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Waste Collection

A report

With support from ISWA Working Group on Collection and Transportation Technology

Written by Thomas Kogler 2007

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.1.3 2.1.1.4 2.1.1.5 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.3.1 2.1.3.1.1 2.1.3.1.2 2.1.3.1.3 2.1.3.1.4 2.1.3.1.5 2.1.3.2 2.1.3.3 2.1.3.3.1 2.1.3.3.2 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.3.3 2.2.4 2.2.4.1 2.2.4.1.1 2.2.4.1.2 2.2.4.2 2.2.4.2.1 2.2.4.2.2 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................1 Waste generation ........................................................................................................3 Urbanisation ...............................................................................................................5 Waste management in the European Union ...............................................................7 Scope and research questions ...................................................................................10 TRADITIONAL WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS ...........................................13 Waste collection systems .........................................................................................13 Collection methods...................................................................................................15 Simple emptying ......................................................................................................15 Exchange method .....................................................................................................15 One-way method ......................................................................................................16 Non-systematic collection ........................................................................................16 Special collection .....................................................................................................16 Container systems ....................................................................................................17 Vehicles ....................................................................................................................19 Vehicles for simple emptying method .....................................................................19 Rear-loading trucks ..................................................................................................19 Side-loading trucks...................................................................................................21 Front-loading trucks .................................................................................................22 Vacuum collection vehicles .....................................................................................24 Multi-chamber trucks ...............................................................................................26 Container vehicles ....................................................................................................27 Special vehicles and latest inventions ......................................................................28 Vehicles with subdivided build-up...........................................................................29 Vehicles with subdivided driving cab ......................................................................30 Personnel ..................................................................................................................32 Household waste collection......................................................................................33 Separated collection of recyclables ..........................................................................37 Kerbside collection...................................................................................................39 General features........................................................................................................40 Drop-off systems ......................................................................................................42 General features........................................................................................................42 Drop-off sites............................................................................................................42 Drop-off recycling centres .......................................................................................44 Waste tarifs...............................................................................................................45 Traditional fee systems.............................................................................................45 Flat Fee Systems.......................................................................................................45 Container Tag Fee Systems......................................................................................45 Alternative fee systems ............................................................................................46 Individual billing systems ........................................................................................46 Coin systems ............................................................................................................49

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2.2.4.2.3 2.2.4.3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.5.1 2.3.5.2 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.4.1 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.3.1 4.3.3.2 4.3.3.3 4.3.4 5 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.3.1 5.2.3.2

Card Systems............................................................................................................49 Case study for individual billing system ..................................................................50 Developments in waste management .......................................................................51 Collection method ....................................................................................................52 Container systems ....................................................................................................52 Vehicles ....................................................................................................................52 Personnel ..................................................................................................................53 Route planning and supervision systems .................................................................53 Route planning .........................................................................................................53 Supervision systems .................................................................................................54 ALTERNATIVE WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS AND CONCEPTS ...........57 Container systems ....................................................................................................60 Deep Collection........................................................................................................60 Hydraulic underground compactors .........................................................................63 Vacuum suction systems ..........................................................................................64 THE AUTOMATED WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM OF ENVAC .................65 General explanation of the system ...........................................................................65 Technical description ...............................................................................................65 Waste collection terminal.........................................................................................68 Waste transport pipes Pipe network ......................................................................74 Waste discharge valves ............................................................................................75 Charging stations......................................................................................................76 Waste inlets ..............................................................................................................77 Air inlet valves .........................................................................................................79 Separated collection with vacuum collection systems .............................................80 Function....................................................................................................................81 Case studies ..............................................................................................................85 Denmark ...................................................................................................................86 Norway .....................................................................................................................86 Spain.........................................................................................................................87 Seville.......................................................................................................................87 Victoria-Gasteiz .......................................................................................................87 Mallorca ...................................................................................................................88 China ........................................................................................................................89 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS ...............90 Criteria for comparison ............................................................................................90 Quantifiable criteria..................................................................................................92 Costs .........................................................................................................................92 Traffic load ...............................................................................................................96 Noise.........................................................................................................................99 Traditional collection with rear loading trucks ......................................................100 Vacuum suction systems ........................................................................................100

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5.2.3.3 5.2.4 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.4 6 7 7.1 8

Exkursus Project SYLVIE ..................................................................................101 Safety for collection workers .................................................................................102 Non-quantifiable criteria ........................................................................................106 Hygiene ..................................................................................................................106 Unpleasant odour....................................................................................................109 Collection systems and trends in waste management ............................................112 CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................114 APPENDIX ............................................................................................................118 Summary of Vstra Hammarby Sjstad study: ......................................................118 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................119

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List of Figures

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1: Trend of municipal waste generation, GDP and private consumption expenditure (PCE) in OECD countries Fig. 2: Household waste volumes in European cities Fig. 3: Urban population projections for 2020 Fig. 4: Containers in different sizes (120l, 240l and 1,100l) Fig. 5: Rear-loading truck Fig. 6: Side-loading truck Fig. 7: Front-loading truck Fig. 8: Schematic depiction of collection activity with vacuum collection vehicles Fig. 9: Multi-chamber truck Fig. 10: Container vehicles Fig. 11: Collection vehicle with subdivided build-up Fig. 12: Vehicle with subdivided driving cab Fig. 13: Correlation of efficiency and costs in waste collection (adapted) Fig. 14: Collection systems (adapted) Fig. 15: Drop-off site in a Viennese neighbourhood, Vienna 1998 Fig. 16: Individual billing system Fig. 17: Fleet consumption (24 vehicles) in the city of Hamburg (adapted) Fig. 18: Innovative concepts: Attractiveness of markets Fig. 19: Deep collection containers Fig. 20: Cross section of a deep collection container Fig. 21: Emptying of deep collection containers Fig. 22: Hydraulic underground compactor in normal and emptying position Fig. 23: Schematic depiction of the major components of an AWCS (adapted) Fig. 24: Air exhausters in waste collection terminal Fig. 25: Cyclone waste separator Fig. 26: Containers in waste collection terminal Fig. 27: Container ready for pick-up Fig. 28: Waste collection terminal Fig. 29: Schematic depiction of an out-door charging station Fig. 30: Waste inlet (outdoor) Fig. 31: Waste inlet with surrounding Fig. 32: Waste inlet in the centre of the Spanish city Seville Fig. 33: Indoor waste inlets Fig. 34: Three way diverter valve in different positions Fig. 35: Scheme of a suction system Fig. 36: Product life cycle Fig. 37: Waste inlets in the historic city centre of Victoria-Gasteiz Fig. 38: Schematic depiction of transport occurring in kerbside and vacuum suction systems Fig. 39: Regional traffic load Fig. 40: Methods for improved container handling Fig. 41: Work related fatalities per 1000 gainfully employed men Fig. 42: Work related accidents per 1000 gainfully employed men Fig. 43: Comparison of collection systems regarding workers safety 4 5 6 17 20 22 23 25 26 28 29 31 38 40 43 47 56 59 60 61 61 63 66 69 70 71 72 74 76 77 78 78 79 80 83 84 87 97 98 103 103 104 106

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List of Figures

Fig. 44: Comparison of hygiene in different waste collection systems Fig. 45: Comparison of level of unpleasant odour occurring in different waste collection systems

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List of Tables

LIST OF TABLES

1: Average price levels for collection vehicles 2: Investment costs for individual billing systems for 10,000 bins 3: Waste generation in pay-per-kg municipalities and reference municipalities 4: General information on the Stockholm region Hammarby Sjstad 5: Comparison of total operating and capital costs for the region Hammarby Sjstad Table 6: Comparison of operating- and investment costs per dwelling Table 7: Comparison of costs per dwelling in Sdra Station, Stockholm Table 8: Traffic load in collection area Table 9: Outdoor noise for the whole area of Hammarby Sjstad Manual waste handling Table 10: Outdoor noise for the whole area of Hammarby Sjstad Vacuum suction system Table 11: Collection systems and trends in waste management

Table Table Table Table Table

24 48 50 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 112

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Terms and Definitions

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS (GLOSSARY) Since the chosen topic deals with many terms and concepts it is of great importance to define certain terms that are frequently used in the underlying thesis. In both the English and the German language, there are many different words for the things we throw away, e.g.: trash, waste, garbage, rubbish, refuse and so on. In order to be able to discuss problems regarding waste scientifically it is of great importance that these different terms, mentioned above, are clearly defined.1 Waste Abfall

Waste is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. Waste is a human concept: in natural processes there is no waste, only inert end products. Waste can exist in any phase of matter (solid, liquid, or gas). When released in the latter two states, gas especially, the wastes are referred to as emissions. It is usually strongly linked with pollution.2 Waste management Abfallwirtschaft

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually those produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local amenity. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the environment and to recover resources from them.3 Waste management encompasses the sum of all measures of waste avoidance, nonharmful treatment, recovery, reuse and final disposal of wastes of all types while giving due consideration to ecological and economic aspects.4 Solid waste management Abfallwirtschaft

Solid waste management may be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations and that is also responsive to public attitudes.5

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BHMER, G.: Solid waste and the hierachy in solid waste management systems, Diplomarbeit an der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, Wien 1995, p. 2 BIOCRAWLER: http://www.biocrawler.com/biowiki/Waste, 25.10.2005 WIKIPEDIA: http://www.wikipedia.org, 25.10.2005 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 259 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 7

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Terms and Definitions

Solid waste services

Mllabfuhr

Solid waste services include the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. In everyday language the less comprehensive term refuse collection is more common.6 In a narrow sense, the German concept of Mllabfuhr corresponds to refuse collection and does not comprise the disposal of solid wastes, but since the collection and transportation authorities are usually responsible for the disposal as well, the terms Mllabfuhr and refuse collection can be interpreted as the overall services rendered by the waste authorities or companies.7 Waste collection systems Sammelsysteme

A collection system is defined as a combination of technology and human labour, specially: Collection method Container system Vehicles and Personnel8 Landfilling Deponierung

Landfilling is the controlled disposal on or in the earths mantle and it includes monitoring of the incoming waste stream, placement and compaction of the waste and installation of environmental monitoring and control facilities.9 Municipal solid wastes Kommunale Abflle

Municipal solid waste includes all the wastes generated from residential households and apartment buildings, commercial and business establishments, institutional facilities, construction and demolition activities, municipal services and treatment plant sites10
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JENKINS, R.R.: The economics of solid waste reduction The impact of user fees, Edward Elgar Publishing, Hampshire 1993, p. 1 BHMER, G.: Solid waste and the hierachy in solid waste management systems, Diplomarbeit an der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, Wien 1995, p. 105 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 64 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 362 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 909

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Terms and Definitions

Commercial solid wastes

Gewerbliche Abflle

Commercial solid wastes are wastes that originate in wholesale, retail, or service establishments, such as office buildings, stores, markets, theatres, hotels and warehouses, which are usually discarded with residential solid waste.11 Industrial wastes Industrielle Abflle

Industrial wastes are wastes generally discarded from industrial operations or derived from manufacturing processes.12 Recyclables Altstoffe

Recyclable resources are materials that still have useful physical or chemical properties after serving a specific purpose and therefore can be re-used or recycled for the same or other purposes.13 Residual waste Restmll

Residual waste is mostly solid waste from private households not including bio-waste, potential recyclable and household hazardous waste (HHW). Organic waste Biogener Abfall

Organic waste is the biodegradable component of municipal waste (e.g. food and garden waste).14 Bulky waste Sperrmll

Bulky waste refers to large worn-out or broken household, commercial and industrial items such as furniture, lamps, bookcases, filing cabinets and other similar items15

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TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 906 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 908 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 910 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K. .: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 21 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 43

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Terms and Definitions

Hazardous wastes and substances

gefhrliche Abflle

Hazardous wastes are wastes that by their nature may pose a threat to human health or the environment, the handling and disposal of which is regulated by federal law. Hazardous wastes include radioactive substances, toxic chemical, biological wastes, flammable wastes and explosives.16 Waste Transportation Mlltransport

The term transportation refers to the physical act of transporting the collected waste to waste treatment facilities. These may be: recycling centres, incineration plants, chemical or physical treatment facilities or both, landfill or other facilities such as transfer stations.17 Kerbside collection Holsystem

Kerbside collection is defined as collection of waste from the source, i.e. from households, commercial and industrial premises.18 Drop-off system Bringsystem

This term refers to the collection of waste from certain special collection centres and sites. In drop-off systems, accumulated recyclables are taken by the consumer (waste producer) to a central location and placed into individually marked receptacles.19

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TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 908 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 77 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 99 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 102

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Waste collection lies at the hub of an integrated waste management system. The way that waste materials are collected (and subsequently sorted) determines which waste management options can subsequently be used. Moreover, the selected collection method will significantly influence the quality of recovered materials.20 Collection of unseparated and separated solid waste in urban areas is difficult and complex because the generation of residential and commercial industrial solid waste takes place in every home, every apartment building and every commercial and industrial facility as well as in the streets, parks and even vacant areas.21 Waste collection is also the contact point between the waste generators and the waste management system and this relationship needs to be carefully managed in order to have an effective system.22 The collection-transfer-transportation of waste is often underestimated in terms of its importance within waste management systems. It does, after all, account for 60 to 80% of the total cost of waste disposal and thus any improvement in its organization and implementation would result in considerable savings.23 This stresses the importance of new, innovative concepts in order to achieve cost savings in the collection and transportation of waste. Waste collection in high density areas like big cities has become a more and more challenging task for the local authorities.24 The following trends, effecting waste collection and transportation in urban areas can be observed:25 Increasing waste volumes every year Source separation of several fractions, due to an increase in recycling Increasing traffic volumes and congestion Increasing traffic related emissions of pollutants and noise
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WHITE, P., et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Black Academic & Professional, Boston et al. 1995, p. 87 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 193 WHITE, P., et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Black Academic & Professional, Boston et al. 1995, p. 87 f BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 63 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 117 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 126

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Higher hygienic standards and lower noise levels Improved quality of life Improved working conditions for the collectors and operators26 Although the importance of these trends vary in different countries, collection systems of tomorrow will have to meet these requirements so as to contribute to a better living environment in densely populated areas.27 The background of these trends and their effects on waste collection will be presented in the following paragraphs. Increasing waste volumes and source separation are trends directly influencing waste collection systems. Since according to VOGEL, the objectives of waste collection systems are waste removal with a minimum of resource use and environmental impact with adherence to hygienic and health standards.28 It is clearly visible that increasing waste volumes are challenging waste collection in a sense that the generated waste has to be collected through suitable collection schemes. Source separation is an accepted means of reducing residual waste. The implementation in the member states of the European Union legislation and the setting of targets strongly influenced waste collection activities.29 Increasing traffic volumes and congestion, increasing traffic related emissions of pollutants and noise, higher hygienic standards and lower noise levels and finally improved quality of life are issues strongly related to urbanisation processes.30 More details regarding these issues are provided in the following chapters.

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JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 120 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 126 VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 28 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 123 COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: A Thematic Strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Jan. 2006, p. 3 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/com_2005_0718_en.pdf

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1.1 Waste generation Waste generation in the EU is estimated at more than 1.3 billion tonnes per year and is increasing at rates comparable to economic growth. For example, both GDP and municipal waste grew by 19% between 1995 and 2003. One consequence of this growth is that despite large increases in recycling, landfill - the environmentally most problematic way to get rid of waste - is only reducing slowly.31 The generation of construction and demolition waste and municipal waste are closely linked to economic activity.32 Increasing waste volumes are not solely observed in the European Union. The direct correlation of municipal waste generation, private consumption expenditure (PCE) and GDP is also true for OECD countries.33 For the period 1980 to 1995, figure 1 shows how the growth in municipal waste has closely followed increases in GDP and consumer spending (the absolute increase of all three factors has been around 40%). Total municipal waste production in 1995 was 485 million tonnes. On a per capita (relative) basis, the increase in municipal waste from 1980-1995 has been 25%, that is, from 410 kilograms per capita to 510 kilograms per capita.34

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: New waste strategy: Making Europe a recycling society, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 1 http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/1673&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLang uage=en EEA: Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century, Copenhagen 1999, p. 205 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/92-9157-202-0-sum/en/ OECD: Strategic waste prevention, OECD reference manual, Paris Aug. 2000, p. 26 http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2000doc.nsf/4f7adc214b91a685c12569fa005d0ee7/c12568d1006e03f7c125692e004f054a/$ FILE/00081387.PDF OECD: Strategic waste prevention, OECD reference manual, Paris Aug. 2000, p. 26 http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2000doc.nsf/4f7adc214b91a685c12569fa005d0ee7/c12568d1006e03f7c125692e004f054a/$ FILE/00081387.PDF

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Fig. 1:
Source:

Trend of municipal waste generation, GDP and private consumption expenditure (PCE) in OECD countries
OECD: Strategic waste prevention, OECD reference manual, Paris Aug. 2000, p. 26 http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2000doc.nsf/4f7adc214b91a685c12569fa005d0ee7/c12568d1006e03f7c125692e004f0 54a/$FILE/00081387.PDF

As indicated in figure 1, waste generation is still linked to economic activity, meaning that, as Europes economy grows, the waste problem will grow with it.35 The most important issue in this context is to de-link waste generation from economic growth.36 Figure 2 shows the developments of household waste volumes in selected European cities, stressing the importance of sufficient and sustainable waste management strategies and waste collection systems. Increased municipal waste generation affects collection systems in a sense that the waste generated has to be handled in an environmentally and economically sustainable manner.37 If more waste is generated, the interrelated elements of collection systems such as removal intervals, number of containers etc. have to be adapted accordingly.
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EEA: http://themes.eea.eu.int/environmental_issues/waste/indicators, 25.10.2005 EEA: Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century, Copenhagen 1999, p. 205 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/92-9157-202-0-sum/en/ WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow 1994, p. 324

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Fig. 2:
Source:

Household waste volumes in European cities


VOGEL, G.: Dynamic comparison of key figures in waste management, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001, p. 3

The unsustainable trends in waste generation [] are causes for concern because the generation of waste can be a symptom of environmentally inefficient use of resources. Furthermore, waste management generates emissions to air, water and soil as well as noise and other nuisances which contribute to environmental problems and cause economic costs.38 1.2 Urbanisation Additionally to the growing amounts of municipal waste within the European Union, urbanisation processes are a problem as well. More than two thirds of Western Europes population are living in congested urban areas with more than 300,000 inhabitants.39

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: Taking sustainable use of resources forward: A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 3 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0666en01.pdf WRZ, W.: Integrierte Logistiksysteme fr die Stadtentsorgung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2531, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 3 f

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Latest studies on urbanisation and environmental issues, published by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) predict an increase in urban population as we can see in figure 3.40 It is forecast that 80% of Europeans will be living in urban areas by 2020 and in seven countries the proportion will be 90% or more. The pressures of extensive urban development (urban sprawl) are closely coupled with issues of transport and consumption. Urban sprawl can also lead to economic segregation, seen in areas of inner-city dereliction and extensive peripheral estates, with sub-standard housing. Urban expansion can also place pressure on inner city and urban green areas, which may be vulnerable to fragmentation and conversion unless adequately protected by planning guidelines.41

Fig. 3:
Source:

Urban population projections for 2020


EEA: EEA-Signals 2004 A European Environment Agency update on selected issues, Copenhagen 2004, p. 7 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/signals-2004/en/ENSignals2004web.pdf

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EEA: EEA-Signals 2004 A European Environment Agency update on selected issues, Copenhagen 2004 p. 7 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/signals-2004/en/ENSignals2004web.pdf EEA: EEA-Signals 2004 A European Environment Agency update on selected issues, Copenhagen 2004, p. 7 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/signals-2004/en/ENSignals2004web.pdf

