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Ibarra Samson III

8S CoL IV2

1 What |s S|gna|?
ln elecLronlcs a slgnal ls an elecLrlc currenL or elecLromagneLlc fleld used Lo convey daLa from
one place Lo anoLher 1he slmplesL form of slgnal ls a dlrecL currenL (uC) LhaL ls swlLched on and
off Lhls ls Lhe prlnclple by whlch Lhe early Lelegraph worked More complex slgnals conslsL of
an alLernaLlngcurrenL (AC) or elecLromagneLlc carrler LhaL conLalns one or more daLa sLreams

Slgnal modulaLlon can be done ln elLher of Lwo maln ways analog and dlglLal ln recenL years
dlglLal modulaLlon has been geLLlng more common whlle analog modulaLlon meLhods have
been used less and less 1here are sLlll plenLy of analog slgnals around however and Lhey wlll
probably never become LoLally exLlncL
LxcepL for uC slgnals such as Lelegraph and baseband all slgnal carrlers have a deflnable
frequency or frequencles Slgnals also have a properLy called wavelengLh whlch ls lnversely
proporLlonal Lo Lhe frequency
ln some lnformaLlon Lechnology conLexLs a slgnal are slmply LhaL whlch ls senL or recelved
Lhus lncludlng boLh Lhe carrler and Lhe daLa LogeLher
ln Lelephony a slgnal ls speclal daLa LhaL ls used Lo seL up or conLrol communlcaLlon
2 What |s rocess|ng?
O MovemenL of daLa or maLerlal Lowards a known goal or end resulL by passlng lL Lhrough
a serles of sLages or a sequence of acLlons
O a sysLemaLlc serles of acLlons dlrecLed Lo some end
O a conLlnuous acLlon operaLlon or serles of changes Laklngplace ln a deflnlLe manner tb
e ptocess of Jecoy

What |s S|gna| rocess|ng?

S|gna| process|ng ls an area of sysLems englneerlng elecLrlcal englneerlng and applled
maLhemaLlcs LhaL deals wlLh operaLlons on or analysls of slgnals ln elLher dlscreLe or
conLlnuous Llme Slgnals of lnLeresL can lnclude sound lmages Llmevarylng measuremenL
values and sensor daLa for example blologlcal daLa such as elecLrocardlograms conLrol
sysLem slgnals LelecommunlcaLlon Lransmlsslon slgnals and many oLhers Slgnals are analog or
dlglLal elecLrlcal represenLaLlons of Llmevarylng or spaLlalvarylng physlcal quanLlLles ln Lhe
conLexL of slgnal processlng arblLrary blnary daLa sLreams and onoff slgnallng are noL
consldered as slgnals buL only analog and dlglLal slgnals LhaL are represenLaLlons of analog
physlcal quanLlLles


