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MASONRY Semester 3 – Academic Year 2010/2011
MASONRY
Semester 3 – Academic Year
2010/2011

Prepared by:

Essy Arijoeni DTS-FTUI

Masonry

• Introduction and History

• Masonry Unit

• Mortar and Other Component

• Structural Design

• Non Structural Aspect of Design

• Masonry wall Construction

Defect in Masonry Wall

• Repairs and Improvement to Masonry Walls

Introduction and History

• Masonry has been used since 2700 BC

Egyptian constructed the famous stepped pyramid of Sakkara

• Following with the stone construction of Palace in Babylon (600 BC)

• Bridges, domes and walls in Germany (300 AD)

Ancient Masonry

Ancient Masonr y

Definition of Masonry

• Masonry is a Structures constructed by connected the Unit Bricks together with mortar bonding.

• The Unit Brick can be made of Stone, Rock, Lime Stone, Hard Clay, Clay, Mud etc.

Clay Brick Wall Bounded With Mortar

Clay Brick Wall Bounded With Mortar

Masonry Unit

• Masonry Unit is a single brick that can be made of Stone, Clay, Concrete and/or Composite Materials

• Process of brick making can be standardized-fabricated or traditionally non engineered production in local area.

Type of Unit Brick

Type of Unit Brick

Sizes of Bricks

Sizes of Bricks

The characteristics of clay brick masonry

Design developer:

Characteristics of clay bricks

 

Sven Sahlin (1971)

Compressive strength Modulus of rupture Modulus of elasticity

28

– 70 MPa

2.5 – 15 MPa

 

300

f b

Hendry A.W (1990)

Compressive strength Modulus of rupture Modulus of elasticity

42

– 60 MPa

3.36

– 6.30 MPa

700

f b

Hendry A.W., Sinha B.P., Davies S.R.

Compressive strength Modulus of rupture Modulus of elasticit y

60 - 80 MPa

4.60

– 7.20 MPa

(1997)

700

f ’

b

Australian Standard

Compressive strength Modulus of rupture Bond shear strength Modulus of elasticity:

 

30 MPa

AS3700-2001

0

0.15

– 0.35 MPa

700

f b

- short term loading - long term loading

450

f b

Structural Design

Structural Design
Structural Design

Non Structural Aspect of Design

• Quality of Raw Materials

Method of Drying

• Method of Burning

• Workmanship Error

Brick Making Machine

B r i c k M a ki ng M ac hi ne

Open Aired Drying Process

Open Aired Drying Process

Half Dry and Dried Brick

Half Dr y and Dried Brick
Half Dr y and Dried Brick

Hollow Clay Bricks

H o ll ow Cl ay B r i c k s

Machine Pressed Clay Brick

M ac hi ne Pressed Cl ay B r i c k
M ac hi ne Pressed Cl ay B r i c k
M ac hi ne Pressed Cl ay B r i c k

Traditional Storage of Clay Bricks Products

Traditional Storage of Clay Bricks Products

Clay Bricks - Ready to Use

Cla y Bricks - Ready to Use

Clay Brick Wall Arrangement

Cl ay B r i c k Wall A rrangement
Cl ay B r i c k Wall A rrangement
Arrangement of Construction for Single Masonry Wall

Arrangement of Construction for Single Masonry Wall

Brick Masonry Wall Arrangement

Brick Masonry Wall Arrangement

Single Wall

Single Wall

Stone Masonry Wall

Stone

Masonry

Wall

Batako Bricks

• Batako bricks are made of Cement Mortar containing the mix of Portland Cement, natural sand (fine aggregates) and water, molded in a rectangular box shape

• The unit bricks are made and fabricated by following the guidelines standard. (SNI)

Machine for Batako Production

Machine for Batako Production

Machine for Making Batako

Machine for Making Batako

Batako Bricks Drying Process

Batako Bricks Dr y in g Process

Product of Batako Bricks

Product of Batako Bricks

Construction of Batako Bricks

Construction of Batako Bricks

Application of Masonry for Rural Houses

Cabangbungin BEKASI, 2010
Cabangbungin BEKASI, 2010

Clay Brick House

Cla y Brick House

Combination of Clay Brick and Bamboo House

Combination of Cla y Brick and Bamboo House

Masonry wall Construction

Type of Construction

Development in Construction

Masonry Construction

Defect in Masonry Wall

Cracking

• Rain and Damp Penetration

• Other visible defects

• Workmanship factors affecting strength

Repairs and Improvement to Masonry

• Maintenance and repair

• Improvement and alteration

Evaluation on Compressive Strength of Local Clay Bricks Essy Arijoeni Departemen Teknik Sipil FTUI essy@eng.ui.ac.id
Evaluation on
Compressive Strength of
Local Clay Bricks
Essy Arijoeni
Departemen Teknik Sipil
FTUI
essy@eng.ui.ac.id
Content of Presentation : 1. Introduction 2. General theory 3. Experimental Procedure 4. Data Collecting
Content of Presentation :
1. Introduction
2. General theory
3. Experimental Procedure
4. Data Collecting and
Analysis
5. Conclusion and
recommendation
Key Words • Clay brick • Compressive strength • Compressive load • Cement mortar
Key Words
• Clay brick
• Compressive strength
• Compressive load
• Cement mortar
Introduction
Introduction

