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# Computer-Aided Design

## Dr. Karen L. Wang

Dimensioning..........................................................................................................3 Tolerancing Parts and Assemblies.........................................................................3 Two types of Tolerances.....................................................................................4 Conventional Tolerancing.......................................................................4 Geometric Tolerancing....................................................................................4 Tolerance Analysis..............................................................................................6 Creating Drawings with Computer-Aided Drafting..................................................6 An Overview of Drawing and Detailing................................................................6 Procedures for Solid-Based Drafting...................................................................7 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing.............................................................8 Screw Sizes and Threads per Inch.........................................................................9 More websites----....................................................................................................9

## Design Application: Dimensioning, Toleranceing and Drafting

In this section we will discuss a couple of the applications of solid modeling: dimensioning, tolerancing and drafting. Solid Model

Design Applications Mechanical Assembly Mechanism Design Sheet Metal Computer-Aided Drafting Tolerance Analysis Finite Element Analysis Rapid Prototyping Manufacturing

Before a design is released for manufacturing, it is necessary to perform the following: 1. detailing of the design, which includes the selection of standard components; 2. determination of dimensions and tolerances; 3. determination of special manufacturing notes, and 4. final drafting

Dimensioning
A drawing is expected to convey a complete description of every detail of a part. However, dimensioning is as important as the geometric information. In manufacturing, a drawing without dimension is only worth as much as the paper on which it is drawn. Dimensions convey the required size, whereas tolerances convey the required precision. Those are critical to the manufacturing of a part. This information can effect the choice of process (es) to be used, and fixture location, and machines required to produce a part. According to the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standards, the following are the basic rules that should be observed in dimensioning any drawing: Basic Rules in Dimensioning a Part 1. Show enough dimensions so that the intended sizes and shapes can be determined without calculating or assuming any distances. 2. State each dimension clearly, so that it can be interpreted in only one way. 3. Show the dimensions between points, lines, or surfaces that have a necessary and specific relation to each other or that control the location of other components or mating parts. 4. Select and arrange dimensions to avoid accumulations of tolerances that may permit various interpretations and cause unsatisfactory mating of parts and failure in use. 5. Show each dimension only once. 6. Where possible, dimension each feature in the view where it appears in profile and where its true shape appears. 7. Wherever possible, specify dimensions to make use of readily available materials, parts, tools, and gauges.

## Tolerancing Parts and Assemblies

Because it is impossible to produce the exact dimension specified, a tolerance is used to show the acceptable variation in a dimension. The higher the quality a produce has, the smaller the tolerance value specified. So tolerance is a measure of quality in a manufactured product.

## Two types of Tolerances

There are two types of tolerances: Conventional Tolerancing and Geometric Tolerancing.

Conventional Tolerancing

## Conventional Tolerancing: bilateral, symmetric limit and no tolerance.

Geometric Tolerancing
Geometric Tolerancing specifies the tolerance of geometric characteristics. Basic geometric characteristics as defined by the ANSI Y14.5M 1985 standard include Straightness Flatness 4 Perpendicularity Angularity Roundness Cylindricity Concentricity Roundout

Profile Parallelism

True Position

A standard way to convey the geometric tolerancing is with GD & T (Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing) symbols as shown below.

## Geometric Characteristic Symbols

Symbol Name Angularity Circularity Concentricity Datum Always No Always Description
The amount that the surface is allowed to deviate from the specified angle The amount that any point on a circle may deviate from a perfect circle. The amount that the axis point on any cross section of a revo9lved surface is allowed to deviate from being concentric (same center) with the datum reference. The amount that any point on a cylindrical surface may deviate from a perfect cylinder. The amount that any point on a surface may deviate from a perfectly flat plane. The amount which a surface may vary from parallel with the designated datum reference. The amount that a surface may deviate from being perfectly parallel to the designated datum reference. The amount a feature may deviate from the stand dimension from a datum reference. The amount of deviation of a profile shape from the specified shape. The amount of deviation of a surface from the specified shape. Runout is measured with a gauge as the part is rotated about the circle center. Circular runout is a measure of both the location and the roundness of a circle. Total runout is a measure of the deviation of any point on a cylinder as the part is rotated about the cylinder axis. Amount a line on a surface may vary from a perfectly straight line. The amount of deviation from perfect symmetry.

