0.13 1.1814
0.01 80 0.01 90.91 0.05 0.13 1.3209
0.01 55 0.02 90.91 0.05 0.13 1.5931
0.01 170 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.7812
0.01 170 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.7812
0.01 140 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.8608
0.01 60 0.02 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.3149
0.01 30 0.03 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.8595
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.0185
0.01 140 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.8608
0.01 150 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.8316
0.01 170 0.01 90.91 0.03 0.1 0.7152
0.01 150 0.01 90.91 0.03 0.1 0.7614
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.03 0.1 0.9325
0.01 60 0.02 90.91 0.03 0.1 1.2038
0.01 50 0.02 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.4404
0.01 80 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.1387
0.01 100 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 1.0185
0.01 120 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.9298
0.01 150 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.8316
0.01 170 0.01 90.91 0.04 0.11 0.7812
pipe no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Principles of Sedimentation

The impelling force at uniform settling velocity is equal to the effective weight of the particle
in fluid.

Fi = (ps - p) g x V Fi = impelling force


ps = mass density of particle
p = mass density of fluid
g = acceleration due to gravity
V = volume of the particle

ps p g V Fi

2.63 1.1 9.81 2 30.02

Chezy's Formula:

Chezy’ Formula: V = C * √(m.i)

Roughnes Hydraulic I=slope of 1/X m1/2 c1 c2 C V


coefficient mean sewer
depth 1:X
0.02 0.05 500 0 0.22 189.744 2.59 73.15 0.71
0.02 0.05 500 0 0.22 185.58 2.7 68.73 0.67
0.01 0.05 500 0 0.22 213.17 2.18 97.81 0.95
0.01 0.05 500 0 0.22 192.52 2.53 76.09 0.74
K Values for Materials
Pipe Material k - values in mm

Poor Normal
Glazed vitrified Fireclay
New, running full
< 24 inch dia. In 3-ft units (600mm dia, 0.2 0.1
or < 12 inch dia. In 2-ft units
New, running full
not < 24 inch dia. In 3-ft units 0.9 0.2
or not < 12 inch dia. In 2-ft units

Concrete, New, running full 0.21 0.1


Pitch-fibre, running full (virtually smooth)
Asbestos cement
Metal
Cast iron, uncoated 1 0.2
coated 0.2 0.1
encrusted, mild 5 2
severe 80 50
Tate relined 1 0.2
Spun bitumen lined 0.02
Spun concrete lined 0.02
Steel, uncoated 0.07 0.02
coated 0.13 0.08
Brickwork, well pointed 8.5 5
old, in need of pointing 50 20
Mature foul sewers (constructed of materials having k-values
when new not higher than the values given here)
Slimed to not more than 1/4 in 5 3
Lime incrustations, grease or slime not > 1 in. thick, or even
layer of fine sludge 50 30
Gritty solids lying unevenly in invert (higher figures relate to
shoals of debris at Froude number of order 0.3 - 0.5) 180 100
Good

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.1
0.02
1
10
0.1

0.02
0.02
2

10

60
SALA SEWER DESIGN STDS
Guide lines Considered
Peak Factor 5.25
Min Self cleansing velocity 0.6 m/s
Max Self cleansing velocity 3.6 m/s

Gradients for Sewer Designs


Diam (m) Min. Grad(1/x) Max. Grad (1/x)
100 15 60
150 10 150
225 16 200
300 24 300

Water Demand
200 l/p/d
850 l/c/d
160-45 l/p/d

% return to sewer 0.85 High density


0.70 Medium Density
0.50 Low Density

Water Usage (m 3/c/d) 850.00 High density


900.00 Medium Density
1200.00 Low Density

Input Q (l/c/d) 850 Input Q (l/p/d) 121.43


Q (m3/c/s) 9.838 Q (m3/p/d) 1.405
Input Q (m 3/c/s) Input Q (m 3/p/s)

Input No: of Houses


Input No: of People

Coolebrooke White Formula


Coeffients
g (m/s) 9.81 (m/s)
S (1/x)
lamda
D (m)
Ks (m)

Total BOD Contribution/p 0.05 kg/p/d


Effluent Standards FC<=5000/100ml Zim
Effluent Standards FC<=100/100ml WHO

Anaerobic Ponds
Depth range 2 to 4 m 1
Faccultative Ponds 2
Depth range 1 to 1.5 m 3
Maturation Ponds 4
Depth range 1 to 1.5 m 5
6
BOD Contribution 0.05 kg/m3/d
Anaerobic Design Loading
Input # People/ stand Low density #
Medum Density 2200 #
High Density #
BOD Composition Low density 484.43
Medum Density 555.56
High Density 500

Total Inflow Low density 0


Medum Density 1222222.22
High Density 0
Total Inflow Po 1222222.22
Average Water Daily Demand (Standards For Ministry Designs)
Property Qty (l/d) Unity
Housing Urban
a) Wth waterbourne sewage
High Density 600 stand
Medium Density 1400 stand
Low Density - ret 1800 stand
b) With other on-site sanitation
High Density - ret 420 stand
High Density - standpipe 280 stand
Housing Rural
a) Wth waterbourne sewage
Internal reticulation 600 stand
b) With other on-site sanitation
Internal formal reticulation 420 stand
Internal formal standpipe 280 stand
Internal informal standpipe 120 Living hut
External 60 Living hut
Institutions
Schools - Boarding 80 Boarding pupil
Schools - Day 20 Day pupil
Hospitals 200 - 400 Bed
Primary Healthcare Centre 10 Out patient
Hotels 300 - 500 Bed
Hostels/Rest Camps 200 - 300 Bed
Commerce or Administration
Shops 20 Employee
Bars 300 Stand
Offices 20 Employee
Industry
these will vary considerably according
to processes used.
Dry services industry 10 000 -15 000 Ha
Wet Industrial to be individually
assesed.
Other
Cattle (at watering points) 50 Live unit

Average Dry Weather Flow


Ml/d l/s Peak Factor
0 to 2 0 to 23 5.25
2 to 6 23 to 69 4.50
6 to 20 69 to 231 3.75
20 to 200 231 to 2 315 3.00
200 or more 2 315 or more 2.70

Design
Parameter Value Unit
Input BOD contribution/p/day 0.05 kg/d
Input Occupants contributing/day 2200 #
Input Water Consumption (Institution) 300 l/d
Pond Depth (Anaerobic) 3m
Pond Depth (Faccultative) 1.2 m
Pond Depth (Maturation) 1.2 m

Anaerobic
Return to sewer 255.00 m3/d
BOD contributions 110 kg/d
Average stregnth of raw sewage 431.37 mg/l
Influent BOD(P o) 431.37 mg/l
Average sewage temperature 15 oC
200 gBOD5m /d
3
Volumetric Loading Rate
Choose D 3m
Retention time(t) 1d
Area 183.33 m2
Say (L) 17 m
Then (W) 10.78 m
Say (W) 11 m
Base Dimentions @ 1/3
L 8m
W 2m
Top
L 26 m
W 20 m

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