Robotics

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences ofelectronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek . A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming

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[edit]Power

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Further information: Power supply and Energy storage At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:     pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)

 faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate)  still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.[17]).  radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet [edit]Actuation Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air: [edit]Electric motors Main article: Electric motor The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. [edit]Linear actuators Main article: Linear actuator

is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. cause linear or rotary motion. [27] These motors are already available commercially. These work on a fundamentally different principle. one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. to allow improved force control. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it.Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). vibrating many thousands of times per second. also known as Shape Memory Alloy.[24] fly. and available force for their size. They have been used for some robot applications. and being used on some robots. [edit]Series elastic actuators A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator.[23] and to allow new robots to float. It has been used in various robots.[28][29] [edit]Elastic nanotubes Further information: Nanotube Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. [26] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw.[18] [edit]Air muscles Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. They have been used for some small robot applications. speed. swim or walk. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution.[19][20] [edit]Muscle wire Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire. particularly walking humanoid robots. also known as air muscles. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. There are different mechanisms of operation. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots.[30] . Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans.[25] [edit]Piezo motors Main article: Piezoelectric motor A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors.[21][22] [edit]Electroactive polymers Main article: Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity.

Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips. play piano and perform other fine movements. As a scientific discipline. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. In most practical computer vision applications. The sensors are designed using solidstate physics. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core.[33] [edit]Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see.[34] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator.[31][32] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. [edit]Manipulation Further information: Mobile manipulator Robots needs to manipulate objects. type on a keyboard. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced. at different levels of complexity. Also. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. called SmartHand. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems. their design. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it. For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology.[35] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. destroy. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. for example a humanoid hand.[36] . the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". such as video sequences and views from cameras. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009.[edit]Sensing [edit]Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. The image data can take many forms. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. pick up. or otherwise have an effect. modify.

These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts. like the Shadow Hand. thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces. [edit]Two-wheeled balancing robots Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction.[46] [edit]Spherical orb robots Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball. MANUS. [edit]Vacuum Grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive[38] devices.[44] [edit]One-wheeled balancing robots Main article: Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.[39] and the Schunk hand. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it.[41] [edit]Locomotion Main articles: Robot locomotion and Mobile robot [edit]Rolling robots For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently.[42] Many different balancing robots have been designed. to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second.[47][48] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. [edit]General purpose effectors Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. often use very simple vacuum grippers. but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person. it can be thought of as a component of a robot. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.[49][50] These have also been referred to as an orb bot [51] or a ball bot[52][53] . Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels.[37] See Shadow Hand. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens.[40] These highly dexterous manipulators. either by spinning a weight inside the ball.[45] Because of the long. such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway. based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP". as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.[43] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot.[edit]Mechanical Grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper.

the two forces cancel out. pace. could stay upright simply byhopping. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint.[edit]Six-wheeled robots Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass. a robot with only one leg. see theMIT Leg Lab Robots page. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs. and the difference is obvious to human observers. [edit]Tracked robots Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory.[58][59][60] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie". due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. None can walk over rocky. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs. [edit]Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling) A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. and places the feet in order to maintain stability. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique. As the robot falls to one side. this is not exactly how a human walks. Robot. Initially. Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). in order to catch itself.[62] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot.[54] [edit]Walking applied to robots Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. uneven terrain. However. leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). In this way. it would jump slightly in that direction. [61] Soon. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking). therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots. Typically. however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking.[63] For a full list of these robots.[57] However. as it constantly monitors the robot's motion. where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. it still requires a smooth surface to walk on. Some of the methods which have been tried are: [edit]ZMP Technique Main article: Zero Moment Point The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO.[64] This technique was recently . However. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). and bound. run. [edit]Hopping Several robots. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels.[55][56] Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I. and a very small foot.

