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Colegio de San Juan de Letran Intramuros, Manila Poetry Ride: The Perception of Colegio de San Juan de Letran on the

Berso sa Met ro advertising campaign found on Light Rail Transit 1 A Communication Research Presented to the Institute of Communication College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts Major in Communication Arts NAGA, ANGELINE A. SANTOS, MAUREEN O. 2011 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Advertising is one of the promotional tools in marketing. Advertising is a paid communication used in promoting and selling the product, institutions, s ervices, or ideas to the influence people according to the advertiser s intent. Th e birth of advertising began during the civilization of Ancient Greeks and Roman s, which the commonly practiced way of selling one product was through the word o f mouth or goods outside . (Santiago et. al, 2006) Advertising is as old as civilization and commerce. It is a business of change r eflecting fast-moving development in technology and lifestyle, in consumer prefe rences, and marketing research. Advertising has become an integral part of the e conomy not only in this country, but also around the world. (Guevarra, 1996) In many places in the world, one will be amazed by advertising and its unique pr esentation of promoting products. Advertising is prevalent that everywhere you c an notice the presence of it, a simple placard or sign board is considered an ad vertisement. (Santiago et. al, 2006) Outdoor advertising is essentially any type ofadvertisingthat reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. This is in contrast with Broadcast,Print, a ndInternet advertising. Outdoor advertising embrace a very wide range of advertis ing and promotional activities (Wilmhurst, 1985). Outdoor advertising covers a variety of individual media in many different locat ions. The major section of the business consists of the conventional poster, but there are plenty of other possibilities; bus sides and interior panels, railway and underground sites and panels, illuminated signs, poster motors , balloons, sky -writing etc. Even more exotic possibilities exist, of course, ranging from sand wich-men to suitably decorated cattle grazing beside railway lines (Wilmhurst, 1 985). Outdoor advertising has labeled as below the line . The line is that which puts the t ri-media, or radio, print, television as above it and all other advertising acti vity below it. Not falling in the any categories of media, outdoor advertising i s therefore bundled with the all others category (Del Rosario et. al, 2002). Outdoor advertising should be given its rightful place in the mass media, and su ggests that the term tri-media be changed to quad-media to reflect the recognition o

f outdoor advertising s importance in the industry (Del Rosario et. al, 2002). Outdoor advertising has undergone a renaissance in recent years as advertisers h ave realized that it has greater impact and reach than previously thought. Outdoor messages differ from other advertising messages. Effective outdoor adver tising is built on a strong creative concept that can be instantly understood. T he idea needs to be creative because the message has to get attention and be mem orable. Most of all, it has to make the point quickly. The best copy for outdoo r is a short, catchy phrase. It needs to catch attention, but it also needs to b e captivating in order to be memorable. Often the phrase will be a play on words or a twist on a common phrase. It must make a quick and lasting impression, des ign is critical to their effectiveness. The integration of art and headline is critical for the development of a strong concept. The layout is compact, with a very simple visual concept, usually begin ning with a strong graphic, followed by a catchy headline, and ending with some kind of product identification. The relationships should be so clear and so inte grated that the elements are perceived as one whole concept. Type demands unusually sensitive handling. It has to be easy to read at a distan ce by an audience in motion. The outdoor industry has researched type legibility on billboards. Among its conclusion is to avoid all capital letters because tha t is the hardest typographical form to read. Ornamental letters, depending on ho w fanciful they are, can also be hard to read, as can script and cursive letters . Anything that is unusual can create legibility problems. Experts in outdoor ad vertising advise using simple, clean and uncluttered type. The most important feature is high visibility. Bold, bright colors are other cha racteristics of impact. The outdoor industry has done significant research on co lor and color combinations. It has found that the greatest impact is created by maximum contrast between two colors. The strongest contrast, for example, comes from dark colors against white or yellow. Yellow adds tremendous impact as well as contrast. Other bright colors add impact. The visibility problem is compounde d by the fact that outdoor boards are seen at all times of the day and night und er all kinds of lighting conditions. Another aspect of visibility is the clarity of the relationship between foregrou nd and background. In outdoor advertising the best practice is to make this dist inction as obvious as possible. Planning for reading at a distance is an important aspect of outdoor advertising . The Institute for Outdoor Advertising has developed a poster distance scale vi ewer that designers use in planning the layout. (Burnett et. al, 1995) Transit advertising is an outdoor advertising that offers national and local adv ertisers the opportunity to reach their target market in a big, bold, and cost e ffective manner. Transit advertising is primarily an urban advertising form that uses vehicles to carry the message to people. The message is on wheels, and it circulates through the community. Transit advertising began 1870 in New York and the advertisement on subway syste m followed in 1940. The subway facility became uniquely qualified as an advertisi ng facility because of frequency . (Santiago et. al, 2006) Transit advertising also includes the posters seen in bus shelters and train, ai rport, and subway stations. They are targeted at commuters and travelers. All of these posters must be designed for quick impressions, although posters on subwa y platforms or bus shelters are often studied by people who are waiting and thus may present a more involved or complicated message. Usually TV Ads, Billboards and Paper Ads come to the mind of every consumer and these are effective receptively but there are so many other resources being used by business entities. Transit advertising is also one of the most effective way s of business advertising after digital media, TV, Radio etc. Transit Media is the welcome alternative to traditional advertising in hard time s like these and more so in prosperous time. As traditional media becomes more fragmented, transit advertising can reach a la rge number of people without competing for ad space or airtime. Transit advertising provides greater frequency than newspaper, television or rad io advertising. Transit Advertising also helps build better brand recognition.