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Most cities are confronted with a common core set of environmental problems such as poor air quality, high levels of traffic and congestion, high levels of ambient noise, poor-quality built environment, derelict land, greenhouse gas emissions, urban sprawl, generation of waste and waste-water.42 In order to improve these developments mentioned above and to achieve a sustainable urban development the European Union issued within the framework of the 6th Environment Programme the Thematic Strategy on Urban Development. The objectives and measures of the mentioned strategy will be presented in the next chapter. 1.3 Waste management in the European Union In the last 30 years waste has been at the centre of EU environment policy []43 EU environment legislation has helped improve the way we dispose waste of and recycle specific waste streams, such as municipal waste, packaging, cars and electric and electronic equipment.44 The legal framework [] includes horizontal legislation on waste management, e.g. the Waste Framework Directive, the Hazardous Waste Directive, as well as the Waste Shipment Regulation. These are complemented by more detailed legislation concerning waste treatment and disposal operations, such as the Landfill and Incineration Directives and legislation to regulate the management of specific waste streams (waste oils, PCBs/PCTs and batteries). Recycling and recovery targets have been set for some key waste flows, i.e. packaging (Packaging Directive), end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).45 Some Directives strongly influenced waste collection and transportation. E.g. the Packaging Directive, that aims to harmonize national measures concerning the management of packaging and packaging waste in order, on the one hand, to prevent any impact thereof on the environment of all Member States as well as of third countries or to reduce such impact, thus providing a high level of environmental
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COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT:: A Thematic Strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Jan. 2006, p. 3 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/com_2005_0718_en.pdf COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Taking sustainable use of resources forward: A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 3 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0666en01.pdf COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: New waste strategy: Making Europe a recycling society, Dec. 2005, p. 1 http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/1673&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLang uage=en COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Taking sustainable use of resources forward: A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 4 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0666en01.pdf

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protection and, on the other hand, to ensure the functioning of the internal market and to avoid obstacles to trade and distortion and restriction of competition within the Community.46 The Member States must introduce systems for the return and/or collection of used packaging to attain the following targets no later than 31 December 2008: 60% as a minimum by weight of packaging waste will be recovered or incinerated at waste incineration plants with energy recovery Between 55 and 80% by weight of packaging waste will be recycled The following recycling targets for materials contained in packaging waste must be attained: 60% by weight for glass, 60% by weight for paper and board, 50% by weight for metals, 22.5% by weight for plastics and 15% by weight for wood.47 Besides directives and decrees, there are other important instruments of the European Union, dealing with environmental issues such as the so called Action Programs (as already mentioned in chapter 1.2). The latest one is the 6th Environment Action Programme48 which includes seven Thematic Strategies presented by the EU Commission. Among these are two of importance for waste collection.49 1) Thematic Strategy on Urban Development 2) Thematic Strategy on Prevention and Recycling of Waste 1) The Thematic Strategy on Urban Development The goal of the strategy is to improve the environmental performance and quality of urban areas and to secure a healthy living environment for Europes urban citizens, reinforcing the environmental contribution to sustainable urban development while taking into account the related economic and social issues.50

46 47 48 49 50

European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC, on packaging and packaging waste, 20 December 1994, Article 1 SUMMARY WASTE PACKAGING DIRECTIVE: http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l21207.htm, 02.04.2006 The 6th Environment Action Programme, Decision No 1600/2002/EC by the European Parliament and the Council, July 2002, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/newprg/index.htm JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 125 COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL,THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Feb. 2004, p. 4 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2004/com2004_0060en01.pdf

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In order to fulfil the mandate set out in the 6th Environmental Action Programme, the Thematic Strategy for the Urban Environment will focus on four cross-cutting themes which are essential to the long-term sustainability of towns and cities, which have clear connections to the economic and social pillars of sustainable development and where the most significant progress can be achieved.51 The four major themes are sustainable:52 Urban management Urban transport Construction Urban design To what extent several collection systems are able to contribute to the objectives outlined by the strategy on urban development will be one of the scopes investigated in this underlying thesis.

51

52

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL,THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Feb. 2004, p. 6 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2004/com2004_0060en01.pdf COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL,THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Feb. 2004, p. 6 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2004/com2004_0060en01.pdf

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2) The Thematic Strategy on Prevention and Recycling of Waste This strategy sets objectives and outlines the means by which the EU can move towards improved waste management.53 The following measures are proposed by the strategy: Focussing on waste policy on improving the way we use resources Mandatory national waste prevention programmes, which take account of the variety of national, regional and local conditions, to be finalised three years after the entry into force of the directive Improving the recycling market by setting environmental standards that specify under which conditions certain recycled wastes are no longer considered waste Simplifying waste legislation by clarifying definitions, streamlining provisions and integrating the directives on hazardous waste and on waste oils [].54 The impact of this strategy on waste collection and transportation are clearly visible. These aims, mentioned above, can only be met by the members of the European Union through clearly defined legal guidelines, i.e. through issuing regulations and decrees. This on the other hand indirectly affects waste collection and transportation as well since changes in legislation such as the already mentioned Packaging Directive can strongly influence the organisation of waste collection and transportation.55 Concluding, as discussed in the latter chapters, there are current trends and problems directly influencing waste collection and transportation such as growing municipal waste volume, urbanisation processes and legislation at European and national level. 1.4 Scope and research questions The aim of the underlying thesis is to depict traditional and alternative waste collection systems in industrialized countries56 and further to compare them by means of different criteria. Moreover the author wants to give a general overview of latest trends in
53

54

55 56

COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Taking sustainable use of resources forward: A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 4 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0666en01.pdf COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: New waste strategy: Making Europe a recycling society, Brussels Dec. 2005, p. 2 http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/1673&format=HTML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLang uage=en lecture notes by the author from KERI, CH.: Abfallwirtschaft im internat. Kontext unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Managements gefhrlicher Abflle, Lehrveranstaltung WU-Wien im SS 2006 especially Western Europe

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Municipal Solid Waste Collection (MSW) and transportation especially in urban areas. Special focus will be put on the Automated Waste Collection System (AWCS) developed by the Swedish company ENVAC. Other important facts to be investigated are how these different solutions and concepts are suitable for meeting current demands and trends in modern waste management and logistics. As well as how these alternative waste collection systems can be implemented in urbanisation processes. The following questions are of interest: Are there new, innovative concepts in waste collection and transportation that are able to replace traditional collection systems? Which waste collection system is more efficient according to costs, collection quota, worker safety etc.? Can waste collection still be rationalized? And if, how? To which extent are waste collection systems able to meet current trends57 in waste management? In chapter one current trends affecting MSW collection in European countries particularly growing waste volumes and urbanisation processes and their impacts on waste collection are discussed. Moreover, waste management in the European Union is presented and the importance of waste collection and transportation activities is highlighted. Chapter two mainly deals with traditional collection systems and waste transportation. Important concepts are introduced and defined. Moreover, different collection vehicles and containers are presented and discussed. After a brief explanation of household collection and the differences between kerbside and drop-off systems, the different fractions collected are discussed. The last part of the chapter deals with latest developments in waste logistics and rationalisation possibilities. The third chapters scope is to present alternative waste collection systems. After the definition of alternative systems and concepts, market outlooks for this sector are provided. In the course of the chapter, especially deep collection and underground compactors are specifically presented and discussed. The scope of chapter four is to explain the Automated Waste Collection System (AWCS) developed and constructed by the Swedish company ENVAC. Furthermore, the author will provide full technical explanation of the system and discuss pros and cons. Moreover function, the emptying cycle and the possibility of the separated collection of recyclables are described. Finally, some case studies are presented in
57

regarding the trends presented on page 1

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order to provide the reader with possible applications. The information presented in this chapter will be used in chapter five, where traditional and alternative waste collection systems are compared. As already mentioned above, chapter five deals with the comparison of the presented waste collection systems and concepts by means of different characteristics. These criteria will be divided into two main groups, presented below: a) Quantifiable criteria: Noise Costs Traffic load Safety for workers b) Non quantifiable criteria: Unpleasant odour Hygiene Finally, in chapter six all the information and results will be discussed and analysed.

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TRADITIONAL WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS

2.1 Waste collection systems Waste collection systems are part of a waste management strategy.58 There are different waste collection systems that are used in order to arrange transport and separated collection of waste efficiently. According to the existing literature dealing with waste collection and transportation there are different ways of distinguishing and categorising collection systems. One way of describing and categorising waste collection systems is the following approach by BILITEWSKI et al. Any kind of collection system is defined as a combination of technology and human labour such as: Collection method Container system Vehicles Personnel59 In a community different waste sources occur (industry, households and commercial establishments). It is impossible to collect all the different wastes generated with only one system. In order to meet local needs and requirements a variety of collection systems is used. It is of great importance to evaluate the communitys needs and then to select the appropriate combination of waste collection systems.60 The selection of an appropriate collection system depends on the following characteristics: Waste composition Existing collection system Existing waste preparation and disposal system Willingness of the population to cooperate and pay Processing opportunities

58 59 60

SALHOFER, St.: Kommunale Entsorgungslogistik Planung, Gestaltung und Bewertung entsorgungslogistischer Systeme fr kommunale Abflle, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2001, p. 103 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 64 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 64

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Marketing opportunities61 The following requirements have to be met by any collection system: 62 High quality of collected material High collection quota Convenience Practical experience, as well as surveys, suggest that when people are comfortable with the collection system they are more motivated to participate, which in turn leads to better collection results.63 LECHNER identifies the following important prerequisites regarding waste collection systems: 64 Distance to the drop-off centres The system has to be simple and thus easy to understand otherwise the participation will be low The handling of the containers has to be easy Avoidance of malodour and vermin Design (colours, arrangement of containers) Finally, no matter which system is applied, the overall objectives are: safe removal, adherence to health standards, meeting public and private needs and efficiency.65 The next chapter will chronologically discuss the four major components of a collection system (as defined by BILITEWSKI et al.).

61 62 63 64 65

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 99 LECHNER, P.: Kommunale Abfallentsorgung, Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004, p. 302 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 112 LECHNER, P.: Kommunale Abfallentsorgung, Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004, p. 302 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 95

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2.1.1 Collection methods According to BILITEWSKI et al. there are five different types of collection methods: Simple emptying Exchange system One-way system Non-systematic collection Special collection systems66 Each collection method has compatible or dedicated container systems and vehicles with appropriate loaders.67 2.1.1.1 Simple emptying The simple emptying collection method is mainly used for waste from residential areas and small-scale commercial waste. In this case, there are certain different kinds of containers that are emptied mechanically into a specific collection vehicle. When the emptying process is over, the container is put back on its original position. This method can be used in both, kerbside and drop-off collection systems.68 The simple emptying method is by far the dominating collection method for MSW and waste from non producing companies.69 2.1.1.2 Exchange method The exchange method is mostly used for high density waste such as construction debris and sludge, as well as for low-density waste from facilities that generate large quantities of waste.70 Examples are manufacturing plants, hotels, offices, institutions and so on. The difference to the simple emptying method is that the containers, used for waste collection, are not emptied into a collection truck. As the name implies, the containers are simply exchanged with empty ones. This method requires different kinds of vehicles, according to the containers used for collection. 71
66 67 68 69 70 71

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 64 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65 f BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 3 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65

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These vehicles will be presented in chapter 2.1.3. 2.1.1.3 One-way method The third collection method, the one-way method uses bags that are only in use for one collection cycle. These containers are mostly made of plastic or sometimes paper. The advantage of this method is that the bags do not have to be returned and cleaned by the collection staff. The disadvantages are for instance that the collection staff has to carry and lift (sometimes over stairs) the bags from the facilities to the collection vehicle, which means higher physical demands and moreover the volume is limited.72 Furthermore, it can not be in the interest of sustainable waste management to be seen to add to the waste arising. There is roughly a 3% increase in waste volume caused by the bag material alone.73 Under special circumstances, e.g. in hospitals, it is of great importance, due to hygiene, that certain kinds of waste are collected in one-way safety containers but long term use in residential areas is highly questionable.74 2.1.1.4 Non-systematic collection The non-systematic collection method is used for collecting bulky waste of various shapes and sizes. In order for collection crews to easily load bulky waste onto their trucks, it must be set out by the kerb, either in containers or as is.75 2.1.1.5 Special collection Special collection methods are according to BILITEWSKI et al. are vacuum extraction and hydraulic flushing methods. The method of vacuum extraction will be presented in detail in chapter 4. The hydraulic flushing method was introduced in the late 1960s in Switzerland and the United States. The idea behind this system is to flush kitchen waste (bio-waste) with tap water into the sewage system. The volume of wastewater is not significantly increased by garbage disposal, but a greater physical and biological demand is placed on the sewage treatment plant due to an increase in solid waste mass.76

72 73 74 75 76

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 66 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 65 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 66 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 66

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This system has not gained wide acceptance in Europe. This may in part be due to the widespread knowledge that compost makes a good fertilizer and washing it down the drain is a waste of a resource.77 For this reason this concept will not be presented in detail. 2.1.2 Container systems Containers play an important role within waste management and waste collection systems. They operate as receptacles for the waste generated and ensure efficient and mechanised waste collection.78 The decision to set up a particular container system influences linked elements in the process chain of waste management, for instance the design of lifting devices and trucks has to be planned accordingly.79 Containers are mostly used for the collection of residual waste and organic waste, for full service and normal kerbside collection respectively and for recyclables (paper, glass, metal, plastic) with normal kerbside and bring system collection.80 As indicated in figure 4, there are many different standardised containers in use which vary in size (from 120 to 1,100 litres) and shape.81

Fig. 4:
Source:

Containers in different sizes (120l, 240l and 1,100l)


Community of Harsewinkel: http://www2.harsewinkel.de, 29.03.2006

77 78 79 80 81

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 66 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 67 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114 BACH, H.: Quantitative Abfallanalytik, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt, Wien 2003, p. 21

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In the 1970s plastic containers with capacities of 120, 240 and occasionally 360 litres were developed. These containers are mostly used in households with separate collection of waste and recyclables.82 The 1,100 litre containers are used in locations where large quantities of waste are generated, such as businesses, multi-family dwellings, markets etc. The container is usually made of sheet metal and equipped with four wheels, thus enabling better handling for the collection crew.83 As far as workers safety is concerned, it has to be noted that wheeled bins are preferred in collection systems. These bins are easier to handle for the collection crews and lead to fewer injuries. In order to secure safe packaging and transportation of household wastes it is preferable that bins are used instead of sacks.84 In conclusion, the following advantages and disadvantages for container collection of waste can be noted. Advantages: High collection performance Standardised system Enhanced hygiene (i.e. no loose waste on the street, less dust) Improved worker safety Many types and sizes of containers available Accepted basis for a collection fee system (clearly understandable for citizens)85 Disadvantages: Investment in containers necessary Investment in special purpose vehicles necessary Container and special trucks need maintenance

82 83 84

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 67 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 67 ISWA-WGCTT: Position paper on questions to consider regarding the working conditions of waste collectors, when planning collection schemes, not published, July 2005, p. 1 ISWA= International Waste Association, WGCTT= Working Group on Collection and Transportation Technologies PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114

85

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Workers need special training86 Another important issue in connection with container systems is the question of removal intervals. It is of great importance to coordinate and plan emptying cycles for different fractions within collection systems. More information on removal intervals will be provided in chapter 2.2. Strongly linked to containers are collection vehicles that will be discussed in the next chapter. 2.1.3 Vehicles Vehicles have always played an essential part in waste management in the 20th century87. It is nearly impossible to imagine waste collection without collection vehicles. There is a large variety of different collection vehicles that are used in all kinds of waste collection activities, depending on the size of the city or region and the type of settlement.88 For cost-saving reasons, new collection truck technologies have been developed over the last few years.89 This chapter tries to give a concise overview of all kinds of collection vehicles used in waste management. In the following chapters waste trucks are subdivided into three groups: Vehicles for simple emptying method Container vehicles Special vehicles 2.1.3.1 Vehicles for simple emptying method 2.1.3.1.1 Rear-loading trucks Rear-loading trucks pick up containers with a pneumatic or hydraulic lift-and-tilt device from the rear and empty them into the vehicle (see figure 5). Since new
86 87 88 89

PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114 WRZ, W.: 100 Jahre Entwicklung der Sammlung und des Transportes kommunaler Abflle, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2101, Lieferung 1, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 10 f PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 117 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 18

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containers in different sizes have been developed in the last few years, various kinds of chutes have had to be installed on the vehicles.90 These vehicles are mainly used for collecting household waste, household-like commercial waste and bulky waste. Rear-loading trucks either have rotary drums or enclosed cargo compartments with various self-contained compactors.91

Fig. 5:
Source:

Rear-loading truck
PIEBER, M., IFAT Munich, April 2005

The rear-loading vehicle has been in use for many years and is still the most common collection vehicle in municipal solid waste collection in urban areas. Due to narrow streets and the limited space for the collection process, side and front loading vehicles can not work efficiently in urban areas.92 Advantages: Suitable for narrow inner city areas Not much operational space required Loose material can also be collected93

90 91 92 93

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 79 f BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 81 WRZ, W.: 100 Jahre Entwicklung der Sammlung und des Transportes kommunaler Abflle, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2101, Lieferung 1, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 32 f PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116

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Disadvantages: High labour costs because at least 2 (sometimes up to 5) workers are needed to collect and empty the waste containers (see chapter 2.1.4)94 Multiple collection runs due to the fact that rear-loading trucks only have one container or chamber that is fixed and can not be changed. This is time consuming and also more expensive95 Worker safety concerns (see chapter 5.2.4) since workers have to work on the street and workers have to manoeuvre the heavy waste containers96

2.1.3.1.2 Side-loading trucks Over the last few years, new collection vehicles were developed and built in order to improve waste collection and transportation. One of the most promising vehicles is the so called side-loading truck that enables waste collection (emptying of bins) with no additional personnel. This works because the emptying process is operated from the side of the vehicle with adjustable lifting and shaking devices. The driver uses a joystick to steer the discharging arm, which can be adjusted up to 3 metres crossways and up to 1.5 meters along the vehicle. This enables the driver to empty containers that are lined up along a street.97 Figure 6 shows a side-loading truck in the middle of the emptying process. Sideloading trucks are mainly in use in suburban and rural areas where there is enough space for the truck to empty the bins and where the driver is not hampered by too many parked cars, which would make the collection process impossible.98 Latest technologies aim at a fully automated collection process where a camera system replaces the joystick steering. The system works with the help of code stickers that help to identify the position of the container. The drivers job is to stop the vehicle alongside the container. The arm grabs the container, empties it and puts it back automatically.99
94 95 96 97 98 99

PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 18 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116 WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 3 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 5

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Another interesting project in this context is a side loading truck with a sub-divided driving cab that will be discussed in chapter 3.2.1.1.

