Robotics

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences ofelectronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek . A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming

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Further information: Power supply and Energy storage At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:     pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)

 faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate)  still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.[17]).  radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet [edit]Actuation Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air: [edit]Electric motors Main article: Electric motor The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. [edit]Linear actuators Main article: Linear actuator

vibrating many thousands of times per second. also known as air muscles. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots. There are different mechanisms of operation. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. It has been used in various robots. swim or walk. to allow improved force control.Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning.[30] . They have been used for some small robot applications. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. and being used on some robots. [27] These motors are already available commercially.[24] fly. [edit]Series elastic actuators A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator.[28][29] [edit]Elastic nanotubes Further information: Nanotube Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. speed.[23] and to allow new robots to float. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. and available force for their size.[21][22] [edit]Electroactive polymers Main article: Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. cause linear or rotary motion. These work on a fundamentally different principle. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it.[19][20] [edit]Muscle wire Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire. [26] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. also known as Shape Memory Alloy. particularly walking humanoid robots. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire.[18] [edit]Air muscles Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles.[25] [edit]Piezo motors Main article: Piezoelectric motor A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). They have been used for some robot applications.

play piano and perform other fine movements. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems.[31][32] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. modify. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. The sensors are designed using solidstate physics. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. called SmartHand. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. pick up. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. for example a humanoid hand. their design. As a scientific discipline.[33] [edit]Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. destroy.[34] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator.[36] . In most practical computer vision applications. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers".[35] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors. The image data can take many forms. at different levels of complexity.[edit]Sensing [edit]Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. or otherwise have an effect. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. Also. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. such as video sequences and views from cameras. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. [edit]Manipulation Further information: Mobile manipulator Robots needs to manipulate objects. type on a keyboard. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced.

such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person. it can be thought of as a component of a robot. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts. often use very simple vacuum grippers. and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP".[37] See Shadow Hand. such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway. [edit]Vacuum Grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive[38] devices.[41] [edit]Locomotion Main articles: Robot locomotion and Mobile robot [edit]Rolling robots For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people. MANUS.[47][48] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. like the Shadow Hand. based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum.[42] Many different balancing robots have been designed. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens. as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.[39] and the Schunk hand. [edit]General purpose effectors Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands.[44] [edit]One-wheeled balancing robots Main article: Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently.[40] These highly dexterous manipulators. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels.[46] [edit]Spherical orb robots Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball.[43] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors. but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction.[edit]Mechanical Grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper. [edit]Two-wheeled balancing robots Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction. either by spinning a weight inside the ball.[49][50] These have also been referred to as an orb bot [51] or a ball bot[52][53] .[45] Because of the long.

[63] For a full list of these robots. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. a robot with only one leg. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. [edit]Tracked robots Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. uneven terrain. where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. None can walk over rocky. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique. In this way. As the robot falls to one side. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. [61] Soon.[62] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot. [edit]Hopping Several robots. However. Initially. However. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. and the difference is obvious to human observers. Typically. however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. could stay upright simply byhopping. see theMIT Leg Lab Robots page. therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots.[58][59][60] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. run. due to these robots being significantly easier to construct.[54] [edit]Walking applied to robots Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. pace. Robot. and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). and bound. it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. the two forces cancel out. this is not exactly how a human walks. [edit]Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling) A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. and places the feet in order to maintain stability.[57] However. Some of the methods which have been tried are: [edit]ZMP Technique Main article: Zero Moment Point The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. and a very small foot. it would jump slightly in that direction. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs.[edit]Six-wheeled robots Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass. in order to catch itself. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot).[64] This technique was recently .[55][56] Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I. leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). as it constantly monitors the robot's motion. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie". The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking).

[74] [edit]Climbing Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. which can either step or roll. it can even jump. with two humans to manage it. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[70] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot[71] can even navigate both on land and in water. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. Air Ray. Ltd. with unpowered wheels. and guided by sonar. An example of this is Capuchin. 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co. ]Snaking Several snake robots have been successfully developed. one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device.[73] Another robot. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers. Mimicking the way real snakes move. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the . without the need for a command from a human. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander". normal flight. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. Dr. the Entomopter.[66] Another example is the TU Delft Flame. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. Li introduction. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope.[72] [edit]Skating A small number of skating robots have been developed. Robots such as the Air Penguin. a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. Using this technique. and skate across a desktop. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates. Examples of this approach include Wallbot [76] and Stickybot. and the Epson micro helicopter robot. [edit]Passive Dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency.[77] China's "Technology Daily" November 15. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions.[69] Other flying robots are uninhabited. propelled by paddles. California. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard. these robots can navigate very confined spaces. and even landing.[67][68] [edit]Other methods of locomotion [edit]Flying A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot. It has four legs. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. including takeoff.[65] which is so stable.. using only gravity to propel themselves. Plen. Some can even fire on targets under command. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions.According to Dr.[75] built by Stanford University. like ASIMO.demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies.