Transit advertising is the only national advertising medium whose capital expens es are not supported in a major way by the advertiser. Costs for the medium are low because the capital costs of the advertising space used are paid for the far es collected (Guevarra, 1996). Transit advertising is classified into three categories: Taxi advertising, bus a dvertising and train advertising. Light Rail Transit (LRT) is a metropolitan rail system serving theMetro M anilaarea in thePhilippines, it is an example of train advertising.Light Rail Trans it Authority (LRTA) has started putting up posters, in trains, containing differ ent advertisement. LRT station advertising is one of today s advertising medium. I t provides opportunities for the colorful display of an advertiser s trademark, pr oduct and slogan. It offers the most spectacular use of lights to attract attent ion and has shown special effectiveness in getting a brand name known. It also h as a constant presence that is seen almost twenty for hours a day which becomes a continuing reminder of a product without being intrusive. In cooperation with Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA), Instituto Cervantes put different poems written in Spanish and Filipino and decorated with colorful pic tures called the Berso sa Metro (Verse in the Metro). Berso sa Metro (Verse in the Metro) is an innovative advertising campaign, which aims to encourage reading among Filipino commuters, to strengthen the ties betwe en the Philippines and Spain and to pay tribute to some of the best poets from t he Philippines, Spain and Latin American countries. The selection of poems include the work of Filipinos led by national hero Jose R izal, Jesus Balcom, Claro M. Recto, Jose Palma, Evangelina Guerrero, PacificoVic toriano and Fernando Maria Guerrero; Spanish poets Calderon de la Barca, Lope de Velga, Garcia Lorca, Antonio Machado, Luis Cermuda, Luis Rosales, Miguel Hernan dez and Gil de Biedma; and Latin American writers Pablo Neruda and Cesar Vallejo . To make things easier for those who do not understand Spanish, a Filipino transl ation of the poem would be posted alongside the Spanish version. The campaign is organized by the LRTA, ICDM and the Committee for the Filipino-Spanish Friendsh ip Day. Here in the Philippines, LRT is one of the major means of transportation. It is commonly used by middle class professionals and students who go to their office or schools everyday. The Berso sa Metro s target market for this campaign are students. It s main purpose is to encourage reading among these students, who reads less and less because o f the presence of the new media. Also, advertisers like the Instituto Cervantes look to the perception of every i ndividual in coming up a product, institution, services, or ideas. In advertisin g, perception is the process by which we receive information through our five se nses and assign meaning to it. Perceptions are shaped by three sets of influence s: the physical characteristics of the stimuli, the relation of the stimuli to t heir surroundings, and conditions within the individual. It is this last set of influences that makes perception of a personal trait. Each individual perceives a given stimulus within a personal frame of reference. Factors that influence th is frame of reference include learning experiences, attitudes, personality, and self-image. The process is further complicated by the fact that we are exposed t o a great number of stimuli. Some of these stimuli are perceived completely and some partially, some correctly, and some incorrectly. Ultimately, we select some stimuli and ignore others because we do not have the ability to be conscious of all incoming information at one time. If the audience does not have a good perception of the product, if he was not aw are of the product or have not been thoroughly convince about the merit of the p roduct, it will be difficult to induce action no matter how strong the compulsor y services used. As a result, the prospective consumer will reject to purchase t he product. (Ocido et al, 2001)

