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Chapter 16: Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution and the Emergence of Modern

Science Vocabulary
Scientific Revolution age of skepticism of previously accepted scientific ideas. Ptolemaic universe (geocentric conception) idea created by Ptolemy that the earth fixed at the center of the universe and all planets and heavenly bodies orbit it. is

Nicolaus Copernicus A mathematician and astronomer who discovered that the sun was the center of the universe called heliocentric universe Heliocentric conception (universe) An idea created by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe Tycho Brahe Studied the stars for 20 years and proved many of Copernicuss theories except that he didnt believe that the earth moved Johannes Kepler The assistant to Brahe who discovered the three laws of planetary motion. Three laws of planetary motion 1. Planets orbit in elliptical paths, not circular 2. Planets closer to sun move faster, planets father from sun move slower 3. The square of the time of revolution is equal to the cube of its average distance Galileo Galilei Mathematician and astronomer who created the first telescope and was the first to study the stars with it; proved Copernicuss theories; was put under house arrest and spent rest of his life studying mechanics. Isaac Newton Mathematician and astronomer who invented calculus, created the universal law of gravity, and studied composition of light. Universal law of gravity Published in Newtons novel, Principia World machine Newtons idea that the universe operated absolutely in time, space, and motion. Galen Greek physician of the 2nd century whose ideas were accepted until the scientific revolution. Andreas Vesalius First to make careful examinations of individual organs of the human body, corrected many wrong Galen ideas, but he still believed many other wrong ones.

William Harvey published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood, convinced society that Galens ideas were wrong, and showed the same blood goes through veins and arteries and makes a complete circuit through the body. Early women scientists Had unorthodox educations by husbands or fathers querelles des femmes A debate among men about the intellectual capabilities of women and whether they have the intelligence to study science. Descartes deductive method - Scientific method begins with observations and experiments and didnt concern why something occurred just how it did Cartesian dualism the idea of absolute duality between mind and body Rationalism Descartes idea that only things that can be reasoned by the mind are real Empiricism the idea developed by Spinoza that everything has a rational explanation and humans are capable of finding it and achieving happiness Scientific method - a proper means to examine and understand the physical realm Francis Bacons inductive method - Said with organized experiments and thorough, systematic observations, correct generalizations could be developed

Blaise Pascal - was a French Scientist who wanted to keep science and religion united English Royal & French Royal Academy of Sciences Created so scientists could communicate ideas and publish to wide public

SOAPSS
5. Newtons Rules of Reasoning: How would following these rules change a persons view of the world, of European religious traditions, and of ancient science? (pg. 494) S O A P S

7. The Father of Modern Rationalism: Describe Descartes principles of inquiry and compare them to Newtons rules of reasoning? (pg. 501) S Descartes, French man, Jesuit, Catholic, born to lower nobility, scientist, studied law, founder of rationalism. O 1637, Scientific Revolution, scientists are getting more attention and studying new methods to discover knowledge. A European Public, fellow scientists, educated people, Queen Christina P To explain his methods of coming to conclusions, to show the importance of using reason, logic, and math to discover new knowledge (deductive reasoning) - hypothesis S Changed our way of understanding and studying science, shaped modern methods

8. Pascal: What is a Man in the Infinite?: Why did Pascal; question whether human beings could achieve scientific certainty? (pg. 506) S O A P S

Focus Questions
1. What developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance contributed to the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century? During the renaissance, skepticism caused people to question previously accepted ideas, math became more important to scientists, trying to solve problems and dominate and understand nature, and to artists, trying to create accurate drawings of nature. These caused a renewed interest in solving scientific problems, which created the Scientific Revolution. 2. What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe? How did it differ from the Ptolemaic conception of the universe? Copernicus developed the idea of a heliocentric universe to disprove the idea of a geocentric universe Kepler published his three laws of planetary motion: planets move in elliptical paths rather than circular, planets closer to sun move faster, planets father from sun move slower, and the square of the time of revolution is equal to the cube of its average distance Galileo Created and used the first telescope to study the stars, said the universe was composed of material substances, which contradicted Ptolemys theory that outside the earth the universe was filled with heavenly bodies, showed that an object would continue to move if a force stopped pushing it which disproved Ptolemy who thought the object would gradually come to a stop

Newton Discovered calculus and the universal law of motion 3. What are the broader social, political, & cultural implications of Newtons ideas?

4. What did Paracelsus, Vesalius, & Harvey contribute to the scientific view of medicine? Paracelsus believed disease was a chemical imbalance and discovered that like cures like Vesalius First to make careful examinations of individual organs of the human body, corrected many wrong Galen ideas Harvey convinced society that Galens ideas were wrong, and showed the same blood goes through veins and arteries and makes a complete circuit through the body 5. What role did women play in the Scientific Revolution?