[81] The Aqua Penguin. Biddulph. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. natural speech. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles. it is able to adapt on smooth glass. with an accuracy of 95%. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive.[78] Furthermore. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. up to 160 words per minute. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any manmade boat orsubmarine. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion.[85] Facial expression Further information: Facial expression Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. Therefore.[91] The coating and servos are built . the previous word. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. the best systems can recognize continuous.ceiling. etc. respectively. and produce less noise and water disturbance. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. designed and built by Festo of Germany.[79] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. and jellyfish.[82] The same word. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent. whether or not the speaker has a cold. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. volume.[84] Currently. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO. is a difficult task for a computer. rather than a command-line interface. it is unnatural for the robot. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. in real time. mostly because of the great variability of speech. [edit]Swimming (like a fish) It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. and facial expressions. [edit]Speech recognition Main article: Speech recognition Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human.. Human-robot interaction Main article: Human-robot interaction If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments.[80] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. gestures. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber.[83] Nevertheless. and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole[citation needed].

the position of its joints or its end effector). which can exhibit several apparent emotions.e. etc.perception. At a reactive level. Finally.on a metalskull. falling over. and action (robotic paradigms). it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. sadness. To simplify this programming in the movie. At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks. A robot should know how to approach a human.g.[97] [edit]Control The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. facial expressions. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[95][96]i. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. and how they interact. Nexi[92] can produce a range of facial expressions. robots likeKismet and the more recent addition.g. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. Whether the person is happy. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. For example. One commercial example is Pleo. The processing phase can range in complexity. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. and body language to try to convey an internal state. or fear. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. the world. This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film. the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. processing. which may be joy.[93] [edit]Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . a toy robot dinosaur. . they use sounds. Likewise.[94] Nevertheless. or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. presets were created together with a special software program. [edit]Personality Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality. frightened. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans. judging by their facial expression and body language. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots.

Our Robots .

The light sensor would work at the front of the car and the touch sensor at the back of the car. Dr. Animal robots are fun to make. we decided to battle a friend's robot and guess what. Car We built a car with two different sensors.We have classified our robots alphabetically according to the name that the students have given their robot. We made it demolish a tower. It was a real challenge to make the head of our giraffe go up and down while the it was moving forwards and . When the car backs into an object it will stop and move forward. we won. antennae. The Cricket is not an autonomous robot. which helped the gears stay meshed together properly. level of control and level of programming language. Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter This robot has wings. Robots are often classified according to their generation. "The Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter" moves forwards and backwards. while the light sensor turns on the the light when it g dark. it has a light sensor to tell the robot when it is approaching an obstacle. Demolisher 5000 We named our robot this name because it demolishes towers and the 5000 part sounded cool. It changes direction when it does bump into something. Imagine this crazy Alien cleaning your street and cutting your wood! The Beetle This robot is very strong and powerful. level of intelligence. a touch sensor and a light sensor. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. like paper. as well. Also the eyes light up while it is going and turn off when it bumps into something. but our front wheels fell off. When the car approaches an object and gets too close. A touch sensor prevents the Beetle from bumping into walls. Bug Our bug moves forwards and backwards and keeps going until it bumps into something. It shows that you can have a robot travel without being built with the RCX unit. Dr. (try here for video link) Giraffe Robot We created a giraffe robot. Cricket Our cricket moves forwards and backwards using a pulley to drive the wheels. The motor attachment design was strengthened. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. Driller Our robot drills through things. and green and blue lights that flash. To put our robot to the test. They help you to understand how an animal moves. The RCX box is secured to the top of the robot. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. it will turn to avoid the object. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy.