The process of screening out information that does not interest us and retaining information that does is called selective perception. Consumers tend to selecti vely expose themselves to advertisements that measure them of the wisdom of thei r purchase decisions. Similarly, when we are exposed to a message that is differ ent from what we believe, we engage in selective distortion. Advertisers are interested in these selective processes because they affect whet her consumers will perceive an ad and, if so, whether they will remember it. Selective perception is also strongly influenced by our attitudes toward the per son, situation, and idea. If we hold a strong positive attitudes toward safety. For example, we will tend to perceive messages that deal with this subject. In t urn, we will tend to remember details about the message, such as product feature s and the brand name, when perception is intense. Our response to a stimulus has a direct bearing on advertising. A large part of what the brain processes is lost after only an instant. Even when we try very ha rd to retain information, we are unable to save a lot of it. Selective retention describes the process we go through in trying to save information for future use. Advertising can facilitate this process by using repetition, easily remembered brand or product names, jingles, high-profile spokespeople, music and so forth. Its ability to stimulate and assists the consumer in selective retention often d etermines the success of an individual ad. (Wells et. al, 1995) The researchers chose this topic because the new breed of students nowadays are not interested in reading poems by our National heroes and some Spanish known po ets. It is interesting to know what the perceptions of students are towards this campaign whenever they ride the LRT and see and read these poems. It is also go od to know how their perception affects their attitude. The researchers will als o dwell on the likes and dislikes of the students towards the Berso sa Metro. 1.2.1 Statement of the Problem The Berso sa Metro campaign of Instituto Cervantes was first launched in 2007, it was suppose to run for only three months but because of its positive f eedbacks the campaign still runs up to now. The main objective of the campaign is to encourage reading among the you th because one of the problems that the youth is facing today is the lack of rea ding; they seldom read books especially books that are about Filipino-Spanish po ems. Since the common riders of LRT are students the researchers pursued to answ er the question: How do the students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran perceive t he Berso sa Metro advertising campaign of Instituto Cervantes? 1.2.2 General Objective Since the objective of the campaign is to encourage reading among the yo uth, particularly students, the researchers chose to conduct the research in Col egio de San Juan de Letran, particularly to those students who ride the LRT ever yday to get to school. The researchers want to know the perception of Letran students towards t his campaign and also the reading habits of these students. The researchers have come up with the objective: To determine how the students of Colegio de San Jua n de Letran perceive the Berso sa Metro poetry found in Light Rail Transit Line 1. 1.2.3 Specific Objectives The awareness of the students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran on the Berso sa M etro campaign. The attitude of the students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran on the Berso sa Me tro campaign. The likes and dislikes of the students of Colegio de San Juan de Letran on the m essage of the Berso sa Metro. 1.2.4 Significance of the Study This study will be beneficial for the following: Instituto Cervantes

Instituto Cervantes, in cooperation with LRTA, spearheaded the Berso sa Metro campaign, this study will be beneficial for them. They will know how the L RT-1 riders, specifically workers, perceive the different poems that they put on LRT line 1. They will also know what to improve and what to maintain in their c ampaign in terms of awareness and perception. Advertisers This study will be beneficial to the advertisers because, in advertising a certa in product they will be able to know the perception of the consumers who is ridi ng the LRT. By that, they will be able to decode the perception of the commuters to the ads in found inside the LRT. Advertising Agencies In preparing for an advertisement, most companies/institutions use advertising a gencies to create ads and expose these ads to various forms of media. This study will be beneficial to numerous advertising agencies so they will know how do LR T riders/commuters perceive an ad that is in LRT. They will also know what type of ad they should put on LRT. LRT riders/commuters This study will also benefit LRT riders/commuters. They will know how th e Berso sa Metro campaign affect their lifestyle. LRTA This study will also be beneficial to the authorities of the Light Rail Transit line 1. They will be able to know the awareness of their riders to the Be rso sa Metro campaign using their medium. FUTURE RESEARCHERS The future researchers will benefit from this study by getting facts and information about the people s perception on advertising campaign. They will be a ble to know the difference and similarities of perception of the consumers on th e advertisement. 1.2.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study The researchers will focus on the students level of awareness and perception towa rds the Berso sa Metro campaign. However, this study will not cover perceptions of middle class professionals who ride the LRT. Any aspects that were not covered by the researchers fall out of the objectives of this study. 1.2.6 Study Framework 1.2.6.1 Theoretical Framework The researchers will use Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) for this stu dy. Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo created the Elaboration Likelihood Mod el. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) states that there are two routes thro ugh which persuasive messages are processed: the central route, which provides c omplete information and is straightforward, and the peripheral route, which uses means like catchy tunes, colors, and celebrity endorsements. It was developed i n 1980, this relatively new persuasion model attempts to explain how a persuasive message works to change the attitude of the receiver (Moore, 2001). Central and peripheral routes: both are effective styles of persuasion techniques, but each one has strategies and guiding principles to make it more effective. Messages sent via the central route of persuasion must be straight-forwa rd and complete. The central route consists of thoughtful consideration of the ar guments (ideas,content) in the message (Benoit et al., 2001). The receiver carefu lly scrutinizes the message and evaluates the subject matter of the idea. Messag es sent through this route must possess a high level of receiver involvement, th

