Robotics

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences ofelectronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek . A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming

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Further information: Power supply and Energy storage At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:     pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)

 faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate)  still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.[17]).  radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet [edit]Actuation Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air: [edit]Electric motors Main article: Electric motor The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. [edit]Linear actuators Main article: Linear actuator

[27] These motors are already available commercially. [edit]Series elastic actuators A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator.[28][29] [edit]Elastic nanotubes Further information: Nanotube Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development.Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning. These work on a fundamentally different principle. is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. to allow improved force control. particularly walking humanoid robots. They have been used for some small robot applications. cause linear or rotary motion.[24] fly. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. and being used on some robots. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. swim or walk. They have been used for some robot applications. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements.[30] . The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution. also known as air muscles. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. and available force for their size. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots. [26] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw.[19][20] [edit]Muscle wire Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire. also known as Shape Memory Alloy.[25] [edit]Piezo motors Main article: Piezoelectric motor A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator).[18] [edit]Air muscles Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it. It has been used in various robots. speed. There are different mechanisms of operation.[23] and to allow new robots to float.[21][22] [edit]Electroactive polymers Main article: Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity. vibrating many thousands of times per second.

or otherwise have an effect. modify. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it. called SmartHand. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. type on a keyboard. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology.[34] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator. for example a humanoid hand. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images.[edit]Sensing [edit]Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. The image data can take many forms.[31][32] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. destroy. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. In most practical computer vision applications.[33] [edit]Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. their design. at different levels of complexity.[35] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors.[36] . play piano and perform other fine movements. Also. The sensors are designed using solidstate physics. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. [edit]Manipulation Further information: Mobile manipulator Robots needs to manipulate objects. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems. As a scientific discipline. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced. such as video sequences and views from cameras. pick up. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors.

and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP".[43] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot. like the Shadow Hand. either by spinning a weight inside the ball.[47][48] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.[40] These highly dexterous manipulators. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors. [edit]Vacuum Grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive[38] devices. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second. they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.[44] [edit]One-wheeled balancing robots Main article: Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. [edit]Two-wheeled balancing robots Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction.[41] [edit]Locomotion Main articles: Robot locomotion and Mobile robot [edit]Rolling robots For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently.[46] [edit]Spherical orb robots Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball. [edit]General purpose effectors Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands.[45] Because of the long.[37] See Shadow Hand. it can be thought of as a component of a robot.[edit]Mechanical Grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it.[39] and the Schunk hand.[49][50] These have also been referred to as an orb bot [51] or a ball bot[52][53] . MANUS. often use very simple vacuum grippers. thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces. such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts.[42] Many different balancing robots have been designed.

leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over).[62] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot.[54] [edit]Walking applied to robots Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve.[64] This technique was recently . could stay upright simply byhopping. pace. in order to catch itself. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. [edit]Hopping Several robots. Typically. Robot. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking). [edit]Tracked robots Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. and the difference is obvious to human observers. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels. However. see theMIT Leg Lab Robots page.[edit]Six-wheeled robots Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass. it would jump slightly in that direction. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. As the robot falls to one side. therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie". however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. Initially.[55][56] Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I.[57] However. [edit]Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling) A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. as it constantly monitors the robot's motion. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs. it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. this is not exactly how a human walks. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs.[58][59][60] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). and a very small foot. due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. None can walk over rocky. run. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. In this way. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique. [61] Soon. a robot with only one leg. and places the feet in order to maintain stability. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. However. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory. Some of the methods which have been tried are: [edit]ZMP Technique Main article: Zero Moment Point The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO.[63] For a full list of these robots. and bound. the two forces cancel out. uneven terrain.

[75] built by Stanford University. Plen. Ltd.[65] which is so stable. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander".demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot. including takeoff. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass.According to Dr. Examples of this approach include Wallbot [76] and Stickybot.[72] [edit]Skating A small number of skating robots have been developed. Robots such as the Air Penguin. with two humans to manage it. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. normal flight. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[74] [edit]Climbing Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. Some can even fire on targets under command. like ASIMO. it can even jump. California. Li introduction.[77] China's "Technology Daily" November 15. Using this technique. these robots can navigate very confined spaces. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the . An example of this is Capuchin.[67][68] [edit]Other methods of locomotion [edit]Flying A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot.[73] Another robot. one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device.[66] Another example is the TU Delft Flame. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates. Dr. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions. and skate across a desktop. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. with unpowered wheels.[69] Other flying robots are uninhabited. propelled by paddles. which can either step or roll. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. and guided by sonar.. and even landing. and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. [edit]Passive Dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. the Entomopter. without the need for a command from a human. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard. ]Snaking Several snake robots have been successfully developed. 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co. Air Ray.[70] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot[71] can even navigate both on land and in water. It has four legs. a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. Mimicking the way real snakes move. using only gravity to propel themselves.