6. Why is Descartes considered the founder of modern rationalism?

7. Compare & contrast the methods of Bacon and Descartes.

8. How were the ideas of the Scientific Revolution spread, and what impact did they have on society and religion?

9. In what ways were the intellectual, political, social and religious developments of the seventeenth century related?

Notes

Background to the Scientific Revolution


Middle Ages wasnt a period of scientific ignorance, but the scientists, called natural scientists, of that time accepted many old ideas from very old scientists such as Aristotle and Galen

During and after skepticism started, scientists started to question these accepted ideas Ancient Authors and Renaissance Artists
Aristotle, Galen, and Ptolemys work in physics, medicine, and astronomy helped renaissance scholars create their own ideas Scientists encouraged to find correct ideas Renaissance artists tried to imitate nature using close observation to create accurate drawings of rocks, plants, and animals which brought about new standards for the study of natural phenomenon Renaissance artists also known to be mathematicians in order to accurately draw Technological Innovations and Mathematics Technical problems-calculating ships tonnage-stimulated scientific activity 1400s and 1500s many books of machines and technology Many technological experts didnt believe in abstract and academic learning Printing press helped spread ideas Mathematics was promoted in the renaissance from rediscovery of works of ancient mathematicians and Plato Mathematics-key to understanding the nature of things Renaissance Magic Hermeticism-believed that world was a living embodiment of divinity, humans also had spark of divinity, use mathematical magic to understand and dominate the world of nature Hermeticism influenced scientists such as Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton and is considered an important factor in the origin of the scientific revolution

Toward a new Heaven: A Revolution in Astronomy


Greatest achievements of the 1500s and 1600s were fields most dominated by Greek ideas astronomy, mechanics, and medicine Cosmological views Aristotle, Ptolemy (greatest astronomer of antiquity), and Christian theology Ptolemaic or geocentric Conception earth composed of air, earth, water, and fire; thought stars were heavenly bodies Astronomers try to map paths of heavenly bodies didnt match what people thought at the time

Copernicus Studied math and astronomy Polish Wrote famous book, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, published posthumously to avoid ridicule Heliocentric conception Protestants against new ideas Catholics didnt denounce them until the work of Galileo Brahe Danish, given land and built library and observatory 20 years, he studied the stars and disproved the Ptolemaic system and agreed with Copernicus except he didnt believe that the earth moved Assistant was Johannes Kepler Kepler First studies theology, but changed to math, astronomy, and hermeticism Created three laws of planetary motion o Planets orbit in elliptical paths, not circular o Planets closer to sun move faster o The square of the time of revolution is equal to the cube of its average distance Galileo Taught mathematics at one of the most prestigious Universities First to make observations through a telescope (new age in astronomy) Created his own Discovered craters on the moon, four moons revolving Jupitar, and sunspots Proved universe outside earth also composed of materials found on earth Published The Starry Messenger in 1610, astounded people, offered position as court mathematician Catholic Church disagreed with ideas Galileo and the Inquisition Catholic Church told Galileo he could discuss Copernicanism as long as he said it was a mathematical supposition and not a fact Galileo publishes Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican in Latin

In the book, a man who supports Copernicanism wins over a Ptolemaic supporter The Inquisition found him guilty of teaching of the condemned Copernican system and forced to say he was wrong He was placed under house-arrest and he worked on studying mechanics for the last eight years of his life Galileo and the Problem of Motion Mechanic problem was the principal of motion People believed Aristotles idea that an object remained at rest unless a force was applied to it, if force was removed the object would stop Problem with cannons that the ball would continue to move after being shot Galileo made two contributions to the problem of motion o If uniform force is applied to an object, it would move at an accelerated speed o Founded principal of inertia, body in motion stays in motion Economic decline and condemnation of Galileo undermined scientific work Scientific leaders now in northern countries England, France, and Dutch Netherlands Newton English man while fleeing the plague in 1666, he invented Calculus, a mathematical means of calculating rates of change, began investigation of composition of light, and started working on the law of universal gravitation Wrote famous Principia, accepted chair at Cambridge in mathematics President of Royal Society in 1703 and knighted in 1705 Newton and the Occult Newton was a strong believer of alchemy and hermeticism Universal Law of Gravitation Newtons major work was Principia (last influential book written in Latin) o First to piece together a synthesis of the new cosmology o Contained his theories on mechanics and his Universal Laws of Gravitation o Showed one law could explain all motion in the universe Created idea of the world machine universe is one big regulated and uniform motioning machine

Advances in Medicine and Chemistry


Medieval view of medicine was from Greek physician, Galen. 200AD

Galens ideas were inaccurate, were still used until the renaissance Sickness was believed to be an imbalance of the four humors Paracelsus Disliked and hard to work with Rejected ideas of Aristotle and Galen Wanted to create a new chemical philosophy Father of modern medicine Believed disease was a chemical imbalance Started to pay careful attention to proper dosage and the idea that like cures like Associated with diagnosis and disease Vesalius Professor at University of Padua Published On the Fabric of the Human Body o Careful examination of individual organs of the human body o Corrected some of Galens incorrect ideas, but still believed in many other wrong ones William Harvey Attended Cambridge Published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood Led society to stop using Galens ideas Showed that the heart was the beginning point of circulation, that the same blood travels through veins and arteries, and that blood makes a full circuit as it goes through the body Foundation of modern physiology Chemistry Robert Boyle one of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments o Worked on gases Boyles Law volume of gas changes with pressure Antoine Lavoisier Invented system of naming chemical elements o Founder of modern chemistry