Fig. 6:
Source:

Side-loading truck
www.rollinsmachinery.ca, 28.10.2005

Pros and cons of side-loading trucks are presented in the next chapter since they are identical with those of front-loading trucks. 2.1.3.1.3 Front-loading trucks Another new solution for the collection and transportation of waste is the so called front-loading truck that provides several advantages for the collection process. Figure 10 illustrates a front-loading truck that is lifting a special container. The collection process is less sophisticated and cheaper because no additional workforce are needed. The driver is the one that empties the container and then puts it back in its original place. Due to certain disadvantages (to be listed below) and according to major waste service companies, front-loading trucks are not used for municipal solid waste, only for industrial and specific commercial waste.100

100

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19

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Fig. 7:
Source:

Front-loading truck
www.etg-entsorgung.de, 03.11. 2005

For both, front- and side-loading trucks, the following pros and cons can be noted. Advantages: Only one driver necessary No strenuous container handling Full worker safety (worker does not leave the drivers cab) Flexible through exchangeable containers (body-swap)101 Disadvantages: Not applicable in narrow inner city street areas Collaboration of citizens necessary Container evacuation can be time-consuming (if more than one attempt to lift the container is needed) Loose material can not be collected Requires adequate operational space102
101 102

PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116

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In conclusion one can say that side- and front-loading trucks reduce costs compared to conventional rear-loading trucks because only one person is needed to empty the bins. But, on the other hand the investment costs for side- and front-loading trucks are much higher than those of a rear-loading truck, see table 1.103

Type of truck
Side-loading truck Front-loading truck Rear-loading truck

Investment cost
220,000 EUR 180,000 EUR 140,000 EUR

Table 1: Average price levels for collection vehicles


Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19

Moreover, the use of side- and front-loading trucks is limited, because as already mentioned, there are problems especially in cities where parked cars block the collection process. That leads to the assumption that rear-loading trucks will not be completely replaced by side- and front-loading trucks.104 The current market share of side-loading trucks in Europe amounts to 12% in terms of vehicles. According to the study on Innovative waste management products, the market share of side-loading trucks will continue to grow over the next few years since many waste management/disposal contractors are substituting old rear-loading trucks with side-loading ones (existing market volume of 700 trucks per year). 105 2.1.3.1.4 Vacuum collection vehicles With vacuum collection vehicles, waste is collected by suction from a plurality of tanks installed at the bottom of gravity chutes of a housing complex, or at the bottom of post type intakes installed on the ground.106 As illustrated in figure 12, waste is deposited through gravity chutes, installed in buildings or special waste inlets. The size of the storage tanks varies between 1 and 2m3. A docking station is provided at each inlet or along the waste pipeline joining a
103 104 105 106

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 DATABASE ON JAPANESE ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL EQUIPMENT: http://www.gec.jp/JSIM_DATA/index.html, 21.03.2006

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plurality of storage tanks. After setting the inside of each storage tank at a negative pressure, a secondary air valve is opened, so that the waste may be brought from the tanks to the tank side of the suction vehicle. After accomplishing the suction work, a suction operation from the next storage tank begins, with the outlet gate closed.107

Fig. 8:
Source:

Schematic depiction of collection activity with vacuum collection vehicles


http://www.aarhuskommune.dk/portal/borger/affald/midtbyaffald/loesninger/mobilsug, 21.03.2006

Advantages: This system minimizes the workers labour burden and improves the work environment by preventing lumbago, etc. The driver of the vacuum truck manages the entire emptying process by connecting to the docking point Since waste from several places is collected at a docking station in one location, the waste collecting work can be performed from a road side, without the suction vehicle requiring access to the residence areas, so that a safe and comfortable environment may be maintained108 Disadvantages: Higher investment costs compared to rear-loading trucks Higher costs for installation of docking stations and tanks More information regarding the different fields of appliance and implementation in collection systems are provided in chapter 3.1.2.
107 108

DATABASE ON JAPANESE ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL EQUIPMENT: http://www.gec.jp/JSIM_DATA/index.html, 21.03.2006 DATABASE ON JAPANESE ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL EQUIPMENT: http://www.gec.jp/JSIM_DATA/index.html, 21.03.2006

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2.1.3.1.5 Multi-chamber trucks Multi-chamber trucks have been developed in order to enable simultaneous collection of different fractions. This offers cost reduction because of the reduced number of collection runs.109 The description multi-chamber truck derives from the horizontally or vertically divided chambers. This allows the collection of more than one fraction with one collection run and is especially interesting for municipal solid waste since the number of collection runs can be reduced and thus cost savings can be achieved. These trucks are operated as rear-loaders or side-loaders.110 An example of a multi-chamber truck with a hydraulic lift and tilt device is depicted in figure 9. This vehicle was constructed in cooperation between VOGEL and the Austrian company MUT Maschinen und Transportanlagen. It was patented111 in 1978 and especially designed for the simultaneous collection of bulk articles and waste. The underlying collection vehicle had been in use in Vienna for the collection of glass and stained glass and led to very satisfactory results in the collection process.112

Fig. 9:
Source:

Multi-chamber truck
VOGEL, Vienna 2003

109 110 111 112

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 9 BROSOWiTSCH, J. und VOGEL, G.: Patent AT 357106 B: Fahrzeug zum Transport von Massengtern, insbesondere Mll, Wien 1980 VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 53

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Advantages:113 Cost savings due to reduced collection costs resulting from reduced number of collection runs Disadvantages: 114 Problems are caused if the vertically divided chambers are not equally filled with waste due to differences in the specific weight of the waste fractions As a consequence, since the filling degree of the chambers can not be predicted precisely the truck has to stop the collection turn if one chamber is full even though there is still enough space within the other chamber Due to the several disadvantages mentioned above, multi-chamber trucks do not have any future in the MSW collection business according to leading waste management service companies.115, 116 2.1.3.2 Container vehicles Vehicles used for exchanging methods (swapping containers) or so called container vehicles can be catagorised by the way the container is loaded or unloaded:117 Hook and lift vehicles Roll off vehicles Lift off vehicles Dump vehicles The loading and unloading of boxes, large containers and bins is accomplished by internal lift- and set-down systems, roll-off systems with hook receptors and slide-off systems with winches.118 Different kinds of container vehicles are presented in figure 10 below.
113 114 115 116 117 118

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 19 WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 5 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 84 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 84

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Fig. 10: Container vehicles


Source: BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K. .: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 84

The vehicles presented in this chapter are mainly for collection of construction and demolition wastes and commercial wastes. However, these vehicles are also used for long distance transport of waste from transfer stations to waste treatment facilities.119 Since the use of these vehicles for household collection is quite limited, they will not be discussed in detail. 2.1.3.3 Special vehicles and latest inventions Vehicles within this section can be used for both collection methods. Collection vehicles with so called swap bodies are used mainly for exchanging containers, but there are also vehicles that can be used for simple emptying. There are plenty of combinations on the market; there are for example side-loading trucks and frontloading trucks that can change their build up. In recent years there have been several changes in the structures of waste collection and transportation. Since in most European countries the collection of recyclables in separate containers is obligatory, the collection systems and especially transportation had to be re-thought in order to arrange waste collection efficiently. This new situation led to the development of new collection vehicles such as the side-loader and the front- loader (see chapters 2.2.3.1.2 and 2.2.3.1.3).120
119 120

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 84 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602

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This chapter will deal with the latest concepts in this area and discuss advantages and disadvantages of these new collection vehicles. 2.1.3.3.1 Vehicles with subdivided build-up The idea behind this vehicle is the combined transportation of solid waste (e.g. residual waste) and individual goods (unit loads). This is possible through the separation of the build-up into two parts. As illustrated in figure 11, the build-up consists of two different, non interrelated parts for waste collection. The vehicle was specially designed for small and medium sized business enterprises, where two different collection vehicles often had to be used in order to arrange the collection of solid waste and individual goods.121

Fig. 11: Collection vehicle with subdivided build-up


Source: WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602

In the front space individual goods such as batteries, fluorescent tubes, Styrofoam etc., can be stored. The back space is more or less a simple body for waste such as residual waste. The loading of the piece good compartment works from the side with hydraulic platforms that can lift up to 1500 kilograms. This part of the vehicle consists of 8 storing positions that are not fixed in height and breadth, i.e. the interior space can, depending on the goods transported, be adapted individually.122

121 122

WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 601

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The following advantages can be achieved through this new collection vehicle:123 Combined transport of MSW and individual goods whereas with other vehicles there have to be two independent transport vehicles Cost reduction through lower transportation and personnel costs Less traffic and pollution through reduced number of collection runs Furthermore, there are also safety installations such as a safety railing that protects the loading personnel. The vehicle has a length of about 11 meters and has a maximum payload of approximately 9.5 tons. In September 2004 the first prototype of this special collection vehicle was finished. The first test runs were very satisfactory according to the developers and they hope that this recently designed collection vehicle will soon play an important role in combined waste collection.124 2.1.3.3.2 Vehicles with subdivided driving cab Another new development in waste transportation and collection is the new concept which is depicted in figure 12. The idea behind this new side-loading truck is that the space, usually occupied for the second person inside the driving cab, is actually a waste of space. Exactly this gained space is used in order to install a loading area with a volume of 560 litres. The emptying process works like a normal side-loading truck with the difference that the emptying process is easier, more concise and thus results in better handling of the containers. Furthermore, the driver does not have to twist his upper body in order to empty the containers like in the case of conventional side-loading trucks.125

123 124 125

WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 601 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 601 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602

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Fig. 12: Vehicle with subdivided driving cab


Source: WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602

Additionally, the vehicle is equipped with a hook lift that means that the underlying collection truck operates as a swap body truck combined with a hook lifter. This has certain advantages for the municipal collection of waste. So it is possible for the vehicle to drag its own swap-body. The collection truck can leave the empty swapbody somewhere in the collection area and fill its container. When the container is full it can drive back to the place where it dropped the empty container off, exchange it and continue the collection process. At the end of the collection run it transports both full containers to a collection centre or a final waste treatment facility. Thus, the two processes of waste collection and the transport are separated.126 All these enumerated additional features of this vehicle have certain advantages:127 Better working conditions for the driver Less collection runs Less traffic and pollution Separation of transport and collection This vehicle has not yet been produced, but negotiations are continuing with certain companies that are interested in this promising concept.128
126 127 128

WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602 WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602

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The innovative vehicle concepts discussed above are promising ways of improving collection of waste in certain ways. On the one hand the presented vehicles can reduce collection costs and avoid additional traffic. On the other hand, if applied by waste collection enterprises it can lead to new and more efficient ways and process chains in transportation and collection of waste.129 Although, these methods help to improve waste collection and transportation it should be noted that in the opinion of the author gas is combusted and traffic is produced in order to fulfil collection activities. Likewise vehicles of this type lead to a loss of jobs in the collection business. 2.1.4 Personnel In order to operate collection systems efficiently it is necessary to have loading personnel that empty the waste bins, especially for non-systematic, one way and exchange method (if a rear-loading truck is used). The number of loaders per vehicle depends on many factors such as the size and different types of containers used, containers per kilometre and the collection system applied.130 For example in Vienna, the common collection vehicle is a rear loader with a team of two, three or five workers.131 Five workers are sometimes necessary in inner city districts where the containers have to be lifted over steps. The collection with a five-worker team works as follows: 132 Two workers move in front of the vehicle and get the containers out of the buildings onto the pavements One worker is riding the vehicle and empties the containers The other two workers are behind the vehicle and return the waste containers to the houses More information regarding shift systems and worker safety are provided in the chapters 2.4.4 and 5.4.4.

129 130 131 132

WEHKING, K.H. et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in: Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 602 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 7 f PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 117 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 118

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2.2 Household waste collection Household waste collection plays an important role in municipal solid waste collection. Waste collection is also the contact point between the waste generators (in this case households) and the waste management system and this relationship needs to be carefully managed to have an effective system. This householder-waste-collector link needs to be a customer-supplier relationship (in the total quality sense). The householder needs to have his/her solid waste collected with a minimum of inconvenience, whilst the collector needs to receive the waste in a form compatible with planned treatment methods.133 When organising waste collection, the following organisational aspects have to be considered:134 How can collection runs be planned? In general, route selection is based on experience but latest developments in computer-based planning hold potential in cost and time reduction.135 Latest developments regarding route planning are presented in chapter 2.4.5.1 According to which criteria are collection runs arranged?136 The following criteria can be used: Number of containers Waste volume Container volume etc.

Moreover, measured data, which have to be gathered in the target area such as Journey time from the repository to the collection area Collection time Duration of breaks etc. are important as well.

Together with the criteria mentioned above, these measured data provide a good basis for route planning.

133 134 135 136

WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Black Academic & Professional, Boston et al. 1995, p. 87 f WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 8 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 95 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 9

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How is the collection of different fractions organised?137 If the various fractions are pre-sorted by the waste generator the following options occur: Additive collection different fractions are collected separately and independently (with different trucks) Alternating collection different fractions that are collected in different collection routes with the same vehicle Integrated collection - collection of different fractions with one vehicle within one collection run (see chapter 2.2.3.1.4 Multi chamber trucks)

Which types and sizes of containers are emptied during a collection tour?138 How is container handling arranged?139 - Who of the collection crew is responsible for which part of the collection process (especially in full service)? - How are the containers taken out of the buildings? - Does the driver help to empty the waste bins? etc. After dealing with the organisational questions discussed above, the following logistical questions have to be considered as well before implementing a specific collection system: Which locations for storage, transfer, disposal and material recovery facilities are to be selected? What kind of capacity is required for the above mentioned facilities? Which towns or districts will be assigned to which facilities? In what order does the collection proceed in the individual towns or subdivisions?
137 138 139

WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 8 f WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 11 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 11 f

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How can collection routes be integrated into a disposal plan? What type of containers, dumping devices, vehicles and crews are to be selected?140 Another important issue in household waste collection as well as MSW are removal intervals. When waste and recyclables are collected separately, the removal intervals must be correlated to the types of collection systems used. While taking public health concerns into account, the time interval between waste removal can be reduced, since there is less garbage and the separate collection of recyclables occurs at the same time.141 The frequency of removal also depends on climate and waste composition. Due to sanitary considerations, waste has to be collected daily in hot, southern regions. In countries with a moderate climate such as Austria for example, residual waste is usually collected once a week in urban areas and two to four weeks in rural areas. The other important factor namely the waste composition has to be taken into consideration as well. When removing dry recyclables such as glass and paper the only factors determining the removal intervals are container sizes and waste quantities. Whereas, bio-waste for instance should be removed weekly regardless of the collection system used.142 As already mentioned earlier, the volume of a container plays an important role in this context. The larger the volume, the more waste can be disposed of, i.e. the removal intervals are lower.143 This in turn means that there is less traffic and the costs for waste collection and transportation are lower. But, on the other hand, it is not always possible to use large bins. E.g. the space in yards of big apartment houses in cities can be limited. Even though it would decrease costs for collection to use larger waste containers it is sometimes simply impossible to do so.144 The following waste fractions occur in households:145 Hazardous wastes: - batteries - chemicals for cleaning - mineral oils etc
140 141 142 143 144 145

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 95 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 96 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 95 f BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K. .: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 96 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 123 WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Black Academic & Professional, Boston et al. 1995, p. 77 ff

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Bulky waste: - used/broken furniture - bicycles etc Recoverable resources (recyclables): - glass - paper - light packaging - scrap metal Biowaste Residual waste All these different kinds of waste are subject to waste management and have to be collected and disposed efficiently. The reason why all these different fractions are collected separately lies in the conservation of primary raw materials and the reduction of overall waste quantity.146 This can be accomplished through use and/or reuse of the waste material as a secondary raw material in the production process. Considerable quantities of energy can also be conserved at the same time.147 In general there are two ways of achieving recovery of recyclables: 148 1) The recyclable materials are collected altogether with other fractions and separated afterwards in central sorting plants149 2) The recyclables are separated at source Since the discussion of sorting plants and in general waste treatment is not part of the underlying study, option number 1 will not be discussed in this thesis. The second option, namely the separation of the generated waste at the source, will be subject to further discussion in the following chapter.

146 147 148 149

VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 28 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 96 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 97 In Germany there are currently discussions regarding the collection of household waste without source separation since the quality of separately collected recyclables is sometimes not satisfying. Critics of the separated collection claim that latest inventions in sorting technology are able to achieve better results in this context. WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 10 f

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2.2.1 Separated collection of recyclables In this option the waste producer separates the recyclables from the waste generated and places them in special containers. These containers are either placed in central locations close to the user (drop-off system) or at the place of waste production (kerbside system). The recyclables can be subdivided into dry components paper, cardboard, glass, metals, plastics, textiles and wet components (e.g. organic, kitchen). Both components are suitable for material recovery. 150 Due to the fact that for each fraction, containers have to be provided on a collection route and, these two different waste streams have to be treated separately, the collection effort rises with the number of fractions subject to waste collection. This implies, either the usage of expensive specialist collection vehicles (e.g. multichamber vehicles) and multiple containers or more collection runs. Both leads to a higher collection effort and thus to higher costs compared to the collection of less fractions with larger volumes.151

150 151

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 97 f VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 30

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The correlation of collection effort and costs can be expressed in a graph presented in figure 13.

Fig. 13: Correlation of efficiency and costs in waste collection (adapted)


Source: VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 12

As depicted in figure 13, the costs of waste collection rise exponentially. Background of these considerations is the secondary law of thermodynamics stating that no process can reach an efficiency of 100%. The closer the degree of efficiency moves towards 100% the more effort and costs are needed in order to achieve a higher degree of efficiency. E.g. if a waste collection quota of 70% is already realised for a certain fraction, the costs for the increase of efficiency increases in proportion compared to the rise of efficiency. Or in other words, it makes sense to collect a specific percentage of waste that can be collected with an adequate collection effort. But it does not make sense to collect e.g.: each can from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.152, 153

152 153

VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 12 f VOGEL, G.: Der Beitrag der Ressourcenkonomie zur Minimierung der Entropieproduktion der irreversiblen Wirtschaftsprozesse im offenen System Erde, in: Schriftenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1984, p. 52 f

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The quantity of different recyclables is determined by various factors: Level of consumption, production and packaging Standard of living Type of residence (yard space, degree of self-sufficiency) Local conditions Type and capacity of waste and recyclables containers154 This converges with VOGEL who describes certain influencing factors on quality and quantity of waste generation in households:155 Income Persons per household Removal intervals and container size Education Information and motivation Settlement structure Legal framework Number of fractions subject to collection etc After the discussion of general issues and the importance of separated collection of recyclables the next chapters will deal with the organization of waste collection. 2.2.2 Kerbside collection In Figure 14 one can see how kerbside collection and drop-off systems differ in terms of arrangement of the service itself and the different types of transport that occur within these systems. Waste transport play an important role in waste management issues, because no matter which of the two presented collection systems is applied, the collected waste has to be collected and transported. Within kerbside collection the collection vehicles have to pick up the waste from the households and finally transport them to a collection centre or to a final waste treatment facility.156
154 155 156

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 98 VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 17 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 77 f

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Fig. 14: Collection systems (adapted)


Source : BEIGL, P.: Vergleich der Umweltauswirkungen und der Kosten von kommunalen Entsorgungssystemen unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Transporte bei der Abfallentsorgung, Diplomarbeit an der Universitt fr Bodenkultur, Wien 2002, p. 13

2.2.2.1 General features With kerbside collection, containers for collecting recyclables are provided to each household and appropriate space must be made available at each residence.157 In other words, waste is picked up from the individual waste producer. One can distinguish between: a) Full service: The households are equipped with a combination of containers which are emptied regularly by the waste collection company. The collection crew gets the waste containers from the residents premises, empties them and puts them back again. 158

157 158

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 105 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 7

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b) Normal kerbside collection: With normal kerbside collection, the residents are obliged to place the waste bins or bags outside on the kerb, where they are collected and emptied by the removal company.159 Residual and organic waste are usually collected by methods with which householders are comfortable, with most cities/regions offering a full service or at least normal kerbside collection. Recyclables such as paper, glass, plastics or metal and special wastes such as hazardous waste are usually not as comfortably collected as residual or organic waste.160 Organic waste and residual waste are collected in a full service system in Gothenburg, for instance. In the cities of Hamburg and Copenhagen, organic waste, lightweight/plastic, paper and glass are collected in a full service system. Madrid is the only city in Spain offering full service for lightweight/plastic and residual waste. Other cities such as the Italian cities Forli and Bologna, the Spanish cities of Barcelona, Seville, Valencia and the Australian city of Brisbane usually offer normal kerbside or drop-off collection systems. The residents are asked to put their waste in bags or containers out on the kerb or bring it to drop-off sites within the city or region.161 In general it can be said that with kerbside collection the collection quota is much higher compared to drop-off systems. The reason lies in the higher user-friendliness and convenience for the waste producer.162 The following advantages and disadvantages of kerbside collection can be noted. Advantages:163 High user comfort Higher collection quota compared to drop-off system

159 160 161 162 163

WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 7 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 112 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 113 f LECHNER, P.: Kommunale Abfallentsorgung, Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004, p. 303 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 3

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Disadvantages:164 Higher costs through higher investments in vehicles and containers Higher operational costs mainly due to the use of smaller containers Often lower quality of recyclables 2.2.3 Drop-off systems165 2.2.3.1 General features In drop-off systems, accumulated recyclables are taken by the consumer to a certain location and placed into individually marked receptacles.166 Depending on the fraction collected, drop-off collection can be subdivided into:167 Drop off sites (in most cases glass, packaging waste,) Drop-off recycling centres (household hazardous wastes, bulky wastes,) 2.2.3.2 Drop-off sites Drop-off sites for recyclables should be located conveniently for the residents to deposit their recyclables. The site should be highly visible and allow for traffic volume.168 Some important prerequisites that should be met by any drop-off site are as follows: 169 Regular emptying in order to reduce malodour and overfilling Not too far to walk for the households (approximately 100 to 150 metres in densely populated areas) Easy access for consumers and collection vehicles

164 165 166 167 168 169

WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 3 also called bring systems BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 102 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 102 f BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 102 LECHNER, P.: Kommunale Abfallentsorgung, Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004, p. 303

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Additionally, the form and function of drop-off sites should be aesthetically pleasing and blend in with the existing surroundings in order to integrate such sites in the community environment.170 In Vienna, drop-off sites consist of receptacles for recyclables such as paper, bio waste, scrap metal, light packaging and glass. There are approximately 2,300 drop-off sites equally distributed around the city.171 An interesting fact is that the longer the distance for the consumer to deposit of his/her materials is, i.e. the further away the drop-off centre is located, the less material is collected/the lower the collection quota becomes.172 A typical drop-off site is depicted in figure 15.