at is, the receiver must actually care about and be related to the subject. Beca use it is of importance to them, the message will be evaluated thoroughly. Centr al route messages must be strong. The message is going tobe dissected and analyz ed from every angle, so it had better have some substance to it. A disadvantage to sending messages by means of the central route is that receivers must have the motivation to analyze the message. If a receiver is not directly affected by the message, he or she will not put forth the effort to co nsider it. Therefore, the persuasive message is lost on many people. However, fo r those immediately involved with the issue, there are two important advantages associated with the central route of persuasion. Attitudinal changes tend to pers ist longer and are more predictive of behavior than are changes induced through the peripheral route (Scott, 1996). In other words, if the attitude of the receiv er has been changed as a result, it will likely stay that way. Feelings achieved by the central route of persuasion are more permanent than with the peripheral route. The peripheral route of persuasion is successful for messages with low r eceiver involvement, low receiver motivation, and weak messages. Unlike the cent ral route persuasion, messages sent via the peripheral route are not processed c ognitively. Rather, the peripheral route states that if a person is unable to ela borate on a message extensively, then she may still be persuaded by factors that have nothing to do with the actual content of the message itself (Moore, 2001). This is where marketing, advertising, and public relations come in. According to Professors Dean Kruckeberg and Ken Starck, the dominant public view of public relations, in fact, is one of persuasive communication actions (Wilcox e t al., 2003). Catchy tunes, bright colors, and celebrity endorsements are all wa ys of peripheral persuasion. Peripheral route messages focus on practically ever ything but the message itself. The message will attempt to grab attention by maki ng the receiver think about something that she is already familiar with and has positive thoughts about (Moore, 2001). Peripheral persuasion is somewhat simpler to develop because it has no grounds in a strong factual message. However, perip heral persuasion is not as strong nor as long lasting as central persuasion. Alt hough it can produce a positive change in behavior, for it to become a more lasti ng change the message should be repeated over a period of time (Moore, 2001). FIGURE 1.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 1.5.2 Conceptual Framework The researchers used Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to explain why the commu ters are easily persuaded by the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign and why the y are not easily persuaded by the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign. The resea rchers will focus on the perception, awareness, attitudes, and likes and dislike s, the theory will help the researchers to understand the commuter s perception. There are two routes through which persuasive messages are processed. The Cent ral Route and the Peripheral Route, the Central Route carefully examines the mes sage and determines the content of the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign. Mess ages sent through this route must possess a high level of receiver involvement, that is, the receiver must actually care about and be related to the subject mat ter of idea. In The Central Route the message processed cognitively. The message of the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign is strong. The message is going to b e dissected and analyzed from every angle of the poem. While the Peripheral Rou te, the messages passed by the peripheral route are not processed cognitively. T he peripheral route of persuasion is successful for message with low receiver in volvement, low receiver motivation, and weak messaged. Commuters who use their p eripheral route will most likely perceive the Berso sa Metro advertising campaig n through its colors, design, texture, etc. It s states that if a person is unable to elaborate on a message extensively, then she may still be persuaded by factor s that have nothing to do with the actual content of the message itself (Moore, 2 001).

Peripheral persuasion is somewhat simpler to develop because it has no grounds i n a strong factual message unlike the central route of persuasion has strong and long lasting message. A commuter changes his/her attitude based on the experiences coming from the sur roundings, media, and means of transportation. It depends on his/her perception if he/she will adopt these influences.

FIGURE 2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1.5.3 Operational Framework Advertising is used in promoting and selling the products to the consumers. It i s a paid communication about products, services, institutions or ideas to influe nce people according to the advertiser s intent. This study will cover a part of a dvertising, which is Transit advertising. Advertising Campaign is a specific course of action designed to advertise a comp any, cause or product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated seri es of marketing tools in order to reach the target audience. The structure of th e advertising campaign will depend on the nature of the product or cause and the target audience that the campaign is designed to reach. This study is about the advertising campaign of Instituto Cervantes. Attitude -attitudeis a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degr ee of like or dislike for something. Attitudes are generally positive or negativ e views of a person, place, thing, or event this is often referred to as the atti tude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meani ng that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. This study will cover about the attitude of the commuters of LRT about the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign. Awareness -state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to beconsciousof events, objec tsor sensorypatterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implyingunderstanding. More broadly, it is the state or quality of being aware of something. Inbiological psychology, awareness is defined as a human's or an animal'sperceptionandcognitivereaction to a condition or event. This study will cover about the awareness of the commuters of LRT abo ut the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign. Berso sa Metro (Verse in the Metro) an advertising campaign in LRT, a poe ms translated to Spanish-Filipino by Instituto Cervantes which aims to encourage reading among Filipino commuters. Berso sa Metro will use as the main subject o f this study. Central Route of Persuasion- involves being persuaded by the arguments o r the content of the message.This will be use in the study through the commuter s ce ntral persuasion. Instituto Cervantes de Manila (ICDM) is a world wide non-profit organiza tion created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is the largest organization i n the world dedicated to the teaching of Spanish language and increasing knowled ge of culture in Latin-American countries. Berso sa Metro is one of the project of Instituto Cervantes. Light Rail Transit - a metropolitan rail system serving theMetro Manilaare a in thePhilippines. Berso sa Metro advertising campaign posted in LRT. Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA) is a public transport operator that is in charge of operating and maintaining the Manila Light Rail Transit System. It is government owned and or controlled operation under the Department of Trans portation and Communications as an attached agency. LRTA supports Berso sa Metr o advertising campaign. Outdoor Advertising includes various types of promotional displays, from

