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REPORT REPORT ON HR PRACTICES AND ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES IN IT INDUSTRY Submitted in fulfillment for the award of Master of Business Administration

on (G.B. Technical University, Lucknow) 2009-2011

Submitted To: MR. D.N. PANDEY


DIRECTOR GENERAL

Submitted By POOJA SINGH M.B.A. II Year


ROLL NO- 0920370056

RAMESHWARAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT Approved by A.I.C.T.E. (Ministry of HRD) & Affiliated to G.B. Technical University, Lucknow Govindpuram Sitapur Road, Lucknow. U.P. INDIA Phone : 0522-2509608 , 2734802, 2734805, 2734838 Fax No.: 0522-2734839, Website:www.ritm.in

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Miss pooja singh a student of MBA 4th done her research project Report entitled
HR

semester, has
AND

PRACTICES

ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES IN IT INDUSTRY embodies the original work

done by her for the partial fulfillment of the award of MBA degree.

I wish her all the best for her future endeavor.

Dr.D.N. Pandey Director General

Monika Agarwal , HOD

Declaration

I hereby declare that the following dissertation report titled HR Practices and Organisational Strategies in IT Industry is an authentic work done by me.

The information and data given in this report are true and to the best of my knowledge. I also acknowledge that I took the help of both primary and secondary data collection through various available resources.

Pooja Singh

PREFACE
M.B.A. is stepping-stone to Management career. In order to achieve practical, positive and concrete results the theoretical knowledge must be supplemented with exposure to real environment. MBA combines both theory and its practical applications as its major content of study in the field of management .Theoretical knowledge without practical knowledge is of little value. Theoretical studies in classroom are not sufficient to understand the functioning of marketing concepts. Therefore, it becomes necessary to undergo any project work. Practical project supplements the theoretical studies i.e., it covers what is left uncovered in the classroom. It exposes a student to invaluable treasure of experiences. I took my Research work is a part of our curriculum, which helps us to correlate our theoretical concepts with practical experiences. The topic that I have taken for project is .HR PRACTICES AND ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES IN IT INDUSTRY

Acknowledgement
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Exchange of ideas generates a new object to work in a better way. Whenever a person is helped and co-operated by other, his heart is bound to pay gratitude and obligation to them. At the successful completion of our project, we would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the people without whose support this project would not be completed. At the onset, I would like to thank my institute Rameshwaram Institute of Technology & Managemant, Lucknow for giving us the opportunity to undergo this research project. We would also like to acknowledge the constant help and encouragement of our project guide Mrs. Monika Agarwal, Faculty Guide who has given his valuable suggestions and expert guidance and support. We would also like to thank all those who have directly or indirectly helped us in the preparation of this report.

POOJA SINGH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 ROLE OF HR MANAGERS 1.2 LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT. 1.3 INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN HR 1.4 LINKING PAY TO PERFORMANCE 1.5 CHANGING JOB DESIGN IN IT COMMUNITY

CHAPTER 2: HR IT SCENARIO
2.1 NNOVATION IS THE KEY 2.2 WAR FOR TALENT 2.3 4 R's of HR in IT 2.4 OUT SOURCING

CHAPTER 3:HR PROBLEMS OF INDIAN IT PROFESSIONALS


3.0 OVERVIEW 3.1 MAIN PROBLEM AREAS 3.2 LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE

CHAPTER 4 :IT SECTOR COMPENSATION METHODS


4.0 EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNWERSHIP PLAN 4.1 STOCK OPTIONS 4.2 MERIT PAY 4.3 GAIN SHARING 4.4 PROFIT SHARING 4.5 ASSESSMENT OF PLANS FOR BROAD-BASED EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP 4.6 EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP : COMPANIES PAY LESS FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION COSTS 4.7 IT COMPANIES WRITE NEW ESOP STORY 4.8 ESOPs HARDLY BENEFICIAL 4.9 EMPLOYEE STOCK PURCHASE PLANS (ESPPS) 4.10 ESOPS AND CORPORATE GROWTH

CHAPTER 5 :
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SURVEY ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 6 : SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANNEXURES

1.0
1.0.1

INTRODUCTION

Success of every business enterprise depends on its human resource. Money,

material and machines are inert factors; but man with his ability to feel, think, conscience and plan is the most valuable resource. At the same time human elements are most difficult to be inspired, controlled and motivated. The upcoming competition in India, will demand high motivational level of its employees. 1.0.2 Growth of an enterprise is vital for the economic development of the country.

This is possible only by maintaining the enthusiasm and motivation of the employees, which is vital for carrying out the operations in most efficient manner. The most successful companies, all over the world have designed their business policies to achieve higher productivity by using potentiality and strength of people. 1.0.3 The basic aim of human policies is the genuine concern for the people. Proper

design of human policies is based on the higher responsibilities, personal and positive approach in the total perspective of organisational interest. The world's best companies have established their strength with their people. The employees identify themselves with the company they are working for. This also help in building up their spirit, morale and espirit-decops which becomes strength of the company. The culture of excellence thus nurtured contribute to growth with stability and continuous improvement in productivity. 1.0.4 Finding the right man for the job and developing him into a valuable resource

is an indispensable requirement of every organisation. Human resources are capable of enlargement i.e. capable of providing an output that is greater than the sum of the inputs. Proper recruitment helps the line managers to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objective of the enterprise. In order to harness the human energies in the service or organisational goals, every manager is expected to pay proper attention to recruitment, selection, training, development activities in an organisation. Proper promotional avenues must also be created so as to motivate employees to peak performance. Thus, personnel functions such as manpower planning recruitment, selection and training, when carried out

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properly, would enable the organisation to hire and retain the services of the best brains in the market. 1.0.5 The human resource management is very crucial in respect of information

technology services than other manufacturing or marketing enterprises. The IT services are technical in nature and at every stage the human touch is involved. Hence it is well motivated and devoted manpower which is very much essential for the success of IT industry.

1.1 ROLE OF HR MANAGERS


1.1.1. And Some industry commentators call the Human Resources function the last

bastion of bureaucracy. Traditionally, the role of the Human Resource professional in many organizations has been to serve as the systematizing, policing arm of executive management. In this role, the HR professional served executive agendas well, but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. While some need for this role occasionally remains you would no want every manager putting his own spin on a sexual harassment policy, as an examplemuch of the HR role is transforming itself. The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor. 1.1.2 Strategic Partner:-In todays organizations, to guarantee their viability and

ability to contribute, HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives. The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall plan and objectives. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work

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positions, hiring; reward, recognition, and strategic pay; performance development and appraisal systems; career and succession planning; and employee development. 1.1.3 Employee Advocate:-As an employee sponsor or advocate, the HR manager

plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated, contributing, and happy. Fostering effective methods of goal setting, communication, and empowerment through responsibility build employee ownership of the enterprise. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency, concern, and commitment to serve customers well. In this role, the HR manager provides employee development opportunities, employee assistance programs, gain sharing and profit-sharing strategies, organization development interventions, due process approaches to problem solving, and regularly scheduled communication opportunities. 1.1.5 Change Champion:-The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the

organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion change. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally valued. Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to change. The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. To promote the overall success of his organization, he champions the identification of the organizational mission, vision, values, goals, and action plans. Finally, he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this.

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1.2 LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT.