Fig. 15: Drop-off site in a Viennese neighbourhood, Vienna 1998


Source: City of Vienna, Municipal Department 48

170 171 172

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 102 MA48: www.wien.gv.at/ma48, 18.12.2005 STERREICHISCHES STATISTISCHES ZENTRALAMT (Hrsg.): Umweltverhalten der sterreicher, Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 1988, Beitrge zur sterr. Statistik, Heft 1000, Wien 1990, p. 12

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2.2.3.3 Drop-off recycling centres A drop-off recycling centre contains receptacles for residential recyclables and other containers for household hazardous waste. The drop-off centre should be fenced in and secure. During opening hours, qualified personnel should be on hand to ensure a smooth collection process. The large space and personnel requirements limit the location density (1 drop-off recycling centre for every 30,000 to 50,000 residents). Distances to the drop-off recycling centre that are too far for the users result in a relatively low collection rate.173 In Vienna for example, waste collection centres for bulky wastes, recoverables and hazardous substances from households, as well as reusable objects were first introduced in 1988. These recycling centres are free-of-charge for households and small Viennese businesses, delivering not more than 1m3 per day and provide a convenient opportunity for the population to deposit wastes that are unfit for kerbside collection or drop off sites. The municipal department for waste collection in Vienna (MA 48) currently operates 19 of these centres. 1.8 million people made use of this service in 2002. Approximately 47,710 tonnes of recoverables and compost, 56,590 tonnes of construction waste and 22,424 tonnes of bulky waste were disposed in 2002. They are financed from the revenues generated by the waste collection fees, payable by the landowners.174 The city of Copenhagen has a number of multi-storey dwellings that employ a caretaker. These caretakers are the local contacts for household hazardous waste collection and inhabitants can hand their household hazardous wastes directly to their caretaker, who places them in suitable interim storage until collection.175 In conclusion, the following pros and cons regarding drop-off systems can be noted.176 Advantages: Lower costs compared to kerbside collection Lower investments costs

173 174 175 176

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 105 MA48: www.wien.gv.at/ma48, 16.12.2005 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114 WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005, p. 3

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Disadvantages: Often not easy to find suitable sites for the containers Problems with cleanliness due to illegal disposals According to the facts provided in this chapter, drop-off systems play an important role in urban waste collection schemes.177 2.2.4 Waste tarifs Waste collection and transportation are connected with costs, which have to be paid by the users of the services. There have been some debates on this topic in recent years. Those discussions were mostly centred on customized pricing. The following chapters will discuss different kinds of fee systems occurring in waste management services. 2.2.4.1 Traditional fee systems 2.2.4.1.1 Flat Fee Systems With this fee system, for each unit (resident, square metres or per container), a flat fee has to be paid. This has certain consequences due to the dumping behaviour of some waste generators. First of all, since the user can dump as much as possible without having to pay more, this systems leads to reduced amounts of illegal dumping. Likewise, if large containers are used, quite a high collection quota can be reached. Big negative effect of this system is that it is not suitable to reward the residents efforts in waste avoidance and recovery.178 2.2.4.1.2 Container Tag Fee Systems This system works completely different than the flat fee system described above. With this fee system, the fee that has to be paid depends on the number of pickups relative to the container size. The generator attaches a tag to the container, thus indicating the waste collection company that it should be picked up. This means that the resident only has to pay for the service used. Another advantage of the system is that in comparison to the flat fee system, the resident is encouraged to prevent waste thus he/she can directly influence the fee that has to be paid.
177 178

PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 123 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 650

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But there are also some problems connected with this fee system. If the monetary incentives are too high, it might encourage the resident to illegally dump waste some where else.179 An example of a container tag fee system is the so called Zri Bag which is in use in the Swiss city Zrich since 1993. The originator-based bag charge is a central feature of the new Waste Material Regulation in Zrich. Together with a ground charge based on room count and levied on property owners, it must cover 100% of the cost of removing waste from households. Only material which cannot be recycled, the socalled incinerator waste, finds its way into the Zri-Bags. Useful materials, however, can be left at the collection points of Zrich Recycling free of charge. By these means, the Waste Department offers the people of Zrich a financial incentive through the sack charge and an additional motivation to support Zurich Recycling.180 The Zri-Bags are available in different sizes (from 17 to 110 litres). The fees range from 0.73 EUR for a 17 litre bag to 3.38 EUR for a 110 litre bag.181 Since November 2005 the citizens are asked to dispose of their bags in the appropriate containers provided by the municipality at anytime. Before that, it was only allowed to put the bags out on the kerb on predetermined time and days.182 One can see that both systems do have advantages as well as disadvantages. The flat fee system does not take into consideration the variable cost factors, while the container system ignores the fixed share of the costs. Thus it follows that for neither fee system does the user fees accurately reflect the incurred costs.183 The next chapter will deal with the discussion of alternative fee systems, providing solutions for pay as you throw collection schemes. 2.2.4.2 Alternative fee systems 2.2.4.2.1 Individual billing systems These systems try to consider both, variable and fixed costs in waste collection processes. The fixed part is represented by a flat fee, charged per resident or container. The variable cost share is calculated by the actual quantity or volume of

179 180 181 182 183

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 650 City of Zrich: Implementing an ecological waste management, http://www.eaue.de/winuwd/109.htm, 18.03.2006 PAULI, U.: Waste management in Zrich, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001, p. 8 Entsorgung und Recycling Zrich: www.erz.ch, 18.03.2006 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 651

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each user. 184 A question that might arise here is how is it possible to know, how much waste each resident disposed? The answer to this question is that the containers are weighed during or just before the emptying process takes place. This requires technological solutions that are computer based. According to BILITEWSKI et al. these solutions are technologically expensive and can only be implemented costeffectively if they are sufficiently computer integrated.185 Such a solution is the computerized waste disposal system (CWDS) which works as indicated in figure 16.

Fig. 16: Individual billing system


Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 24

Each bin is equipped with a transponder chip containing specific information, e.g. identity and location. The collection truck is equipped with an identification system on board that consists of several elements:186 Scanning aerials Sensors to detect the bins presence Lifting and emptying sensors Weighing system Onboard computer187
184 185 186 187

in waste management literature these systems are also called pay as you throw systems BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 651 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 24 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 24

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During the emptying process, the bins chip is scanned and the weight of the container automatically registered. The gained information is sent to the on-board computer that, through using special software, implements the data and transmits it to the local server.188 On the basis of the collected data, the waste generator gets his/her customized invoice mailed on an annual, semi-annual, or quarterly basis. Thus, individual billing systems implement the polluter pays principle189.190 Another advantage of this system is that the waste management company can use the collected data to optimize collection runs and thus save money which in turn can be passed on to the customers. Ultimately, it is of great importance for waste management because of the availability of exact numbers that can be used for detailed studies on waste collection processes.191 The costs for the installation of an individual billing system described above are as follows:
Purchased item
Investment per truck Transponder chips for 10,000 bins one truck can serve Total sum of investment for 10,000 bins

Costs in EUR
30,000-40,000 EUR 50,000 EUR 80,000-90,000 EUR

Table 2: Investment costs for individual billing systems for 10,000 bins
Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 25

The market outlook for these fee systems are very good, the study mentioned above predicts a volume of approximately 8 million EUR, growing very rapidly. A major market is Germany with an individual billing system for approximately 6 million bins.192 This system only works in rural areas or residential areas, where each resident/household has control over his/her/their own containers. In large cities, each house has a certain specified number of containers. Each resident
188 189 190 191 192

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 24 The polluter-pays-principle=The principle that those causing pollution should meet the costs to which it gives rise EEA-Glossary: www. eea.eu.int, 21.03.2006 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 25 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 25 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 25

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of the apartment building has access to the containers, thus it is impossible to find out who disposed of what and how much. The fee system that is subject to investigation in the next chapter can cover these requirements as well. 2.2.4.2.2 Coin systems The mentioned limited appliance of individual billing systems in large apartment buildings is one great disadvantage which does not occur in the coin systems. As the name already indicates, in this fee system, coins are used to open a specially equipped container with a coin lock. When the resident wants to dispose of waste, he/she has to deposit a coin and then the container opens a space for a pre-determined volume of waste. Through adopting behaviour that leads to waste avoidance, reuse and/or recovery, individual waste generators can save money.193 The main idea behind this system is that waste fees are customized meaning people that throw away more have to pay more (using the service more extensively). A second idea behind it is that people should pay more attention to the composition of their residual waste for instance. That means that a lower contamination level194 occurs than found in residual containers due to the fact that waste generators avoid throwing away fractions that do not belong in the containers since they have to pay for them. If introduced blanket cover, the number of bad throws is estimated to be reduced by 50 percent.195 2.2.4.2.3 Card Systems Another fee system to be presented is a card system used by the Swedish company ENVAC. Actually this concept is very similar to the coin system already presented earlier. Instead of using a coin, an ID-card is used to open the waste inlets. The waste is disposed and the data is stored on the card/computer. This system helps to identify who and more important how often someone uses the waste collection service. This is truly customized pricing in a sense that no one can abuse this system through disposing waste on the account of someone else which is the case in individual billing systems in rural areas. Thus fraud is limited in this fee system, although people can still dispose of their wastes somewhere else illegally in order to save money.196

193 194

BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 654 The contamination level can be defined as the percentage of non-targeted material that is collected by a given method. WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Black Academic & Professional, Boston et al. 1995, p. 100 WRZ, W.: Integrierte Logistiksysteme fr die Stadtentsorgung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2531, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 6 ENVAC: www.envac.net, 12.03.2006

195 196

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2.2.4.3 Case study for individual billing system In Denmark payment for household waste treatment is usually based on a pay-perhouse fee (flat fee system). During the 1990s, the polluter-pays-principle was introduced in 18 Danish municipalities. The goal of this trial was to prevent waste generation and to increase the recycling rate for household waste.197 Some important facts are that the municipalities were not required to collect biodegradable wastes from households separately. Because of the fact that the pay-perkg fee only applies for mixed household waste, particularly the recycling of glass and paper and the home composting was particularly stimulated. In addition some municipalities lowered the fee for source separated organic waste below the fee for mixed household waste in order to provide an incentive for household waste recycling.198
Fraction Average households in pay-per-kg municipalities
325 kg/year 105 kg/year 38 kg/year 124 kg/year 592 kg/year

Average households in reference municipalities


729 kg/year 67 kg/year 36 kg/year 44 kg/year 876 kg/year

Mixed household waste Paper and cardboard Glass Biodegradable waste Total

Table 3: Waste generation in pay-per-kg municipalities and reference municipalities


Source: JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 36

The difference of 284 kg in total household waste generated in the two municipalities can be explained by the overestimated amounts of mixed household waste from the reference municipality.199 This is the case if the mixed household waste contains waste other than the waste from the daily household activities, that is, garden waste, bulky waste, commercial waste and similar items that are covered by other collection schemes. In municipalities with pay-per-kg-fees this waste will rarely end up with the mixed household waste, as households will attempt to avoid the fee by reducing the amounts of mixed waste.

197 198 199

JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 35 JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 35 JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 36

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In the reference municipalities the waste often ends up with the mixed waste if there is sufficient space in the dustbin.200 The results of the case study show that:201 The amount of mixed household waste was clearly reduced More waste was collected through recycling schemes (especially paper and cardboard) Pay-per-kg fees did not change consumer behaviour therefore no reduction (prevention) in waste generation can be expected Administrative work increased, due to writing out the individual accounts for each household plus making up the account in case of change of addresses Despite the fact that pay-per-kg fees involve a great risk of illegal dumping, there were no signs of large-scale illegal tipping

2.3 Developments in waste management Till the early 1970s waste collection was from a logistical and operational point of view relatively easy to handle and far away from the complex and multilayer process it is today. As discussed in chapter 2.2.1, the separated collection of potential recyclables leading to the diversification of waste streams results in a higher complexity of the whole process. This in turn stresses the importance and the need for rationalisation, improvement and invention of new waste collection and transportation systems.202 As already mentioned in chapter 2.1, according to BILITEWSKI et al. the collection of waste is a combination of technology and human labour, specially: Collection method Container system Vehicles and Personnel203

200 201 202 203

JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 36 JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002, p. 35 f WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 10 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 64

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In any rationalisation process, regarding waste collection and transportation, these factors have to be examined thoroughly because each element withholds considerable potential for cost saving and improvement of efficiency.204 There are new developments in each of the elements mentioned above. In the following paragraphs new concepts will be chronologically presented and discussed. 2.3.1 Collection method Among the new developments in this sector are vacuum suction systems. These new concepts and systems will be thoroughly discussed in chapter 4. 2.3.2 Container systems Containers play an essential part in waste management (compare chapter 2.1.2). There are some new systems able to reduce collection time and frequency of collection. One interesting concept is the so called DU-Container, which was developed by the German company Edelhoff. These containers are available in different sizes and shapes from 40 to 3.000 litres. The special feature of this system is a new bearing area which leads to an easier handling and faster process of emptying the containers. Another important fact in this context is that containers of different sizes can be emptied with one vehicle, i.e. even though there are for instance different container sizes within one collection route, only one vehicle is needed to empty all the containers. Whereas with other container systems more collection runs would have been necessary, or the use of more than one collection vehicle which automatically leads to more traffic and higher costs.205 Also the new concepts for deep collection and hydraulic underground containers provide good solutions and possibilities for rationalisation in this context.206 2.3.3 Vehicles As an essential part of waste collection, vehicles are subject to constant technical improvements and inventions.207 Latest developments in this important part of most collection systems were already discussed in chapter 2.1.3.3.

204 205 206 207

WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 10 WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 5 f ECO SIR: http://www.ecosir.com/, 07.11.2005 WRZ, W.: 100 Jahre Entwicklung der Sammlung und des Transportes kommunaler Abflle, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2101, Lieferung 1, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 1 ff

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2.3.4 Personnel High acquisition costs for new collection vehicles and connected costs for depreciation and interest require a high degree of utilisation of the vehicles. Since one working day consists of 8 hours, an optimum of utilisation can only be reached through the appliance of shift systems. In the German city of Berlin for example, the responsible authorities started to operate waste collection in a two-shift-system. The aim of this measure is a 50% reduction of the vehicle fleet and the corresponding reduction of repair shop capacities finally leading to considerable cost savings.208 2.3.5 Route planning and supervision systems 2.3.5.1 Route planning Route planning has been in the focus of rationalisation processes over the last few years. Whereas in many regions, waste collection is still based on experiences that were made over many years, especially in larger cities, new software solutions arranging collection and transportation in a more efficient way are employed.209 These systems are used for the planning, recording and guiding of waste collection trips. With the help of route planning systems, the driver of a waste collection truck is able to choose the best route in order to collect the waste bins in the most efficient way thus optimizing runtime and costs. Route planning is usually performed by GPS210. If a route is recorded, a typical collection run is executed while the GPS system permanently determines the collection vehicles actual position and stores all data. Afterwards, the recorded collection run can be analyzed and optimized by special software.211 In the German city of Dortmund, the responsible company for waste collection was able to realise considerable savings in time and costs through using latest route planning software. The collection tours for 1,100 litre containers could be reduced from 21 to 18 tours, the tours for 80 to 240 litre containers was reduced from 25 to 20. This ended up in a reduction of staff- and vehicle usage of approximately 17%. Hand in hand with these savings, the labour expenses for route planning were reduced by nearly 70% from 6 to 2 persons.212
208 209 210 211 212

WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 2 f WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 9 GPS= Global Positioning System GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6,

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Advantages of route planning systems:213 Reduction of costs through optimizing routes which results in reduce fuel and time consumption Trucks and staff are employed more efficiently which increases productivity The connected costs for such a system per truck are approximately 5,000 EUR including soft- and hardware (without installation costs).214 2.3.5.2 Supervision systems Supervision systems check and control truck data in order to optimize truck maintenance. Interesting data in this context is mileage, number of collected bins etc Through analyzing the data collected, important conclusions on the change of tyres, hydraulic oil or the engine can be drawn since the time of maintenance of these parts is strongly connected to the trucks load. With the help of telematics supervision systems the data mentioned above is collected on board the collection vehicle and transmitted via GSM or GPRS to a control centre. This allows service personnel to constantly control the trucks status and to plan maintenance and repair at an early stage. Additionally, supervision systems can also be used for tracking of trucks which can furthermore be used to schedule collection trips. Often the supervision activities of the whole truck fleet are outsourced to specialized service providers.215 In conclusion, supervision systems have the following advantages:216 Lead to increased productivity through reduced downtimes of trucks Better fleet management can be achieved Investment costs in supervision systems are approximately 2,000 EUR per truck (without installation costs and control centre).217

213 214 215 216 217

Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 9 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22

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According to waste management service companies, the use of route planning and supervision systems offers a series of advantages that will lead to an increasing demand. These systems are also used for controlling collection truck drivers.218 An example of the successful implementation of supervision systems is the German city of Hamburg, where the first systems were installed in 2001. The City Cleaning Department Hamburg (SRH), operates 670 vehicles and employs 2,600 employees. The whole fleet drives approximately 10 million km each year and for this 3,7 million litres of diesel fuel are required.219 Through the implementation of new telematics systems, the Cleaning Department hoped to considerably decrease diesel consumption and improve economic efficiency of the fleet. Additionally, to the purchase of the supervision systems, the drivers had to attend a specialised training course in order to get to know the system.220

218 219 220

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 22 f LEOWALD, B.: Telematics systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 125 f LEOWALD, B.: Telematics systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 125

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The graph in figure 17 illustrates the reduction of diesel consumption of the waste collection fleet in Hamburg.