highway billboards to transit posters, all geared towards communicating a messa ge to the public. The message might be to buy a product, vote for a politician, it might even be a public service announcement. Perception - the process of attainingawarenessorunderstandingof theenvironmen tby organizing and interpretingsensoryinformation. This study will use perception t o know how the commuter s perceive the Berso sa Metro advertising campaign. Peripheral Route of Persuasion- involves being persuaded in a manner tha t is not based on the arguments or the message content.This will be use in the st udy through the commuter s peripheral persuasion. Transit advertising is a form of outdoor advertising that uses vehicular mediums to establish a mobile brand presence.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This part contains the foreign and local literature of the study. The researcher s gathered literature and studies from the different school libraries in Metro M anila as well as from journals and magazines. 2.1 Related Literature 2.1.1 Foreign Literature According to Journal of Advertising (1998), advertising was a ubiquitous part of modern life. Consumers were deluged daily by advertisements in a variety of med ia. Indeed, the number of advertisements and the number of media and vehicles ca rrying them had soared in recent years. In this increasingly, crowded communicat ions environment, consumers attitudes towards advertising and their confidence i n it were vital to assess. (Ocido et. al, 2001) Attitudes toward advertising may or may not be consistent across demographic gro ups in the population. Used of large, national samples not only enhances the gen eralizability of survey findings overall, it also allows comparison to be made b etween different demographic segments. (Ocido et. al, 2001) The idea of advertising campaign lies on the fact that advertising exposure was the most effective way to capture the attentions and maintain. The awareness of the consumers towards the product. In preparing an advertisement, most companies used advertising agencies to create the ads exposed these in various forms of m edia. (Ocido et. al, 2001) George E. Bech and Michael A Belch, author of the book advertising and promotion s, are very used to create favorable attitudes towards new products, services or brands, reinforce existing favorable attitudes, and or change negative attitude s. Attitudes are important to marketers because they theoretically summarize a c onsumer s evaluation of an object and represent positive or negative feeling and b ehavioral tenderness. 2.1.2 Local Literature New York and Madrid were some of the first cities to experiment with the poetry trains and it s expected more cities will follow suit. (http://www.penmeapoem.com/ 2009/03/berso-sa-metro-poetry-trains-in-the-philippines/) According to an article of Adobo Magazine, AGB Nielsen survey said that Coke, Un ilab, and Wyeth are the top advertisers in the Metro Rail Transit, and what Ligh t Rail Transit line 2 s top spenders are Kotex and PCSO (also no. 1 for Light Rail Transit 1), the one that excited commuters most is a campaign from none of thes e brands. In the research, passengers referred to the campaign of the Spanish cu ltural center Instituto Cervantes, called Berso sa Metro (Verses in the Metro). Jose Rodriguez, Director of Instituto Cervantes de Manila told Adobo Magazine, w

ith the advent of the Internet in our high-tech driven society and occupied with our busy lifestyle, the reading of books is relegated to the sidelines. More an d more people rush everyday or are glued to their computers, surfing the interne t, while less and less people read books, even among students. The Berso sa Metro campaign is like offering a catchphrase, to entice people to read the entire poe m from books or the complete works of a particular poet. This would keep the passengers from getting bored and they would actually be lea rning something while in transit. (Rodriguez, 2009) With almost one million commuters riding the train every day, it provides a grea t opportunity for the reading campaign to reach as many people as possible (Rodr iguez, 2009). Commuters would now have something to ponder on when they ride the LRT. Reading celebrated poems is a very worthwhile activity do. (Robles, 2009) Advertising professor, Carlito Viria told Adobo Magazine that a commuter eye gets hungry inside a train. How many times will he have to re-read that slogan and lo ok at a product? That s why commuters just close their eyes. Nothing more to read, nothing more to see. Random interviews among the Metro Manila commuters revealed that many of them tr uly want something educational and informative. People who ride MRT and the LRT suffer from some stress, especially at night and they want an escape from the us ual TV, radio, and billboard gazing. Experts suggest postcards. Passengers do not want to see just plain product shots. They want to read trivia, health tips, cou rtesy and etiquette reminders; foreign words translated to Filipino, and the lik e, printed on beautifully designed cards. Something worth keeping long after the y disembark. Advocacy campaigns are also recommended. Transit media can be a great venue for enlightenment. In addition, commuters enjoy ads that make them look forward to a sequel in the next station and consequently make them forget their problems. (htt p://www.adobomagazine.com/global/module.php?LM=news.level1&id=1262845537701) According to Nikkorlai Tapan (2009), the campaigns art director, he tried to ref lect on what the poets inspired in him and at the same time create attractive de signs to get the attention of passengers who are always in a hurry. (http://www. penmeapoem.com/2009/03/berso-sa-metro-poetry-trains-in-the-philippines/) This article will help the researcher in this study to KEMBEROOT! 2.2 Related Studies 2.2.1 Foreign Studies A major issue in advertising research is measurement of the effects of advertisi ng on the recipient. From advertising research we know that success of an advert ising campaign strongly depends on how the customer reacts to a message. Effecti veness of advertising campaigns depends on a number of constructs. The main cons truct that has been extensively analyzed is attitude toward advertising and atti tude toward an advertising message (e.g. Moore and Hutchinson 1983; Gardner 1985 ; Lutz 1985; MacKenzie et al. 1986; Andrews 1989; MacKenzie and Lutz 1989). Individual s feelings of enjoyment associated with advertisements strongly influen ce their attitude toward the advertisement (Shavitt et al. 1998). Entertainment denotes its full ability to fulfill consumers needs for escapism, diversion, aesth etic enjoyment or emotional release (McQuail 1983), which can be used to involve customers more deeply and make them more familiar with the advertised service or product (Lehmkuhl 2003). Marketers generally want to convey information via advertising messages (Gordon and De Lima-Turner 1997). In the case of m-advertising, consumers want the messa ge s content to be tailored to their interests (Robins 2003) and prefer to get mes sages that are relevant for them (Milne and Gordon 1993). If persons feel indign ity when being addressed by advertisements, this can largely influence their att itude toward advertising (Shavitt et al. 1998). Consumers can no longer depend o n the intuitive sense of place and presence that governs their observable behavi or to make sure that they are not being watched or recorded by another individua l (Rust et al. 2002).

