Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences ofelectronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software.

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek . A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent agent that can perform tasks automatically or with guidance, typically by remote control. In practice a robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by computer and electronic programming



Further information: Power supply and Energy storage At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be:     pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion)

 faeces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as faeces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKA's project Slingshot Stirling engine on how the system would operate)  still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.[17]).  radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red Planet [edit]Actuation Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air: [edit]Electric motors Main article: Electric motor The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. [edit]Linear actuators Main article: Linear actuator

[30] . [27] These motors are already available commercially. They have been used for some small robot applications. whereby tiny piezoceramic elements. are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it. It has been used in various robots.[28][29] [edit]Elastic nanotubes Further information: Nanotube Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. [26] Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw.[23] and to allow new robots to float. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution. These work on a fundamentally different principle. with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. There are different mechanisms of operation. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. also known as Shape Memory Alloy.[19][20] [edit]Muscle wire Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire. particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. [edit]Series elastic actuators A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator. and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots. swim or walk. also known as air muscles. cause linear or rotary motion. Nitinol or Flexinol Wire. and available force for their size.[21][22] [edit]Electroactive polymers Main article: Electroactive polymers EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent. vibrating many thousands of times per second.[18] [edit]Air muscles Main article: Pneumatic artificial muscles Pneumatic artificial muscles. to allow improved force control.Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning. particularly walking humanoid robots. is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. speed.[25] [edit]Piezo motors Main article: Piezoelectric motor A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. They have been used for some robot applications. and being used on some robots.[24] fly.

[edit]Sensing [edit]Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. destroy. pick up. at different levels of complexity. The image data can take many forms. modify. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. The sensors are designed using solidstate physics. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects. play piano and perform other fine movements. There is a subfield within computer vision where artificial systems are designed to mimic the processing and behavior of biological systems. while a few have one very general purpose manipulator. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced. each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed. but methods based on learning are now becoming increasingly common. producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. the computers are pre-programmed to solve a particular task. Also.[35] Most robot arms have replaceable effectors. The prosthesis has sensors which enable the patient to sense real feeling in its fingertips. Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009. and usage consult the book "Robot Grippers". For the definitive guide to all forms of robot end-effectors. for example a humanoid hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process. called SmartHand. In most practical computer vision applications.[34] while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator. which functions like a real one—allowing patients to write with it. or otherwise have an effect. As a scientific discipline. type on a keyboard. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors. some of the learning-based methods developed within computer vision have their background in biology. their design.[36] .[33] [edit]Vision Main article: Computer vision Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images.[31][32] The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. [edit]Manipulation Further information: Mobile manipulator Robots needs to manipulate objects. Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. such as video sequences and views from cameras. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core.

it can be thought of as a component of a robot.[41] [edit]Locomotion Main articles: Robot locomotion and Mobile robot [edit]Rolling robots For simplicity most mobile robots have four wheels or a number of continuous tracks. These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts. based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum. [edit]Two-wheeled balancing robots Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the opposite direction.[43] While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot. such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person.[42] Many different balancing robots have been designed. MANUS. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people. [edit]Vacuum Grippers Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive[38] devices. either by spinning a weight inside the ball.[40] These highly dexterous manipulators.[39] and the Schunk hand.[47][48] or by rotating the outer shells of the sphere. as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four wheeled robot would not be able to.[edit]Mechanical Grippers One of the most common effectors is the gripper. Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels. to counter-balance the fall at hundreds of times per second. [edit]General purpose effectors Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands. with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors. like the Shadow Hand. Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently. often use very simple vacuum grippers. such as NASA's Robonaut that has been mounted on a Segway.[46] [edit]Spherical orb robots Several attempts have been made in robots that are completely inside a spherical ball. and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP". thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces.[37] See Shadow Hand.[44] [edit]One-wheeled balancing robots Main article: Self-balancing unicycle A one-wheeled balancing robot is an extension of a two-wheeled balancing robot so that it can move in any 2D direction using a round ball as its only wheel. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens.[49][50] These have also been referred to as an orb bot [51] or a ball bot[52][53] .[45] Because of the long.