Fig. 17: Fleet consumption (24 vehicles) in the city of Hamburg (adapted)
Source: LEOWALD, B.: Telematics systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 135

As we can see in figure 17 above, the consumption of the fleet (24 vehicles) could be lowered by 18%. It is estimated that with telematics systems, the total fuel consumption of the whole fleet could be lowered by 7% which corresponds to 245,000 litres a year in the case of the City Cleaning Department of Hamburg.221 In conclusion it can be said that modern telematics systems offer a plurality of possibilities to the fleet management, to design the fleet management more economically effective and thereby lowering costs. The purchasing and operating costs would then be paid off in a short time depending on the extent of utilisation.222

221 222

LEOWALD, B.: Telematics systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 125 LEOWALD, B.: Telematics systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 137

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ALTERNATIVE WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS AND CONCEPTS

Environmental rules and their implementation are still the major drivers for the development of new markets and innovative concepts for waste management products and services. Additionally, cost savings and quality improvements play an important role223 as well. In this chapter different new collection systems and concepts are introduced and discussed. Most of these alternative systems are already in use and have proven that they work well and that their implementation can help to optimize waste collection processes. The presented traditional systems have more or less been applied and used for centuries. There have been some changes of course but the basic structure and the way of collecting waste is more or less still the same.224 Before latest trends in waste collection are discussed it is of great importance to explain where the main difference between alternative and traditional waste collection system lies. Alternative waste management products or services are not a defined group of products or services. In the course of this thesis, alternative waste collection systems are defined as: Innovative concepts for waste collection and transportation that, consist of one or many different products and/or services, creating benefits for the customer in terms of costs, quality, efficiency, etc.225 If one takes a closer look at the waste management literature, it is not easy to find proper descriptions of alternative waste collection systems such as vacuum extraction, for instance. BILITEWSKI et al. dedicate in their book Waste Management (1997) only of a page to this topic. In the collected edition Mllhandbuch226, within a chapter called meanders, one can read that these systems were not able to achieve acceptance and are of no big practical value.227 Moreover, WRZ claims that with
223 224 225 226 227

GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 13 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 119 GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p.1 = German waste management literature; English translation: Handbook of Waste WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 9

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this system the necessary separated collection of waste can not be operated without traditional waste logistics.228 Within the same collected edition one article deals invariably with pneumatic transport of waste in pipes.229 This article was written in 1970 and is based on literature published in 1966. Within the last 30 years there have been many changes in the field of pneumatic waste transport, especially regarding technological progress. Also the explanation of other alternative waste collection systems, e.g. deep collection and hydraulic underground compactors could not be found in standard German waste management literature. It is of great interest to find out whether these assertions are still true and traceable and referring to the status-quo in this field. The following two categories will be used to structure alternative waste collection systems: Container systems Vacuum suction systems In figure 18, one can see an overview of the latest innovative waste concepts also including sorting and incineration plants. This chart was published as part of a study carried out by GENTER with the aim to investigate and present latest concepts in the sector of waste management and to identify trends, chances and attractiveness of markets.

228 229

WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010, Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004, p. 9 ERBEL, A.: Pneumatischer Mlltransport in Rohrleitungen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2350, Lieferung 21, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1970

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Fig. 18: Innovative concepts: Attractiveness of markets


Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 15

Among the concepts with the highest growth rates in the next 3 years are route planning and supervision as well as individual billing systems. This is not surprising since optimisation of collection routes still contains a high potential for cost savings (see chapter 2.3.5). The matrix in figure 18 shows an interesting aspect. Suction systems are predicted to have a high market growth and likewise a market volume of 50 to 100 million Euros over the next 3 years. GENTER et al. obviously see certain trends especially suction systems gaining more acceptance and attention in the future. The description of vacuum suction systems and possible applications of such systems will play an essential part in chapter 4.

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3.1 Container systems 3.1.1 Deep Collection Companies such as Molok230 or EcoSir231 produce all different kinds of containers for deep collection. The size of containers varies from 800 to 5,000 litres. The term deep collection refers to the special depth of the containers which are installed in about 1 meters below surface in order to achieve more volume and a higher bulk density.232 As one can see in Figure 19, the containers used for deep collection do not have a different design from other containers used for waste disposal. The most striking distinction between conventional and deep collection containers can only be seen in Figure 20, where the cross section of the deep collection container is illustrated.233

Fig. 19: Deep collection containers


Source: ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

230 231 232 233

MOLOK :http://www.molok.com/, 07.11.2005 ECO SIR: http://www.ecosir.com/, 07.11.2005 MOLOK :http://www.molok.com/, 07.11.2005 MOLOK :http://www.molok.com/, 07.11.2005

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Fig. 20: Cross section of a deep collection container


Source: ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

The emptying of deep collection containers works either with special vehicles with a hydraulic crane that lifts the collection bags or a collection truck equipped with a mobile suction system (see chapter 2.1.3.1.4). Both emptying methods are illustrated in figure 21 below.234

Fig. 21: Emptying of deep collection containers


Source: RIS International et al.: Sustainable community design report Appendix 5 solid waste and demolition waste, Toronto 2004, p. 18

234

ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

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These containers are especially interesting for city centres where space is limited and the emptying intervals should be as low as possible due to traffic relief and noise level reduction. But these systems can also be used in rural areas, parks, housing areas, one family houses and hospitals.235 An example of the implementation of a deep collection system, emptied by mobile suction trucks236, is the Swedish city of Gothenburg. This system is mainly applied in residential areas with a low population density and about 10% of the houses are connected to this system.237 The system offers the following advantages: 238 Fast emptying through special bags Improved hygiene High bulk density - due to the vertical design, gravity forces the waste to compact itself Equalizes heavy fluctuations in waste quantities due to the higher capacity Saves space through special depth Lower emptying cycles through higher capacity Suitable for collection of all fractions Less odour - since oldest waste is on the bottom where it is cooler Usable also under extreme climate conditions Disadvantages: Special collection vehicles have to be used in order to empty the containers. This means additional investments and a larger fleet of vehicles Higher initial investment due to the work necessary when implementing the system

235 236 237 238

MOLOK: http://www.molok.com/, 07.11.2005 see chapter 2.1.3.1.4 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116 MOLOK: http://www.molok.com/, 07.11.2005

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3.1.2 Hydraulic underground compactors This special container system allows for the collection of waste in large containers that are placed underground. Additionally, these containers are equipped with a compactor that reduces the volume of the waste. Figure 22 shows what the container system looks like. On the left hand side one can see the inlets for the underground compactor where waste can be deposited. On the right hand side the underground container is already hydraulically lifted and ready for the emptying process. The collection vehicle, usually a hook and lift or a roll on roll off truck, can load the full containers and replace them with empty ones. After the process is done, the full container is transported to a treatment or a collection facility and the empty one is lowered underground. 239

Fig. 22: Hydraulic underground compactor in normal and emptying position


Source: ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

Advantages of the system are:240 Space economisation Reduced odour Improved city square design Suitable for collection of all fractions Lower emptying cycles Compaction of waste deposited
239 240

ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005 ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

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Disadvantages:241 Space needed for emptying process is larger compared to traditional collection Initial investment is higher than the use of traditional containers The presented system is especially suitable for city centres and cities in general. The system is already in use in many European cities such as Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm, Seville and Tampere for instance.242 3.2 Vacuum suction systems The systems presented in this chapter are mostly new ideas for rationalizing and improving traditional systems respectively and certain features of collection systems in general. In this context the only systems that combine both, namely transportation243 and collection, are vacuum extraction systems and for the sake of completeness, hydraulic flushing methods. The most promising system in this context is the Automated Waste Collection System (AWCS) developed by the Swedish company ENVAC. Despite the fact that there are more companies that offer a vacuum extraction system, ENVAC is market leader in this sector and there is a lot of information available on their system.244 The next chapter should provide the reader with detailed explanation of function and usability of the system.

241 242 243 244

ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005 ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005 within collection area (living area) GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 28

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THE AUTOMATED WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM OF ENVAC

4.1 General explanation of the system Whereas all other alternative waste collection systems can be seen as special features improving traditional waste collection. The Automated Waste Collection System is, as already discussed in the latter chapter, a system that can be used instead of the traditional ways of waste collection and transportation which is inspired by the idea of disposal of liquid waste through channel systems. The following chapters deal with a detailed explanation of the system as well as the different possibilities of implementation. In addition, at the end of the chapter some case studies are briefly discussed. The system itself has many different fields of appliance and the possibilities of implementation are extensive. Another important fact is that the system is not only available for household waste collection. There are smaller systems for hospitals, kitchens and official buildings as well. In the underlying thesis, the functioning of the system used for larger installations such as residential areas and city centres is of interest. ENVAC installs these systems for the collection of 1, 2, or 3 fractions, depending on the requirements of the region or community. These systems require different features and technologies but in general they all consist of the same basic structure. In the next chapters, the technical background of the system will be analysed. 4.2 Technical description In general the system consists of four major components: 245 1) Waste collection terminal where waste is collected after pneumatic transport. It also includes all equipment that performs and supervises the collection process. which connect the collection terminal with the buildings and sites where waste originates.

2) Waste transport pipes -

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3) Waste discharging valves -

which separate the waste transport pipes from the charging stations situated in the streets or inside the buildings. situated at the end of each waste transport pipe branch, admit the transport air into the system.

4) Air inlet valves -

Fig. 23: Schematic depiction of the major components of an AWCS (adapted)


Source: SALVANY SABAT, J.: Sorting different fractions with automated waste collection, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2005, p. 2

Figure 23 above illustrates the four major components mentioned above. As we can see, there are two different ways of disposing of the waste. On the left hand side the waste inlet is situated on the street and the second possibility is that chutes with inlets are installed inside buildings and the residents can dispose of their waste inside their own buildings. More information on the different designs of the refuse inlets are provided in chapter 4.2.5 and 4.2.7.

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In designing the system, the following criteria are of great importance: Transport distance246 For determining the size of the exhausters and motors, the transport distance is the main criteria. Problems in this context are long distances, as the need for negative pressure increases more power is required. Therefore the optimum size for the exhauster and the motor has to be found. Another important fact is that different types of waste (fractions) require different transportation speed. Number of discharge valves247 If the number of discharge valves in a system is too high, the time taken to collect the wastes from all the valves increases. The system could therefore be divided in several areas by sectioning valves to make it possible to maintain one part without disturbing the whole system. Transport capacity248 Depending on the average transport distance to the collection plant, the amount of waste per valve opening and the total amount of waste transported to the plant of the system could take several hours per day. Due to the fact that waste is not generated evenly during the day there must be some spare capacity to avoid overload at the charging stations. The plant must also handle all waste collected and have sufficient capacity to store it for at least one day. Waste inlets249 The size of waste cannot be bigger than the transport pipe or the diameter of the pipe at the charging station. That means that the door size is limited. The used diameter of the hatch in systems installed for residual waste is 280 mm. For offices and commercial buildings where bigger bags are used for waste disposal, the door has a size of 400 x 500 mm. The doors have to be interlocked with the discharge valve in such a way that the door cannot open when the valve is opened due to safety reasons.

246 247 248 249

ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 3 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 3 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 3 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 3

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Each system can serve up to approximately 8,000 households and the maximum distance from the inlets to the collection station is approximately 2 km.250 The next chapters deal with the 4 main parts that are subject to detailed description according to technology and equipment used. 4.2.1 Waste collection terminal F-container251 The F-container works as both storage and transport unit. It has a vacuum tight connection to a waste pipe and the docking device. The container is equipped with a filter that prevents waste from clogging and damaging the fans during collection processes. The container is constructed of steel. At the bottom it is equipped with a frame for roll on- roll off, loading and unloading on trucks. Air exhausters252 Air exhausters are used to create the appropriate air volume and partial vacuum in the waste transport pipes. The size and number of air exhausters needed depends mainly on the transport distance of waste in the transport pipes. According to the companys experiences, a distance longer than 1,7 km for a certain system is not recommended from an economical point of view.

250 251 252

JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 121 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 7 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 7

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Fig. 24: Air exhausters in waste collection terminal


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, May 2006

Usually, two or three exhausters are connected in series. One of them is a stand-by unit. The exhausters are connected to electrical motors via flexible couplings. Cyclone waste separator253 Another important technical part installed in waste collection terminals is a cyclone waste separator, as depicted in figure 25. This machine is used for the primary separation of the waste from the transport air.

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Fig. 25: Cyclone waste separator


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, May 2006

It is constructed of steel and equipped with waste level sensors. Via a feeding hopper, its lower part is vacuum tight connected to the waste compactor or directly into a container. Rotating separator254 The rotating separator is situated on the top of the cyclone for the separation of light waste particles and coarse dust from the transport air. Waste compactor255 This is another essential part situated below the cyclone separator. The task of the compactor is to introduce and compact the waste in the containers. Waste containers256 As all other waste collection systems, containers are used in the automated waste collection system as well. The size and number of waste containers depends on the quantity of waste collected.

254 255 256

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Fig. 26: Containers in waste collection terminal


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, May 2006

Normally, the containers should have sufficient capacity to store the waste generated in one day. The steel containers are connected to the waste compactor and at the bottom they are equipped with frames for roll on roll off loading and unloading on trucks. Container handling system257 This system is used when two or more containers are required. During the loading cycle the container is connected to the compactor. When the container is full, it is manually operated from a control box, disconnected from the compactor and transported by the container handling system to a free place for temporary storage.

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Fig. 27: Container ready for pick-up


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, May 2006

An empty container is then transported to the loading position and connected to the compactor. In figure 27 we can see a full container, situated in the waste collection terminal, ready for pick-up. The full containers are loaded on lorries and transported to final disposal facilities. Filter installation for the transport air258 The filter installation consists of cassette bag type filters for dry filtration which can be installed downstream of the air exhausters. Air-flow velocity control device259 The air-flow velocity control consists of a regulating valve, vent pipe, pressure gauges, etc. This equipment automatically controls the speed of the transport air in the transport pipes. Installation for compressed air260 For activating all waste and air inlet valves along the pneumatic transport pipe network, compressed air is used, which in turn is generated in the collection terminal
258 259 260

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and distributed in plastic pipes that run along the transport pipes to all valves. Pipes and valves261 There are different pipes and valves within the terminal such as: Non-return valves above the exhauster Various stop cut off valves Pipes which connect the different main units within the terminal, together with the corresponding supports, attachments etc. Central control panel262 This unit controls and supervises the automatic waste collection process. All valves, situated along the transport pipe network, are connected via electrical cables. The main components of the panel are: Microcomputer with a screen and a keyboard for all automatic functions Push buttons and switches for the operation of the system Indication lamps Mimic panel indicating each waste and air inlet valve showing the development of the collection process in the connected area Motor control panel263 The motor control panel is fully interfaced with the central control panel. It contains all the necessary components for the operation of the electrical motors, such as breakers, fuses, switches, relays, ammeters, etc. Control panel for the container handling system264 This control panel contains all electrical components which are necessary for the container handling.

261 262 263 264

ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 9 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 9 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 9 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 10

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Waste collection terminal building265 The waste collection terminal can be situated in separate aboveground or underground buildings. It is of great importance that transportation trucks have free access to the building in order to enable fast loading and unloading.

Fig. 28: Waste collection terminal


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, May 2006

The room where the air exhausters are installed is insulated in order to reduce the noise level. Before being expelled in the free atmosphere, the sound level of the exhaust air is further reduced by a baffle type silencer. 4.2.2 Waste transport pipes Pipe network The waste transport pipes are normally manufactured in mild carbon steel. In pipes where large quantities of waste are transported, certain parts e.g. the bends must be manufactured in alloyed steel or Ni-hard metal. All joints in the transport pipe network are welded. The transport pipes are normally installed underground at a depth of approximately 1 metre. Electrical cables and compressed air tubes, which connect all valves of the system with the collection terminal, are installed together with the transport pipes.266

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In most cases the pipes are installed in trenches. The planning of the trenches can almost always follow the height variations of the terrain, as inclinations of 20 degrees in both pipe directions are permitted. In order to avoid damages to the external polyethylene protection of the pipes, ditches with a sand bed are required. When ground conditions are unfavourable (acid, high moisture content), a cathodic protection of the transport pipes might be necessary. Within the pipes, waste is transported and this leads to erosion. Due to the heterogeneous composition of the waste, factors must be determined empirically. It is of great importance that these factors are correctly evaluated when designing a transport pipe network. On the outside, the transport pipes are exposed to the same corrosions as all other steel pipes e.g. water, gas, etc. For this reason an adequate protection of the external surface of the transport pipe network is required.267 The main parts of the pipe network are:268 Sectioning valves that divide the system into subsystems in order to avoid interference from non active parts of the system Electrical cables for transmission of electronic signals between the collection terminal and all waste discharge and air inlet valves Compressed air tubes that connect the compressor in the collection terminal with all the waste discharge and air inlet valves 4.2.3 Waste discharge valves The waste discharge valves separate the waste transport from the vertical chutes. Normally they are installed under the charging stations and they are closed and opened only for 7 to 10 seconds during the discharge cycles (usually 2 or 3 times a day). Only one valve can be open at a time. When the valves are closed, the waste which falls by gravity within the discharging station is retained by the closing element of the valve. When a valve opens, the waste falls by gravity/suction in to the air stream in the transport pipe.269 The valves are operated by the compressed air generated in the collection terminal and the closing elements are actuated by compressed air cylinders. The operation of the valves is controlled by the computer in the central control panel in the collection terminal. Electronic terminals in the valve rooms verify and execute the orders
267 268 269

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transmitted form the central control panel.270 4.2.4 Charging stations The charging stations which connect the waste discharge valves are only subject to a slight partial vacuum during the short time the waste discharge valves are open. The charging station is normally constructed in concrete or steel.271 Figure 29 shows a typical charging station situated on street level.