Ducoffe (1995) argues that advertising value is a measure for advertising effect iveness and may serve as an index of customer satisfaction with the communication products of organizations (p.1). The perceived value of advertising is a subjecti ve evaluation of the relative worth or utility of advertising to consumers (Ducof fe 1995; p. 1). Attitudes are mental states used by individuals to structure the way they perceiv e their environment and guide the way they respond to it (Aaker et al. 1995; p. 2 54). An attitude toward an advertisement is defined as consumers learned predispos ition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner toward advert ising in general (MacKenzie and Lutz 1989; p. 54). As it is known from Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980) and Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), attitudes have a considerable impact on behavior (Churchill and Iacobucci 2002). A major influencing factor on attitude toward an advertisement is the ge neral attitude toward the advertising medium (Larkin 1979). According to the study of Parissa Haghirian and Maria Madlberger (2006) about A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Perception of Mobile Advertising A Survey among Austr ian and Japanese Students, Mobile devices allow constant access to the World Wid e Web without time and location barriers and present new challenges for marketer s and an array of research questions for marketing researchers. The topic of mob ile advertising is of special interest for companies as it enables communication with customers in unprecedented ways. As mobile technologies are being increasi ngly adopted on a worldwide basis, international m-advertising becomes an issue of growing importance. This paper therefore presents first cross-cultural eviden ce of individuals perceptions of mobile advertising. The analysis is based on a s urvey of business students in two respective markets, Japan and Austria. Finding s of this study show that people are still skeptical about mobile advertising. H owever, there are slight differences in perceptions between Japan and Austria. J apanese respondents perceive advertising as more entertaining and valuable. Desp ite the fact that they are more frequently exposed to mobile advertising message s, they also show a more positive attitude toward it. This study will help the researchers to KEMBERLOO! According to the study of Sridhar Moorthy and Scott A. Hawkins about Advertising Repetition and Quality Perceptions, Nelson (1970, 1974a, 1974b) has argued that advertising spending is a signal of product quality for experience goods becaus e consumers can rationally infer that high quality products would advertise more than low quality products. In this study they compare Nelson s view of advertisin g with marketing views of advertising using ad repetition as a surrogate for ad spending. The results show limited support for Nelson s theory, but substantial su pport for ad repetition influencing perceived quality through attitude toward th e ad. In the conventional view of advertising, as described in marketing textbooks, th e effectiveness of advertising is a function of its content (the message), execu tion (how the ad conveys the message), and frequency (how often a consumer sees the ad) (Kotler 1997, Chapter 20; Batra, Myers and Aaker 1996, Chapter 5). The a dvertising spending level enters the picture only in service of these three fact ors. If a company does not spend enough on advertising, then its content might b e off-base or the ads might be poorly executed or the frequency might be inadequ ate. Nelson s (1970, 1974a, 1974b) theory offers a radically different view. It ar gues that how advertising works depends on whether the product is a search good or an experience good, and that the marketing view applies only to search goods. For experience goods, the only thing that matters is the advertising spending l evel or, for that matter, any wasteful spending not content, execution or frequency. The experiments show that it matters how advertising spending information is com municated to subjects. Subjects respond more to advertising repetition in the sens e of changing their perceived quality judgments when they are actually exposed to a

