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Result of experiments on a 24 volt to 150kilovolt 50W converter. Possible prospect for a 300Watt DC generator at the Megavolt Level.

Oleg Eric ANITOFF, freelance engineer and Doctor in Sciences(PhD ;University of Paris-XI,1983) Associate member of IEEE since 1996 Member of NYAS
Oleg-Eric.Anitoff.72@normalesup.org

1.Introduction. After some successful work on high power in the tens of kilowatts range, involving DC/DC IGBTs converters operating in the dual resonant mode, and from a DC supply line of 300 to 660Volts, a new project was submitted, to achieve a DC voltage output of 0 to 150kilovolts, at a maximum current of 500A, hence 75 Watts, from any supply line, including 24 and 48 Volts DC and standard 90 to 260 Volts AC. This project was aimed at driving a special multigrid very high voltage tube, for special Xrays spectroscopy, and involved also the supply and regulation of 4 grid voltages, at very low power level, and which will not be described here, although the special tube was successfully operated many times during the year 2002. This short paper will describe the topology involved, which was able to supply only 42 Watts from at24 Volts DC line limited to 4,2 Amperes, and the result of measurement and tests. The results shows that a change in topology would provide the required goal of 75 Watts available DC power, and further evolution is aimed, this year, at reaching the megavolt voltage range, for other applications, such as ultra high voltage insulators tests and ultra high voltage mesoscopic dielectrics. 2.Topology The choosen topology is featured on figure 1. As the design goal for the power is only 75 Wattss,a primary DC voltage of 24 volts is sufficient. A standard 110/220volts AC to 24 volts DC, 4.2 amperes, was the only available choice at Radio-Spares, and was used for the design of this generator. However, if the design would have been produced commercially, a multi- input voltage supply would have been readily designed with straight-forward procedures,with input voltages either from 90 to 260 volts AC with booster PFC correction,or from 24 to 48 volts DC with a standard buck step-down regulator. The design consists in two parts : 1)a step-down buck PWM operated in the discontinuous mode. It involves a PMOSFET RFP60P03 (Radio-Spares), with a breakdown voltage of 30 volts and an on resistance of 7m ,in TO220 package, directtly driver by a 2N2222 with another 2N2222 as speed-up at turn-off.This enables a light drive requirement and a low drop-out at full power.

The PMOS is controlled by a dual operationnal amplifier, one of which is the fast comparator with a saw-tooth on one input,and the other one as integrator, with the set voltage between 0 and 10 Volts for an output voltage of zero to 150 kilovolt. As the common mode voltage is from zero to + 10 volts, ordinary JFET input amplifiers, such as LF347 or OP400, were found unsuitable because of a high unbalanced bias current and offset voltage at a common mode voltage above 6 volts. The CA3240E was found sufficient for this purpose, with supply voltages of +15 and 12 volts,supplied from a simple zener regulated DC/DC converter, which supplies also many zener regulated 10volts/0,5 to 1mA floating sources for powering the 3.1/2 or 4.1/2 digit front panel LCD displays.. The integrator single pole is set at 4Hz, which is within the range of the pole frequency of the very high voltage multiplier (from 8Hz at 500A at 150 kilovolts,with an equivalent filtering capacitance of 70pF to a few hundreth of hertz at reduced load) Such a pole frequency was found to be stable and accurate at any load of the ultra-high voltage X-ray tube,which has an anode current independent of anode voltage,and controlled by the wehnelt grid,with the other grid voltage fixed to a fixed set of values. Indeed ,as I emphasized in my communication at AES2005, and after discussion at the factory where these experiments were performed 4 years ago,I believe that the very high range multiplier works actually as a distributed poles systems, and I shall measure this more precisely soon. 2)a fixed frequency ,fixed duty cycle, push-pull of IRF740 NMOSFETs, with a step-up transformer, a 14 stages frequency multiplier, a 2250M feedback resistor, all in a compact block made of plexiglas pieces, additionnal Kapton films of 4 x 150 and bicomponent silicone polymerized under crude vacuum of about 30 torr. During operation,the whole block is connected with a cable bringing DC power, drive signals, and voltage and current measurement outputs. It is directly connected to the ultra-high voltage X-ray tube, and immersed in ordinay high voltage oil. By a suitable choice of parts made of plexiglas, and Kapton insulation, the overall volume Of the multiplier block is limited to 60 x 153 x 160mm. 3.Test of the very high voltage multiplier and driver. The power stage consists in a single push-pull of IRF740 on small heatsinks, with mica insulation(thermal resistance 0,3C/W) and immersed in oil during operation. IRF540 and 640 were unsuitable,as they were quickly destroyed. The transistors are driven by 2N2905 and 2N2222 as speed-down at turn-off,and powered on +15V and 12V. In this experiment, the push-pull was driven by a square wave,and 50% duty factor gave very poor results.In these experiments,a CMOS astable oscillator was used,followed by JK flipflops,and dead time could not be achieved.