And this number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily. That's why one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application. I propose to use both of these classifications together. There are: *Industrial robots *Domestic or household robots *Medical robots *Service robots *Military robots *Entertainment robots *Exploration robots Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics As you can understand.2 Cylindrical robots 1.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms) 1. For example an industrial robot usually. robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields. but if there is an AVG (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? It is also a robotic device working in an industrial environment.3 Spherical robots 1.Types of robots by application Nowadays.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots 1. when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement) 1. robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot. So.4 SCARA robots 1. Wheeled robots .6 Parallel robots 2. So there are: 1. That's alright.

they are used to carry out complicated surgeries which are very difficult for doctors and surgeons to perform. In the medical field.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots) 3. Flying robots 6.2 Two-wheeled robots 2. Advantages of Robotics in Various Fields Industrial Robotics The use of robotic systems in the industrial sector is a necessity nowadays. Such systems can even do the work of approximately 100 or more human workers at a time.1 Single wheel (ball) robots 2. they have the potential to produce considerably more than a human worker. They don't make any mistakes and errors as humans do. which directly has an effect on production. Mobile spherical robots (robotic balls) 7. Big industrial manufacturing giants have robotic systems that work 24/7. This saves a lot of important output and production time. Moreover. Swimming robots 5.4 hexapod robots 3. and that too with high-quality and accuracy. vacations.2 Tripedal robots 3.3 quadrupedal robots 3. They have the capability to work at a constant speed without the need to take short breaks. sleeps. Car and electronic manufacturing companies mostly make use of such automated systems. and some other time-spending factors.2. .5 other numbers of legs 4. Quantity of Production If robots are used for production purposes. as more and more products are to be manufactured in a very less time.3 Three and more wheel robots 3. Legged robots 3. the throughput speed rises. In the industrial sector they prevent any errors in the production of goods. Others Advantages of Robotics in Business Quality and Accuracy of Work Robotic systems have the capability of impressively meliorating the quality of work. They provide optimum output in regards to quality as well as quantity.

They employ robotic systems in several testing and assembling procedures which would be difficult and time-consuming for human workers to carry out. Development is going in the field of artificial intelligence. the robotic hand has been showed. a robot may be used in performing an unmanned operation which is known as a robotic surgery. The use of robotics in nursing is increasing due to the shortage of efficient manpower. Like computers in the 20 th century Robots are going to be common house hold items in future. FUTURE OF ROBOTICS The future developments of Robots can be found in various places. who knows it may become a reality in the near future. Robotic arms are a simple example of such technologies. robots that can perform house duties are also being manufactured. robots don't perform the whole procedure in surgeries. CONCLUSION Robots are going to play a very significant part in our daily life. Moreover. The advantages of robotics are certainly predicted to grow in several other fields over time. Robots are already sent into space like the Voyager to Mars and Cassini to Saturn. which can enable the pets to better mingle with families. With the development of computers. Future robotics systems may come up with benefits that we can't even imagine of. A surgeon may use a 'robotics surgery coordinator' to perform a surgery without making big incisions. and also provide care and protection. Robotics in Household Nowadays.Scientists are working on technologies that can be incorporated in future robotic pets. The ethnicity of providing intelligence to robots is questioned but future is the answer to this question. the technology of house robots is not being used commercially. be it in manufacturing medicines and drugs or carrying out simple tasks in specific surgeries. Spatial Exploration: With the development of computers the power of Robonauts will increase by which spatial exploration can develop. but certainly assist the surgeons to perform the task accurately. This can also help in locating a person by GPS technology. the use of robots in household may be common. . They will find applications in almost all areas and become universal. In many films. The major among them is in the field of: Medicine: New techniques for Tele surgery will be developed in future for Remote operations and also for complex operations like cardiac surgery. However. Robotics programming is a way of feeding information into the robots regarding what tasks are to be performed and how. This will invoke thinking in Robots which in future will help Man kind in problem solving. semiconductor technology Robotics will grow in leaps and bounds. It is for us to wait and see whether the creators or the creation will rule the world. There are expected times when Robots will over power mankind in future. Medical and Healthcare Robotics Robotic systems have also proven to play a very important role in the medicinal and surgical sector. Some examples include robotic pool cleaners and robotic vacuum cleaners. However. and also in lesser time than normal. After more development in this field. Development is going on in the field of nano system which deals with implanting of small chips into human body for early detection of diseases. Robotic packaging machinery is used in companies which manufacture daily-use products. They also may be utilized for robotic painting and robotic welding jobs.