[75] built by Stanford University. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers.demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot. and guided by sonar. Mimicking the way real snakes move. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. Li introduction. including takeoff. like ASIMO. propelled by paddles. these robots can navigate very confined spaces. which can either step or roll. the Entomopter. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes.[72] [edit]Skating A small number of skating robots have been developed. and even landing. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. with unpowered wheels. Air Ray. a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. with two humans to manage it. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard.[70] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot[71] can even navigate both on land and in water. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[69] Other flying robots are uninhabited. Using this technique.[65] which is so stable. using only gravity to propel themselves. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. normal flight. without the need for a command from a human. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. Dr.According to Dr.[77] China's "Technology Daily" November 15. An example of this is Capuchin. and skate across a desktop. and the Epson micro helicopter robot. Ltd.[66] Another example is the TU Delft Flame. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates.[73] Another robot. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the . [edit]Passive Dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. ]Snaking Several snake robots have been successfully developed. 2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co.. Robots such as the Air Penguin. it can even jump. California.[67][68] [edit]Other methods of locomotion [edit]Flying A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander". It has four legs. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. Some can even fire on targets under command. Examples of this approach include Wallbot [76] and Stickybot. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions. Plen.[74] [edit]Climbing Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings.

up to 160 words per minute. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. designed and built by Festo of Germany. rather than a command-line interface.[85] Facial expression Further information: Facial expression Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans. the previous word. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions.[91] The coating and servos are built . and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any manmade boat orsubmarine. it is able to adapt on smooth glass. Therefore. with an accuracy of 95%. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. natural speech. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. mostly because of the great variability of speech. whether or not the speaker has a cold.ceiling. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. etc. gestures. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. Biddulph.[80] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. Human-robot interaction Main article: Human-robot interaction If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments.[84] Currently. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole[citation needed].. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. [edit]Speech recognition Main article: Speech recognition Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. it is unnatural for the robot.[78] Furthermore. and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles. the best systems can recognize continuous. volume. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. is a difficult task for a computer. and produce less noise and water disturbance. in real time. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. and facial expressions.[82] The same word. [81] The Aqua Penguin. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent.[79] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. respectively.[83] Nevertheless. and jellyfish. [edit]Swimming (like a fish) It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO.

A robot should know how to approach a human. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. processing.[93] [edit]Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. a toy robot dinosaur. and action (robotic paradigms). etc. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[95][96]i. One commercial example is Pleo. they use sounds. At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks.[97] [edit]Control The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. presets were created together with a special software program.perception. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. facial expressions. and body language to try to convey an internal state.g. Nexi[92] can produce a range of facial expressions. . or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world. [edit]Personality Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality.[94] Nevertheless. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans. robots likeKismet and the more recent addition. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles. the world.on a metalskull. For example. and how they interact. or fear.e. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. falling over. which may be joy. Finally.g. Whether the person is happy. judging by their facial expression and body language. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots. At a reactive level. To simplify this programming in the movie. sadness. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . the position of its joints or its end effector). This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film. Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. The processing phase can range in complexity. it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. frightened. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. Likewise.

Our Robots .

Imagine this crazy Alien cleaning your street and cutting your wood! The Beetle This robot is very strong and powerful. When the car backs into an object it will stop and move forward. Dr. we decided to battle a friend's robot and guess what. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. and green and blue lights that flash. They help you to understand how an animal moves. level of control and level of programming language. which helped the gears stay meshed together properly. Robots are often classified according to their generation. Also the eyes light up while it is going and turn off when it bumps into something. Car We built a car with two different sensors. it has a light sensor to tell the robot when it is approaching an obstacle. The light sensor would work at the front of the car and the touch sensor at the back of the car. antennae. Bug Our bug moves forwards and backwards and keeps going until it bumps into something. Dr. To put our robot to the test. The motor attachment design was strengthened. while the light sensor turns on the the light when it g dark. A touch sensor prevents the Beetle from bumping into walls. like paper. The Cricket is not an autonomous robot. a touch sensor and a light sensor. It changes direction when it does bump into something. We made it demolish a tower. Animal robots are fun to make.We have classified our robots alphabetically according to the name that the students have given their robot. (try here for video link) Giraffe Robot We created a giraffe robot. Demolisher 5000 We named our robot this name because it demolishes towers and the 5000 part sounded cool. we won. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. Driller Our robot drills through things. The RCX box is secured to the top of the robot. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. it will turn to avoid the object. Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter This robot has wings. When the car approaches an object and gets too close. but our front wheels fell off. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. level of intelligence. "The Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter" moves forwards and backwards. It shows that you can have a robot travel without being built with the RCX unit. Cricket Our cricket moves forwards and backwards using a pulley to drive the wheels. It was a real challenge to make the head of our giraffe go up and down while the it was moving forwards and . as well.