great strides have been made in the field since Davis.. [edit]Swimming (like a fish) It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. etc. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. volume. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. the previous word. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber. circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. Human-robot interaction Main article: Human-robot interaction If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. is a difficult task for a computer.[84] Currently. Biddulph. in real time. it is able to adapt on smooth glass. natural speech.[79] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. and facial expressions. up to 160 words per minute. it is unnatural for the robot. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles.ceiling.[82] The same word. Therefore. respectively. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. the best systems can recognize continuous. with an accuracy of 95%. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole[citation needed]. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent. gestures. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. [81] The Aqua Penguin.[85] Facial expression Further information: Facial expression Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans.[78] Furthermore. rather than a command-line interface.[91] The coating and servos are built . and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. designed and built by Festo of Germany. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO.[80] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. and jellyfish.[83] Nevertheless. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any manmade boat orsubmarine. and produce less noise and water disturbance. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. [edit]Speech recognition Main article: Speech recognition Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human. whether or not the speaker has a cold. mostly because of the great variability of speech.

Nexi[92] can produce a range of facial expressions. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[95][96]i. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. robots likeKismet and the more recent addition. the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. [edit]Personality Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. To simplify this programming in the movie. etc. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. a toy robot dinosaur. processing. or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot.[94] Nevertheless. and how they interact. Whether the person is happy.on a metalskull. they use sounds. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. At a reactive level. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. judging by their facial expression and body language. facial expressions. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation. The processing phase can range in complexity. For example. or fear. One commercial example is Pleo. which may be joy.g.perception. frightened.e. A robot should know how to approach a human. presets were created together with a special software program. the world. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. Finally. it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. . This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film.g. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. sadness. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles.[93] [edit]Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. and action (robotic paradigms). the position of its joints or its end effector). falling over. and body language to try to convey an internal state.[97] [edit]Control The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. Likewise.

Our Robots .

Driller Our robot drills through things. It shows that you can have a robot travel without being built with the RCX unit. antennae. "The Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter" moves forwards and backwards. Animal robots are fun to make. as well. it has a light sensor to tell the robot when it is approaching an obstacle. It changes direction when it does bump into something. level of intelligence. Car We built a car with two different sensors. Also the eyes light up while it is going and turn off when it bumps into something. a touch sensor and a light sensor. we decided to battle a friend's robot and guess what. but our front wheels fell off. like paper. it will turn to avoid the object. Imagine this crazy Alien cleaning your street and cutting your wood! The Beetle This robot is very strong and powerful. Cricket Our cricket moves forwards and backwards using a pulley to drive the wheels. Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter This robot has wings. Dr. To put our robot to the test. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. Bug Our bug moves forwards and backwards and keeps going until it bumps into something. They help you to understand how an animal moves. and green and blue lights that flash. we won. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. The RCX box is secured to the top of the robot. The motor attachment design was strengthened. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. It was a real challenge to make the head of our giraffe go up and down while the it was moving forwards and . When the car backs into an object it will stop and move forward. When the car approaches an object and gets too close. The light sensor would work at the front of the car and the touch sensor at the back of the car.We have classified our robots alphabetically according to the name that the students have given their robot. The Cricket is not an autonomous robot. while the light sensor turns on the the light when it g dark. Demolisher 5000 We named our robot this name because it demolishes towers and the 5000 part sounded cool. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. Robots are often classified according to their generation. which helped the gears stay meshed together properly. (try here for video link) Giraffe Robot We created a giraffe robot. Dr. A touch sensor prevents the Beetle from bumping into walls. We made it demolish a tower. level of control and level of programming language.