1.2.1 The main role of leadership was seen as creating a participatory process for

employee involvement, to build collective wisdom. Control has given way to collaboration and the old paradigm of promoting competition and motivating through incentives shifted to creating co-operation and oneness amongst people. This is a marked shift to build effective teams. Research shows that six out of every 10 employees like to work in teams. 87 per cent of all Fortune 500 companies use parallel teams and about 100 per cent of all companies use project teams. 1.2.2 Story telling and appreciative enquiry are emerging as a new dimension in

positive motivation. Finding out what's wrong seems to be the trend. In Walt Disney, telling success stories is one of the important methods used to remind people of greatness and goodness of the organisation. Leaders in Disney concentrate on quality, values and involvement. Speaking in the plenary sessions, Tom Peters said, " We have transitioned from an asset-based economy to a talent-based economy. The new definition of lay-off is untalented go talented stay. Leaders must realise that talent is equal to brand". His new theory is EVP which means "Employee Value Proposition". 1.2.3 Rosabeth Moss Kanter said, " Human beings are good raw material, they

become assets when you train them to increase their knowledge and skills". She added that only a few organisations really train people to make them a success. Seconding this, Mr Peters pointed out how most organisations are not serious about developing people. They spend on an average 26.3 hours per person per year on training. A surgeon, a pilot or an athlete on the other hand spends 10-15 times more on training. 1.2.4 He also stated that the HRD department should be renamed TDFD (Talent

Development Fanatic Department) and wealth for this new regime will flow from innovation, not organisation. Quoting Gary Hamel he said, only those employees will succeed who are "certified radical". Only those companies will succeed who create a cause, not a business. 13

Leaders according to him are living individuals, whom people can smell, feel and touch. Their passion for work must be infectious. 1.2.5 Another aspect of leadership if the decision to introduce fun in the work place.

Research shows that this reduces absenteeism and builds stronger, deeper and longer lasting relationships. It appears out of every 100 Fortune companies in the last decade, 69 are dead and only 31 are alive. In a Forbes Magazine study of around 100 companies from '17 to '87, only 39 companies were found to survive. Management of Change:-Research proves that many change models don't consider the human experience during change. The overriding concern seems to be to downsize. It was found that most change processes go through four fundamental stages.

People try to resist or deny change They adapt, participate in the change They attempt to add value The culmination or formation of a new status-quo A number of presentations revealed that leaders who initiate change must do so

1.2.6

with one foot in the future and the other planted in past values. Forgetting tradition must can devalue existing strengths. The success of a change process depends on the skill of the facilitator to create a participatory process to enlist the support of people and address the issue of grief. 1.2.7 E-Learning :- Organisations like Ford Motor, Hewlett Packard, Intel and IBM

are using e-learning to increase the knowledge of their people. Companies like Fordstar even manage time differences between countries while conducting virtual class rooms, chats, demos, presentations to communicate new concepts, product details, core values, issues of governance and corporate communities. 1.2.8 CEO's are talking to their people about new ideas and enlisting their support

through forums and message boards. This is changing the way people behave and work. The advantages of e-learning are many: It is self-paced, flexible, less expensive, modular and has a huge reach. 14

1.2.9 Universities like Cornell, MIT, Stanford, etc, have started emphasizing e-learning to attract a worldwide audience. Web-centric universities are becoming the order of the day. William Taylor, editor and managing partner of the Fast Pace magazine, said, "There is no going back from back from dotcoms". He was of the opinion that there is a merger taking place between computers and human beings.

1.3 INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN HR


1.3.1 The Innovative Practices in Human Resources study uncovered 12 practices

that are reducing HR costs and improving service quality to employees. Key findings from this research included the need for HR managers to streamline processes, lower overhead costs, and enable their departments to advance from transactional organizations to strategic partners in the business. 1.3.2 Practices and technologies include:

Internet and intranet employee services Strategic human resources Centralized HR departments and call centers 360-degree performance appraisals HRIS systems Employee self-service Voice response systems (VRUs) Resume scanning and Internet recruitment Kiosks Automated time and attendance systems Team policies and development Outsourcing Business process reengineering (BPR)

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1.4 LINKING PAY TO PERFORMANCE


1.4.1 Most Human Resource professionals are familiar with the concept of strategy.

There is much more concentration and focus today on the strategic outcomes of human resource activity than ever before. The area of compensation is no exception. 1.4.2 Pay for performance systems are becoming more and more popular as senior

managers reach beyond the use of compensation systems to deliver pay. There is far more interest in more closely linking the reward mechanisms to the achievement of corporate objectives. Motivation for superior performance is the goal. 1,4.3 In experience, most organizations will profess to a "pay-for-performance"

philosophy as a keystone of their compensation system. Such a system requires solid grounding in a clear and documented link between performance and salary increases. Unfortunately, the link between individual performance and pay is frequently nonexistent "merit" pay is a hollow concept in this regard. 1.4.4 A merit system demands that managers be willing to make distinctions in merit

increases based on performance. However, several factors get in the way of this happening. First, the annual salary change is usually a small percentage. Giving the better performer 2% more than the cost of living has little motivation or recognition attached to it. Similarly giving the poor performers 2% less than the cost of living increase is not that much of a penalty. So many managers don't make that distinction - it is too much hassle. So everybody gets the same increase. 1.4.5 Second, most performance appraisal systems are after-the-fact appraisals. In

other words, at appraisal time, which is usually toward the end of the year, managers are required to evaluate the performance of their staff. It means sitting down and trying to reconstruct what each staff member did, capturing it in a non-threatening way, communicating the evaluation without a fuss and finally, making a merit increase recommendation. Sound like a familiar pattern? It is a process that repeats itself year after year. 16

1.4.6

The end result is usually a lot of avoidance behavior. Managers avoid the

appraisal process like the plague. Although employees profess to want to "know where they stand" they often take issue with the appraisal. Besides, they don't listen to the evaluation, they wait until the penny literally "drops". "What is my rating and how much do I get?" is a constant theme in merit systems where salary decisions are tied so closely with the appraisal process. 1.4.7 You might well ask is there any way out of this mess? The answer is

fortunately yes. Organizations that are the best and want to separate themselves from the rest, are turning away from the merit system and toward an annual incentive system, particularly for middle and upper management positions but increasingly for teams and individuals lower down in the organization as well. 1.4.8 They are adopting a system of annual incentive bonuses linked directly to the

achievement of corporate and individual objectives in three specific areas. The areas are corporate revenues and gains, cost containment and behavioral changes. The first two areas are quantitative and the third area, which is gaining in importance, is qualitative in nature, and has a great deal to do with building managerial and individual competence. 1.4.9 Why Is This Transition Occurring? :-Well, there are many challenges facing

businesses today and these challenges are driving them to find better ways of linking pay and performance to the achievement of corporate results..

1.5 CHANGING JOB DESIGN IN IT COMMUNITY


1.5.1 The California State University (CSU) system is being challenged to meet

increasing demands for educational and administrative services through the innovative use of technology and human resource systems. Even though funding levels for higher education have been cut in recent years, public/taxpayer expectations and the demands for quality education, access, service, and accountability have grown. Technology initiatives within the CSU have resulted in significant advances and improved technical capabilities and efficiency. 17

Human resource and organizational systems are also needed to capitalize on and thrive in this rapidly changing work environment. 1.5.2 In 1991, the CSU began a study to look at alternative work and job design

approaches to meet these challenges. The study focused on the information technology community and how work processes and activities could be better organized to remove artificial barriers and improve organizational effectiveness, a process often associated with the term "reengineering." Secondly, the study focused on developing a job design approach that could adapt to changing skill requirements and that would promote the continuous acquisition of skills for knowledge-based employees in information technology. The goal of improved organizational effectiveness and an orientation towards reengineering and skills guided the development of the proposed job design approach. 1.5.3 This article begins by identifying several trends that led to the study, then

describes the overall project within the context of an organizational effectiveness equation. A new job design approach that was proposed as a result of the study is presented, including a new classification structure and competency dimensions and measures for defining and evaluating positions. Finally, other supporting systems are described for an integrated human resources approach. The development phase of the project has been completed, and the CSU anticipates entering into negotiations with its employee representatives in the near future. 1.5.4 Three trends have had a direct impact on the development of a strategic job

design approach for the information technology community at the CSU: (a) diversification and convergence of technology, increased demand for educational access and (b) changes in instructional delivery methods; and changing work place demands and priorities. 1.5.5 The technology demands within higher education lead to a complex and

dynamic computing environment. Academic and administrative computing strategies tend to be at cross-purposes in terms of defining systems requirements. This has resulted in widely diverse systems and technology within and across the CSU's twenty campuses. Increasingly, however, campus systems are becoming more integrated, as data are shared across multiple platforms on a network "highway" that is linked to external information sources. Networking