Examples include NASA's Urban Robot "Urbie". uneven terrain. [edit]Hopping Several robots. [61] Soon. which is potentially more robust than the Zero Moment Point technique. successfully demonstrated very dynamic walking. and a very small foot. In this way. and some dynamic balancing is used (see below). [edit]Tracked robots Tank tracks provide even more traction than a six-wheeled robot. where they walk on 2 legs and switch to 4 (arms+legs) when going to a sprint. Typically. due to these robots being significantly easier to construct. Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs. and places the feet in order to maintain stability.[edit]Six-wheeled robots Using six wheels instead of four wheels can give better traction or grip in outdoor terrain such as on rocky dirt or grass. a robot with only one leg.[57] However. see theMIT Leg Lab Robots page. Robot. and bound. run. pace. where the robot must drive on very rough terrain. robots on 2 legs can walk well on flat floors and can occasionally walk up stairs. However. Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs. built in the 1980s by Marc Raibert at the MIT Leg Laboratory. could stay upright simply byhopping. as it constantly monitors the robot's motion.[62] A quadruped was also demonstrated which could trot. [edit]Dynamic Balancing (controlled falling) A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm. it still requires a smooth surface to walk on.[58][59][60] ASIMO's walking algorithm is not static. it would jump slightly in that direction. and the difference is obvious to human observers. therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots. None can walk over rocky.[63] For a full list of these robots. As the robot falls to one side. Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels.[55][56] Hybrids too have been proposed in movies such as I. Initially. they are difficult to use indoors such as on carpets and smooth floors. exactly opposed by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot's foot). however none have yet been made which are as robust as a human. some of whom have pointed out that ASIMO walks as if it needs the lavatory. the two forces cancel out. However.[54] [edit]Walking applied to robots Walking is a difficult and dynamic problem to solve. The movement is the same as that of a person on a pogo stick. in order to catch itself.[64] This technique was recently . The robot's onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of earth's gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking). Some of the methods which have been tried are: [edit]ZMP Technique Main article: Zero Moment Point The Zero Moment Point (ZMP) is the algorithm used by robots such as Honda's ASIMO. leaving no moment (force causing the robot to rotate and fall over). this is not exactly how a human walks. A bipedal robot was demonstrated running and even performing somersaults. the algorithm was generalised to two and four legs.

2008 reported New Concept Aircraft (ZHUHAI) Co.[66] Another example is the TU Delft Flame. It has four legs. Other flying robots include cruise missiles. propelled by paddles. It has been shown that totally unpowered humanoid mechanisms can walk down a gentle slope. and guided by sonar. this gecko robot can rapidly climbing up and down in a variety of building walls. Li introduction. Some can even fire on targets under command.[69] Other flying robots are uninhabited.demonstrated by Anybots' Dexter Robot.[72] [edit]Skating A small number of skating robots have been developed.. Examples of this approach include Wallbot [76] and Stickybot. They can be smaller and lighter without a human pilot onboard. Plen.[73] Another robot. An example of this is Capuchin. with two humans to manage it. The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey. Li Hiu Yeung and his research group have recently successfully developed the bionic gecko robot "Speedy Freelander". UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically. the Entomopter. This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers. like ASIMO. Dr. Using this technique. and fly into dangerous territory for military surveillance missions. and even landing.According to Dr. including takeoff. these robots can navigate very confined spaces.[67][68] [edit]Other methods of locomotion [edit]Flying A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot. adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. and the Epson micro helicopter robot.[75] built by Stanford University. Ltd. with unpowered wheels. and are known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[77] China's "Technology Daily" November 15. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions.[65] which is so stable. normal flight. and Air Jelly have lighter-than-air bodies.[70] The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot[71] can even navigate both on land and in water. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes. one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device.[74] [edit]Climbing Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass. ground and vertical wall fissure or walking upside down on the . a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill. using only gravity to propel themselves. Air Ray. Robots such as the Air Penguin. it can even jump. and skate across a desktop. without the need for a command from a human. which can either step or roll. can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates. [edit]Passive Dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach utilizes passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency. meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. Mimicking the way real snakes move. California. ]Snaking Several snake robots have been successfully developed.

[78] Furthermore. the best systems can recognize continuous. they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any manmade boat orsubmarine. the previous word. rather than a command-line interface. Festo have also built the Aqua Ray and Aqua Jelly. allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. with an accuracy of 95%.[83] Nevertheless. and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. Its flexibility and speed are comparable to the natural gecko. It will probably be a long time before robots interact as naturally as the fictional C-3PO. great strides have been made in the field since Davis. which emulate the locomotion of manta ray. gestures. [edit]Swimming (like a fish) It is calculated that when swimming some fish can achieve a propulsive efficiency greater than 90%. and facial expressions. Science fiction authors also typically assume that robots will eventually be capable of communicating with humans through speech. whether or not the speaker has a cold. Human-robot interaction Main article: Human-robot interaction If robots are to work effectively in homes and other non-industrial environments. is a difficult task for a computer. and especially how they will be told to stop will be of critical importance. It becomes even harder when the speaker has a different accent. and jellyfish. volume. A third approach is to mimick the motion of a snake climbing a pole[citation needed].[91] The coating and servos are built . designed and built by Festo of Germany. copies the streamlined shape and propulsion by front "flippers" of penguins. the way they are instructed to perform their jobs. spoken by the same person may sound different depending on local acoustics. etc.[79] Notable examples are the Essex University Computer Science Robotic Fish. Therefore. it is able to adapt on smooth glass. mostly because of the great variability of speech. Biddulph. circumvent the bypass and flexible and realistic movements. to analyze and mathematically model thunniform motion. Although speech would be the most natural way for the human to communicate.[85] Facial expression Further information: Facial expression Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans. rough or sticky dust walls as well as the various surface of metallic materials and also can automatically identify obstacles. up to 160 words per minute. and produce less noise and water disturbance. it is unnatural for the robot. The people who interact with them may have little or no training in robotics. [81] The Aqua Penguin. and so any interface will need to be extremely intuitive.[84] Currently.ceiling.[82] The same word. and Balashek designed the first "voice input system" which recognized "ten digits spoken by a single user with 100% accuracy" in 1952. [edit]Speech recognition Main article: Speech recognition Interpreting the continuous flow of sounds coming from a human. respectively. natural speech. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber.[80] and the Robot Tuna built by the Institute of Field Robotics. many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion. in real time..