Lxamp|es of S|gna|s
,otloo 1he moLlon of a parLlcle Lhrough some space can be consldered Lo be a slgnal or
can be represenLed by a slgnal 1he domaln of a moLlon slgnal ls onedlmenslonal (Llme)
and Lhe range ls generally Lhreedlmenslonal oslLlon ls Lhus a 3vecLor slgnal poslLlon and
orlenLaLlon ls a 6vecLor slgnal
oooJ Slnce a sound ls a vlbraLlon of a medlum (such as alr) a sound slgnal assoclaLes
a pressure value Lo every value of Llme and Lhree space coordlnaLes A mlcrophone converLs
sound pressure aL some place Lo [usL a funcLlon of Llme generaLlng a volLage slgnal as an
analog of Lhe sound slgnal Sound slgnals can be sampled Lo on a dlscreLe seL of Llme polnLs
for example compacL dlscs (Cus) conLaln dlscreLe slgnals represenLlng sound recorded aL
44100 samples per second each sample conLalns daLa for a lefL and rlghL channel whlch
may be consldered Lo be a 2vecLor slgnal (slnce Cus are recorded ln sLereo)
oqes A plcLure or lmage conslsLs of a brlghLness or color slgnal a funcLlon of a Lwo
dlmenslonal locaLlon A 2u lmage can have a conLlnuous spaLlal domaln as ln a LradlLlonal
phoLograph or palnLlng or Lhe lmage can be dlscreLlzed ln space as ln a rasLer
scanneddlglLal lmage Color lmages are Lyplcally represenLed as a comblnaLlon of lmages ln
Lhree prlmary colors so LhaL Lhe slgnal ls vecLorvalued wlLh dlmenslon Lhree
IlJeos A vldeo slgnal ls a sequence of lmages A polnL ln a vldeo ls ldenLlfled by lLs Lwo
dlmenslonal poslLlon and by Lhe Llme aL whlch lL occurs so a vldeo slgnal has a Lhree
dlmenslonal domaln Analog vldeo has one conLlnuous domaln dlmenslon (across a scan
llne) and Lwo dlscreLe dlmenslons (frame and llne)
lologlcal etooe poteotlols 1he value of Lhe slgnal ls a sLralghLforward elecLrlc
poLenLlal (volLage) 1he domaln ls more dlfflculL Lo esLabllsh
Some cells or organelles have Lhe same membrane poLenLlal LhroughouL neurons generally
have dlfferenL poLenLlals aL dlfferenL polnLs 1hese slgnals have very low energles buL are
enough Lo make nervous sysLems work Lhey can be measured ln aggregaLe by Lhe
Lechnlques of elecLrophyslology
Categor|es of S|gna| rocess|ng
Ana|og s|gna| process|ng
Analog slgnal processlng ls for slgnals LhaL have noL been dlglLlzed as ln classlcal radlo
Lelephone radar and Lelevlslon sysLems 1hls lnvolves llnear elecLronlc clrculLs such as passlve
fllLers acLlve fllLers addlLlve mlxers lnLegraLors and delay llnes lL also lnvolves nonllnear
clrculLs such as compandors mulLlpllcaLors (frequency mlxers and volLageconLrolled
ampllflers) volLageconLrolled fllLers volLageconLrolled osclllaLors and phaselocked loops
|screte t|me s|gna| process|ng
ulscreLe Llme slgnal processlng ls for sampled slgnals LhaL are consldered as deflned only aL
dlscreLe polnLs ln Llme and as such are quanLlzed ln Llme buL noL ln magnlLude
ooloq Jlsctetetle slqool ptocessloq ls a Lechnology based on elecLronlc devlces such
as sample and hold clrculLs analog LlmedlvlslonmulLlplexers analog delay llnes and analog
feedback shlfL reglsLers 1hls Lechnology was a predecessor of dlglLal slgnal processlng (see
below) and ls sLlll used ln advanced processlng of glgaherLz slgnals
1he concepL of dlscreLeLlme slgnal processlng also refers Lo a LheoreLlcal dlsclpllne LhaL
esLabllshes a maLhemaLlcal basls for dlglLal slgnal processlng wlLhouL Laklng quanLlzaLlon
error lnLo conslderaLlon
|g|ta| s|gna| process|ng
ulglLal slgnal processlng ls Lhe processlng of dlglLlsed dlscreLe Llme sampled slgnals rocesslng
ls done by generalpurpose compuLers or by dlglLal clrculLs such as ASlCs fleldprogrammable
gaLe arrays or speclallzed dlglLal slgnal processors (uS chlps) 1yplcal arlLhmeLlcal operaLlons
lnclude flxedpolnL and floaLlngpolnL realvalued and complexvalued mulLlpllcaLlon and
addlLlon CLher Lyplcal operaLlons supporLed by Lhe hardware are clrcular buffers and lookup
Lables Lxamples of algorlLhms are Lhe lasL lourler Lransform (ll1) flnlLe lmpulse
response (ll8) fllLer lnflnlLe lmpulse response (ll8) fllLer and adapLlve fllLers such as
Lhe Wlener and kalman fllLers
6 Why do we need to do S|gna| rocess|ng?