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and desktop computing have removed traditional boundaries for information access, research, and decision-support purposes. Data, voice, and video technologies continue to be combined in more interactive and user-friendly formats. 1.5.6 In terms of educational trends, many institutions offer distance learning using

various transmission media and are incorporating instructional technology into curriculum development. Students expect guaranteed access to technology and to research databases, and this access has become an issue of social responsibility.[1] Library and computing functions are becoming increasingly interdependent in "an infrastructure of scholarly communication" within higher education.[2] Workplace trends, as presented in Sustaining Excellence in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategies for College and University Administration, well represent the outlook for the CSU. Two key issues are identified: (1) Economics. There is increasing pressure to constrain administrative costs within the "labor intensive cost structure" that exists in higher education. Reductions in staff are occurring at the same time as transaction volume and service expectations are growing. (2) Decentralization of responsibility. With fewer people and greater access to information, organizations are moving responsibility for decision-making downward to the point of service. Work organization is shifting away from job specialization and a task/procedure orientation, to more generalized job responsibilities focused on outcome and greater participation on cross-functional teams (3) Another central workplace trend is the "earning and learning" environment described by the U.S. Department of Labor in its Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report. To quote Thomas P. Foley, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry:"We've changed from the idea of "one skill, one job" to the reality of a range of skills that have to apply to a number of different kinds of professions. More to the point, workers must possess a skill that they continually upgrade just to keep pace in the professions they choose." (4) The influx of new technology and applications has created a demand for continual learning and adaptation. Due to the CSU's relatively stable workforce, maintaining skills to keep pace 19

with changing technology was identified as a critical goal. Knowledge requirements are expanding to encompass a greater breadth of technologies and subject expertise, as well as including process-oriented capabilities such as communication and negotiation skills. 1.5.7 The implications of these technological , educational, and workplace trends point directly to the need to reengineer organizational structures, work design, and processes. Based on these trends and overall organizational goals, two key objectives were established for a new job design approach for the CSU: flexibility and skill development. Fundamentally, each campus needs the flexibility to achieve its goals by distributing work assignments in a way that optimizes its available skill mix and promotes individual skill development and initiative.

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2.0
2.0.1

HR IT SCENARIO

The web is altering the HRD landscape beyond recognition. The key to

corporate success in the fast changing information era is thinking on your knees. 2.0.2 What is this thinking on your knees? Normally as the HR person you know

what the situation is and operate from there. A repositioning is required in your decision process with questions like why, how and when and not just what. At this point you operate on your knee i.e. with far more dynamism and with a lot more effectiveness than thinking on your feet. 2.0.3 The employees are like gypsies, on the move all the time. They camp at some

location, enhance their skills, responsibility levels and move on. This is particularly true of the professional from Software Industry. Opportunities are plenty and the next job opening is only a mouse click away. The question is not about what else you can do to retain an employee but it is about making him productive, while he is with you. The value addition will then happen for both the employee as well as the employer resulting in a win-win situation. This means that the new strategy calls for the recognition that no employee is expected to be permanently with you. Normal tenure in any organisation is likely to be between two to three years.

2.1
2.1.1 Information

INNOVATION IS THE KEY


technology and Internet have changed several equations.

Reaching out to the world market place is no more the challenge in achieving corporate victories. Out thinking the competition at electronic speed is the key to winning corporate battles. The corporate success is sum total of entrepreneurship practiced by your staff. 2.1.2 The key to employee longevity :-Todays most successful organisations

recognize that to fuel growth and sustain a competitive advantage, they must make recruiting,

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hiring and retaining top talent, as the organisations major thrust area. Competent people deliver the rest dont matter. Successful business organisations have no choice but to promote the performers and let non-performers go. 2.1.2 Organisations recognize that that their ability to gather, manage, analyse,

distribute information and transform themselves into a learning organisation will provide continuity and ensure for them their leadership role. Systematic organizational learning should be central corporate philosophy. Learning, must be obviously followed by changes, which may not necessarily be welcomed by veterans in the organisation. But change is the only Constant for guaranteed success. 2.1.3 understood. People have a great deal of informational knowledge to contribute to the organisation. People are responsible People desire opportunities to effect change, not just being expected to change. Organisations need to create awareness amongst their employees about their vision Points to note: The following points are important and must be properly

and then empower them to act on that vision. Establishing a sense of urgency well ahead of the problem surfacing. Form inter-functional core group. Encourage the group to work together as a team. Plan and create short-term win targets reward employees and recognise achievers. Consolidate improvements through a knowledge base driven system and

institutionalise proven new methodologies. 2.1.5 New Paradigms In HR Business plans must consider HR issues, focus and adapt. Corporate goals must factor in individual career growth and personal growth must be

tied to corporate growth and vice versa 23

2.1.6

Job responsibilities must facilitate personal development and learning should be

institutionalized with well-established knowledge bases. Capturing experience and making it available corporate wide should be a permanent feature of an organizations.

2.2
2.2.1

WAR FOR TALENT

The worlds most popular people resource base seems to be falling short of

numbers to meet its own demands. With added pressures of migration and attrition, can Indias IT industry achieve its software and services revenue target of $87 billion by 2008? 2.2.2 Country: India. Population: 1 billion-plus. If that sounds like too many people,

think again. Plug in English-speaking and low labor costs, and suddenly we can envision $50billion software exports target by the end of this decade. Not impossible, if we consider the scarcity of IT manpower across the world. Take a look at the US, already with a 10- millionstrong IT workforce, which needs to fill 1.6 million new jobs in the next one year. 2.2.3 Japan is no different and estimates close to a million new jobs. Germany is

looking for 20,000 IT specialists and Italy is seeking 15,000 additional manpower. Their choice destinationIndia. 2.2.4 Ironically, the country which has been such a popular people resource for the IT

industry the world over, is struggling with numbers to meet its own demand. To meet the overall software and services (domestic and export) target of $87 billion by 2008, according to the Nasscom-McKinsey report, the country will require a minimum of 2.2 million knowledge workers for its domestic needs. This implies that the present strength, which stands at 12,00,000 (December 2004), has to increase about twice, not just in quantity but in quality as well. 2.2.5 According to industry estimates, majority of the demand for manpower will be

in the area of IT-enabled services. While Nasscom puts the requirement at 11,00,000, MIT says IT-enabled services and e-business will need 12,70,000 workers by 2007. Experts insist

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that since this sector does not require very highly skilled manpower, we can easily meet this demand. "IT-enabled services is a wonderful opportunity for India and for such services you dont need highly skilled professionals. You just need smart graduates who can speak English, all you need to do is train them. For instance, in a call center, they need to be trained on accents and customer services,"

2.3

4 Rs of HR in IT
Table 2.1

Recruiting Signing bonus Finders Fee Alumni connections

Retaining Retention bonus Project pay Reduct FTE/same pay Telecommuting

Retraining Job rotation

Restructuring Broad job descriptions

Team assignments Flexible compensation programs Skill inventories Flexible jobs Competency development Positive problemsolving spirit Certification

Non-techs Externs Students Job sharing Interns Recognition programs

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2.3.1

OBSTACLES
Denial (This is and long term) Misalignment (Ramping up/Ramping down) Timing Treating everyone the same Navigating the bureaucracy Demographics

2.3.2

WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING


Pooling recruitment efforts Increasing freedom at the dept level (on-the-spot hiring, broadbanding, etc.) Recruiting/retaining students Identifying tech skills in all jobs/people (Skill Inventories/assessment) Sharing staff

2.3.3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RETENTION FACTORS
Quality of boss Direction of department Exposure to new technologies Confidence in the company Job security Challenging work