Techniques from control theory convert the task into commands that drive the actuators. facial expressions. To simplify this programming in the movie. or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot.on a metalskull. A robot should know how to approach a human. and how they interact. [edit]Personality Many of the robots of science fiction have a personality. the position of its joints or its end effector). falling over. allowing it to have meaningful social exchanges with humans. Nexi[92] can produce a range of facial expressions. For example. At longer time scales or with more sophisticated tasks. Whether the person is happy. which may be joy. they use sounds. the position of the robot's gripper) from noisy sensor data. . This decreased the amount of time needed to make the film. As can be seen from the movie Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. Finally. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases . judging by their facial expression and body language.g. etc. An immediate task (such as moving the gripper in a certain direction) is inferred from these estimates.[94] Nevertheless. One commercial example is Pleo. Sensor fusion may first be used to estimate parameters of interest (e. Pattern recognition and computer vision can be used to track objects. This information is then processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical. processing. which can exhibit several apparent emotions. and action (robotic paradigms). sadness. researchers are trying to create robots which appear to have a personality:[95][96]i. the robot may need to build and reason with a "cognitive" model. presets were created together with a special software program. frightened. a planner may figure out how to achieve a task without hitting obstacles.e.[97] [edit]Control The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. Likewise. Cognitive models try to represent the robot. the programming of these artificial emotions is complex and requires a great amount of human observation.perception. The processing phase can range in complexity. At a reactive level. something which may or may not be desirable in the commercial robots of the future. it may translate raw sensor information directly into actuator commands. motion planning and other artificial intelligence techniques may be used to figure out how to act. These presets could possibly be transferred for use in real-life robots.g. robots likeKismet and the more recent addition. or fear. the world. Mapping techniques can be used to build maps of the world.[93] [edit]Artificial emotions Artificial emotions can also be imbedded and are composed of a sequence of facial expressions and/or gestures. and body language to try to convey an internal state. a toy robot dinosaur.

Our Robots .

a touch sensor and a light sensor. Demolisher 5000 We named our robot this name because it demolishes towers and the 5000 part sounded cool. level of intelligence. The light sensor would work at the front of the car and the touch sensor at the back of the car. Car We built a car with two different sensors. Dr. Also the eyes light up while it is going and turn off when it bumps into something. "The Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter" moves forwards and backwards. Cricket Our cricket moves forwards and backwards using a pulley to drive the wheels. antennae. and green and blue lights that flash. Bug Our bug moves forwards and backwards and keeps going until it bumps into something. (try here for video link) Giraffe Robot We created a giraffe robot. To put our robot to the test. Robots are often classified according to their generation. They help you to understand how an animal moves. A touch sensor prevents the Beetle from bumping into walls. The motor attachment design was strengthened. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. It shows that you can have a robot travel without being built with the RCX unit. Friesen added an additional challenge to us. as well. It was a real challenge to make the head of our giraffe go up and down while the it was moving forwards and . We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. level of control and level of programming language. When the car backs into an object it will stop and move forward. it has a light sensor to tell the robot when it is approaching an obstacle. We needed to create our robot using only one motor so that we would learn how to use gears and pulleys to transfer energy. Alien Streetcleaner and Woodcutter This robot has wings. The Cricket is not an autonomous robot. but our front wheels fell off.We have classified our robots alphabetically according to the name that the students have given their robot. it will turn to avoid the object. The RCX box is secured to the top of the robot. while the light sensor turns on the the light when it g dark. We made it demolish a tower. like paper. Dr. we decided to battle a friend's robot and guess what. which helped the gears stay meshed together properly. When the car approaches an object and gets too close. we won. It changes direction when it does bump into something. Animal robots are fun to make. Driller Our robot drills through things. Imagine this crazy Alien cleaning your street and cutting your wood! The Beetle This robot is very strong and powerful.