So there are: 1. but if there is an AVG (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? It is also a robotic device working in an industrial environment.6 Parallel robots 2. robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields. There are: *Industrial robots *Domestic or household robots *Medical robots *Service robots *Military robots *Entertainment robots *Exploration robots Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics As you can understand.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots 1. robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot.Types of robots by application Nowadays.4 SCARA robots 1. I propose to use both of these classifications together. when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms) 1. That's why one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application. And this number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily. So. Wheeled robots .2 Cylindrical robots 1. For example an industrial robot usually. That's alright.3 Spherical robots 1. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement) 1.

they have the potential to produce considerably more than a human worker. Moreover.2. and some other time-spending factors. Car and electronic manufacturing companies mostly make use of such automated systems. Big industrial manufacturing giants have robotic systems that work 24/7. This saves a lot of important output and production time. which directly has an effect on production. They have the capability to work at a constant speed without the need to take short breaks.2 Two-wheeled robots 2. they are used to carry out complicated surgeries which are very difficult for doctors and surgeons to perform. sleeps. Quantity of Production If robots are used for production purposes. They provide optimum output in regards to quality as well as quantity. Advantages of Robotics in Various Fields Industrial Robotics The use of robotic systems in the industrial sector is a necessity nowadays. the throughput speed rises.4 hexapod robots 3. In the industrial sector they prevent any errors in the production of goods. . Swimming robots 5. They don't make any mistakes and errors as humans do. vacations. Legged robots 3. and that too with high-quality and accuracy.5 other numbers of legs 4. Such systems can even do the work of approximately 100 or more human workers at a time.2 Tripedal robots 3.1 Single wheel (ball) robots 2. as more and more products are to be manufactured in a very less time.3 Three and more wheel robots 3.3 quadrupedal robots 3. In the medical field.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots) 3. Others Advantages of Robotics in Business Quality and Accuracy of Work Robotic systems have the capability of impressively meliorating the quality of work. Flying robots 6. Mobile spherical robots (robotic balls) 7.

a robot may be used in performing an unmanned operation which is known as a robotic surgery. It is for us to wait and see whether the creators or the creation will rule the world. However. They will find applications in almost all areas and become universal. Robots are already sent into space like the Voyager to Mars and Cassini to Saturn. but certainly assist the surgeons to perform the task accurately. the use of robots in household may be common. CONCLUSION Robots are going to play a very significant part in our daily life. Moreover. They also may be utilized for robotic painting and robotic welding jobs. Spatial Exploration: With the development of computers the power of Robonauts will increase by which spatial exploration can develop. be it in manufacturing medicines and drugs or carrying out simple tasks in specific surgeries. Future robotics systems may come up with benefits that we can't even imagine of. Robotics programming is a way of feeding information into the robots regarding what tasks are to be performed and how. Development is going on in the field of nano system which deals with implanting of small chips into human body for early detection of diseases. Some examples include robotic pool cleaners and robotic vacuum cleaners. The major among them is in the field of: Medicine: New techniques for Tele surgery will be developed in future for Remote operations and also for complex operations like cardiac surgery. However. . The use of robotics in nursing is increasing due to the shortage of efficient manpower. who knows it may become a reality in the near future. Robotic packaging machinery is used in companies which manufacture daily-use products. Robotic arms are a simple example of such technologies. and also in lesser time than normal. robots don't perform the whole procedure in surgeries. The advantages of robotics are certainly predicted to grow in several other fields over time. This will invoke thinking in Robots which in future will help Man kind in problem solving. and also provide care and protection. Like computers in the 20 th century Robots are going to be common house hold items in future.They employ robotic systems in several testing and assembling procedures which would be difficult and time-consuming for human workers to carry out. the technology of house robots is not being used commercially. There are expected times when Robots will over power mankind in future. robots that can perform house duties are also being manufactured. semiconductor technology Robotics will grow in leaps and bounds. FUTURE OF ROBOTICS The future developments of Robots can be found in various places. With the development of computers. After more development in this field. the robotic hand has been showed. The ethnicity of providing intelligence to robots is questioned but future is the answer to this question. This can also help in locating a person by GPS technology. Development is going in the field of artificial intelligence. Medical and Healthcare Robotics Robotic systems have also proven to play a very important role in the medicinal and surgical sector. A surgeon may use a 'robotics surgery coordinator' to perform a surgery without making big incisions. which can enable the pets to better mingle with families. In many films. Robotics in Household Nowadays.Scientists are working on technologies that can be incorporated in future robotic pets.

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