Masonry is a well-known composite building material constructed by bonding brick elements and mortar

• bricks are solid and generally made of clay in home-based factories
• bricks are solid and
generally made of clay in
home-based factories
INTRODUCTION (continued) • can be found easily • the cost is relatively low. • clay
INTRODUCTION (continued)
• can be found easily
• the cost is relatively low.
• clay bricks are locally produced
in home factories
• commonly used as building
materials for constructing rural
houses and low rise buildings
INTRODUCTION (continued)
INTRODUCTION (continued)

The quality of bricks are considered to be widely vary Produced under limited technical supervision Burned by using traditional wood-fired oven Need partial improvement in Indonesian Standard

• •
Map of West Java Jakarta Karawang Majalengka May 2001 Bandung
Map of West Java
Jakarta
Karawang
Majalengka
May 2001
Bandung
Jakarta – Cikarang – Karawang- Bandung Cikarang University of Indonesia
Jakarta – Cikarang – Karawang- Bandung
Cikarang
University of Indonesia
The Production of Local Bricks (a) (b) (c) (d)
The Production of Local Bricks
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
The Production of Local Bricks (e) (f) (g) (h)
The Production of Local Bricks
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Damage on masonry houses (b) (a) Damage on masonry housings during Bengkulu Earthquake, June 2000
Damage on masonry houses
(b)
(a)
Damage on masonry housings during Bengkulu Earthquake, June 2000
(a) Partial damage, (b) Total collapse and partial damage
(c)
(d)
Damage on masonry housings during Majalengka Earthquake, May 2001
(a) Severe damage,
(b) Partial damage on mortared walls
General theory •
General theory