5 Articulated robots (robotic arms) 1.4 SCARA robots 1.3 Spherical robots 1. I propose to use both of these classifications together. robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots 1.2 Cylindrical robots 1.6 Parallel robots 2. robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot.Types of robots by application Nowadays. That's alright. but if there is an AVG (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? It is also a robotic device working in an industrial environment. when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement) 1. So there are: 1. There are: *Industrial robots *Domestic or household robots *Medical robots *Service robots *Military robots *Entertainment robots *Exploration robots Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics As you can understand. Wheeled robots . So. That's why one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application. For example an industrial robot usually. And this number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily.

Others Advantages of Robotics in Business Quality and Accuracy of Work Robotic systems have the capability of impressively meliorating the quality of work.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots) 3. Flying robots 6. as more and more products are to be manufactured in a very less time. Advantages of Robotics in Various Fields Industrial Robotics The use of robotic systems in the industrial sector is a necessity nowadays.5 other numbers of legs 4. vacations. and some other time-spending factors. Big industrial manufacturing giants have robotic systems that work 24/7.2 Two-wheeled robots 2.4 hexapod robots 3. . Legged robots 3. the throughput speed rises. Mobile spherical robots (robotic balls) 7. They don't make any mistakes and errors as humans do. This saves a lot of important output and production time. Quantity of Production If robots are used for production purposes. They provide optimum output in regards to quality as well as quantity. Such systems can even do the work of approximately 100 or more human workers at a time. and that too with high-quality and accuracy. sleeps.2 Tripedal robots 3. they have the potential to produce considerably more than a human worker.3 Three and more wheel robots 3. They have the capability to work at a constant speed without the need to take short breaks.1 Single wheel (ball) robots 2. Car and electronic manufacturing companies mostly make use of such automated systems. they are used to carry out complicated surgeries which are very difficult for doctors and surgeons to perform. In the medical field. In the industrial sector they prevent any errors in the production of goods.3 quadrupedal robots 3. which directly has an effect on production. Swimming robots 5.2. Moreover.

However. Future robotics systems may come up with benefits that we can't even imagine of. Medical and Healthcare Robotics Robotic systems have also proven to play a very important role in the medicinal and surgical sector. Moreover. Development is going on in the field of nano system which deals with implanting of small chips into human body for early detection of diseases. robots that can perform house duties are also being manufactured. With the development of computers. It is for us to wait and see whether the creators or the creation will rule the world. the use of robots in household may be common. This will invoke thinking in Robots which in future will help Man kind in problem solving. who knows it may become a reality in the near future. Robotics in Household Nowadays. Some examples include robotic pool cleaners and robotic vacuum cleaners. the robotic hand has been showed. Development is going in the field of artificial intelligence. However. a robot may be used in performing an unmanned operation which is known as a robotic surgery. Robotics programming is a way of feeding information into the robots regarding what tasks are to be performed and how. The major among them is in the field of: Medicine: New techniques for Tele surgery will be developed in future for Remote operations and also for complex operations like cardiac surgery. FUTURE OF ROBOTICS The future developments of Robots can be found in various places. A surgeon may use a 'robotics surgery coordinator' to perform a surgery without making big incisions. Like computers in the 20 th century Robots are going to be common house hold items in future. They also may be utilized for robotic painting and robotic welding jobs. Spatial Exploration: With the development of computers the power of Robonauts will increase by which spatial exploration can develop. The ethnicity of providing intelligence to robots is questioned but future is the answer to this question. and also provide care and protection. There are expected times when Robots will over power mankind in future. Robotic packaging machinery is used in companies which manufacture daily-use products. Robotic arms are a simple example of such technologies. which can enable the pets to better mingle with families. They will find applications in almost all areas and become universal. be it in manufacturing medicines and drugs or carrying out simple tasks in specific surgeries. . and also in lesser time than normal. This can also help in locating a person by GPS technology.Scientists are working on technologies that can be incorporated in future robotic pets.They employ robotic systems in several testing and assembling procedures which would be difficult and time-consuming for human workers to carry out. After more development in this field. In many films. the technology of house robots is not being used commercially. The advantages of robotics are certainly predicted to grow in several other fields over time. Robots are already sent into space like the Voyager to Mars and Cassini to Saturn. The use of robotics in nursing is increasing due to the shortage of efficient manpower. CONCLUSION Robots are going to play a very significant part in our daily life. robots don't perform the whole procedure in surgeries. semiconductor technology Robotics will grow in leaps and bounds. but certainly assist the surgeons to perform the task accurately.

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