uS chlps are used ln sound cards fax machlnes modems cellular phones hlghcapaclLy hard
dlsks and dlglLal 1vs Accordlng Lo 1exas lnsLrumenLs uSs are used as Lhe englne ln 70 of Lhe
worlds dlglLal cellular phones and wlLh Lhe lncrease ln wlreless appllcaLlons Lhls number wlll
only lncrease ulglLal slgnal processlng ls used ln many flelds lncludlng blomedlclne sonar
radar selsmology speech and muslc processlng lmaglng and communlcaLlons
ulglLal slgnal processlng (uS) refers Lo varlous Lechnlques for lmprovlng Lhe accuracy and
rellablllLy of dlglLal communlcaLlons 1he Lheory behlnd uS ls qulLe complex aslcally uS
works by clarlfylng or sLandardlzlng Lhe levels or stotes of a dlglLal slgnal AuS clrculL ls able Lo
dlfferenLlaLe beLween humanmade slgnals whlch are orderly and nolse whlch ls lnherenLly
chaoLlc
All communlcaLlons clrculLs conLaln some nolse 1hls ls Lrue wheLher Lhe slgnals are analog or
dlglLal and regardless of Lhe Lype of lnformaLlon conveyed nolse ls Lhe eLernal bane of
communlcaLlons englneers who are always sLrlvlng Lo flnd new ways Lo lmprove Lhe slgnalLo
nolse raLlo ln communlcaLlons sysLems 1radlLlonal meLhods of opLlmlzlng S/n raLlo lnclude
lncreaslng Lhe LransmlLLed slgnal power and lncreaslng Lhe recelver senslLlvlLy
(lnwlreless sysLemsspeclallzed anLenna sysLems can also help) ulglLal slgnal processlng
dramaLlcally lmproves Lhe senslLlvlLy of a recelvlng unlL 1he effecL ls mosL noLlceable when
nolse compeLes wlLh a deslred slgnal A good uS clrculL can someLlmes seem llke an elecLronlc
mlracle worker uL Lhere are llmlLs Lo whaL lL can do lf Lhe nolse ls so sLrong LhaL all Lraces of
Lhe slgnal are obllLeraLed a uS clrculL cannoL flnd any order ln Lhe chaos and no slgnal wlll be
recelved
lf an lncomlng slgnal ls analog for example a sLandard Lelevlslon broadcasL sLaLlon Lhe slgnal ls
flrsL converLed Lo dlglLal form by an oooloqtoJlqltol coovettet (% 1he resulLlng dlglLal
slgnal has Lwo or more levels ldeally Lhese levels are always predlcLable exacL volLages or
currenLs Powever because Lhe lncomlng slgnal conLalns nolse Lhe levels are noL always aL Lhe
sLandard values 1he uS clrculL ad[usLs Lhe levels so Lhey are aL Lhe correcL values 1hls
pracLlcally ellmlnaLes Lhe nolse 1he dlglLal slgnal ls Lhen converLed back Lo analog from vla
a Jlqltoltooooloq coovettet (%
lf a recelved slgnal ls dlglLal for example compuLer daLa Lhen Lhe AuC and uAC are noL
necessary 1he uS acLs dlrecLly on Lhe lncomlng slgnal ellmlnaLlng lrregularlLles caused by
nolse and Lhereby mlnlmlzlng Lhe number of errors per unlL Llme
ef|ne S (|g|ta| S|gna| rocess|ng)
|g|ta| s|gna| process|ng (S) ls concerned wlLh Lhe represenLaLlon of dlscreLe Llme slgnals by
a sequence of numbers or symbols and Lhe processlng of Lhese slgnals ulglLal slgnal processlng
and analog slgnal processlng are subflelds of slgnal processlng uS lncludes subflelds
llke audlo and speech slgnal processlng sonar and radar slgnal processlng sensor array
processlng specLral esLlmaLlon sLaLlsLlcal slgnal processlng dlglLal lmage processlng slgnal
processlng for communlcaLlons conLrol of sysLems blomedlcal slgnal processlng selsmlc daLa
processlng eLc
1he goal of uS ls usually Lo measure fllLer and/or compress conLlnuous realworld analog
slgnals 1he flrsL sLep ls usually Lo converL Lhe slgnal from an analog Lo a dlglLal form
by soplloq lL uslng an analogLodlglLal converLer (AuC) whlch Lurns Lhe analog slgnal lnLo a
sLream of numbers Powever ofLen Lhe requlred ouLpuL slgnal ls anoLher analog ouLpuL slgnal
whlch requlres a dlglLalLoanalog converLer (uAC) Lven lf Lhls process ls more complex Lhan
analog processlng and has a dlscreLe value range Lhe appllcaLlon of compuLaLlonal power Lo
dlglLal slgnal processlng allows for many advanLages over analog processlng ln many
appllcaLlons such as error deLecLlon and correcLlon ln Lransmlsslon as well as daLa
compresslon
1

