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Introduction
O 8eLween 2011 and 2031 babyboomers wlll pass Lhe age of 63 years and wlll accounL for almosL onequarLer
of AusLralla's LoLal populaLlon AusLrallan lnsLlLuLe of Crlmlnology
O @he abuse of older women ls sLlll relaLlvely lnvlslble Lo servlce provlders and Lhe general communlLy ln
AusLralla
O lL ls a relaLlvely under researched and hldden problem whlch occurs across Lhe specLrum of our socleLy and
ls ofLen hard Lo recognlse unreporLed and hard Lo deLecL
Definition Domestic Violence:
O ln nSW Crlmes AcL 1900 s 13A deflnlLlon of Jomestlc vloleoce lncludes vlolence beLween people who are ln
a Jomestlc telotloosblp whlch broadly deflnes and lncludes exLended famlly members
O A petsoo ls a relaLlve of a person lf Lhe person ls
4 A faLher moLher grandfaLher grandmoLher sLepfaLher sLepmoLher faLherlnlaw or moLherln
law or
4 A son daughLer grandson granddaughLer sLepson sLepdaughLer sonlnlaw or daughLerlnlaw
or
4 A broLher slsLer halfbroLher halfslsLer broLherlnlaw or slsLerlnlaw or
4 An uncle aunL unclelnlaw or aunLlnlaw or
4 A nephew or nlece or
4 A cousln of Lhe oLher person or
Definition of Family violence:
O ,a[orlLy of Lhe search came up wlLh uomesLlc vlolence Cnly omlly vloleoce ltotectloo Act 2008 %vlc)
deflned lamlly vlolence
4 SecLlon 3
omlly vloleoce ls
%a) behavlour by a person Lowards a famlly member of LhaL person lf LhaL behavlour
%l) ls physlcally or sexually abuslve or
%ll) ls emoLlonally or psychologlcally abuslve or
%lll) ls economlcally abuslve or
%lv) ls LhreaLenlng or
%v) ls coerclve or
%vl) ln any oLher way conLrols or domlnaLes Lhe famlly member and causes LhaL famlly member Lo feel fear for Lhe
safeLy or wellbelng of LhaL famlly member or anoLher person or
%b) behavlour by a person LhaL causes a chlld Lo hear or wlLness or oLherwlse be exposed Lo Lhe effecLs of
behavlour referred Lo ln paragraph %a)

O uest|on Pow do Lhese deflnlLlons of famlly vlolence/domesLlc vlolence work for older women ln scenarlos
of resldenLlal care?
PUWER & CUNTRUL WHEEL: Tbe Dulutb Model
O Iso|at|on llmlLlng her ouLslde movemenL conLrolllng whaL she does who she sees and Lalks Lo whaL she
reads where she goes who she cannoL see
O M|n|m|z|ng deny|ng and b|am|ng saylng Lhe abuse dld noL happen maklng llghL of Lhe abuse and noL Laklng
her concerns abouL lL serlously shlfLlng responslblllLy for Lhe abuslve behavlour saylng she caused lL
O Us|ng ch||dren LhreaLenlng Lo Lake Lhe chlldren away
O Lconom|c abuse Laklng her money glvlng her an allowance
O Ma|e pr|v||ege maklng all Lhe declslons
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O Coerc|on and threats reporL her Lo welfare maklng her drop charges maklng ouL LhreaLs Lo do someLhlng
Lo hurL her
O Int|m|dat|on maklng her afrald by looks acLlons and gesLures
O Lmot|ona| abuse puLLlng her down maklng her feel bad abouL herself maklng her Lhlnk she's crazy
enerally for women, domestic violence consists of:
4 hys|ca| abuse nonaccldenLal acL whlch resulLs ln physlcal paln or ln[ury and whlch may lnclude
physlcal coerclon and physlcal resLralnL
4 Lmot|ona|]phys|o|og|ca| abuse language or acLlons deslgned Lo lnLlmldaLe anoLher person and ls
usually characLerlsed by a paLLern of behavlour repeaLed over Llme lnLended Lo malnLaln a hold of
fear over Lhem
4 Sexua| abuse unwanLed sexual behavlour wheLher Lhrough physlcal force emoLlonal lnLlmldaLlon
or any Lype of coerclon
4 Soc|a| abuse prevenLlng a person from havlng conLacL wlLh frlends or famlly or access Lo soclal
acLlvlLles
4 I|nanc|a| abuse Lhe lllegal or lmproper use or mlsmanagemenL of a persons money properLy or
resources
O uest|on Where do you Lhlnk neglecL slLs ln Lhe concepL of domesLlc vlolence and older women?
4 Neg|ect fallure of a carer Lo provlde Lhe necesslLles of llfe Lo a person for whom Lhey are carlng
4 8uL ln scenarlo of resldenLlal care neglecL won'L be a common slgn of domesLlc vlolence
Healtby Ageing Taskforce on 8 December , states tbat
4 #@be obose of olJet people occots wbeo tbete ls ooy oct occottloq wltblo o telotloosblp wbete tbete
ls oo lmpllcotloo of ttost wblcb tesolts lo botm to oo olJet petsoo Abose coo locloJe pbyslcol
sexool floooclol psycboloqlcol ooJ soclol obose ooJ/ot oeqlect