compressive pressure (Fig. 1) per unit area is formulated as

f = P / A b V • The axial strain  is formulated as
f
= P
/ A
b
V
• The axial strain  is formulated
as
 =  V / h
• Modulus of Elasticity E b is
formulated as
E b = f b / 
Figure 1. Compressive pressure acting on the specimen P Area A V  V h
Figure 1. Compressive pressure
acting on the specimen
P
Area A
V
 V
h
Experimental Procedure (Standard SNI 15 – 2094 – 1991) - Evaluation of brick’s physical properties
Experimental Procedure
(Standard SNI 15 – 2094 – 1991)
- Evaluation of brick’s physical
properties (Table 1 and Table 2)
- Clasificasion of bricks (in color)
- Preparation of brick specimens
- Preparation of mortar mix
- Specimen coding
- Crushing test
Width unit brick (mm) Table 1. Average Size and Density of Brick Thickness (mm) Length
Width
unit brick
(mm)
Table 1. Average Size
and Density of Brick
Thickness (mm)
Length (mm)
Brick
Size
( mm )
Mass
Density
Color
Length
(gram)
(ton/m 3 )
Thick-
Width
ness
Yellow
46.63
90.28
190.59
1339.63
1.672
Dark
45.61
90.08
188.03
1325.23
1.719
Red
Red
46.10
90.94
190.45
1342.67
1.678
Average
46.11
90.44
189.69
Table 2. Surface Absorption Index ( S.R.) of Bricks S.R. ( gram/dm 2 /sec) Brick
Table 2. Surface Absorption Index
( S.R.) of Bricks
S.R.
( gram/dm 2 /sec)
Brick Color
Single Brick
Double Bricks
Triple Bricks
Yellow
19.74
17.92
18.43
Dark Red
26.68
29.48
27.51
Red
17.75
15.44
17.33
Table 3. The Composition of Mortar Mix. Mortar Composition Type of Mortar Masonry Classifica Chalk
Table 3.
The Composition of Mortar Mix.
Mortar Composition
Type of
Mortar
Masonry
Classifica
Chalk
Pozzolan
tion
Cement
Sand
1 (A)
1
-
3
-
I
2 (B)
1
-
4
-
I
Masonry classification = I, for Structural Masonry
Tabel 4. Water cement ratio of mortar. Coding Composition of Mortar Mix Water Cement Ratio
Tabel 4.
Water cement ratio of mortar.
Coding
Composition
of Mortar Mix
Water
Cement
Ratio
A
1:3
0.67
B
1
:
4
0.85
Table 5. Mortar specimens, size of 50 x 50 x 50 mm 3 Type of
Table 5. Mortar specimens, size of
50 x 50 x 50 mm 3
Type of
mortar
Coding
Number of
specimens
1 :
3
A
20
1 :
4
B
20
Figure 2. Method of Brick Cutting Coding Cut line Coding
Figure 2. Method of Brick Cutting
Coding
Cut line
Coding
Table 6. Brick Specimen Coding Brick Color Yellow Dark Red Red t number of specimens
Table 6. Brick Specimen Coding
Brick Color
Yellow
Dark
Red
Red
t
number of
specimens
T
o a
l
Mortar Type
:
A1
to
A11 to
A21 to
1
3
A10
A20
A30
30
Mortar Type
B1
to
B11 to
B21 to
1
:
4
B10
B20
B30
30
Figure 3. Compressive Brick Specimens Specimen Coding mortar A1 Space ±10 mm A1 Half part
Figure 3. Compressive Brick
Specimens
Specimen Coding
mortar
A1
Space ±10 mm
A1
Half part of brick
Preparation for brick compression test Brick specimens with sulphur capping Non-uniform shape and colour of
Preparation for brick compression test
Brick specimens
with sulphur
capping
Non-uniform shape and colour
of brick cross section area
Compression
test on a brick
specimen
Figure 4.Compression Test on a Brick Specimen
Figure 4.Compression Test on a Brick Specimen
Figure 5. Brick Specimens Before and After Tested
Figure 5. Brick Specimens Before and
After Tested
Data Collecting and Analysis • Maximum compressive stress • Modulus of elasticity
Data Collecting and Analysis
• Maximum compressive
stress
• Modulus of elasticity
Maximum Compressive Stress Mortar Mortar f b max f b max f b max Type
Maximum Compressive Stress
Mortar
Mortar
f b max
f b max
f b max
Type
Coding
Yellow Bricks
[N/mm 2 ]
Dark Red
Bricks
[N/mm 2 ]
Red Bricks
[N/mm 2 ]
1 : 3
A
15.04397
16.92766
14.55552
1 : 4
B
12.98479
15.27977
14.55502
Modulus of Elasticity E b , [N/mm 2 ] Compressive Stress Range Specimen 0–2 2-6
Modulus of Elasticity E b , [N/mm 2 ]
Compressive Stress Range
Specimen
0–2
2-6
6-10
≥10
Remark
N/mm 2
N/mm 2
N/mm 2
N/mm 2
A01 s/d A10
N D
7725.05
9541.73
5828.87
Mortar 1:3
B01 s/d B10
N D
5234.37
6177.96
5227.94
Mortar 1:4
A11 s/d A20
N D
10359.4
11180.1
9199.14
Mortar 1:3
B11 s/d B20
N D
5178.76
6298.79
6503.56
Mortar 1:4
A21 s/d A30
N D
6768.76
7312.94
7069.76
Mortar 1:3
B21 s/d B30
N D
4632.30
5350.57
7399.27
Mortar 1:4
N D = non deterministic – fissure closing stage
Constitutive model of Bricks Generalised Stress - Strain Curve of Cikarang Bricks 14 12 10
Constitutive model of Bricks
Generalised Stress - Strain Curve of Cikarang Bricks
14
12
10
y = 6299x-2.89
y = 546.18x - 2.8899
A verage
R 2 = 0.9997
R
2
= 0.9997
8
P
V
6
Fissure
closing
4
y
= 220 72x
2
.
R 2 = 1
0
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
Stress (M Pa)
Strain (mm/mm)
Strain (mm/mm)
Modulus of rupture Bending failure pattern One point load Two point loads Bending Test 1
Modulus of rupture
Bending failure pattern
One point load
Two point loads
Bending Test
1 point
2 point
Average
Modulus of rupture
(MPa)
3.366
2.639
3.003
S-Dev
1.560
1.188
1.384
COV
0.463
0.45
0.461
Number of specimens
20
20
20
Conclusion • The average water absorption index of yellow brick and red brick is 10
Conclusion
The average water absorption
index of yellow brick and red
brick is 10 –20 gr/dm 2 /second
• The average water absorption
index of dark red brick which is
> 10 –20 gr/dm 2 /second
• The over burned dark red bricks
have more surface cracks
compare to red and yellow
bricks.
CONCLUSION (continued … ) • The compressive strength of mortar type A is about 1.6
CONCLUSION (continued … )
• The compressive strength of
mortar type A is about 1.6 higher
than the compressive strength of
mortar type B
• Brick compressive strength is
influenced by type, quality and the
amount of mortar in each
specimens.
• Higher mortar strength will
produce higher brick compressive
strength
• Water cement ratio of mortar type
A is lower than water cement ratio
fo mortar type B.
CONCLUSION (continued … ) • The value of Modulus of Elasticity for brick using mortar
CONCLUSION (continued … )
• The value of Modulus of Elasticity
for brick using mortar type A >
mortar type B.
• Crack pattern generally occurred
across along the brick and mortar
with vertical crack pattern in the
direction of compressive pressure.
• Brittle failure happened in most
specimens and no ductility
response seen during these tests.
Recommendation • Developing different type of specimen model, either for brick assemblage compressive strength or
Recommendation
• Developing different type of
specimen model, either for brick
assemblage compressive strength
or column compressive strength.
• Concerning about different brick
product from different region.
• Consideration of surface
roughness of individual brick that
may affect the bonding between
mortar and brick
Recommendation (cont…) • Laboratory tests may be iterated as many tests as possible. • To
Recommendation (cont…)
• Laboratory tests may be iterated as
many tests as possible.
• To avoid a wide bias in test results,
the construction of specimens
should be arranged more precisely.
Essy AB
Essy AB