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Location Access to capital resources Caliber of co-workers Empowerment Department leadership Ability to influence department success

2.3.4

TAKING THE LEAD


See ourselves as problem-solvers Develop critical skills and competencies in ourselves, then others Build compensation around results not tasks; competencies, not seniority Involve everyone. Constantly align and balance resources to meet changing needs

2.3.5

SEARCH FOR TOMORROW


Attract, retain and reward the best performers (Encourage all to be the best) Increase flexibility Reduce fixed costs Reduce administrative effort (Simplify, simplify, simplify) Utilize the full range of individual talents

2.3.6

THE CRISIS
Shortage of IT workers

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2.3.6

COMPETITION
Compensation stock options, profit sharing, incentives Alternatives outsourcing

2.3.7

ATTRACTING
Recruiting sign on bonuses Relocation incentives Recruiters Reduced cycle time for hiring Campus/ job fairs / referrals/ internet

2.3.8

RETAINING
Work environment Communication forums Telecommuting Flexible staffing Exciting projects

2.3.9

PRACTICES
Focus on value Financial and human value

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Commitment to core strategy Linkage between culture an system Multi dimension communication Stakeholders partnerships Mutual support and collaboration ( teamwork) Risk and innovativeness Passion

2.3.10

DEVELOPING
Internship programs Training programs Career development programs

2.3.11

LONG TERM SOLUTIONS


Education, government, industry partnerships Curricula: technical skills and career skills ( teamwork and communication)

2.3.12

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS


Understand people What they want 29

Long term perspective Innovative Co ordinated approach Career development I

2.4
2.4.1

OUT SOURCING
In the last few years, more and more companies around the world are looking towards India for outsourcing their software requirements. The changing business environment is demanding new applications. In particular, the spread of client-server computing in decentralised organisations involves the development of applications specific to a user's business.

2.4.2

Outsourcing is becoming a strategy for forward thinking IS managers. It is no longer just a means for reducing costs, but a tool for adding value to business. It enables organisations to concentrate on their core business, carry out business re-engineering and provide information that is valid, timely and adequate to assist decision making at the management level and quality and cost control at the middle and lower levels.

2.4.3

As a result, outsourcing has gradually grown beyond the traditional idea of "having a third party running the data centre". It has come to mean, "any use of an outside contractor to replace or extend in-house resources".

2.4.4

Outsourcing is closely linked with corporate strategy, since it must support the organisation's major initiative in using IS. It should enhance and add value to the business. A rule of thumb to start and gain experience is, "if IS is low cost and of high value addition, keep it within the organisation, i.e. in-source. If IS is high cost and of low value addition, consider outsourcing".

2.4.5

In the past few years, whenever organisations around the world have outsourced to India, the Indian software companies have substantially helped to cut costs in software development projects or MIS environments, while maintaining 30

high quality. Moreover, all these cost and quality advantages are coupled with the use of state-of-the-art technologies. 2.4.6 In 2004-05 more than US$ 2500 million worth of software development work was outsourced to India (The total software exports from India during the year was US$ 4085 million). This was 56% higher than outsourcing orders in 200304. It is estimated that the quantum of outsourcing may jump to US$ 5 billion and reach as high as US$ 10 billion by 2010 A.D.

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3.0
3.0.1

OVERVIEW OF PROBLEMS

The IT revolution is sweeping the world, particularly the western world in for nearly a decade now, creating enormous employment opportunities in this area. India joined the bandwagon well in time and smoothly though it is yet to entrench itself strongly in terms of corporate identity and significant share of global revenues in IT.

3.0.2

Our main contribution seems to be in the less glamorous areas of value addition, maintenance, Y2K, quality assurance and customisation of existing packages. The sudden eruption of opportunities in this area left no time for development of human resources in a planned manner and also software solutions which tended to be more ad hoc than being assured of quality.

3.0.3

With the enormous opportunities for employment, entrepreneurship with low capital investment and low gestation period for turning profitable, higher returns per employee and large return on investment/EPS, sustained encouragement from government, a very large number of organisations - large, medium, small - have been established. Correspondingly a large number of training establishments and cyber cafes have come up, most of which are in the cities and towns to cash in on the enthusiasm of the urban middle class.

3.0.4

A number of higher level courses have also been started mainly through private organisations besides the existing government (State/Central), university and autonomous institutions. There are about 500 private engineering colleges besides IITs, RECs, universities, colleges offering courses such as MCA, M.Sc., M.E., and M.Tech. In view of the apparent demand that appears to be exaggerated, most of the programmes (barring a few by government institutions and IITs) are very expensive, almost beyond the reach of a middleclass student. Yet candidates and their parents strain themselves financially to 33

pursue the courses hoping to get an attractive job (financially) which remains a mirage by and large. The problems are further compounded by a lack of proper teaching faculty in most colleges and franchises. 3.0.5 Except in well-established institutions, job-placements are poor. Even those trained in reputed institutions find their jobs monotonous, leading to depression. Jobs offered by the software industry have demonstrated the above factors as they are able to carry out the projects with persons of any background and levels of attainment, but with a few months training either prior to employment or a short training during probation. 3.0.6 Despite these deficiencies, students prefer software jobs mainly with an eye on

the pay-package and urban locations. The employee- retention period even in good companies has been shrinking and is found to be three to six months. The companies also try to devise methods to make their employees almost captive with surety bonds, bank guarantees, employee's stock option (ESOP) and housing facilities, among others. The employees, for their part, resort to innovative methods to wriggle out of their contracts. There does not appear to be any respectable ethics even among companies as well as the employees in this type of free for all market. To go abroad and become rich has become the motive of most of the employees even if the job does not offer any intellectual satisfaction. The manufacturing and hard-core engineering sector has also shrunk in terms of job opportunities and attractiveness. 3.0.7 Even those software professionals, who are offered good financial packages, spend their earnings on expensive lifestyles, vehicles, and credit card syndrome and find themselves disenchanted on all fronts including the intellectual front. It should also be a cause for concern to project beyond the present software boom as to what happens to all these if the opportunities decline. The scenario appears to be quite fluid with a predominant western bias in all the activities concerning software profession with scores of Indian boys getting lured and sucked into the vortices created by the opportunities in this area

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3.1
3.1.1

MAIN PROBLEM AREAS

The significant problem areas which may be contributing to the present scenario and can be addressed can be identified as given in the succeeding paragraphs.

3.1.2

Recruitment process :-Without going into the deficiencies of the present


practices, the following suggestions are made to improve the process in terms of efficiency, availability of manpower and equity to all the aspirants irrespective of the fact where they got educated. The various steps of the proposed approach are as follows: i. Aptitude tests could be conducted by reputed institutes like IITs/ private organizations/HR agencies for prospective professionals preferably ``on-line'' like GRE, GMAT etc. or physically at regular intervals and scores are given. If it is no on-line, the periodicity can be a month or two and the validity can be for an year or so which can also be fixed based on general agreement. ii. Based on scores and preferences of the candidates (career counselling), companies can ask for a video clip for subsequent interview if required. Interviews can also be conducted simultaneously either physically or over the phone or by video conference and selections completed. iii. Once selected and the candidate joins the organizations, all member organizations should adopt a code of conduct such that the candidates stays at least for a period of one year. iv. Small companies can form some kind of a cooperative society wherein software professionals' services can be tapped and steer clear and manpower shortage (less than critical mass levels).

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v.

The selection can be conditional that he acquires certified skills in the required areas either through training in house or through approved training agencies and establishments. This will also avoid the unnecessary expenses for (which are high) the candidates, who are presently spending lot of money with a hope of employment. This will also ensure that there is a focus on proper training and optimal deployment of time, effort and finances.

vi.

The selection process can thus be continuous and commensurate with the requirements thus avoiding idle inventory.

vii.

There can be general norms of pay packages depending on the reputation of the companies (classifying them as A, B, C, D by any reputed management institute like IIM etc.) with the ratio of maximum pay within reasonable and realistic limits.

