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mportant hormone in the duodenum. Contraction of gall bladder to release bile.
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Layer in the G tract. nvoluntary muscle contractions. Peristalsis and motility. Muscularis.
Once considered a vestigial organ. Appendix.
Diagnostic test to determine the presence of blood in the stool. Fetal occult blood/ fecal
Barium study used to defect upper G obstruction. Barium swallow.
Muscle weakness in esophageal hiatus manifested due to increased intra-abdominal
pressure. Hiatal hernia
Type of PUD most common among males, vomiting is uncommon, hemorrhage is less likely.
Duodenal ulcer
Drugs that block the H2 receptor sites. Examples are Ranitidine, Cimetidine. H2 receptor
Drugs that inhibit gastric secretions by blocking proton pump activity. Proton pump inhibitors
Drugs that act as mucosal barrier fortifier. Prostaglandin analogues
Synthetic prostaglandin replacement product. Prostaglandin analogues
Also known as rapid gastric emptying. Decreased blood glucose. Dumping syndrome.
Also known as postprangial hypoglycemia. Dumping syndrome.
Nursing intervention for pat with dumping syndrome have patient lie down for 20-30 minutes
after eating.
Disorder characterized by malabsorption of vitamin B12. Symptoms include "red smooth
beefy tongue. Pernicious anemia.
Confirmatory test for pernicious anemia. Schilling's test.
For patients with pernicious anemia, lifetime administration of vitamin B12.
LMB- ifetime, ntramuscular, 2onthly,
Disease condition characterized by pain in the RLQ and (+) for rebound tenderness. Acute
rritable bowel syndrome condition caused by regional or segmental "patchy ulcerations.
Also known as regional enteritis. Crohn's disease
Position of patient with liver cirrhosis during liver biopsy. Left-side lying
Position of patient with ascites during paracentesis? Upright or sitting position
nstruct patient to empty bladder for patient with paracentesis.
Most common complication post-paracentesis? hypovolemic shock.
Low sodium diet (2g/ day) for patient with paracentesis. Doctor will prescribe diuretics
(furosemide). Administed Furosemid first because overdose can be corrected immediately
unlike Spironolactone which can take weeks. Dosage 20-30mEq/ L
2mEq/ L is equivalent to 1 cc
Sign by painful defecation due to ulcerative lesions commonly seen in patients with amoeboid
condition. %enesmus
Type of hepatitis commonly transmitted via oral-fecal route, contaminated food and water and
poor sanitation. Hepatitis A
nflammation of the pancreas due to "utodigestion. (+) Cullen sign. Pancreatitis
Gray-colored stool or gray Turner's syndrome (gray because there is leakage of trypsin)-
Methods in assessing patients with acute appendicitis. Hypersthesia, rebound tenderness,
Psoa's sign, Rovsing's sign, obturator sign
Layers of the G tract from outermost to innermost. Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa.
Dietary regimen of high-protein, high-fat diet, 6 small feedings, avoidance of concentrated
sweets, separation of solids from liquids is recommended for dumping syndrome post
Follow up care for a patient after total gastrectomy should include assessment intrinsic factor
is necessary for absorption of vitamin B
is diminished or no longer secreted.
After gastrectomy, a vagotomy is performed to decrease HCl secretion and decrease gastric
Symptoms of an esophageal hiatal hernia includes all of the following except malabsorption
PUD - black/ tarry stool
Calcium is absorbed in the GT under the influence of vitamin D.
Which of the following assessment findings in a client with cirrhosis indicated late stage
symptoms? Hypoxia
CU is not appropriate for patients with stage V cancer.
A clinic nurse reviews the record of a 3 week old infant and notes that the physician has
documented a diagnosis of suspected Hirschsprung's disease (also known as ganglionic
megacolon). Which symptom most likely led the mother to seek health care for the infant.
Foul-smelling ribbon-like stool
Which of the following ABG indicated metabolic alkalosis? pH of 7.47, HCO3 of 36 mEq/ L,
PO2 of 78 mmHg
A patient with hepatitis A. Which mode of transmission has the infection agent taken? Fecal-
What is the average incubation period of hepatitis A? 30 days
ncubation period
A nurse is admitting a client with suspected duodenal cancer. Abdominal discomfort lessens
when? He eats a meal.
A 2-year old child is hospitalized with suspected intussusception. Which finding is associated
with this condition? Currant jelly stool
Projectile vomiting-- pyloric stenosis
Small bowel resection of the ileum for development of which type of anemia? Vitamin B
deficiency anemia
For NGT, allow 6 inches to stomach. Allow 8-10 inches to duodenum.
Medications via NGT, do 349mix with osterized feeding. Do 349mix with warm water.
f more than 2 medications, give medications separately.
Layers of the stomach
Serosa A serous membrane forms the outermost layer of
t is composed of simple squamous epithelium and
areolar connective tissue. t has a dense network of
blood vessels (arteries & veins) that supply the
(3 layers of
fibres lying
in 3 different
Longitudinal layer of
Layer of smooth muscle fibres - the longitudinal layer
of muscle is continuous with the layer of smooth
muscle surrounding the esophagus.
Circular layer of
Layer of smooth muscle fibres - the middle layer of
muscle is called the circular layer. t wraps around the
body of the stomach and extends downwards to form
the pyloric sphincter (via which the contents of the
stomach exits into the small intestine).
Oblique layer of
Layer of smooth muscle fibres - the innermost layer of
muscle surrounds the inner-layers of the stomach and
is prominent in the fundus area.
Submucosa The submucosa is a layer of areolar loose connective
tissue that contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels,
and nerves).
The submucosa connects the muscularis (layer/s of
the stomach) to the mucosa (layer/s of the stomach).
Mucosa Contains specialised cells that secrete chemicals
necessary for digestive processes. These chemicals
include gastric juice and the hormone gastrin.