FIGURE 1 +24 V DC RFP60P03

PBYR1035

DRIVER With SPEED-UP At TURN-OFF

4 x 1F + 220F VERY LOW ESR

2250M Feedback Resis

Non inverting input FORMER CA3240E

FOOT RESISTOR + SURGE&TRANSIENT PROTECTION

TRANS

Set voltage

0 to +10V
To 14 STAGES VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER

FIXED FREQUENCY 50 kHz FIXED DUTY CYCLE 25% 2 PHASES CLOCK and SAW-TOOTH RC INTEGRATOR

By a combination of gated filp-flops,a duty-factor of 25% was achieved,and sent over drive lines of a few meters using VN10 mosfet,open drain with a pull-up resistor. The frequency of function was set near 50kHz,and small deglitcher capacitors of 100pF Were added on the drains to remove transients. Actually,3 VN10 were organized as an AND gate. Goods results were obtained, as shown below, but the output power could not exceed 42Watts At a supply current limited to 4,2 amperes. This will be further discussed in the conclusion,with a solution to improve both the efficiency and output power,in particular as the next goal is a much higher voltage. The transformer was wounded on two 16x56x66 cores, of 3C8 or 3C85,paralleled(although of circular and not square section),in order to reduce the number of turns,and the secondary voltage was set at 13 kilovolt peak to peak,which enables to reach 160 kilovolts with 14 doubler stages consisting in 2 CRVT250 rectifiers and 2 1nF 15kV ceramic Murata capacitors. The power output of 42 Watts was obtained at 350A under 121kV, and the set-up was operated during a few tens of hours,before this work ended in january 2003. As a result of a faulty connexion,the transformer was also reverse connected,with two half-primaries and two half-secondaries(on both legs) connected out of phase,thus driving the ferrite core in a faulty manner.The results of the experiments in both situations is listed below Table 1 :output voltage without load,with normal transformer connection Set Voltage 10,0kV 20,0 30,0 40,0 60,0 70,0 80,0 90,0 100 110 120 130 140 145 150 Output Voltage 9,86kV 19,65 29,45 39,16 58,92 68,78 78,74 88,78 99,07 109,43 119,65 129,50 141,23 147,1 150 Drain current 87mA 170mA 262 514 599 942 1,055A 1,161 1,257 1,475 1,662 1,659 1,857 1,990 2,03 Drain Voltage 0,37 V 0,89 1,55 3,61 5,05 8,10 9,35 10,52 11,92 13,09 14,28 15,85 17,05 17,74 18,1 Power 32mW 151mW 406 1,86W 3,03 7,63 9,86 12,21 15,0 19,31 23,73 26,3 31,7 35,3 36,74 Freq. 49744 49852 50150 49780 50720 51390 51107 50830 51167 51545 52210 50140 51160 51360

Table 2 :output voltage without load,with faulty transformer connexion(reverse connexion of both halves) Set Voltage 10,0kV 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,0 90,0 100 105 Output Voltage 10,15kV 20,26 30,36 40,47 50,57 60,6 70,69 80,88 90,85 101,2 106,2 Drain current 0,22A 1,09 1,52 1,98 2,43 2,80 3,16 3,49 3,80 4,07 4,16 Drain Voltage 0,95V 5,2 7,80 9,95 11,80 13,35 14,70 16 17,1 18,6 19,5 Power 0,2W 5,67 11,85 19,70 28,67 37,38 46,45 55,84 64,98 75,70 81,12 Freq. 49120 48580 47930 47960 48550 48200 48250 48294 48877 48850 48990

At least,this operation under reversed and faulty connexion of the transformer shows the robustness of the design,and its ability to withstand a heavy duty. 4.Conclusion,prospects for design evolution,and acknowledgement. As the achieved power was only 42 Watts instead of the design goal of 75 Watts,with a supply power limited to 100 Watts,there are further points to discuss : 4.1.The requirement of a duty cycle of 25% with a smoothing capacitor shows clearly that,at such a high overall DC to DC transformation ratio (8400),a better approximation to a sinusodal primary drive would be required to improve the efficiency above 40%. Thus, my next design will involve a 4 level H-bridge, supplied in both 24 volts and 48 volts DC. 4.2.There is also some freedom in choosing a higher operation frequency,,up to 100kHz. 4.3.My next goal is to builf and test a 4 level, 48Volt powered, DC/DC converter in the megavolt range, the build-up of which has already been undertaken, and which involves a 2 meters high glass column,which will contain a cascade of 100 voltage doublers, thus reaching maybe 1200 kilovolts. Experiments with the previous design shows that, under positive voltage(easier breakdown),the creepage distance is 17cm under 100kilovolts on a hydrophobic RTV573 silicone surface. Thus, a length of 2 meters should allow operation between 1 and 1,2 megavolts. These future experiments are aimed both as demonstrating the value of this technique, and as a low power ultra-high voltage generator for testing insulators in the megavolt range. Also,as this level reaches the gap of vacuum at 1,022MV, I intend to investigate its application to ultra-high field effects in short gap(millimeter range) suprataxial mtallic-dielectric mesoscopic catalysts, which could emulate both Pr. Goldanskii research on positronium stabilization over

supported metal catalysts, and the so-called cold-fusion experiments,actually to test the validity of the hypothesis of coupling to time. These experiments were performed mainly during the year 2002, both at the E.T.A.T. factory (Aubervilliers France) and at the Thals factory and research center at its electron tube division(Thonon France). Reference : (1) Description and reliability of a 100kW DC/DC converter involving IGBTs in a TO247 package at an output voltage of 200 volts to 200 kilovolts. (2) Oleg Eric ANITOFF ;AES 2005 Congress,october 2005,Versailles,France.