uS algorlLhms have long been run on sLandard compuLers on speclallzed processors
called dlglLal slgnal processor on purposebullL hardware such as appllcaLlonspeclflc lnLegraLed
clrculL (ASlCs) 1oday Lhere are addlLlonal Lechnologles used for dlglLal slgnal processlng
lncludlng more powerful general purpose mlcroprocessors fleldprogrammable gaLe
arrays (lCAs) dlglLal slgnal conLrollers (mosLly for lndusLrlal apps such as moLor conLrol)
and sLream processors among oLhers
Advantages and |sadvantages of us|ng S
AdvanLages
O ulglLal slgnal processlng allows sounds Lo be recorded and LransmlLLed ln ways noL posslble
Lhrough prevlously used analog Lechnology ulglLal slgnals are now used ln a varleLy of
Lechnologles and dlsclpllnes lncludlng cell phones muslc recordlng equlpmenL and Lelevlslons
1he dlglLal slgnal ls also greaLly beneflLed from Lhe lnLerneL whlch enables users Lo send
dlglLally produced audlo flles from one compuLer Lo Lhe oLher
?ou Can WaLch Cable
O As of !une 2009 analog Lelevlslon broadcasLs by fullpower Lelevlslon sLaLlons ceased ln Lhe
unlLed SLaLes 1hls means ln order Lo waLch cable Lelevlslon ln all of lLs mulLlchannel glory you
need Lo have equlpmenL wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo process a dlglLal slgnal 1hls ls accompllshed wlLh
Lhe purchase of a dlglLal Lelevlslon lf you own an analog Lelevlslon seL you are requlred Lo
lnsLall a dlglLal converLer box 1he advanLage of Lhe dlglLal slgnal ln regard Lo Lelevlslon ls
lncreased bandwldLh and resoluLlon 1hls ls whaL allows hlghdeflnlLlon Lelevlslon
versaLlllLy of Lhe Slgnal
O ln addlLlon Lo Lelevlslon broadcasLlng dlglLal slgnals can be used by a varleLy of elecLronlc
devlces Lo conLrol mulLlple sysLems Accordlng Lo Analogs webslLe dlglLal slgnals can be
recelved by compuLers Lo conLrol securlLy sysLems home audlo and vldeo devlces 1he
compressed dlglLal slgnal ls able Lo Lravel fasLer from one end Lo Lhe oLher lncreaslng devlce
response Llmes 1he slgnal ls also processed more accuraLely leadlng Lo beLLer cell phone call
quallLy and slgnal lnLegrlLy 1hls means fewer dropped calls
Lase of updaLlng
O lL ls easy Lo updaLe a dlglLal slgnal processor Lhrough Lhe slmple download of new sofLware
accordlng Lo Lhe webslLe for 8adlo LlecLronlcs 1hls allows a user Lo purchase a base model
dlglLal processor and conLlnually upgrade lLs sofLware over Llme raLher Lhan purchaslng a new
analog recelver whenever new addlLlons are needed 1hls downloaded sofLware can also
enable Lhe dlglLal slgnal processor Lo operaLe ln mulLlple funcLlons lncludlng dlglLal muslc
recordlng and volce recognlLlon
Advantages of d|g|ta| techn|ques
O no Llme and LemperaLure drlfL (buL clocks used ln uS hardware are analogue componenLs
and have Llme and LemperaLure drlfL)
O no loadlng effecLs beLween sLages
O no senslLlvlLy Lo componenL Lolerance (buL uS ls senslLlve Lo coefflclenL quanLlzaLlon
nolse)
O Lasy Lo adapL/updaLe/reconflgure Lhe sysLem (flexlblllLy)
O ongLerm sLorage for fuLure reference wlLhouL loss of lnformaLlon
O andwldLh uLlllzaLlon for slgnal Lransmlsslon by uslng Llme dlvlslon mulLlplexlng
|sadvantages of d|g|ta| techn|ques
O SLlll need analogue clrculLry (and Lhls clrculLry llmlLs Lhe performance)
O lmlLed range of frequencles avallable for processlng (sampllng Lheorem)
O 1he dlglLal clrculLry requlres large space ln an lnLegraLed clrculL and has large power
consumpLlon
O oss of lnformaLlon due Lo quanLlsaLlon
O 8ellablllLy (Lhere ls no wldely accepLable deflnlLlon of uS sofLware rellablllLy)
10 S App||cat|ons