3.1.2

Post employment care:- The companies/organizations should take adequate


interest in the career development of the employee by suitable HRD approaches which should include the following: i. Opportunities for creative work in the first phase particularly for those who are bright, and have an aptitude and come with a good pedigree say from IITs. ii. Opportunities to lessen the monotony and improve interpersonal relationship and mixing and group activities. iii. iv. v. vi. Periodic rotation of the rolls and jobs if possible. Opportunities for retraining and upgrading the skills. Conducting effective career development programs regularly. Incentives like ESOP, lucrative assignments and challenging projects, opportunities of higher education.

36

vii.

Make the employee more versatile with wider perspective and flexible for easy deployment in areas needing strengthening.

viii. 3.1.3

Encouraging simplicity and excellence.

Advantages:- The suggested processes in 4 and 5 above can be expected to


have the following significant advantages: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Cost effective and efficient process. Proper deployment of skills optimally. Idle employment can be minimized. Retention can be improved. Particularly useful for small firms which can also operate in the cooperative society mode. vi. The candidate's skills are moulded to suit the needs of the job and need not waste time, money and efforts. vii. Equitable opportunities to all aspirants irrespective of location, pedigree and background. viii. ix. Reduces the mushrooms of training shops with inadequate faculty. This may also give the manufacturing and core engineering sector jobs reasonable chance to attract willing and bright candidates. x. The process is ideally suited for candidates to plan their careers with adequate preparation in core areas. xi. The process also enables a realistic assessments of needs and demands regularly and meeting them even at short notices.

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xii.

The aptitude tests can become richer and more representative over a few years and as the question bank becomes larger and random on-line questioning can be introduced which is more objective like GRE, GMAT

3.2
3.2.1

LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE

These tests can be conducted at the end of 10+2 level or B.Sc. level also and train the candidate with or without stipend in courses where he could get admission for his degree. This will help in decreasing the pressure on engineering education as otherwise the skills acquired by the candidate at a great cost in branches other than computer sciences are wasted and lost for good if employed by the software industry.

3.2.2

It may be a good idea to have a National Test for Software Talent similar to science talent test which can be sponsored by NASSCOM and such other interested groups

3.2.3

The idea of forming a cooperative society by small firms may prove to be beneficial as the facilities and manpower can be shared optimally. While otherwise they may face the problems of lack of adequate manpower (below the critical mass level) because of less attractive pay and perks they are able to offer.

3.2.4

Renowned organizations like IITs, IIMs and MNCs, and can play a catalytic roll in streamlining the processes for an efficient HRD in this vital area of software manpower which is a national resource.

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39

4.0
4.0.1

EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNWERSHIP PLAN


Employee Stock Ownership Plan(ESOP): is a defined contribution employee benefit plan that allows employees to become owners of stock in the company they work for.

4.0.2
1.

How does ESOP work?


The ESOP operates through a trust, setup by the company, that accepts tax deductible contributions from the company to purchase company stock

2.

The contributions made by the company are distributed to individual employee accounts within the trust.

3.

The amount of stock each individual receives may vary according to preestablished formulas based on salary, service, or position.

4.

The employees may cash out after vesting in the program or when they leave the company. The amount they may cash out may depend on the vesting requirements.

4.1
4.1.1

STOCK OPTIONS
Stock Options: The right to purchase stock at a given price at some time in the future. Stock Options come in two types: 1. Incentive stock options (ISOs) in which the employee is able to defer taxation until the shares bought with the option are sold. The company does not receive a tax deduction for this type of option. 2. Nonqualified stock options (NSOs) in which the employee must pay income tax on the 'spread' between the value of the stock and the amount paid for the option. The company may receive a tax deduction on the 'spread'. 40

4.1.2

How do Stock options work? An option is created that specifies that the owner of the option may 'exercise' the 'right' to purchase a companys stock at a certain price (the 'grant' price) by a certain (expiration) date in the future. Usually the price of the option (the 'grant' price) is set to the market price of the stock at the time the option was sold. If the underlying stock increases in value, the option becomes more valuable. If the underlying stock decreases below the 'grant' price or stays the same in value as the 'grant' price, then the option becomes worthless.

4.2
4.2.1

MERIT PAY
Merit Pay is an incentive plan implemented on an institutional wide basis to give all employees an equal opportunity for consideration, regardless of funding source. The merit increase program is implemented when funds are designated for that purpose by the institution's administration, dependent upon the availability of funds and other constraints. .

4.2.2

Advantages OF Merit Pay :Allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers. Allows a differentiation between individual and company performance. Allows the employer to satisfactorily reward an employee for accomplishing a task that might not be repeated (such as implementation of new systems).

4.3
4.3.1

GAIN SHARING
Gainsharing is a technique that compensates workers based on improvements in the company's productivity.

4.3.2

How does Gainsharing work? A Company shares productivity gains with the workforce. Workers voluntarily participate in management to accept

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responsibility for major reforms. This type of pay is based on factors directly under a workers control (i.e., productivity or costs). Gains are measured and distributions are made frequently through a predetermined formula. Because this pay is only implemented when gains are achieved, gainsharing plans do not adversely affect company costs. 4.3.2 4.3.3 What are the 'Gains' that are measured? Increases in production with equal or less effort. Equal levels of production with less effort. What are examples of Gainsharing formulas? Calculate gain in hours: The actual hours worked minus the expected hours (for the given level of output) equals the gain in hours.

4.4
4.4.1

PROFIT SHARING
Profit Sharing is an incentive based compensation program to award employees a percentage of the company's profits.

4.4.2

How does Profit sharing work? The company contributes a portion of its pre-tax profits to a pool that will be distributed among eligible employees. The amount distributed to each employee may be weighted by the employee's base salary so that employees with higher base salaries receive a slightly higher amount of the shared pool of profits. Generally this is done on an annual basis

4.4.3

How to Choose an Employee Stock Plan for Your Company:Many companies we encounter have a pretty good idea of what kind of employee ownership plan they want to use, usually based on specific needs and goals. However, sometimes they might be better served by another kind of stock plan. And yet others say they'd like to have an employee ownership plan,

42

but they're not sure what it might be. This article will start you down the path to choosing and implementing the plan or plans best suited to your company.

4.5

ASSESSMENT OF PLANS FOR BROAD-BASED EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP


4.5.1 Let us begin by quickly reviewing the main possibilities for broad-based employee ownership. A "broad-based" plan is one in which most or all employees can participate. 4.5.2 An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is a type of tax-qualified employee benefit plan in which most or all of the assets are invested in stock of the employer. Like profit sharing and 401(k) plans, which are governed by many of the same laws, an ESOP generally must include at least all full-time employees meeting certain age and service requirements. Employees do not actually buy shares in an ESOP. Instead, the company contributes its own shares to the plan, contributes cash to buy its own stock (often from an existing owner), or, most commonly, has the plan borrow money to buy stock, with the company repaying the loan. All of these uses have significant tax benefits for the company, the employees, and the sellers. Employees gradually vest in their accounts and receive their benefits when they leave the company (although there may be distributions prior to that). Over 8 million employees in over 11,000 companies, mostly closely held, participate in ESOPs. 4.5.3 A stock option plan grants employees the right to buy company stock at a specified price during a specified period once the option has vested. So if an employee gets an option on 100 shares at $10 and the stock price goes up to $20, the employee can "exercise" the option and buy those 100 shares at $10 each, sell them on the market for $20 each, and pocket the difference. But if the stock price never rises above the option price, the employee will simply not exercise the option. Stock options can be given to as few or as few employees

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as you wish. Perhaps 7 to 10 million or more employees in thousands of companies, both public and private, presently hold stock options. 4.5.4 An employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) is a little like a stock option plan. It gives employees the chance to buy stock, usually through payroll deductions over a 3- to 27-month "offering period." The price is usually discounted up to 15% from the market price. Frequently, employees can choose to buy stock at a discount from the lower of the price either at the beginning or the end of the ESPP offering period, which can increase the discount still further. As with a stock option, after acquiring the stock the employee can sell it for a quick profit or hold onto it for awhile. Unlike stock options, the discounted price built into most ESPPs means that employees can profit even if the stock price has gone down since the grant date. Companies usually set up ESPPs as tax-qualified "Section 423" plans, which means that almost all full-time employees with 2 years or more of service must be allowed to participate (although in practice, many choose not to). Many millions of employees, almost always in public companies, are in ESPPs. 4.5.5 Section 401(k) plan is a retirement plan that, unlike an ESOP, is designed to provide the employee with a diversified portfolio of investments. Like an ESOP, however, a 401(k) plan is a tax-qualified plan that generally must include all full-time employees meeting age and service requirements. The employees can choose among several or more choices for investments, and the company may make a matching contribution. Perhaps several million employees in a few thousand companies participate in plans with a heavy company stock component; company stock may be an investment choice for the employees and/or the means by which the company makes matching contributions. 401(k) plans may be combined with ESOPs (these are called "KSOPs"), where the company match is an ESOP contribution.

