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1. BILBERRY  Anti-inflammatory  May increase coagulation

 Relaxes smooth muscles of time.
blood vessels  May interfere with iron
 Inhibits platelet aggregation absorption when taken
 Treatment for simple internally.
diarrhea  Use cautiously with ASA,
 DM anticoagulants.
 Antioxidant  CI: pregnancy and
 Treatment of varicose veins, lactation.

2. BLACK COHOSH  Binds to estrogen receptor  CI: antihypertensives,

 Inhibits luteinizing hormone lactation
 Apparent estrogen-like  May cause bradycardia,
activity hypotension.
 Treatment pf PMS and  Use in pregnancy only when
postmenopausal symptoms birth is imminent to
 Promotes labor of pregnancy promote labor.
 Decreases BP
 Treatment of snake bites
 Others: dysmenorrhea,
rheumatism, antispasmodic,
astringent, diuretic,
expectorant, sedative

3. ECHINACEA  Most common: prevention or  Not to be used in presence

reduction of symptoms of of autoimmune disease
cold/influenza (HIV/AIDS, MS, PTB)
 Boost immune system and  Not to be used with
increases body’s resistance immunosuppressants.
 Treatment: Herpes simplex,  Prolonged used may cause
Candida infections hepatotoxicity and
 Topically: wound healing, suppression of immune
antioxidant from UVR system.
 CI: alcoholism, children,
pregnancy, and lactation.

4. GINGKO  PVDs: Raynaud’s Disease,  Lag time: 4 – 8 weeks

intermittent claudication  Large doses: may cause
 Varicosities restlessness, headache,
 Cerebral vascular nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
insufficiencies  CI: pregnancy, lactation,
 Treatment of depression- children
related cognitive disorders  Avoid use with: bilberry,
 Tinnitus, vertigo anticoagulants, ASA
 Improvement of symptoms
of early-stage senility of
Alzheimer’s type

5. GINSENG  Most common: counteract  Avoid concomitant use with

effects of physical and mental stimulants, e.g. coffee, tea,
fatigue and cola.
 Improve stamina and  May potentiate MAOI
concentration action.
 Treatment of chronic  A/E: insomnia, palpitations,
hepatotoxicity r/t alcohol pruritus.
and drug ingestion
 Improve body’s resistance
 Regulates BP
 Reduce serum cholesterol
 Regulate blood glucose in
 Aphrodisiac

6. HAWTHORN  Mild hypertension  Avoid use with

 Athero- and arteriosclerosis antihypertensives or nitrates
 Prevention of chronic  A/E: nausea, fatigue,
angina; not intended for perspiration, increased CNS
acute angina depression and sedation

7. St. JOHN’S WORT  Mild to moderate depression  Avoid concomitant use with
 Possible: antibacterial, antidepressants (SSRI,
antiviral, wound healing MAOI)
properties  Should not be taken with
foods high in tyramine:
aged cheese, smoked meats,
liver, figs, yeast, beer, wine
 May inhibit absorption of
 A/E: GI distress, fatigue,
pruritus, weight gain,
headache, dizziness,
 May cause photosensitivity:
avoid sun exposure
 May decrease digoxin levels
 CI: pregnancy, lactation,
and children