1he maln appllcaLlons of uS are audlo slgnal processlng audlo compresslon dlglLal lmage
processlng vldeo compresslon speech processlng speech recognlLlon dlglLal
communlcaLlons 8AuA8 SCnA8 selsmology and blomedlclne Speclflc examples are speech
compresslon and Lransmlsslon ln dlglLal moblle phones room correcLlon of sound ln hl
fl and sound relnforcemenL appllcaLlons weaLher forecasLlng economlc
forecasLlng selsmlc daLa processlng analysls and conLrol of lndusLrlal processes medlcal
lmaglng such as CA1 scans and M8l M3compresslon compuLer graphlcs lmage manlpulaLlon
hlfl loudspeaker crossovers and equallzaLlon and audlo effecLs for use wlLh elecLrlc
gulLar ampllflers
WlLh Lhe advenL of `mulLlmedla dlglLal slgnal processlng (uS) of sound has emerged from Lhe
shadow of bandwldLh llmlLed speech processlng Lo become a research fleld of lLs own 1o daLe
mosL research ln uS applled Lo sound has been concenLraLed on speech whlch ls bandwldLh
llmlLed Lo abouL 4 klloherLz Speech processlng ls also llmlLed by Lhe low fldellLy Lyplcally
expecLed ln Lhe Lelephone neLwork 1oday Lhe maln appllcaLlons of audlo uS are hlgh quallLy
audlo codlng and Lhe dlglLal generaLlon and manlpulaLlon of muslc slgnals 1hey share common
research Loplcs lncludlng percepLual measuremenL Lechnlques and analysls/synLhesls meLhods
AddlLlonal lmporLanL Loplcs are hearlng alds uslng slgnal processlng Lechnology and hardware
archlLecLures for dlglLal slgnal processlng of audlo ln all Lhese areas Lhe lasL decade has seen a
slgnlflcanL amounL of appllcaLlonorlenLed research 1he frequency range of wldeband audlo
has an upper llmlL of 20 klloherLz and Lhe resulLlng dlfference ln frequency range and Slgnal Lo
nolse 8aLlo (Sn8) due Lo sample slze musL be Laken lnLo accounL when deslgnlng uS
algorlLhms 1here are whole classes of algorlLhms LhaL Lhe speech communlLy ls noL lnLeresLed
ln pursulng or uslng 1hese algorlLhms and Lechnlques are revealed ln Lhls book 1hls book ls
sulLable for advanced level courses and serves as a valuable reference for researchers ln Lhe
fleld lnLeresLed and lnformed englneers wlll also flnd Lhe book useful ln Lhelr work