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4.6

EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP : COMPANIES PAY LESS FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION COSTS

4.6.1

A study has found that employee ownership companies have lower workers' compensation insurance rates than comparable non-employee ownership firms. Leslie Hakala authored the study. She began the project as an NCEO research intern and completed it for a thesis requirement at Harvard University. The study was unable to ascribe a specific causal relationship between employee ownership and lower workers' compensation costs, but it did find that these costs declined as employee ownership plans matured.

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4..6.2

Background:- In 1989, the last year for which we have data, U.S. employers spent over $48 billion on workers' compensation costs. These costs grew at 16.9% per year in the mid-1980s. Cost increases were partly attributable to increased benefits mandated by state workers' compensation insurance reforms. At the same time, as employer provided health care coverage has declined, more employees sought to cover health problems under workers' compensation. Many people believe there has been increased fraud as well.

4.6.3

Workers' compensation programs vary from state to state, but in most programs, insurers attempt to provide employers with an incentive to limit safety problems by developing an experience rating. The ratings compare an individual firm's experience with other firms of its type. If the rating is better than average, insurance premiums will be lower; if it is worse, they will go up.

4.6.4

In this study, we looked only at California firms. In California, employers are assigned a "manual rate," an insurance rate expressed as a percentage of every $100 of payroll. Rates are assigned to all companies based on their industry classification. These rates are then adjusted for companies with a premium above a certain level according to their actual experience. This means smaller and less risky firms are not assigned an experience modification rating. The experience modification rate is set for each year based on three years of past experience, excluding the most recent year (because data are generally not yet available). The experience modification rate is determined by looking at actual experience modified by a size weighting factor. For larger firms, the adjustment may be very small; for smaller firms, actual experience is given a lower weight because a single incident can skew results dramatically. This weighted experience rating now becomes the "experience modification" figure.

4.6.4

Theoretically, the average experience modification factor for any business classification should be 100%. A company with a good record would have a rating under 100%; a bad record would rate higher. These numbers are

46

then multiplied by the manual rate to set the premium. In practice, the average rating is somewhat under 100.

4.7
4.7.1

IT COMPANIES WRITE NEW ESOP STORY


Will I ever get to exercise my stock options? It's the one question haunting IT industry professionals sitting on piles of employee stock options. All those who happily grabbed at ESOP's issued by their companies last year, have now been left holding pieces of paper that are, in some cases, worth a fraction of the price at which employees brought into them. Except for a few who have benefitted from older schemes like Infosys 1994 scheme, the great ESOPs dream is turning out to be a nightmare. Last year, if you were given ESOPs in an IT company, your friends, neighbours and everyone else went up like a blimp, companies issued ESOPs in cartloads. And employees brought into them, even at the higher prices that the grants came from. 4.7.2 According to a study carried out by Nasscom , there were more than 10,000 IT staff last year holding around 18 million ESOPs valued at roughly Rs 12,000 crore($3 billion) at February '00 prices. But all this was merely on paper. 4.7.3 A year later, the situation's something like this. Employees who were given ESOPs at the prices prevailing during the IT boom, had to sit back and watch their share prices hit the roof while they waited out the lock-in period. Now, they can exercise their options that is sell them, and pocket the difference between the exercise price at the time of the grant, and the current market price. It's resulted in a situation where employees have been left holding NIIT options which they would have to exercise at a price of Rs 1,593 or Silverline options, which they would have to exercise at a price of $25. At VisualSoft, for instance, all employees who were granted options have returned them to the company. Consequently, the company has terminated the ESOP scheme.

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4.7.4

Theoretically, an employee who exercised his option now, would have to buy at the exercise price, sell at the current market price, and pay out the difference.

4.8
4.8.1

ESOPs HARDLY BENEFICIAL At the height of the IT euphoria in the markets, those employees saw their company's scrips scaling new heights, they could not benefit as the ESOP's had 1-2 year lock-in periods, and could not be sold. The lock-in period, also known as the vesting period in industry jargon, in the period during which the employee cannot convert his or her option into shares. To make matters worse, some companies has specified that the option had to be exercised, that is converted into shares, within a specified time frame after the lockin period expired. For instance, this was one year in the case of Silverline, and 10 in the case of Aptech.

Table 4.1 ESOP IN INDIAN CONTEXT


No of Shares (Lakh) NIIT 18.1 Aug '04 48 (Rs) 1,593 (Yrs) 1 Recent ESOPs Plan Exercise Plans Vesting Period (Rs) 162 Current Price

Silverline Patni HCL Infosys SSI Wipro Infosys VisualSoft Polaris

10.0 5.5 30.2 1.5 3.5 19.6 0.2 8.5

Nov '04 Dec '04 Aug '04 Sep '04 Oct '04 Oct '04 Aug '04 Aug '04

425 245* 289 555 2,397 6,249 NA 480

1.5-3.5 1 NA 3 1-2 5 1 5

41 54 72 164 1,485 3,532 116 120

4.9
4.9.1

EMPLOYEE STOCK PURCHASE PLANS (ESPPS)


Employee stock purchase plans (ESPPs) include both tax-qualified "423 plans," which about 2,400 companies offer, and nonqualified plans, which about 1,500 companies offer. Our estimates are based on data from ShareData's Equity Compensation Trends in America (1991), Hewitt Associates' On Employee Stock Ownership (1996), Hewitt Associates' Survey Findings: Employee Stock Purchase Plans (1998), and the National Association for Stock Plan Professionals' Stock Plan Design and Administration Survey (1998), especially the more recent studies. To estimate the number of employees covered under the plans, we took the total number of companies offering plans, multiplied those numbers by the average number of employees in the companies (13,207 for 423 plans and 17,790 for nonqualified plans), and multiplied that number by the average percentage of participation in the plans (34% for 423 plans and 17% for nonqualified ESPPs). Almost all companies with ESPPs are public. 4.9.2 Multiple Plans: Many companies offer multiple e plans, and many employees participate in more than one plan. For example, many ESPP participants are also in 401(k), stock option, or other equity compensation plans. Hence, the total number of participants in all these plans is definitely not the total of the numbers in the "Number of participants" column.

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4.10
4.10.1.

ESOPS AND CORPORATE GROWTH


A 2000 study by Joseph Blasi and Douglas Kruse at Rutgers Univerity found that ESOP companies grow 2.3% to 2.4% faster than would have been expected without an ESOP for sales, employment, and sales per employee. The study looked at all ESOP plans set up between 1988 and 1994 for which data was available. A 1987 NCEO study of 45 ESOP and 225 non-ESOP companies found that companies that combine employee ownership with a participative management style grow 8% to 11% per year faster than they would otherwise have been expected to grow based on how they had performed before these plans.