Fig. 29: Schematic depiction of an out-door charging station


Source: SALVANY SABAT, J.: Sorting different fractions with automated waste collection, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2005, p. 3

In order to assure an obstruction-free passage of the waste in the charging stations and within the transport pipes, the following measures are of great importance:272 The inside diameter of the discharging station should not exceed the diameter of the waste discharge valves The diameter of the waste loading doors should be 50 mm less than the discharge valves273

270 271 272 273

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In existing residential areas of one-family houses and in existing areas where it is impossible to install vertical waste chutes within the buildings, the charging stations are situated on street level. These charging stations are normally close to pavements or other open spaces, at comfortable walking distance from the dwelling.274 4.2.4.1 Waste inlets The limited volume inlet for the charging station is designed for use in residential areas. It accommodates only a limited volume of refuse at a time. The design of the inlet depends on the type of material it will be used for. For waste the volume will be limited to approximately 30 litres. The waste is placed in the hopper, a small metal container just inside the inlet door. This momentarily holds the waste until the inlet door is closed and the refuse is disposed into the storage section. The waste inlet is made in painted cast aluminium. The total weight is approx. 150 kg.275

Fig. 30: Waste inlet (outdoor)


Source: ENVAC: Technical description Feeding system 500, Stockholm 2001, p. 4

The design of the waste inlets differs within a wide range of possible installations. Depending on the surrounding, the inlets are installed in order to suit the local appearance.276 In the figures 31, 32 and 33 different types of waste inlets are depicted. Normally the walking distance between inlets is approximately 70-100 metres depending on the areas infrastructure.277

274 275 276 277

ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001, p. 12 ENVAC: General description Feeding system 500, Stockholm 2001, p. 4 there are inlets for commercial and residential users (indoor and outdoor) ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste collection system 500 for two fractions, Stockholm 2001, p. 4

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Fig. 31: Waste inlet with surrounding


Source: ENVAC: www.envac.net, 19.12.2005

Fig. 32: Waste inlet in the centre of the Spanish city Seville
Source: own chart, by the author, Seville 2005

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Fig. 33: Indoor waste inlets


Source: SALVANY SABAT, J.: Sorting different fractions with automated waste collection, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2005, p. 6

As partly discussed in chapter 4.3, the inlets can also be installed inside buildings. As we can see in figure 33, the residents can dispose of their waste through choosing the right inlet according to the fraction deposited. 4.2.5 Air inlet valves The air inlet valves are situated at the end of each waste transport pipe branch. They are installed under the street or basement level in the buildings in close connection to the last waste discharge valve of the branch. The valves are normally closed or opened only for 1 or 2 minutes during the discharge cycles. Only one valve can open at a time.278 The valves are operated by compressed air and the closing elements are activated by compressed air cylinders. The operation of the valves is controlled by the central control panel in the collection terminal and the electronic terminals in the air inlet valves room verify and execute the received orders.279 The sound level caused by the air which enters the valve at high speed is considerable and therefore they are equipped with silencers (see chapter 5).280 This description is accurate for the so called ENVAC System 500 for one fraction.
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As already mentioned earlier in this study, there are several systems in use. In general, the basic structure is the same in all the systems but there are additional units if two or three fractions are collected. How the separated collection of recyclables is realised by the AWCS is described in the next chapter.281 4.2.6 Separated collection with vacuum collection systems As already mentioned above, vacuum collection systems can be extended to transport several different types of pre-sorted waste. In general the systems are mainly designed to take care of fractions that represent large volumes or cause bad odour.282 There are two different ways of realizing separated collection of recyclables with Automated Waste Collection Systems: a) Installation of additional inlets283 In order to collect pre-sorted waste, one or more inlets are installed, one for each fraction. In the collection terminal additional containers, one for each type of waste are installed. The inlets are emptied under the control of a computer which also directs the waste to the appropriate container. This means that the different fractions are collected, transported and stored separately. In figure 34 we can see a three way diverter valve. The pneumatic three-directional pipe diverter valve is incorporated in the pipe system to direct the waste from a common waste transport pipe to the two cyclone separators or to the F-container.284

Fig. 34: Three way diverter valve in different positions


Source: PIEBER, M., Gteborg, Mai 2006

281 282 283 284

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There are different ways of installing additional inlets:285 If the inlets are situated inside a building and each fraction is given a chute of its own running through all floors in the building. This solution offers maximum service for the inhabitants Another option is that for the main fractions there is one chute running through all the floors. Additional inlets for the other fractions are situated on the entrance level only The third option is to install one inlet for the main fraction running through all floors and to install inlets for all other fractions out-door. That means that outdoor inlets are evenly positioned throughout the area The chute selection methods presented above could be mixed in order to get the best solution for each project/collection area b) Bag selection286 This method has been tested in Sweden with satisfying results for the company ENVAC. The fractions tested are wet waste (organic kitchen waste for compost), dry waste (for combustion) and newspapers (for recycling). The different fractions tested are deposited in bags of different colours: black for wet waste, white for dry waste and blue for newspaper. The bags are all deposited in one and the same inlet. The mixed bags are then transported altogether to the same container in the collection station. With the help of an optical measuring system, the bags are automatically divided into different containers for further treatment. According to the companys information, the test went extremely well with bags of a thickness of 0.08 mm. This thickness is slightly higher than that of standard waste collection bags. 4.2.7 Function The underlying chapter will provide detailed explanation of function and the transport cycle of vacuum suction systems. The following steps are chronologically taken in a transport cycle:287 Before the transport cycle starts, all valves are in the closed position. The system will be started with different methods.

285 286 287

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Time-based:

The collection cycle starts at preset times independent of the amount of waste actually in the system. The collection cycle is controlled by start times for the different branches. The collection cycle starts when the volume of waste in one or more specific gravity chutes triggers a level switch. The collection cycle then either collects the waste from all inlets, from inlets specified in a program or only inlets with a level indication. These two different collection modes can be combined and the system may then, for example, start at a predefined time and collect the waste only from the inlets with a level indication. One or more levels indicators may also interrupt a predefined collection cycle in another part of the system. When the wastes from these inlets have been collected, the system resumes the interrupted collection cycle.288

Level based:

Combination:

The sequence of a waste transport cycle is as follows: 1) The exhauster is started and a static negative depressure is created in the horizontal pipe system. 2) The air-inlet valve of the first branch is opened and an air stream is created in the pipe, with a velocity of about 18-24 m/s. 3) After a short period, the first discharge valve opens and the waste bags fall down by gravity suction in the horizontal transport pipe. 4) The waste is transported at a velocity of 50-70 km/h to the collection station. In the collection station the diverter valve directs the waste from a common waste transport pipe to the cyclone-separators or to the F-container. The waste is separated from the transport air in the cyclone or in the F-container. The separated residual waste and paper, passes from the lower part of the cyclone to the compactor which compresses the refuse into a container. 5) After a period of 7-10 seconds, the first discharge valve closes. 6) After a few seconds, the second discharge valve on the same branch opens and the above mentioned procedure is repeated. 7) The air inlet valve of the first branch closes and after a short interval the corresponding valve of the second branch opens. 8) The procedure is repeated until all branches and discharge valves are emptied.
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9) The control equipment registers that the transport cycle is finished. 10) The valve, which connects the horizontal waste pipe system with the exhausters, is closed.289 The cycle is illustrated in figure 35 below.

Fig. 35: Scheme of a suction system


Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 27

The market for suction systems is very attractive regarding the market volume and the prospects of the future. There are only a few players in this niche area and thus the competitive pressure is quite low.290 The market for vacuum suction systems is still in the growth phase according to GENTER.

289 290

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Fig. 36: Product life cycle


Source: GENTER, CH.: Innovative waste management products European market survey, in: Technology review 147, Helsinki 2003, p. 28

Finally some pros and cons of suction systems should be discussed. Advantages: Enhancement of living conditions291 Fully automatic system without manual physical work Availability 24 hours, 365 days a year Elimination of waste and waste bins in the streets and in the backyards Elimination of more than 70% of the waste collection vehicle driving and emissions Support of source separation of several fractions Quiet, clean and hygienic Lowers the total collection cost over the system life time Results in a better use of public spaces and building surfaces292 Lower operation and maintenance costs293

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Disadvantages: Higher initial investment costs (compared to other collection systems)294 Potential loss of jobs in waste collection sector Use of plastic bags which increases waste (compare chapter 2) Only applicable in high density areas295 Retrofitting of existing buildings is not possible296 Implementation not always possible depending on the subsoil (cables, sewage system, underground system etc.) Noise impact during construction phase Problems regarding landlords (how achieve a mandatory participation, who pays for implementation?)297, 298

4.3 Case studies The system has been in use for over 40 years and is increasingly used in more and more countries now that governments start to see that the solution provided by ENVAC is a modern and efficient way to deal with growing waste management issues.299 In the beginning of the 1960s the system was installed in northern European countries such as Sweden, Norway and Denmark. In the last few years, southern Europe and especially Spain has realized the systems potential and advantages and thus started to implement it in its urbanisation processes. Additionally non European countries have realized that this waste collection system provides a good solution for waste collection and transportation. Several countries in Asia, among these Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia and others have already installed several systems. 300 The following pages should provide the reader with different fields of application and furthermore illustrate the diverse areas of implementation for the system.

294 295 296 297 298 299 300

See chapter 5.2.1 this is only true for large installations that are used in cities, small installations for kitchens or hospitals do not have anything to do with the density of a region. only true for systems that are installed in buildings with gravity chutes Interview with ZERZ, H. J., Leiter der Mll- und Altstoffsammlung der MA48, 30.01.2006 this problem is according to the interview with Mr. ZERZ one of the most important as far as the implementation of vacuum suction systems in Vienna is concerned ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 and information received from ENVAC ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 and information received from ENVAC

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4.3.1 Denmark In Denmarks capital, Copenhagen there are many suction systems in operation. Latest projects include Havnestad, which is a new residential district only 2 km away from the centre of Copenhagen. In this area more than 1,000 new apartments are being built. This new residential area is only one out of many new projects in Denmark. Approximately 4,300 apartments will be built over the next three years. The estimated amount of waste to be collected each day is about 1.5 tons a day. Although there are many systems in Denmark that collect 2 different fractions, in this case there is only one fraction collected. All waste handling facilities including the waste terminal are located underground, which in turn creates more space on the ground level that can be used in order to improve quality and standard of living of the residents accommodated there.301 The property owners and residents in Havnestad/Denmark have found a unique financial solution. A local waste company finances the installation plus maintenance and operation of the system. The residents pay an annual rent in addition to the charge for waste collection, which is considerably lower than for traditional waste collection.302 Another system was installed along the quay in Nyhavn, in the old part of the city of Copenhagen. This system was started in 1996 and consists of 8 inlets. The particular aspect of this installation is that both municipal and commercial waste (from nonproducing companies) is collected. Namely waste from 150 apartments and about 120 restaurants and bars. During summertime the system has to manage a total of approximately 60 tons of waste a week.303 4.3.2 Norway304 The airport Gardermoen in Oslo is equipped with a suction system for 3 different fractions305. The interesting fact about this system is that from the inception of the planning process, environmental infrastructure was taken into considerations. So the waste collection system by ENVAC was part of the construction plans from the very beginning. According to the company, the main reasons why the system was chosen were minimization of traffic in the area and the improvement safety and hygiene conditions. In total, around 1,730 metres of pipes were installed and there are exactly 68 inlets in use.
301 302 303 304 305

ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 ENVAC :www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 The fractions collected are: 2 different types of paper and incinerable

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4.3.3 Spain 4.3.3.1 Seville The monumental city centre of Seville, Santa Cruz was equipped with a vacuum suction system in the year 2002. The historic centre, which is very crowded with people, especially tourists, consists of very narrow streets. Thats the reason why the city council decided to install a vacuum suction system. The system has a capacity of 3,700 apartments and 42 inlets that are equally distributed in the area. In total, there are 3,700 metres of pipes and there is only one fraction to be collected.306 4.3.3.2 Victoria-Gasteiz Another example of the installation of a suction system into a historic centre is the city of Victoria-Gasteiz in the Basque Country. Here again, the system was built in order to replace the complicated task of manual waste collection which was quite difficult due to the commercial activities and narrow streets in this area. This project with 180 inlets and a pipe network of 4,200 metres started to operate in 2002.307

Fig. 37: Waste inlets in the historic city centre of Victoria-Gasteiz


Source: ENVAC: www.envac.net, 18.12.2005

306 307

ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005

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4.3.3.3 Mallorca The Spanish city of Palma de Mallorca, decided to install an automated waste collection system in 1999. The system was installed in the historical centre of the city which is the largest in Europe. The collection station is situated 100 metres from the sea and is placed underground. In total, there are 345 inlets in the streets, with a combination of commercial, domestic and mixed waste inlets.308 The following problems occurred through the implementation of the system:

Ignorance of the correct performance on the part of the citizens collection boxes instead of inside them)

Lack of co-operation from some citizens (they put the garbage bags around the High noise level in the external aeration systems Request to change the site of a number of collection boxes Public works in numerous streets to build the required 9,1 km network of subterranean pipes 309 Nearly all of these problems could be solved. First of all, an information and advertising campaign, including the following actions, was started: Edition and distribution of brochures Door-to-door visits to every household affected by the new area Intense informative campaign in the most relevant media Mallorca Organization of a set of meetings and conferences with community associations, trade unions, business and other social associations310 Some of the collection points were relocated and silencers were installed in order to reduce the noise levels.311 This case study stresses the importance of communication regarding the usage and the working of the system. If people do not know how to use the system, participation and thus collection quotas will be low.

308 309 310 311

ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 MARTINEZ ORGADO, C. : Incentives for the Lawful disposal of Wastes in Mallorca, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2003, p. 12 MARTINEZ ORGADO, C. : Incentives for the Lawful disposal of Wastes in Mallorca, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2003, p. 13 MARTINEZ ORGADO, C. : Incentives for the Lawful disposal of Wastes in Mallorca, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2003, p. 12

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4.3.4 China The last case study to be presented in this paper is the Hong Kong Science Park. This project will occupy an area of 22 hectares and provide a gross floor area of 330,000 square metres. The development will be completed in 3 phases. The last phase is scheduled to be completed in 2009. The Hong Kong Science Park is a state of the art campus that is used as a hub for innovative and technology enterprises. The installed automated waste handling system is the first in Asia to feature a double chute system. This means that two fractions namely recyclable paper and combustables are collected separately. Another interesting feature of the system are the stainless steel pipes and waste chutes in order to prevent corrosion due to its close proximity to the sea.312 In the presented case studies, the author tried to present different kinds of projects with partly totally different scenarios. It can be seen from the case studies that such suction systems can be installed in newly erected residential areas, old and historic city centres and commercial buildings such as hospitals, offices and airports. Another important fact to be made clear at this point is that the systems dont have to be large installations, serving many buildings and apartments. The case studies provided above show that often there are also small systems installed with only two or three inlets for instance. Another interesting aspect that can be derived from the case studies above is that countries with a very limited amount of space have discovered the possibility of underground collection of waste by vacuum suction systems.313

312 313

ENVAC: www.envac.net, 15.12.2005 for example large cities in China, Korea and Singapore

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COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS

5.1 Criteria for comparison In order to rate collection systems, they have to be seen as part of complete waste logistics system. Thereby, ecologic, economic and social criteria can be used. In the following chapters, the different criteria are divided into two main groups, namely quantifiable and non-quantifiable aspects. Each main group consists of a specific number of sub-criteria. Quantifiable criteria are defined in a sense that there can be measured by objective criteria. Example given: noise by decibel [dB], costs in Euro [EUR] or worker safety in number of accidents per year. Whereas non quantifiable criteria are rather subjective such as odour and hygiene which can only be rated in a ranking with better or worse than other collection systems. At the end of chapter 5, the gained conclusions will be used in order to provide the reader with a ranking according to the criteria described above. As opposed to the often precise calculations of waste treatment facilities for diverse options of recycling and waste disposal, the collection of waste often deals with inappropriate and partially old numbers, because there are only a few studies on the different effects of collection systems.314 For this reason, the numbers and figures of this chapter are mainly taken from the study Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004 carried out by SWECO, a Swedish business consultant. The company was assigned, by the request of the City of Stockholm and Real Estate Administration, to calculate the operating and investment costs of manual waste handling and a stationary vacuum suction system. The target area was a newly constructed residential area in the centre of Stockholm, named Hammarby Sjstad.315 Due to corresponding data availability, the comparisons focus on traditional waste collection (manual handling) and vacuum suction systems.

314

315

BACH, H., et al.: Optimierungspotentiale in der Entsorgungslogistik Studie im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fr Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie Wien, Institut fr Technologie u. Warenwirtschaftslehre d. Wirtschaftsuniv. Wien, 2003, p. 119 SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 1

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The study mentioned above offers a holistic view on both collection systems including all details. The following consequences were investigated: a) Consequences for nature and environment Acidification potential [kmol H+/year] Global Warming potential [kg CO2/year] Eutrophication potential [kg O2/year] Photochemical ozone potential [kg C2H4/year] Particles from vehicles [g/year] Traffic load in region [km/year] Energy housekeeping Material housekeeping in life cycle perspective b) Consequences for the working environment Musculoskeletal ergonomics Hygiene c) Consequences for the living environment Noise Odour Fire safety Traffic load inside living area Impact during construction phase 316 Some of these criteria, mentioned above are subject to closer examination in the following paragraphs. The other results will be summarized in a table in appendix 7.1.

316

AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 17 f

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As a start, the area itself will be described in detail:


General Data
No. of dwellings 2,095

Waste Amounts
Combustible waste Paper waste Organic waste

[ton/year]
471 175 218

Driving distances
Driving up distance (from garage to region) To treatment plant Return distance (from region to garage)

[km]
4 8 4

Table 4: General information on the Stockholm region Hammarby Sjstad


Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 5

5.2 Quantifiable criteria 5.2.1 Costs Costs play an important role in political decision making processes. All the different measures presented in chapter 2.3 are based around being able to rationalise waste collection and transportation mostly focus on the primary goal of cost reduction. That is the reason why costs will be the first factor to be investigated in this chapter. Likewise, it is of interest to find out whether it is true that vacuum suction systems are generally more expensive solutions for waste collection. Rental income for saved space on the ground floor: A very interesting approach that was used by the authors of the Hammarby Sjstad study was the calculation of rental income for saved space (not occupied by waste bins) through the installation of a vacuum suction system. The place that is not used if a vacuum suction system is applied can actually be used for other things such as parking lots or other infrastructural installations. Thus the total amount of square metres saved has to be taken into consideration if two collection systems are compared. In the case of the region Hammarby Sjstad, a total of 1,366 m2 can be

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released if a stationary vacuum suction system is chosen.317 According to information from the housing developer JM/Ms Annelie Svensson, the rental incomes for premises on the ground floor in Hammarby Sjstad range from EUR 128 181/ m2 per year, depending on location. The calculation is supplemented with an average rental income of EUR 160 /m2 per year on the ground floor (1,366 m2 for a total of 52 waste rooms / service places) that could be leased in the event of vacuum suction being used. By way of comparison, a parking lot in a garage costs around EUR 1,920 per year.318
Preliminary Calculation 52 service places, 3 Fractions 2,095 Apartments Manual waste handling Stationary vacuum suction, primary and secondary networks % Investment collection system [EUR] Operating costs, Collection system [EUR/year] Total operating and capital cost (6% cost of capital) [EUR/year]

2,949,835

271,696

486,031

4,728,408

87,904

431,415

+37.6%

-67.6%

-11.2%

Table 5: Comparison of total operating and capital costs for the region Hammarby Sjstad
Source:

319

SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 3

Table 5 illustrates the total operating and capital costs for the region Hammarby Sjstad in the Swedish capital Stockholm. As one can see, the investment costs are approximately 38% higher for a stationary vacuum suction system. As opposed to the operational costs being three times lower compared to manual waste handling. Table 6 summarizes the costs for the same calculation (6% cost of capital and 30 years depreciation) focusing on the costs per apartment (dwelling). The calculated differences of the example of table 6 are identical with the figures in table 5 and were therefore omitted.

317 318 319

SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 5 SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 5 Preliminary calculation (6% cost of capital, 30 years depreciation, no rental income), excl. VAT. Operating costs for the year 2005

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Preliminary calculation per apartment (dwelling) Manual waste handling Stationary vacuum suction, primary and secondary networks

Investment collection system Per apartment, EUR320

Operating costs, collection system Per apartment, EUR/year

Total operating and capital costs, 6% cost of capital per apartment, EUR/year
232 EUR/year

1,406 EUR

130 EUR/year

2,254 EUR

43 EUR/year

206 EUR/year

Table 6: Comparison of operating- and investment costs per dwelling


Source:

321

SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 4

Another comparison of costs, occurring in manual waste handling and stationary suction systems, was carried out by BoDAB; a company specialising in operations and maintenance for housing in Greater Stockholm. The study compares the existing automated waste installation in the Sdra Station (Southern Station) area in Stockholm with a hypothetical system for manual waste collection in the same area according to regulations and rates in 1999.322, 323

320 321 322 323

Original currency SEK (Swedish Crowns), converted by the author with the exchange rate: 1 EUR = 9,37589 SEK, 15.03.2006 Preliminary calculation (6% cost of capital, 30 years depreciation, no rental income) comparison per apartment, excl. VAT. Operating costs for the year 2005 BoDAB: City planning with and without Vacuum waste handling, Stockholm 1999, p. 1 General data of the installation: 3,240 dwellings and three office buildings by means of 178 gravity chutes.