dvertising than when the advertising frequency data are provided to them as an a bstract number. On the other hand, it doesn t seem to make much difference whether the product being advertised is a search good or an experience good. The result s suggest that the ad itself is a critical variable mediating the response to re petition. Subjects in the study seemed to like an ad more after repeated exposur e to it, and seemed to transfer this liking to the product being advertised, rai sing its quality rating. The results are also consistent with mere exposure effect s: increased ad exposure increasing familiarity with the brand and, hence, perce ived quality. Learning effects were largely precluded by our experimental design , but other research suggests that it is an important way by which real-world ad vertising works (Batra, Myers and Aaker 1996, p. 151). This study will help the researchers to KEMBERLOO! According to the study of Justin Henley Beneke (2011) Towards an Understanding o f the Youth s Perception of, and response to, Mobile Advertising in an emerging ma rket, An Exploratory study. Despite the success of mobile advertising indicated by the positive relationship between consumers attitudes towards mobile advertisi ng and purchase intentions, negative attitudes towards mobile advertising curren tly exist amongst the youth in South Africa. The results confirms that of Van de r Waldt et al (2009). Therefore, it can be deemed to be unsuccessful in generati ng sales at present in South Africa and will only be effective in the future if these attitudes are addressed and changed. In order to convert these into positi ve attitudes, marketers need to address the critical underlying factors which in fluence consumers attitudes towards mobile advertising. Statistical analysis conf irmed the mobile advertising literature and identified six predictors of Attitude s towards Mobile Advertising : Content , Personalisation , Attitude towards Advertising n General , consumers level of Innovativeness , consumer s lack of Control and fear of The Content of the mobile message is the second-most influential predictor of Attit ude towards Mobile Advertising . Evidently, consumers value helpful, informative, creative and entertaining mobile advertisements. Following conventional wisdom, A ttitude towards Advertising in General is an important factor affecting consumer attitudes towards mobile advertising. The more positive a consumer s Attitude towar ds Advertising in General , the more positive their Attitude towards Mobile Adverti sing will be. Finally, Personalisation is an influential predictor of Attitudes towa rds Mobile Advertising . This implies that consumers value mobile messages that ar e tailored to their preferences and habits, time and location. This study will help the researcher to KEMBERLOO. Researchers have investigated consumer attitudes towards advertising for several decades (Zanot, 1981) These studies have varied a widely in the types of sample s used and the data-collection methods employed. Example of companies and person used this: Andrews (1989), Bauer and Greyser (1968), Gallup (1959), Louis Harri s and Associates, Inc. (1976), Reid and Soley (1980), Sandage and Leckenby (1980 ). According to Zanot (1981), the fist large scale studies assessing public opinion s towards advertising were conducted fo Redbook and Sales Management. The Gallup Organization Inc. In the study of public attitudes towards advertising conducte d for Redbook gathered data through personal interviews with national geographic ally stratified sample of over 1600 adults. Gallup found that a majority of thei r respondents like advertising because they felt it was informative. (Silvertsone 1992) People grossly over estimate the sort thing that advertising can do consumers aren t stupid and people are very literate as fast as advertiseme nt is concerned. They used advertisement very intelligently in many ways. They a ctually participate in the communication process in advertisement and tell us in the research that they enjoy doing so. 2.2.2 Local Studies

According to the study of Elvin Jude Ocido, Lynette Nonilon Sarmiento, and Jes icaTiburcio (2001) about Attitude Towards Advertising: A Comparative Study. In U S they said that advertising was a ubiquitous part of modern life. Consumers wer e deluged daily by advertisements in a variety of media. Indeed, the number of a dvertisements and the number of media and vehicles carrying them had soared in r ecent years. In this increasingly, crowded communications environment, consumers attitudes towards advertising and their confidence in it were vital to assess. (Journal of Advertising, 1998) Attitudes toward advertising may or may not be consistent across demographic gro ups in the population. Used of large, national samples not only enhances the gen eralizability of survey findings overall, it also allows comparison to be made b etween different demographic segements. The idea of advertising campaign lies on the fact that advertising exposure was the most effective way to capture the attentions and maintain. The awareness of the consumers towards the product. In preparing an advertisement, most companies used advertising agencies to create the ads exposed these in various forms of m edia. In building the conviction about the merit of the product, the agencies used rep etition in its exposure to the prospective consumers. This established the prosp ective consumers beliefs on the rightness of the advertised brands. In other wor ds, a fundamental principles in established convictions was start upon common gr ound were the audience will accept the basic premises then step by step carried them into the less familiar areas of decision. Lastly, the prospective consumer will decide to purchase. On the other hand, if the audience does not have a good perception of the produc t, if he was not aware of the product or have not been thoroughly convince about the merit of the product, it will be difficult to induce action no matter how s trong the compulsory services used. As a result, the prospective consumer will r eject to purchase the product. A study on the travel habits of Metro Manilans, conducted recently by survey fir m Nielsen Media Research, showed that 73% of residents of the national capital r egion have travelled using the Metro Rail Transit (MRT) and Light Rail Transit ( LRT) systems in the past months. The MRT LRT Travel Habits study also showed that more than half (52%) of Metro Man ila residents above 15 years old or 4.2 million Filipinos are mobile or are out of their homes for most of the time. This made advertising specialists suggest that companies and advocacy groups con sider outdoor media over traditional media. In a survey conducted by Nielsen, they interviewed 1,000 train riders (500 from the MRT, 250 from LRT-1, and 250 from LRT-2) in February 2009. Respondents were chosen using random sampling and it has a margin error of 5%. The study revealed that the MRT (which plies EDSA from Taft Avenue in Pasay City to North Avenue in Quezon City) caters more to the 25- to 49-year-old riders, r eferring to white and blue collar workers. Around 30% of the commuters using LRT-1 (which plies from Baclaran in Paraaque Ci ty to Monumento in Caloocan City) are students. Students comprise 42% of the rid ers of LRT-2, which plies from Santolan in Pasig City to Claro M. Recto Avenue i n Manila. The study noted that almost 1 in 9 LRT-2 riders (9 percent) is a small -scale entrepreneur. The study also revealed that trains influenced the lifestyle of the riders. Sinc e some of the train stations are connected to shopping malls, riders are most li kely to go to these malls, with most of them visiting at least twice a month. According to the study of Ma. Cristina Guevarra about Light Railway Transit Stat ion Advertising: An Alternative to Traditional Advertising Media, LRT station ad vertising is one of today s advertising medium. It provides opportunities for the colorful display of an advertiser s trademark, product and slogan. It offers the m ost spectacular use of lights to attract attention and has shown special effecti veness in getting a brand name known. It also has a constant presence that is se