Ulder women:
O enerally accepLed Lhe chronologlcal age of 63 years as Lhe deflnlLlon of an 'older person' %World PealLh
CrganlsaLlon %WPC) 2009)
4 ln addlLlon Lo chronologlcal age Lhe age of a person can be deflned ln many ways encompasslng
blologlcal psychologlcal and socloculLural processes
O As in the Older Women's Network of New South Wales's (OWN NSW) report by Ludo McFerran, The
Disappearing Age (2009), chose to use 45 years and over as the benchmark age for becoming an 'older
woman'
4 This decision reflected a number of factors, including:
4 the lower life expectancy of ndigenous women; and the
4 ageing benchmark of 45 years used in the !ersonal Safety Survey 2005: Australian Bureau of Statistics
2006, !ersonal Safety Survey, Australia 2005, cat. no. 4906.0, reissue, ABS, Canberra.

Ulder women are social disadvantaged in tbe same disadvantaged groups as:
4 women wlLh dlsablllLles
4 younger women
4 women from culLurally and llngulsLlcally dlverse backgrounds
4 women wlLh large numbers of chlldren and
4 women ln rural reglonal and remoLe areas
O Pence Lhere may be an overlap beLween Lhls presenLaLlon and oLhers
3
O Clder women are also vulnerable Lo abuse by famlly members and professlonal carers AusLrallan lnsLlLuLe
of Crlmlnology @hrough acLs of negllgence and fraud
O uest|on glven Lhe lnformaLlon l already provlded Lo you whaL dlfflculLles do you Lhlnk older women face
ln deallng wlLh lamlly vlolence?
Tbe context of older women:
O 8efore we examlne whaL research has shown us we have Lo undersLand Lhe conLexL of older women
O uest|ons WhaL makes Lhem vulnerable? WhaL puLs Lhem ln a dlsadvanLaged group compared Lo older
men? Any ldeas?
O Clder Women
4 Lend Lo llve longer Lhan men and are more llkely Lo be flnanclally abused afLer Lhelr parLner dles
4 are more llkely Lo be abused by a broader range of famlly members
4 are more llkely Lo be dependenL on Lhe Aged enslon
O @hey become lncreaslngly more dependenL on famlly members for care and supporL whlch can place Lhem
more aL rlsk of abuse
4 ln parLlcular a decllne ln Lhelr healLh sLaLus can make Lhem more vu|nerab|e
4 AgelsL and sexlsL aLLlLudes ln Lhe communlLy conLrlbuLe Lo Lhls process and can make lL dlfflculL for
women Lo |eave abuslve slLuaLlons
O ln Lhe lamlly conLexL WhllsL more older men Lhan younger men are abused lL has been found LhaL more
older women Lhan older men are abused more ofLen Lhan noL by younger and older men ln Lhelr famllles
Wbat does tbe researcb tell us about tbe impact and tbe effects of family violence
on older women
O Clder women are parLlcularly aL rlsk of
4 neglecL
4 flnanclal abuse
4 physlcal abuse
4 psychologlcal abuse
4 sexual abuse

O Clder people who are separaLed or dlvorced are Lwlce as llkely as oLher older persons Lo be vlcLlms of crlme
@be vlctlmlsotloo of OlJet Aosttolloos 2001
O ln Lhe reporL @be ulsoppeotloq Aqe lL found LhaL older women ln Lhe years beLween Lhe ages of 43 and 63
seemlngly appear Lo enLer a vlolencefree zone only Lo reappear ln sLudles of 'elder abuse' wlLh recorded
raLes of abuse Lwo and a half Llmes Lhe raLe of men
4 8oldy u Webb , Porner 8 uavey , klngsley 8 2002 lJet obose lo westeto Aosttollo CenLre for
8esearch lnLo Aged Care Servlces CurLln unlverslLy of @echnology erLh p 13