4.10.2

Subsequent studies by the General Accounting Office and by academics in Washington State and New York found the same relationship. A 1999 study for Hewitt Associates by Hamid Mehran of Northwestern University found that the returns on assets for 382 publicly traded ESOP companies was 2.7% per year greater than what a model of their predicted performance would have been.

4.10.3

Studies on participative management alone find a small positive impact on performance, but not nearly enough to explain the synergy between ownership and participation these other studies have found.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary Objective:

51

To know the various HR implications in IT INDUSTRY.

Secondary Objective:
To enlist emerging HR trends in Indian IT Industry. To review literature and research done in this area. To find out lacking areas regarding the HRD in IT sector. To measure the perceptions of IT sector employees in respect of application of HRD in their organisation. To suggest the measures to fill the gaps and improve motivation level of employees and HR management in IT industry.

NEED FOR THE TOPIC

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Information Technology has emerged as a key dominant sector of the Indian economy. Various agencies have studied the issue of developing Human Resources for the IT sector. It is just about 60 years that Information Technology has come to stay as a profession.We need to develop quality human resources in greater numbers, in order to sustain the growth of the IT industry. The need becomes more acute in the context of globalization and competition from other emerging economies. The problem is quite complex since it involves multiple stakeholders with varying needs and constraints.

Emerging HR trends of Indian It industry are quite different from the old economy industry. India is considered one of Super Power in Information Technology and allied fields. Majority of world leaders in IT sector are outsourcing their requirements from Indian IT Industry and recruiting Indian IT professionals.HR managers in Indian IT Industry today keep the sensitive nature of IT professionals and state of greater opportunities outside in mind for devising HR policies for their organisations

Hence we have conducted a detailed study on how IT industry has become aware of the New HR trends and applying those in their respective companies which accelerates India Inc.s journey toward IT supremacy. In order to measure the employees perceptions of emerging HR trends in different IT organisation, the survey was undertaken. The survey was based on structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was mainly based on objective type close-ended question, but few open ended questions were also included.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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1.7.1

The study was exploratory in nature. All published and unpublished available

on the subject matter was consulted. Interview and discussions were held with the various executive/ Managers/ staff employed in IT sector. The HRD functions/ activities being undertaken in different IT organisations were also studied. Primary and secondary data available with these organisations was also used for this project study. 1.7.2 In order to measure the employees perceptions of emerging HR trends in

different IT organisation, the survey was undertaken. The survey was based on structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was mainly based on objective type close-ended question, but few open ended questions were also included. 1.7.3 Firstly, the pilot survey on ten randomly selected respondents was undertaken.

Then the questionnaire was modified accordingly, if desired. 1.7.4 The final questionnaire was administered in person to the extent possible and

through mail if needed. The 100 respondents were selected among the executives and staff working in various IT organizations. The convenient random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents. 1.7.5 Finally, the results of the survey has been presented in Tabular form, analyzed

and interpreted to meet the required needs of this project study and presented in Report form.

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SURVEY ANALYSIS

5.0
5.0.1

SURVEY BACKGROUND
HR management gets best out of its employees to meet the organisation's goals. And employees are the best judge of the HR policies of any organisations. IT sector is fastly growing industry in India and HR requirements of Indian IT Industry are quit different from traditional industrial sectors.., A major characteristic of modern socio-economic development has been the increasingly dominant role of service sector .and IT belongs to service sector. So, its HR needs must also be properly identified..

5.0.2

Indian IT sector is contributing a large in employment and foreign exchange. A developing country like India can ill afford continued conflict ridden; rigid and litigation oriented Industrial Relations. What employees perceive about the emerging HR trends of the IT organisations has been measured.

5.0.3

To measure the success and failures of emerging HR trends of Indian IT Industry a structured questionnaire was designed for this purpose. The questionnaire included both open ended and close ended questions. The questionnaire used is placed at Appendix "I". The procedure adopted for data collection was interview with the employees randomly selected from IT organisations to the extent possible and also through mail. . The responses given by the respondents were recorded on the questionnaire. The views expressed by the respondents has been analysed in the succeeding paragraphs. About 100 respondents were selected by convenient random sampling technique.

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5.1
5.1.1

RESPONDENTS PROFILE
The main features of the employees randomly selected sex-wise, education-wise and type of functions wise has been provided here in the succeeding paras. The 54 per cent of the respondents were Male and 46 per cent of the respondents were Female

5.1.2

IT industry requires higher level of education standards, both nontechnical and technical. The education qualification wise distribution of the employees who agreed for responding to our questionnaire has been given below in Table 5.1. Table 5.1 RESPONDENTS PROFILE - EDUCATION-WISE (%age) Respondents' Qualification Non-Tech Graduate and Below Non-Tech Post Graduate B.Tech/ BCA etc. M.Tech/MCA Etc. TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 11% 23% 34% 32% 100%

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5.1.3

In the similar fashion the job wise profile of the respondents has also been compiled and the same is tabulated below in the Figure 5.2. As per Figure the IT industry is dominated by the software professionals And next computer hardware and marketing services of IT are sharing the other half. Only 13 percent are working in HR and Personnel Management area. Hence, the HR needs of IT industry must look after the software professionals at priority.

5.2

WHETHER HR NEEDS OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY ARE DIFFERENT

5.2.1

Through the Question No.2 of the questionnaire the respondents were asked to comment whether the HR needs of Indian IT industry are different from traditional HR Management systems. It was a direct question in Yes/NO/No comments format and IT professionals selected for survey were asked to tick one of the choices as mentioned. The responses have been tabulated in Table 5.3. The majority of respondents (69%) view that HR needs of IT industry are different from old economy sector and HR managers in IT industry has to keep this into mind. Being highly educated employees are very sensitive in pride and behaviour.

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TABLE-5.3 Emerging hr trends of indian it industry are different


(%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No Can not say TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 69% 23% 08% 100%

5.3 5.3.1

EFFECT OF NEW COMPENSATION METHODS The IT industry has been devising newer compensation methods like Profit Sharing/ Stock Options etc. to increase employee welfare and retentively. Whether these new compensation techniques are positively effecting or not was the key point in our next question. As per Figure-5.4, 46% of the employees opined that newer compensation methods has a positive effect in IT industry while 19% said that it has a negative effect on employee welfare. 26% view that it has no major effect and 9 percent has replied in CAN NOT SAY. . In the initial stages when IT Industry was sunrise it was mostly welcomed by the employees and when IT industry share prices has gone down. It has a negative effect..

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5.4

WHETHER IT INDUSTRY HAS POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITS EMPLOYEES

5.4.1

In has been found that in many organisations the management ignores the employees welfare for their profit sake and does not give proper attention towards employees career and prospects. What is the state of affairs in IT Industry in India was quizzed from our valued learned respondents. The respondents views are given below Table 5.5. The results are mixed one. While 48% of the respondents' replied in negative and 43% gave a positive reply. So, there is a profit motive operating more than employees proper welfare management in Indian IT Industry.

TABLE - 5.4 WHETHER IT INDUSTRY HAS A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITS EMPLOYEES
(%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No No comments TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 43% 48% 09% 100%

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5.5 5.5.1

STATE OF GRIEVANCES HANDLING IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY The respondents responses to the status of grievances handling mechanism was through an indirect approach. In the Question No. 5 of the questionnaire the respondents were to comment upon the positive hypothesis that grievance handling is done properly in the IT organisation. The five choices provided were strongly agree, agree, no comments, disagree and strongly disagree. The data collected is given below in Table-5.6.

TABLE - 5.6 GRIEVANCE HANDLING IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY IS PROPER


(%age) Respondents' Observation Strongly Agree Agree No Comments Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL 5.5.2 Percentage Of Respondents 12% 39% 14% 26% 09% 100%

Only 12 respondents strongly agree to the statement and similarly a small number of 9 respondents strongly disagreed with this. Only 14 percent have nothing to comment. 39 percent agree that The grievance handling IN Indian IT industry is done properly and remaining 26 percent disagree with it.