en twenty for hours a day which becomes a continuing reminder of a product witho ut being intrusive. (Guevarra, 1996). LRT station advertising has the ability to reach a broad range of occupation, in come levels and educational groups which increases the percentage of the target audience that can be exposed to the advertisements and the media vehicle itself. It is a high frequency medium with most of its commuters taking the same mode o f transportation at least 2-3 times a week if not everyday, thereby increasing t he rate at which these commuters are exposed to the advertisement. (Guevarra, 19 96) The LRT station advertising as a medium draws the notice of the commuters, attra cts their attention, and focuses their concentration to the displays. Therefore, it has a high impact on the consumer s memory. (Guevarra, 1996) The LRT station advertisements has a high readership value, therefore, is effect ive in getting messages across. With sufficient display time and frequency of ex posure, high awareness levels are developed among commuters. (Guevarra, 1996)

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY *THIS FURTHER NEEDS SUNSTANTIAL ELABORATION* This chapter contains the process of gathering information in order to come up w ith the results of the study. This includes research design, variables and measu res, sampling design, research respondents, research instrument, research locale , data gathering procedures and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design The researchers will use qualitative method and will thoroughly study th e perception of selected students towards the Berso sa Metro advertising campaig n found on LRT-1. The researchers will focus on the in-depth understanding of th e commuters towards their reading. In the course of the study, the researchers will collect information thr ough personal interviews with the authorities of Instituto Cervantes and LRTA.

3.2 Concepts and Indicators CONCEPTS INDICATORS Awareness Questions on the level of Awareness of the faculty and staff of Colegio de San Juan de Letran regarding the Berso sa metro campaign found on LRT Line-1. And also the number of times they ride the LRT in a week and the poems

that they are familiar with. Attitude Questions on the impact of the Berso sa Metro campaign on the fa culty and staff of Colegio de San Juan de Letran. And the values that they were able to get from the poem and how they apply in their life. Likes and Dislikes Questions on what the faculty and staff of Colegio de Sa n Juan de Letran hates and loves about the Berso sa Metro campaign. Their insigh ts about Berso sa Metro.

3.3 Sampling Design The researchers will use the Probability Sampling as the method in selecting the participants who will be part of the Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The research ers will reject people who do not fit as a respondent for this study. The criter ion is that the respondent must be riding the LRT line 1 everyday or at least 23 times a week in finding out the perception and level of awareness of the selec ted respondents. The researchers will send letters and will conduct interviews to the authorities of Instituto Cervantes and LRTA in gathering further information. 3.4 Research Participants The FGD participants of this study will be students of Colegio de San Ju an de Letran who rides the LRT everyday or at least 2-3 times a week. By conduct ing FGD to those students the researchers will be able to know how do they perce ive the Berso sa Metro poetry found on LRT line 1. The researchers will also fin d out the students level of awareness towards the campaign and the reading habits of Letran students who ride the LRT. 3.5 Research Instrument The researchers will prepare interview guide questions for the FGD part icipants. The interview guide will compose of 10-15 questions that will determin e the concepts of the study and will meet the objectives of the study. The researchers will pre-test the guide questions and, if necessary, the researc hers will delete and revise the unnecessary questions that will not answer the o bjectives directly. 3.6 Research Locale The FGD will be done upon the request of the participants where it was convenien t to them. The researchers will also record the discussion to be able to come up with a more accurate and precise analysis, interpretation and recommendation. T he researchers will explain to the participants the need to record the discussio n and will keep names anonymous upon their request and will assure them that all the information that will be gathered will be used for this study only. The researchers will also collect information from the office of Instituto Cerva ntes and from the office of LRTA for further elaboration. 3.7 Data Gathering Procedures The researchers will jot down important notes and facts during the Focus ed Group Discussion. The researchers will conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to gather the needed i nformation through personal interview and schedule the interviewees on their ava ilable time and at most convenient places. The researchers will also include the information that will be gathered via inte rview with the Instituto Cervantes and the authorities of LRT. 3.8 Data Analysis The researchers will analyze the data gathered by The researchers will analyze the data done by transcribing the interview s of the participants and also the interviews of the officials from Instituto Ce

rvantes and LRTA.