O Clder Women who are llvlng alone wlll be
4 poorer Lhan men Lhelr age
4 less able Lo malnLaln homeownershlp
4 less able Lo compeLe ln Lhe prlvaLe renLal markeL for affordable accommodaLlon
4 @hey wlll be aL rlsk of homelessness
largely as a resulL of Lhe enLrenched soclal and economlc dlsadvanLage LhaL conLlnues Lo
separaLe Lhe experlences of women and men lL Could be ?ou female slngle older and
homeless 2010
etting of abuse
O Abuse can occur ln any seLLlng
4 elLher ln Lhe famlly home Lhrough professlonals or ln resldenLlal care
4
4 ln resldenLlal care older women may be especlally vulnerable because of cognlLlve deflclLs such as
demenLla and because of physlcal frallLy
4 erpeLraLors of abuse ln Lhe resldenLlal aged care faclllLles may be oLher resldenLs famlly members
oLhers vlslLors volunLeers or sLaff
Community Awareness
O @he low Lhreshold of communlLy awareness of Lhe problem
4 noL only Lhe communlLy ln general buL Lhe key players such as Lhe pollce legal healLh and menLal
healLh and soclal sclence professlonals so Lhey are more able Lo ldenLlfy undersLand and refer older
women who are aL rlsk of abuse
4 ls a need for enhanced communlLy supporL knowledge ln order Lo mlnlmlse Lhe effecLs LhaL
lsolaLlon and vulnerablllLy have on Lhe rlsk of vlcLlmlsaLlon %@be vlctlmlsotloo of OlJet Aosttolloos
2001 uomestlc ooJ omlly vloleoce ooJ nomelessoess A 5yotbesls kepott 2008)
Impact and effects {Result of Family Violence, sometbing tbat is produced by family
violence]
O leellng worLhless and lacklng self confldence
O Ashamed and afrald of leLLlng oLhers know abouL Lhe abuse
O leel LhaL you are Lo blame for Lhe abuse
O Popeless and sad because you have Lrled everyLhlng
O uepressed and lonely
O Afrald of whaL he mlghL do lf you leave or seek help
O Afrald LhaL noone wlll belleve you
O Scared of coplng on our own
O Confused
Difficulties faced by older women dealing witb family violence
O eLLlng ouL of Lhe slLuaLlon
O Pouslng
4 flndlng an approprlaLe houslng opLlon
4 movlng ouL of Lhe famlly home for many women
4 SLablllLy of accommodaLlon
O lear
4 lear of Lhe communlLy noL bellevlng Lhem
4 lear of reLrlbuLlon Lhrough physlcal emoLlonal vlolence
O onellness
4 |so|at|on elLher Lhrough successful and Lhe communlLy llsLens and Lhe vlcLlm ls removed from Lhe
houslng and placed ln anoLher aged care
4 @haL ls Lhe only relaLlve Lhey have
4 Women ln older years experlence lsolaLlon due Lo lssues from llfe LransformaLlons loss of an
lnLlmaLe parLner relaLlonshlp Lhrough dlvorce or deaLh domesLlc or famlly vlolence lll healLh or
depresslon and oLher menLal lllness
O anguage barrlers
4 When you add Lwo dlsadvanLaged groups LogeLher vlcLlm has no cholce?
O uependency on Lhe perpeLraLor
O vlew LhaL Lhere ls no oLher way #lf l llsLen Lhen Lhey wlll glve me whaL l wanL"
O Access Lo grandchlldren
O no one ls llsLenlng
O no opporLunlLy Lo ralse Lhe awareness
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arriers tbe older women receive accessing service
O 8esources
4 llrsLly Lhere ls lnadequaLe servlces and resources avallable for access Lo begln wlLh
4 @here ls a weak soclal supporL neLworks of older people and where/whom Lo reach ouL Lo
4 lack of resources Lo asslsL women and a lack of exlL polnLs from crlsls accommodaLlon lnLo longer
Lerm houslng
4 ,ore safe secure affordable and sLable houslng opLlons are needed Lo supporL women Lo re
esLabllsh Lhelr llves posL vlolence

O CommunlLy percepLlon
4 #l am dolng Lhls for your own good"
4 #you can'L manage your money l wlll do lL for you and glve you a weekly allowance"
4 #lf you go ouL by yourself you geL hurL who ls golng Lo help you"
4 #lf you llsLen Lo me l won'L call welfare on you"
4 #lf you do whaL l say you can see your grandchlldren"
How do older women get tbeir needs recognised on tbe public agenda
O usually older women dld noL geL Lhelr needs recognlsed on Lhe publlc agenda sLraLegles are needed Lo
ralse communlLy awareness around Lhe lssue exLenL and lmpacL of domesLlc and famlly vlolence on
older women
Current Associations National plans..
O ueparLmenL of lamllles Pouslng CommunlLy Servlces and lndlgenous Affalrs sub[ecL Area of Women
@he Cfflce for Women has a key role ln dellverlng servlces and ln provldlng Lhe prlnclpal
focus of consulLaLlon beLween Lhe women's secLor and overnmenL
O advance Lhe sLaLus of women Lhrough programs and servlces and granLs and
fundlng for organlsaLlons provldlng servlces for women
O Some AssoclaLlons whlch provlde help for Clder Women ln AusLralla
O 1he C|der Women's Network NSW
formed ln AusLralla ln 1987
A group of older women ln Lhe Comblned ensloners AssoclaLlon saw Lhe need for a
neLwork whlch would focus on Lhe lnLeresLs and concerns of older women
4 8enevo|ent Soc|ety
esLabllshed ln 1813
36 locaLlons across Lhree SLaLes Cu nSW
ueal wlLh
O chlldren and famllles %lncludlng domesLlc vlolence)
O agelng
O communlLy developmenL
O menLal healLh care
O soclal leadershlp
Conclusion:
O @he Lypes of asslsLance and supporL needed depend greaLly on Lhe persona| c|rcumstances %healLh soclal
culLural and geographlc background eL ceLera) and Lhe f|nanc|a| resources of/avallable Lo women especlally
Lhelr lndependenL flnanclal capaclLy
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O use parLlclpaLory models whlch empower older people Lo Lake ownershlp and malnLaln Lhelr lndependence
and quallLy of llfe