Cylindricity Flatness Parallelism Perpendicularity Positional Tolerance Profile of a Line Profile of a Surface Circular Runout Total Runout Straightness Symmetry

## No No Always Always Always Optional Optional Always

Always No Always

Tolerance Analysis
Tolerance analysis is an important step in design. Proper tolerance ensures that parts will behave as analyzed for stress and deflection. For given two-dimensional model of parts or assemblies, tolerance stackup can be obtained by performing tolerance analysis. i.e. 1. Predict worst case and statistical tolerances of a given reference dimension; 2. Get the percentage of parts or assemblies where the given reference dimension will fall outside an acceptable zone, and 3. Decide which tolerances should be adjusted sensitivity. If the analysis shows too many parts would fall outside the allowable zone, the remedy could be to: 1. Tighten the tolerances that contribute to the variation. 2. Allow more variation in the reference dimension. 3. Change the geometry.

## ng Drawings with Computer-Aided Drafting

In todays modern manufacturing industry, several types of drawings are acceptable. However, the standard is still the multi-view drawing (top, front, back, right, left and bottom). In most cases three of four views are required to adequately describe the object. When a symmetrical object is drafted, two views are sufficient to represent it.

## An Overview of Drawing and Detailing

The purpose of an engineering drawing is to convey information so that part can be manufactured correctly. Detailing is also called the documentation of a design. Engineering drawings use dimension, symbols and notes to convey the necessary information required for proper understanding of the design intent.

Knowledge of the methods and practices of dimensioning and tolerancing is essential to the engineer of designer. The multi-view projections of a part provide a graphic representation of its shape. however, the drawing must also contain other information specifying detail production of manufacturing requirements. The school of engineering may obtain sites or CAD programming (solid works) for use by faculty, staff and students by calling engineering technical services at 965-2968.

## Procedures for Solid-Based Drafting

Create Parts and Assemblies

## Create a Drawing Layout

Modifying Views

Final Detailing

Exporting a Drawing Generally speaking, a detailed drawing consists of the following: Multi-view projections Dimensioning Notes and symbols Tolerances Part X-sections, etc. Multi-view projections

Views are required to adequately describe the shape of an object. There are six standard views of an object namely, Top, Front, Back, Right and Left Side, Bottom. However, in most cases three of four views are required to adequately describe the object. Dimensioning

Drawing is annotated with dimensions, Dimensions are provided between lines, points, or surfaces that are functionally related or to control the relationship of other parts. Dimensions describe the size, location and shape or features of an object.

## etric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

These geometric symbols are similar to the symbols used on maps to indicate features, such as tow and four lane highways, bridges, and airports. They are like the new international road signs seen more frequently on US highways. The purpose of these symbols is to form a common language that everyone can understand. Geometric Characteristic Symbols STRAIGHTNESSA condition where all points are in a straight line, the tolerance specified by a zone formed by two parallel lines. FLATNESSAll the pints on a surface are in one plane, the tolerance specified by a zone formed by two parallel planes. ROUNDNESS OR CIRCULARITYAll the points on a surface are in a circle. The tolerance is specified by a zone bounded by tow concentric circles. CYLINDRICITYAll the points of a surface of revolution are equidistant from a common axis. A cylindricity tolerance specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric cylinders within which the surface must lie. PROFILEA tolerancing method of controlling irregular surfaces, lines, arcs or normal planes. Profiles can be applied to individual line elements of the entire surface of a part. The profile tolerance specifies a uniform boundary along the true profiles within which the elements of the surface must lie. ANGULARITYThe condition of a surface or axis at a specified angle (other than 90) from a datum plane or axis. The tolerance zone is defined by two parallel planes at the specified basic angle from a datum plane or axis. PERPENDICULARITYThe condition of a surface or axis equidistant at all points from a datum plane or axis. Parallelism tolerance specifies one of the following; a zone defined by two planes or axis, or a cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis is parallel to a datum axis. PARALLELISMThe condition of a surface or axis equidistant at all points from a datum plane of axis. Parallelism tolerance specifies one of the following; a zone defined by two planes or lines parallel to a datum plane axis, or a cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis is parallel

to a datum axis. CONCENTRICITYThe axes of all cross sectional elements of a surface of revolution are common to the axis of the datum feature. Concentricity tolerance specifies a cylindrical tolerance zone whose axis coincides with the datum axis.

## izes and Threads per Inch

Size
0-80 1-72 2-56 4-40 6-32 8-32 10-32 -20 5/16-18 3/8-16 -13 5/8-11

Diameter
.059 .072 .085 .107 .130 .156 .187 .250 .312 .375 .500 .625