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Preliminary calculation per apartment (dwelling)

Investment collection system Per apartment, [EUR]

Operating costs, collection system Per apartment, [EUR/year]


64 EUR/year

Capital investment for equipment [EUR/year]

Rent loss due to garbageand valve rooms [EUR/year]

Total annual costs [EUR/year]

Manual waste handling Stationary vacuum suction, primary and secondary networks %

1,259 EUR

39 EUR/year

104 EUR/year

207 EUR/year

1,479 EUR

52 EUR/year

82 EUR/year

18 EUR/year

152 EUR/year

+14.9%

-18.8%

+52.4%

-82.7%

-26.6%

Table 7: Comparison of costs per dwelling in Sdra Station, Stockholm


Source: BoDAB: City planning with and without Vacuum waste handling, Stockholm 1999, p. 3 (adapted)

After the presentation of two different studies dealing with the same subject one can see that both results are quite similar. No matter which study dealing with the comparison of costs between traditional manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction systems was carried out, the following similarities can be seen:324 Higher investment costs for suction systems Lower operating costs Lower costs per year/dwelling for stationary suction systems According to the results presented in the study: Hammarby Sjstad showed that no matter which depreciation time and yield for capital cost is used, stationary vacuum suction systems were in total always cheaper than manual waste handling. If the rental income for saved space on the ground floor is taken into account, the operating costs can be even lower compared to manual waste handling. This results in lower total costs for stationary suction systems.325
324 325

SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 2 SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004, p. 5

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Concluding, it can be stated that with vacuum suction systems a decrease in costs can be achieved when the number of dwellings increases (through optimised degree of utilization), whereas in traditional waste collection the opposite is true.326 5.2.2 Traffic load Waste collection activities increasingly contribute to traffic load in urban areas. The separate collection of recyclables generally leads to more transport since several fractions are often collected separately in different collection runs (additive collection). Even if the share of waste transportation is quite low in comparison to the transportation of cargo, the collection activities within densely populated areas lead to a high traffic load and considerable emissions of exhaust gas pollution. For this reason, many cities are currently trying to implement measures aiming at the reduction of traffic load and emissions caused by waste collection activities.327 As presented in the introduction, increasing traffic volumes and congestion are trends waste collection is faced with, especially in inner city areas.328 The aim of this chapter is to find out which collection systems are able to decrease traffic load and congestion in the collection area and regionally. If traffic load is compared, one has to differentiate between traffic generated in the collection area329 and traffic generated in the region330. If a stationary vacuum system is applied, the number of collection runs within the collection area is almost zero (see table 8). Although this does not mean that other transport is not involved in waste disposal if a vacuum suction system is applied. As presented in chapter 4, the waste transported to the waste collection terminal still has to be distributed to final treatment facilities (compare figure 38). For this reason there is still transport connected with the usage of a vacuum suction system.

326 327 328 329 330

ERBEL, A.: Pneumatischer Mlltransport in Rohrleitungen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2350, Lieferung 21, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1970, p. 7 WRZ, W.: Integrierte Logistiksysteme fr die Stadtentsorgung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2531, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999, p. 4 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 117 through collection activities through transfer to final treatment facilities

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Stationary vacuum system


Collection vehicle movements inside collection area 0

Manual collection system


1,115 km/year

Table 8: Traffic load in collection area


Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 25

Table 8 shows the transport, occurring through collection processes in the collection area Hammarby Sjstad. Since the collection process is automated and there are no collection vehicle movements inside the collection area. Figure 38 illustrates the different transport occurring in the two systems, namely traditional, manual waste handling and a stationary vacuum system stressing the fact that also in vacuum suction systems collection vehicles are used in order to transport the waste generated to final treatment facilities.

Fig. 38: Schematic depiction of transport occurring in kerbside and vacuum suction systems
Source: by the author and BEIGL, P.: Vergleich der Umweltauswirkungen und der Kosten von kommunalen Entsorgungssystemen unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Transporte bei der Abfallentsorgung, Diplomarbeit an der Universitt fr Bodenkultur, Wien 2002, p. 13

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Figure 39 below illustrates that in the case of the region Hammarby Sjstad, regional traffic load could not be significantly reduced through implementing a vacuum suction system.

Fig. 39: Regional traffic load


Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 21

Although, according to the study carried out by BoDAB, in Sdra Station, Stockholm the transport from the area to the refuse incineration station are reduced by half since the refuse is better compacted in the automated refuse installation and the container trucks have a better loading capacity.331 This indicates that if a suction system is applied, the reduction of regional traffic load can vary depending on the region. It can be concluded that even though there are no collection activities with collection vehicles in the collection area, if a vacuum suction system is applied, there are still waste transport activities in the region through transfer of waste to final treatment facilities. But in total, vacuum suction systems reduce traffic load considerably compared to manual waste handling. Strongly correlated to traffic load, is noise caused by vehicle movements in the collection areas. The impact of noise caused by collection activities is subject to detailed discussion in the next chapter.

331

BoDAB: City planning with and without Vacuum waste handling, Stockholm 1999, p. 3

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5.2.3 Noise A very important prerequisite to be met by any collection system is noise reduction. A system has to be as quiet as possible and limit disturbance to the residents. Especially in large cities the noise produced by traffic and especially heavy traffic can reach considerable levels (see table 9). The noise generated during waste collection and transportation with collection vehicles originates mostly from container handling although compaction and reversing create considerable noise too.332 For example the city of Melbourne in Australia issued a code333 dealing with the management of noise during waste collection. Likewise, the Danish waste disposal company R98334, is working on measures that can be applied in order to reduce noise levels regarding waste collection.335 Also the city of Vienna launched a project dealing with noise level reduction in waste collection activities (see chapter 5.2.4.2.). Depending on the collection method and system, different noise levels and durations occur. In the following subchapters traditional waste collection with rear loading trucks and vacuum suction systems are subject to detailed investigation regarding noise.

332 333 334 335

ERIKSEN, S.: Reduction of noise nuisance due to waste collection for the inhabitants of Copenhagen, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 115 f The city of Melbourne: The management of noise from waste collection A code of practice, Melbourne 2005, http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/rsrc/PDFs/Noise/WasteCollectionCodeofConduct.pdf The R98 is a Danish private, non-profit waste disposal company ERIKSEN, S.: Reduction of noise nuisance due to waste collection for the inhabitants of Copenhagen, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 115 f

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5.2.3.1 Traditional collection with rear loading trucks In the following paragraphs different levels of noise pollution occurring in traditional waste collection systems will be discussed.
Type of noise source Duration of the noise event [time]
4 min

Noise level [dBA]


75-88

Noise sources [No. of]


130

Number of noise events [per source & week]


2.5

By collection point for rear loading truck Vehicle movements in area Total noise impact for the whole area per week

46 min 10. 8 h

75 75-88

The whole area

2.9

Table 9: Outdoor noise for the whole area of Hammarby Sjstad Manual waste handling
Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 24

5.2.3.2 Vacuum suction systems

Type of noise source

Duration of the noise event [time]


10 sec

Noise level [dB(A)]


55-72

Noise sources [No. of]


20

Number of noise events [per source & week]


280

Air inlet valve (1 metre distance) Outdoor inlet (1 metre distance) Total noise impact for the whole area per week

5 sec 4.0 h

55-72 55-72

156

2,184

Table 10: Outdoor noise for the whole area of Hammarby Sjstad Vacuum suction system
Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 24

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Tables 9 and 10 indicate that in traditional waste collection the total time of noise impact per week for the region Hammarby Sjstad, is approximately 2.7 times longer compared to the utilisation of a stationary vacuum suction system. In addition, the noise level in dB(A) is higher as well. In conclusion one can say that with stationary vacuum collection systems noise pollution can be reduced. 5.2.3.3 Exkursus Project SYLVIE An interesting project, dealing with noise reduction among waste collection vehicles in the city of Vienna is the project SYLVIE.336 The EU-sponsored project is aiming at noise reduction occurring/generated through waste collection and other activities of vehicles belonging to the Vienna municipal department for waste management MA48. Furthermore, the project should achieve noise reduction in a chosen part of Vienna through a cooperative method. In this project, noise itself is not only seen as a technical problem, but also as a social phenomenon. Through SYLIVIE, all stakeholders involved should develop a special awareness about noise and the problems connected with it.337 The following measures are taken:338 Purchase of more silent vehicles Noise level check of the complete fleet Modification of the audio-warning beepers339 of 477 vehicles Purchase of silent tyres with the aim to lower noise levels below 74 dB(A) at a speed of 50 km/h Measures to be taken by the drivers: 340 Avoid unnecessary reversing Appliance of all technical possibilities, regarding each type of vehicle To switch off the audio warning beeper of all vehicles with a swap-body equipped with a rear-view camera
336 337 338 339 340

Abbreviation for the German term: Systematische Lrmsanierung von innerstdtischen Wohnvierteln Projekt Sylvie: http://www.plansinn.at/sites/sylvie/, 16.03.2006 Project Sylvie: http://www.plansinn.at/sites/sylvie/, 16.03.2006 indicating when the vehicle is reversing Project Sylvie: http://www.plansinn.at/sites/sylvie/, 16.03.2006

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Usage of the switch to lower the sound of the audio warning beeper Usage of legal possibilities, i.e. switching off the audio warning beeper and simultaneously switch-on flashing warning lights between 10 oclock pm and 5 oclock am Over time change of gears in order to reduce the noise level of the engine This project shows on one hand that noise pollution is regarded as an important factor harmful to public health and immediate measures have to be taken in order to reduce noise levels. On the other hand, one can see that investments are taken in order to achieve lower noise levels. One has to bear in mind that this money could be partly used elsewhere if other waste collection systems (being quieter) were applied. 5.2.4 Safety for collection workers Waste collection is generally an area of business with a high rate of work injuries.341 Thus, safety for workers has become a more and more important issue in waste collection processes. In 1994, the Danish Working Environment Authority issued new guidelines dealing with waste handling and working security in this field. The following rules were issued:342 No manual lifting and carrying of containers or bags No manual loading of containers of bags onto collection vehicle No stairs or steps Maximum pulling/towing force for containers: 200 Newton If impossible to avoid carrying the maximum to be lifted are 75-litre bags (max. 20 bags per person and day)343 Most of these rules were accomplished through the implementation of small cranes, lifting the containers from cellars to the ground level or if the containers have to be carried over steps, special aluminium ramps are installed in order to avoid heavy lifting and carrying. In figure 40 below, both options for container handling are presented.344
341 342 343 344

ISWA-WGCTT: Position paper on questions to consider regarding the working conditions of waste collectors, when planning collection schemes, not published, July 2005, p. 3 NILSSON, P.: The influence of new working standards on the collection of household waste, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001, p. 6 f NILSSON, P.: The influence of new working standards on the collection of household waste, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001, p. 6 f NILSSON, P.: The influence of new working standards on the collection of household waste, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001, p. 19 f

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Fig. 40: Methods for improved container handling


Source. Waste Disposal Company R98

Figures 41 and 42 below illustrate the comparison of the Swedish average and conventional waste handling sector according to work related fatalities and accidents. The figures show that work related fatalities are nearly double the Swedish average. The number of work related accidents, measured in weeks of absenteeism, is by far more than double as high as the Swedish average. These numbers stress the importance of measures increasing worker safety and improved working conditions in the conventional waste handling sector.

Fig. 41: Work related fatalities per 1000 gainfully employed men
Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 23

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Fig. 42: Work related accidents per 1000 gainfully employed men
Source: AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 23

Similar numbers are presented in a study dealing with health and safety standards for the U.K.: The overall accident rate for the waste industry in 2001/02 is estimated to be around 2,500 per 100,000 workers. This is around four times the national rate (559 per 100,000 workers) The fatal injury accident rate for the waste industry in 2001/02 is estimated to be around 10 per 100,000 workers. This is ten times the national rate (0.9 per 100,000 workers) The major injury accident rate for the waste industry in 2001/02 is estimated to be around 330 per 100,000 workers. This is more than three times the national rate (101per 100,000 workers)345 Work related injuries mainly derive from handling heavy, sharp objects and awkward loads. Those accidents resulting in fatal or major injuries derive from being struck by waste collection vehicles, falling objects, trips and low falls are particularly significant.346 If we consider the information presented in chapter 4, dealing with the explanation of vacuum suction systems, we can see that with this system no such problems occur. Since with stationary vacuum suction systems, no bags or containers have to be emptied and lifted by a collection crew. The waste is disposed of by the residents in
345 346

Health and Safety Executive (ed.): Mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry, Research Report RR240, Maidenhead U.K. 2004, p. 9 Health and Safety Executive (ed.): Mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry, Research Report RR240, Maidenhead U.K. 2004, p. 10

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small bags and collected automatically and finally transferred through a pipe network to the containers situated in collection terminal.347 On the contrary if other collection systems are applied, one has to differentiate between waste collections with: a) Waste collection with rear-loading trucks348 If rear-loading trucks are used in waste collection, sometimes up to 5 men (see chapter 2.2.4) are needed in order to fulfil the collection process. The collection process involves lifting and dragging of containers and bags. Especially in inner cities where space is limited, the workers have to carry the containers over steps which adds additional working load to the collection crew. Furthermore, the personnel work mainly on the open street which means an additional source of danger.349 b) Side- and Front loading trucks350 As already discussed in chapters 2.2.3.1.1 and 2.3.2.1.2 front- and side-loading vehicles have certain advantages compared to rear-loading trucks especially regarding worker safety. Since the containers are emptied automatically by the driver, without a collection crew, no heavy lifting and carrying is necessary during the collection run. Although it has to be noted that, side- and front-loading trucks can not be used in densely populated areas.351 In conclusion one has to say that the highest level of worker safety can be achieved by utilizing vacuum suction systems. Figure 43 illustrates the levels of worker safety in different collection systems. Since there is no corresponding data available regarding the exact numbers of workers health in different collection systems the length of the bars hierarchically mirrors the results gained in this chapter.

347 348 349 350 351

PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116 The consequences drawn in this subchapter are based on the facts presented in chapter 2.1.3.1.1 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 117 f The consequences drawn in this subchapter are based on the facts presented in chapter 2.1.3.1.2 and 2.1.3.1.3 see chapter 2.1.3.1.1 advantages of side-loading trucks

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Fig. 43: Comparison of collection systems regarding workers safety


Source: own chart

5.3 Non-quantifiable criteria352 As mentioned earlier, non-quantifiable criteria, are determined subjectively. Since no corresponding data was available for the comparison of quantifiable criteria regards deep collection and underground compactors, these systems were not discussed in the latter chapter. Anent non-quantifiable criteria, the information presented in chapter 3 will be used in order to implement these systems into the following comparison. 5.3.1 Hygiene Waste workers are at risk of being exposed to diseases such as hepatitis. Personal hygiene is of the utmost importance to combat such risks. The use of personal protection (such as gloves) alone is not enough - washing hands before eating or smoking is essential. Food should not be consumed in the immediate workplace, but in rooms provided for the purpose. Vaccination of workers against hepatitis is advisable []. The health risks posed by micro organisms and dusts can be reduced by wearing specified facemasks.353

352 353

Due to the lack of corresponding data, the consequences drawn in this chapter are based on facts presented in the chapters 2, 3 and 4 GREEDY, D.: A dangerous business Health and safety issues for waste management operations, in: Waste Management World, Sept. 2005, p. 34

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Furthermore, ISWA recommends that waste collection is done in such a way, that workers do not need to directly touch the waste. This can be done by securing waste in bins or bags, so workers only handle waste properly binned or wrapped. At the same time it is important that gloves, dust-mask, shovel and broom or other relevant personal protection items like these are supplied to the worker354 Another important issue in waste collection regarding hygiene is that it must be secured wherever practically possible, that collection workers are not exposed to dust or micro organisms.355 The information provided to the users of the waste removal systems plays an important role as well. Information provided to the users should include guidelines for proper wrapping and packing of waste. Traditional systems Rear-loading vehicles In manual waste handling with rear-loading trucks workers are in contact with waste during the collection activity. If bags are used, the problem is increased since bags can easily be ripped. The use of solid containers improves hygienic conditions considerably.356 Side- and front-loading vehicles The utilisation of side- and front-loading trucks leads to better results in terms of hygiene in waste collection. As presented in chapters 2.2.3.1.2 and 2.2.3.1.3 the collection process is fulfilled by the driver, who manages emptying from the driving cab. No collection crew is necessary in order to empty waste containers thus less direct contact with waste.357 This leads to the assumption that if side- and front-loading vehicles are applied, the level of hygiene is higher compared to manual waste collection with rear-loading vehicles.

354 355 356 357

ISWA-WGCTT: Position paper on questions to consider regarding the working conditions of waste collectors, when planning collection schemes, not published, July 2005, p. 2 ISWA-WGCTT: Position paper on questions to consider regarding the working conditions of waste collectors, when planning collection schemes, not published, July 2005, p. 3 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 114 PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, JulyAugust 2004, p. 116

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Vacuum suction systems In vacuum suction systems, hygiene is relatively high since waste does not need to be touched by the workers. Waste is automatically transported through the pipe network to the collection terminal, where it is compacted and stored in containers. The whole process runs without manual collection activities.358 Hence, the level of hygiene is very high in vacuum collection systems compared to other waste collection systems. Deep collection A higher degree of hygiene can be achieved with the utilisation of deep collection since waste is collected at a depth of approximately 1 metres. Through the larger volume of the containers it is not so likely that containers are full and people dispose of their wastes next to the containers. The special collection process, as described in detail in chapter 3.1.1, enables enhanced hygienic conditions during the emptying process. Both methods, namely the emptying with a hydraulic crane lifting the collection bag and the utilization of mobile suction vehicles contribute to increased hygiene in such waste collection activities. Underground compactors The explanation of the functioning of this collection system in chapter 3.1.2 showed that one of the advantages of the system is that similar to deep collection, waste is stored underground and emptied by container vehicles. The loading process is fully automated thus a high level of hygiene is guaranteed. There is neither a high level of dust generation nor is the worker directly in contact with the waste.359

358 359

ENVAC: Functional Description Stationary vacuum collecting system, Stockholm 2005, p. 6 ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

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Fig. 44: Comparison of hygiene in different waste collection systems


Source: own chart

Figure 44 summarizes the findings in this chapter in a sense that the length of the bars hierarchically expresses the different levels of hygiene occurring in the collection systems investigated. 5.3.2 Unpleasant odour The avoidance of unpleasant odour is an important issue in urban waste collection systems.360 Especially if the share of organic, easily decomposed materials is high, it can lead to considerable malodour. In southern countries, with a hot climate, it is recommended that household waste is collected daily in order to avoid odour nuisance.361 Odour nuisance mostly occurs even at very low concentrations and due to the combined action of several substances, the determination of substances by means of physical/chemical measurement methods is extremely costly or not possible at all. Furthermore, the annoying effect of odours depends very much on the sensitivities and the subjective attitudes of the affected persons. This requires consideration of a large number of criteria when odours are to be detected/identified and assessed. Whether an odour nuisance is significant and hence has harmful effects on the environment does not only depend on the concentration of the pollutant but also on the type of odour, the hedonic odour tone, the daily and seasonal distribution and the temporal pattern of nuisance, the use of the affected area and some other criteria362
360 361 362

LECHNER, P.: Kommunale Abfallentsorgung, Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004, p. 302 BILITEWSKI, B., HRDTLE, G., MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997, p. 95 f Guideline on odour in ambient air (GOOA) - Determination and assessment of odour in ambient air, with background information and interpretation of the GOAA, May 1999, p. 1

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In order to achieve a pleasant living environment and improved city air quality in urban areas it is of importance to implement waste collection systems reducing smell nuisance to an absolute minimum. In the following paragraphs the collection systems are subject to investigation regarding smell nuisance originating from:363, 364 Open exposure of waste Contamination of collection sites due to overflowing containers Traditional systems In manual waste handling unpleasant odour is a problem due to open exposure of waste, especially at drop-off sites when receptacles are full and people place their wastes next to the containers.365 In countries with a warm climate, where waste is placed outside on the kerb in bags unpleasant odour is definitely an important factor to be considered. On the other hand we have to distinguish between waste collection with bags and containers. The latter option leads to better results concerning malodour compared to the use of bags since most containers come with lids preventing malodour. Vacuum suction systems In vacuum suction systems, fewer problems regarding smell nuisance can be noted since the system is closed, there are filters and waste is stored below surface. Likewise, the problem of collection site contamination (due to full containers), does not occur in vacuum suction systems because if the capacity of the discharging station is exhausted the emptying cycle is automatically initiated.366 Although as shown in the case of Mallorca (see chapter 4.3.3.3), if the public is not fully informed about the function of the system it can lead to a problem regarding unpleasant odour since people simply placed the bags next to the waste inlets. This shows that even if the system in principal offers a high level of hygiene and smell reduction, it still depends on the motivation and an informed population to allow it to work efficiently.367

363 364 365 366 367

Interview with ZERZ, H. J., Leiter der Mll- und Altstoffsammlung der MA48, 30.01.2006 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MC Graw-Hill, New York et al. 1993, p. 89 AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 26 ENVAC: Functional Description Stationary vacuum collecting system, Stockholm 2005, p. 6 MARTINEZ ORGADO, C. : Incentives for the Lawful disposal of Wastes in Mallorca, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2003, p. 12 f

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Deep collection As already discussed in chapter 3.1.1 deep collection containers are suitable for collecting large waste amounts on a smaller area compared to conventional waste bins. This lowers the risk of overflowing bins and leads to a lower contamination level of the collection site thus better results regarding unpleasant odour. Likewise, according to VOGEL, overflowing waste bins have negative effects on the waste accumulation.368 Additionally, one of the advantages of the system is that the waste deposited is stored under the surface which leads to reduced smell nuisance as well.369 Underground compactors Based on the facts provided in chapter 3.1.2, since waste is stored under surface and a relatively large volume per site is provided, contamination of the collection site is limited. In addition, the containers are closed, thus preventing open exposure of the waste disposed of. Based on these facts, it can be assumed that the use of underground compactors reduces unpleasant smell to a minimum.370 In figure 45 the findings of this subchapter are summarized.