So there are: 1. Wheeled robots .Types of robots by application Nowadays. I propose to use both of these classifications together.4 SCARA robots 1.2 Cylindrical robots 1. robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot.3 Spherical robots 1. For example an industrial robot usually. There are: *Industrial robots *Domestic or household robots *Medical robots *Service robots *Military robots *Entertainment robots *Exploration robots Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics As you can understand. That's why one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms) 1. but if there is an AVG (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? It is also a robotic device working in an industrial environment. And this number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily. So.6 Parallel robots 2. That's alright.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots 1. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement) 1. when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task. robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields.

and some other time-spending factors. Big industrial manufacturing giants have robotic systems that work 24/7. Car and electronic manufacturing companies mostly make use of such automated systems. They don't make any mistakes and errors as humans do. They provide optimum output in regards to quality as well as quantity.2 Two-wheeled robots 2. sleeps. Flying robots 6. which directly has an effect on production. In the industrial sector they prevent any errors in the production of goods.3 quadrupedal robots 3.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots) 3. Such systems can even do the work of approximately 100 or more human workers at a time. the throughput speed rises. Swimming robots 5.1 Single wheel (ball) robots 2. they have the potential to produce considerably more than a human worker. and that too with high-quality and accuracy. Quantity of Production If robots are used for production purposes. Others Advantages of Robotics in Business Quality and Accuracy of Work Robotic systems have the capability of impressively meliorating the quality of work. .2.4 hexapod robots 3. Legged robots 3. Moreover. This saves a lot of important output and production time. they are used to carry out complicated surgeries which are very difficult for doctors and surgeons to perform. They have the capability to work at a constant speed without the need to take short breaks. In the medical field.5 other numbers of legs 4.3 Three and more wheel robots 3. as more and more products are to be manufactured in a very less time. vacations. Advantages of Robotics in Various Fields Industrial Robotics The use of robotic systems in the industrial sector is a necessity nowadays.2 Tripedal robots 3. Mobile spherical robots (robotic balls) 7.

With the development of computers. Moreover. robots that can perform house duties are also being manufactured. Future robotics systems may come up with benefits that we can't even imagine of. Like computers in the 20 th century Robots are going to be common house hold items in future. the use of robots in household may be common. However. There are expected times when Robots will over power mankind in future. who knows it may become a reality in the near future. but certainly assist the surgeons to perform the task accurately.Scientists are working on technologies that can be incorporated in future robotic pets. and also in lesser time than normal. The advantages of robotics are certainly predicted to grow in several other fields over time. It is for us to wait and see whether the creators or the creation will rule the world. The ethnicity of providing intelligence to robots is questioned but future is the answer to this question. . Robots are already sent into space like the Voyager to Mars and Cassini to Saturn. the technology of house robots is not being used commercially. Some examples include robotic pool cleaners and robotic vacuum cleaners. robots don't perform the whole procedure in surgeries. This will invoke thinking in Robots which in future will help Man kind in problem solving. Spatial Exploration: With the development of computers the power of Robonauts will increase by which spatial exploration can develop. FUTURE OF ROBOTICS The future developments of Robots can be found in various places.They employ robotic systems in several testing and assembling procedures which would be difficult and time-consuming for human workers to carry out. The use of robotics in nursing is increasing due to the shortage of efficient manpower. They also may be utilized for robotic painting and robotic welding jobs. A surgeon may use a 'robotics surgery coordinator' to perform a surgery without making big incisions. Development is going on in the field of nano system which deals with implanting of small chips into human body for early detection of diseases. Robotics in Household Nowadays. Development is going in the field of artificial intelligence. Medical and Healthcare Robotics Robotic systems have also proven to play a very important role in the medicinal and surgical sector. They will find applications in almost all areas and become universal. semiconductor technology Robotics will grow in leaps and bounds. However. be it in manufacturing medicines and drugs or carrying out simple tasks in specific surgeries. a robot may be used in performing an unmanned operation which is known as a robotic surgery. After more development in this field. which can enable the pets to better mingle with families. Robotic arms are a simple example of such technologies. the robotic hand has been showed. The major among them is in the field of: Medicine: New techniques for Tele surgery will be developed in future for Remote operations and also for complex operations like cardiac surgery. In many films. CONCLUSION Robots are going to play a very significant part in our daily life. This can also help in locating a person by GPS technology. Robotics programming is a way of feeding information into the robots regarding what tasks are to be performed and how. Robotic packaging machinery is used in companies which manufacture daily-use products. and also provide care and protection.

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