Women in the Origins of Modern Science


Men believed women shouldnt study science, they thought they should be daughters, mothers, and wives

Humanism caused men to encourage the education of women Margaret Cavendish Women had to receive informal education Usually only European nobles had access to learning Noblewomen could learn from their educated fathers and brothers Margeret Cavendish wrote Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy, didnt believe that humans could have absolute power over nature o Good example of French and English women scientists In Germany, women were able to study science because of the tradition of of woman participation in craft production They studied entomology and astronomy 1/7 astronomers in germany were women Maria Merian Scientist from craft tradition was Maria Merian who learned from her father Went to Surinam, Published Metamorphosis of the insects of Surinam Maria Winkelmann Woman typically learned from their fathers or husbands in family observatories Most famous astronomer was Maria Winkelmann Taught by father and uncle Husband, Gottfried Leiniz, invented a form of calculus Applied for position at Berlin academy, but was rejected Debates on the Nature of Women

Known as querelles des femmes which is the centuries long debate about the capability of women to study science and questioning whether they have the intelligence to do so Women were thought to be prone to vice, easily swayed, and sexually insatiable; noble and educated women were thought to have overcome these impediments Women became involved and argued that they just as capable as men in science Scientist began to sketch illustrations of men and women and thought they had evidence proving that women and smaller brains and therefore werent as intelligent

Toward a New earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind


Ren Descartes important figure in western history, born to lower nobility, studied law, Jesuit One night, he thought of a new rational-mathematical system He tried to think of everything he knew for sure and saw that the only thing he knew was that he existed He said he would only accept what he could reason to be true He also believed in the separation of mind and matter He saw that humans could understand nature by using reason and mathematics because it was mechanical Scientists took his ideas and began to see matter as dead and could be investigated Allowed westerners to identify with the mind instead of the body Called the father of modern rationalism Condemned by Catholic and Protestant church

The Scientific Method and the Spread of Scientific Knowledge


During 1600s, scientific learning increased, universities expanded and created new chairs of science, especially in medicine, princes begin to fund scientists The Scientific Method Developing a proper means to examine and understand the physical realm This development was called the scientific method Francis Bacon An English lawyer didnt believe Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileos ideas Bacon created a scientific method built on inductive principles Said that scientists shouldnt trust previous scientists theories Said organized experiments and thorough, systematic observations, correct generalizations could be developed Central aim in science was to dominate and control nature Descartes Proposed different idea to scientific methodology by emphasizing deduction and logic Believed that by starting at self-evident truths people could deduce other truths

Newton joins the two methodologies of empiricism and rationalism Scientific method begins with observations and experiments Scientific method didnt concern why something occurred just how it did The Spread of Scientific Knowledge There was an emergence of new learned societies New scientists to communicate ideas and publish to wide public The Scientific Societies First appeared in Italy but England and France created more important ones English Royal Society and French Royal academy of sciences rose from informal scientific meetings French Royal academy of sciences controlled by government, members were appointed and given salaries English Royal Society had little government support and chose their own members Both emphasized the importance of scientific research and focused on mechanics and astronomy German states encourage and create scientific societies to help their state English and French showed science was a cooperative venture Both societies created journals publishing their experiments and findings to other scientists and the public Science and Society There are two major reasons for the rapid acceptance of new science o Mercantile elites wanted science in order to find new ways to create profit o Rulers used science to strengthen social stability Puritans used new science in order to reform society Nobles believed in the new mechanistic view and material benefits of science 1700s Newtonian world-machine was readily accepted Science and Religion Theology was one of the most important sciences Philosophers separated religion from natural philosophy Catholic church tries to retain the belief of the Ptolemaic universe and a division was formed between science and religion As science began to grow, Catholic beliefs began to be believed less Spinoza and Pascal create two different philosophical systems

Spinoza Benedict de Spinoza was a philosopher ostracized by Christian and Jewish communities for rejecting the religious thought and was influenced by Descartes Believed God was the universe and that everything has a rational explanation, and humans are capable of finding it Saw that people before him had the wrong idea of God Pascal Blaise Pascal was a French Scientist who wanted to keep science and religion united Also a mathematician created a calculus machine and a theory for probability and conics Spiritual awakening caused him to write Pensees which tried to convert radicalists to christianity Saw humans as frail and mislead by reason Believed reason could only take humans so far and they needed faith He wasnt able to unite science and religion Intellectual, social, and political elites began to act on a secular basis rather than religious