Fig. 45: Comparison of level of unpleasant odour occurring in different waste collection systems
Source: own chart

368 369 370

VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen, in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994, p. 22 MOLOK: http://www.molok.com/, 16.03.2006 ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005

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5.4 Collection systems and trends in waste management To which extent are alternative collection systems able to meet current trends in waste management? The trends introduced in chapter 1 will be subject to further investigation. Each waste collection system will be checked whether it is able to address these new trends. To illustrate the results better, a grid will be used. As a basis for the comparison, the explanations and facts provided in chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 are used.

Table 11:
Source:

Collection systems and trends in waste management


own chart

According to the findings in the underlying thesis, all collection systems investigated are able to fulfil separated collection of recyclables and are able to deal with increasing waste volumes.

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As far as increasing traffic volumes are concerned it has to be noted that collection systems were investigated in a sense as to how they can contribute to a decrease in traffic volumes and congestion in urban areas. Since in vacuum suction systems there is no transport in the collection area (see figure 38 in chapter 5.2.2) these systems are able to contribute to this aim. In all other collection systems investigated, collection vehicles still play an important role, for this reason traditional collection, deep collection and underground compactors do not address this issue. Improved hygiene, working conditions and noise levels were carefully investigated in the chapters 5.3.1, 5.2.4 and 5.2.3. The results are once more summarised in table 11. Improved quality of life can be interpreted in a sense that noise reduction, integration in urban structure and improved hygiene are factors determining this issue. Since deep collection and underground compactors address at least two of these trends mentioned above they are according to the authors opinion able to improve quality of life in urban areas. Based on the facts provided in chapter 4 and 5, with vacuum suction systems, the highest improvement of quality of life in urban areas can be achieved. Concluding, as indicated in table 11, the collection systems being most suitable to addressing these trends are vacuum suction systems.

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CONCLUSIONS

Traditional waste collection systems have been in use for centuries.371 As shown in chapter 2, these systems consist of a number of inter related elements each playing essential parts in waste collection processes. As mentioned in chapter 1.4, part of the scope of this underlying thesis was to give a general overview of latest developments and trends in waste collection and transportation. The discussion of latest collection vehicles showed that front- and side loaders have certain advantages compared to rear-loading trucks. Especially the reduction of workers, resulting in cost savings and the improved worker safety are among the most important advantages. Other latest developments such as vehicles with subdivided build-ups and subdivided driving cabs are interesting and promising concepts for increasing efficiency in waste collection as well. The discussion of latest developments in waste collection was part of chapter 2.4. In this context, route planning and supervision systems are particularly promising new technologies enabling cost reduction and efficiency. The implementation of supervision systems, as shown in the case study in the German city of Hamburg, can lead to considerable reductions in fuel consumption, thus cost savings and in general better fleet management. The discussion of alternative waste collection such as deep collection and underground compactors showed that these systems comprise of certain interesting features particularly regarding improved waste collection activities. In conclusion, regarding the criteria investigated and discussed in chapter 5, we can see that in comparing to costs, in vacuum suction systems investment costs are nearly twice as high as traditional waste collection. The total operating costs and capital costs per year are lower for the operation of a stationary vacuum suction system. Depending on depreciation time and interest for capital, the results vary372, but the total operating costs were, according to the presented studies, always lower compared to manual waste handling. As far as traffic load is concerned, the presented numbers in chapter 5.2.2 show that vacuum suction systems reduce traffic load in the collection area compared to manual waste handling. Reduction of waste transport from the collection area to treatment facilities can also be achieved but the results vary between different regions.
371 372

JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 119 Depending on the studies and on the calculations, the difference in operational costs is 11.2 or 26.6 percent.

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Another criteria investigated in chapter 5.2.4 was noise caused by waste collection activities. The tables presented, show that the total noise impact through the waste collection process is lower if suction systems are applied. Likewise, the results show that the noise level [dBA] is considerably lower in a region where a stationary vacuum system is applied. Safety for waste collection workers also played an essential part in the comparison of the two presented systems. Since in vacuum collection systems no collection workers are involved in the collection process, worker safety is less of an issue in this system. Whereas, traditional manual waste handling still places high physical demands on the workers, especially in kerbside collection if rear loaders are used. The manual handling of the containers leads to a higher amount of worker related accidents. Better results regarding worker safety can be achieved if rear- or side-loading vehicles are used since container handling is automated. Although we should not forget that the use of these vehicles is limited, especially in narrow inner city districts they can not be used because of the limited space available. Furthermore, as far as the levels of unpleasant odour and hygiene are concerned, the facts presented in chapter 4 and 5 show that since vacuum suction systems are closed systems, the problems of malodour and a low levels of hygiene do not exist. Waste is stored underground and is emptied on a regular basis several times a day. In traditional waste handling often severe illnesses, such as hepatitis can occur, for this reason manual waste handling with rear-loading trucks bears the lowest level of hygiene. As indicated in chapter 5.3.1 hygienic issues are important problems waste collection workers are faced with. Summing it up, suction systems such as the automated waste collection by ENVAC are able to carry out waste collection efficiently and economically in regard to the operating costs per year, more so than traditional waste collection systems. Another important advantage of the system is reduced traffic load and improved working and health conditions. Likewise, this system is the only one investigated that is able to address the latest trends (as enumerated in chapter 5.4) affecting waste collection. Although one has to say that suction systems will never fully replace traditional manual waste collection. Especially in rural areas traditional collection will never be replaced due to inefficiency in long distances between the sources. On the other hand, in expanding cities, where new apartment complexes are built, suction systems could be sustainable solutions, as the facts in the chapters 4 and 5 show. As mentioned in chapter 3 waste management literature often does not fully cover alternative waste collection systems. There are also often inappropriate descriptions of systems, e.g. suction systems. One part of the underlying study was to examine alternative waste collection systems and to find out whether current literature dealing

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with these issues is still up to date. The following negative aspects considering vacuum suction systems were found in literature dealing with waste collection systems: Too expensive Not appropriate and efficient No separated collection is possible Only practicable and efficient in new residential areas

The discussion of alternative systems in the chapters 4 and 5 showed that according to latest studies and technological progress practically all of the disadvantages, regarding vacuum suction systems, mentioned above, were confuted by practical examples and that the presented innovative solutions are able to improve waste collection and transportation if applied. Another important lesson learned is the fact that in urbanisation process, it is not only the planning of the buildings that is important. It is primarily important to think about other factors such as waste management from the very beginning. Because as shown in the case studies in chapter 4.3 it is cheaper to integrate implementation of vacuum suction systems in the planning process than installing them at a later point in time. There will always be solid waste to manage. No matter how creative we are in reducing the amount of solid waste, waste there will still be there and this must be handled in an environmentally and economically sustainable manner.373 [] solid waste management is changing and evolving rapidly and decisions need to be taken about the future direction to take. Society needs to strive towards the total quality goal of sustainable development.374

373 374

WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow 1994, p. 324 WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management A lifecycle inventory, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow 1994, p. vii

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It is time to see and recognise the changes and new trends in waste collection and transportation and to react accordingly. As already mentioned, environmental, technical and civilisation issues have to be regarded in waste management and it is time now to meet these new challenges.

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7. Appendix

APPENDIX

7.1 Summary of Vstra Hammarby Sjstad study375:

375

AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004, p. 26

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8. References

REFERENCES

8.1 Books and studies


AXELSSON, S.: Economic Analysis and Environmental Assessment - Hammarby Sjstad Summary, Stockholm 2004

BACH, H., et al.: Optimierungspotentiale in der Entsorgungslogistik: Studie im Auftrag des


Bundesministeriums fr Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie Wien : Inst. fr Technologie u. Warenwirtschaftslehre d. Wirtschaftsuniv. Wien 2003 BoDAB: City planning with and without Vacuum waste handling, Stockholm 1999 BILITEWSKI, B./ HRDTLE, G./ MAREK, K.: Waste Management, Springer, Berlin 1997 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste Collection System 500 for two fractions, Stockholm 2001 ENVAC: General description of Vacuum Waste Collection System 500 for one fraction, Stockholm 2001 ENVAC: Technical description Feeding system 500, Stockholm 2001 ENVAC: Functional Description Stationary vacuum collecting system, Stockholm 2005 HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE (ed.): Mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industry, Research Report RR240, Maidenhead, U.K. 2004 JACOBSEN, H., KRISTOFFERSEN, M.: Case studies on waste minimisation practices in Europe, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen 2002 JENKINS, R.R.: The economics of solid waste reduction The impact of user fees, Edward Elgar Publishing, Hampshire 1993 LECHNER, P. (Hrsg.): Kommunale Abfallentsorgung (mit Beitrgen von Beigl, P., Binner, E., Hei-Ziegler, C., Huber-Humer, M., Iordanopoulos-Kisser, M., Lechner, P., Lebersorger, S., Mostbauer, P., Salhofer, S., Smidt, E., Stubenvoll, J., Wassermann, G.), Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels AG, Wien 2004 STERREICHISCHES STATISTISCHES ZENTRALAMT (Hrsg.): Umweltverhalten der sterreicher, Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 1988, Beitrge zur sterr. Statistik, Heft 1000, Wien 1990 RIS International et al.: Sustainable community design report Appendix 5 solid waste and demolition waste, Toronto 2004

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SALHOFER, St.: Kommunale Entsorgungslogistik - Planung, Gestaltung und Bewertung entsorgungslogistischer Systeme fr kommunale Abflle, Erich Schmidt Verlag , Berlin 2001 SWECO VIAK AB: Hammarby Sjstad Vstra Sjstaden comparison of manual waste handling and stationary vacuum suction for three fractions, Stockholm 2004 TCHOBANOGLOUS, G. et al.: Integrated solid waste management Engineering principles and management issues, MCGraw-Hill, New York et al. 1993 WHITE, P. et al.: Integrated solid waste management: A lifecycle inventory, Blackie Academic and Professional, London et al 1995

8.2 Books and Studies via Internet


CITY OF MELBOURNE (ed.): The management of noise from noise collection A code of practice, Melbourne 2005 http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/rsrc/PDFs/Noise/WasteCollectionCodeof Conduct.pdf COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: New waste strategy: Making Europe a recycling society, Brussels Dec. 2005 http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/05/1673&format=HT ML&aged=1&language=EN&guiLanguage=en COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, Brussels Dec. 2005 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0666en01.pdf COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS: Towards a thematic strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Nov. 2004 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/com_2005_0718_en.pdf COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: A Thematic Strategy on the urban environment, Brussels Jan. 2006 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/urban/pdf/com_2005_0718_en.pdf EEA: Environment in the European Union at the turn of the century, Copenhagen 1999 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/92-9157-202-0-sum/en/

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EEA: EEA-Signals 2004 A European Environment Agency update on selected issues, Copenhagen 2004 http://reports.eea.europa.eu/signals-2004/en/ENSignals2004web.pdf OECD: Strategic waste prevention, OECD reference manual, Paris Aug. 2000 http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2000doc.nsf/4f7adc214b91a685c12569fa005d0ee7/c125 68d1006e03f7c125692e004f054a/$FILE/00081387.PDF

8.3 Diploma and doctoral theses


BACH, H.: Die Entwicklung von koinventaren fr Sammelfahrzeuge zur Bewertung der Umweltauswirkungen der Hol- und Bringsammlung von Haushaltsabfllen, Dissertation der Universitt Wien, Wien 2002 BEIGL, P.: Vergleich der Umweltauswirkungen und der Kosten von kommunalen Entsorgungssystemen : unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der Transporte bei der Abfallentsorgung, Diplomarbeit am Institut fr Wasservorsorge, Gewsserkologie und Abfallwirtschaft (Abteilung Abfallwirtschaft) der Universitt fr Bodenkultur, Wien 2002 BHMER, G.: Solid waste and the hierachy in solid waste management systems, Diplomarbeit an der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, Wien 1995

8.4 Collected Editions and Articles in Magazines ERBEL, A.: Pneumatischer Mlltransport in Rohrleitungen, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl
2350, Lieferung 21, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1970 ERIKSEN, S.: Reduction of noise nuisance due to waste collection for the inhabitants of Copenhagen, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 115-117 GREEDY, D.: A dangerous business Health and safety issues for waste management operations, in: Waste Management World, Sept. 2005, p. 31-38 LEOWALD, B.: Telematic systems at the city cleaning department Hamburg, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 117-126 JDEMARK Ch.: A modern concept for waste collection in cities, in: 13th European Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste Symposium at IFAT Munich 2005, VKS Service GmbH (Ed.), p. 127-138 OTTEN, H.: Optimierungsmglichkeiten in der Tourenplanung bei der regionalen Hausmllentsorgung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2516, Lieferung 1, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1994

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PIEBER, M.: Waste collection from urban households In Europe and Australia, in: Waste Management World, July-August 2004, p. 111-123

WEHKING, K.H., et al.: Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte fr die Entsorgungswirtschaft, in:


Mll und Abfall, 36 (2004) 12, p. 600-602

WRZ, W.: Rationalisierung bei Sammlung und Transport von Abfllen, in: MllHandbuch, Kennzahl 2530, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999

WRZ, W.: Ein Blick zurck und einer in die Zukunft, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2010,
Lieferung 5, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004 WRZ, W.: 100 Jahre Entwicklung der Sammlung und des Transportes kommunaler Abflle, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2101, Lieferung 1, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2004

WRZ, W.: Verfahrenstechnik, Konzeptionen und Organisation der Entsorgungslogistik, in:


Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2070, Lieferung 3, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2005 WRZ, W.: Integrierte Logistiksysteme fr die Stadtentsorgung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2531, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999 WRZ, W.: Software fr Tourenplanung und Behlterverwaltung, in: Mll-Handbuch, Kennzahl 2518, Lieferung 6, Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1999

8.5 Lecture Notes


BACH, H.: Quantitative Abfallanalysen, in: Skriptenreihe des Instituts fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt, Wien 2003 KERI, CH.: Abfallwirtschaft im internat. Kontext unter besonderer Bercksichtigung des Managements gefhrlicher Abflle, Lehrveranstaltung WU-Wien im SS 2006 VOGEL, G.: Beitrge zu einem Sustainable Development, in: Skriptenreihe des Instituts fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994 VOGEL, G.: Abfallwirtschaft 3 Bereitstellung und Sammlung von Abfllen in: Skriptenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1994 VOGEL, G.: Der Beitrag der Ressourcenkonomie zur Minimierung der Entropieproduktion der irreversiblen Wirtschaftsprozesse im offenen System Erde, in: Schriftenreihe des Institutes fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt Wien, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 1984

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VOGEL, G.: Techno-konomische Probleme des Umweltschutzes, in: Skriptenreihe des Instituts fr Technologie und Warenwirtschaftslehre der Wirtschaftsuniversitt, VOGEL, G. (Hrsg.), Wien 2003

8.6 Laws, Decrees and Standards


The 6th Environment Action Programme, Decision No 1600/2002/EC by the European Parliament and the Council, July 2002 http://ec.europa.eu/environment/newprg/index.htm Council Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, 15 December 1994

8.7 Talks and Interviews


ZERZ, H. J., Leiter der Mll- und Altstoffsammlung der MA48, 30.01.2006

8.8 Internet
BIOCRAWLER: http://www.biocrawler.com/biowiki/Waste, 25.10.2005 CITY OF ZRICH: Implementing an ecological waste management, http://www.eaue.de/winuwd/109.htm, 18.03.2006 COMMUNITY OF HARSEWINKEL, GERMANY: http://www2.harsewinkel.de, 29.03.2006 DATABASE ON JAPANESE ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL EQUIPMENT: http://www.gec.jp/JSIM_DATA/index.html, 21.03.2006 EEA: http://themes.eea.eu.int/environmental_issues/waste/indicators, 25.10.2005 EEA-GLOSSARY: www.eea.eu.int, 21.03.2006 ENTSORGUNG UND RECYCLING ZRICH: www.erz.ch, 18.03.2006 ENVAC: www.envac.net, 19.12.2005 ECO SIR: www.ecosir.com, 04.11.2005 MA 48: www.wien.gv\ma48, 16.12.2005 MOLOK: www.molok.com, 07.11.2005 SUMMARY PACKAGING WASTE DIRECTIVE: http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l21207.htm, 02.04.2006 PROJEKT SYLVIE: http://www.plansinn.at/sites/sylvie/, 16.03.2006

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WIKIPEDIA: www.wikipedia.org, 25.10.2005

8.9 Other sources


BROSOWiTSCH, J. und VOGEL, G.: Patent AT 357106 B: Fahrzeug zum Transport von Massengtern, insbesondere Mll, Wien 1980 ISWA-WGCTT: Position paper on questions to consider regarding the working conditions of waste collectors, when planning collection schemes, not published, July 2005 MARTINEZ ORGADO, C.: Incentives for the Lawful disposal of Wastes in Mallorca, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2003 NILSSON, P.: The influence of new working standards on the collection of household waste, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001 PAULI, U.: Waste management in Zrich, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001 SALVANY SABAT, J.: Sorting different fractions with automated waste collection, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2005 VOGEL, G.: Dynamic comparison of key figures in waste management, Presentation at the Viennese Waste Management Conference, Vienna 2001

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