5.6

TOP MANAGEMENT AWARENESS

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5.6.1

Whether top management awareness about working conditions of the employees and state of working conditions in the organisation was measured through next question. Table-5.7 shows the response. 65% of the respondents view that the top management's are not aware or little aware about the employees working conditions in the IT organisations Only 6 percent vouched that top management is very well aware about the nature of working conditions and 18 percent say "Much Aware".

Table 5.7 TOP MANAGEMENT AWARENESS


(%age) Respondents' Observation Not at all aware Very little aware Some what aware Much aware Very much aware TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 20% 45% 11% 18% 06% 100%

5.7 5.7.1

EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP IN IT INDUSTRY Cordial employee employer relationship is very essential in the upcoming highly competitive economy. The state of employee employer relationship in Indian IT Industry was measured through the next question. The state of employee-employer relationship is not very encouraging.

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Table 5.8 STATE OF EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP IN IT INDUSTRY


(%age) Respondents Grading Excellent Very Good Satisfactory Poor TOTAL 5.7.2 Percentage Of Respondents 14% 44% 28% 14% 100%

58 percent of the respondents has graded it very good and above. While 42 percent consider it satisfactory and below. The employment of modern technology requires more positive and effective relationship between management and the employees. Indian IT Industry has very effective employee employer relationship.

5.8 5.8.1

EMPLOYEES RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY The most of the employees of IT sector are highly educated and sensitive in nature. Moreover, the opportunities outside are very attractive, Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees was the next opinion query from the randomly selected IT industry employees. Their opinions in this regard are presented below in "YES/NO/NO COMMENTS" format in the Figure 5.9.

5.8.2

61% of the employees view that Indian IT companies are unable to retain its employees due to most attractive avenues outside. Only 23% viewed that they are able to retain the employees.

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5.9

HOW TO INCREASE EMPLOYEES RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY

5.9.1

As has been observed in general and also concluded in previous paras that the IT sector employees in India are very quickly jumping the employment. So, what the employers has to do for retaining its professionals was asked from the respondents. Few suggestions were listed and one column was open ended to express their any other suggestion. The Table 5.10 list outs all the suggestions. I

TABLE- 5.10 SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASE RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY


Respondents' Suggestions Increase wages to international levels Increase foreign postings Increase profit sharing More promotions Others TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 22% 36% 10% 11% 21% 100%

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5.9.2

A 22% of the respondents has suggested to increase the wages to international level to increase employees retentively in Indian IT industry. 36% want more foreign postings, 10% suggest increase profit sharing and 11% suggested more promotions. 21% of the other suggestions included lateral induction from lower the institutes and better HR management.

5.10

APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING INDIAN LABOUR LAWS IT INDUSTRY

IN INDIAN

5.10.1

"Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained. The separate Labour to whether as a Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:. This hypothesis was presented to the respondents. They were to respond upto which extent they agree or disagree. The employees responses have been tabulated below in the Table 5.11. The comfortable majority of respondents (89%) strongly agree or agree with the hypothesis that Indian IT sector requires separate labour management system/ regulations. While only minority of 13% has given divergent views. Low

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TABLE-5.11 INDIAN IT INDUSTRY REQUIRE SEPARATE LABOUR LAWS/ RULES


(%age) Respondents' Observation Strongly Agree Agree No Comments Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 57 % 32 % 02% 07% 02% 100%

5.11

EFFECTIVENESS OF OLD AGITATIONAL METHODS IN IT INDUSTRY

5.11.1

Whether IT industry can afford old traditional trade union methods of agitations

like Strike or Gherao etc. was also asked from the employees. The question was direct in nature of Yes or No. As has been listed in Figure 5.12 below, 67% of the respondents has given their reply in No and 28% answered in affirmative. 5% has ticked No Comments choice. So, it is concluded that old agitational techniques of trade unions are not desired in IT industry.

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5.12

EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE COMPETION IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY

5.12.1

Whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector The respondents opinion is tabulated below in Table 5.13. The table above clearly indicates that excessive competition is observed as harmful to the employees prospects. . 53 percent of the respondents has replied in Yes to this question. While 35% has a negative viewpoint.

TABLE - 5.13 EXCESSIVE COMPETITION IS HARMING EMPLOYEES LONG TERM WELFARE


(%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No No Comments TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 53% 35% 12% 100%

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5.13
5.13.1

ROLE OF TRADE UNION IN IT INDUSTRY


The respondents were asked to comment upon whether Indian IT Industry needs a trade union or management's are looking after the employees interest in the best possible manner. The Table 5.14 shows the responses in this regard.

Table 5.14 ROLE OF TRADE UNION IN IT INDUSTRY


(%age) Respondents Grading No Trade Union Single Trade Union Multi Trade Union Only welfare association Total Percentage Of Respondents 21% 13% 09% 57% 100%

5.13.2

The largest 57 percent of the respondents view that there should be only welfare association in Indian IT industry. 21% need no trade union and 13% like single trade union only.. 9 percent of the respondents opted for multi trade union.

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5.14

OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF EMERGING HR TRENDS IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY

5.14.1

In the end respondents were asked to give their overall assessment/ grading of emerging HR trends in Indian IT Industry. The overall assessment on five point scales of excellent, very good, good, satisfactory and poor is tabulated below in the Table 5.15. 65% of the respondents were in positive grading of excellent, very good and good. While 35% gave a assessment of satisfactory and poor

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CHAPTER - 6 FINDING AND CONCLUSION


6.0 OVERVIEW

6.0.1 The era of skill-based workers has arrived but if India wants to truly move to the global arena, it has to spruce up its workforce. Small may be beautiful, but not in the IT industry. In the knowledge era and a skill-based economy, it has become imperative that human resources become one of the most essential ingredients of success. The growth of IT companies worldwide depends on its people and the intellectual capital it possesses. 6.0.2 Knowledge workers has become a buzzword in todays IT scenario. And if we look at the top software exporters, they have been growing phenomenally in workforce strength. To make it big in the global software market, India needs to increase its mass of knowledge workers. The establishment of Indian Institutes of Information Technology is definitely a step ahead in the right direction, but what the industry needs is experts in niche areas, in other words, persons with domain expertise. In the era of cutting-edge technologies, it is this skilled workforce that will make all the difference. 6.0.3 The total human resource strength of the IT industry as a whole stands at 425,609. A company-wise break-up of this figure reveals that nearly 525 companies constituting 35% of the IT industry employ an average of 58 persons each, 750 companies constituting 50% of the industry employ an average of 275 persons each, and 150 companies constituting 10% of the industry employ an average of 726 persons each. At least 40 companies have more than 1,000 employees, while some very big companies like TCS, Wipro, HCL and Infosys have staffs above 5,000 each. 6.0.4 Despite having abundant English-speaking skilled workforce, an acute shortage of skilled workforce will affect the countrys software exports in the long run, if remedial actions are not taken immediately.

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6.0.5 Geometrical growth of Information Technology in the world as well as India, has created lot of revenues for government and number of avenues for employees. The introduction of computers has changed the way of life every where, including work places and our homes. The life has become quite fast and speed of provisioning of different services has also increased. But all this activities are being managed by number of well qualified professionals. They may be from computer hardware developers, software engineers or marketing managers. As the things are running fast, so they have to be managed fast. 6.0.6 These fastness of services and higher level of education/training standards are not easy to manage by the organisations concerned. As we already know that Human Resource Management of the organisation deals with the individuals putting their hardwork to meet the organisations goals. Managing people is the toughest element of any organisation than land, machinery or finances. Every human beings has its own degree of preferences, likings and attitude. So, HR managers has to take care of all these things in mind while dealing with the number of people working in the organisation. 6.0.7 Different type of employees/workers recruited for different level of working has to be managed in different styles. The hundreds years of organisational management experience has been converted into a standard personnel management and industry and service organisations are following these HR techniques for their organisational management. Due to availability of written down procedures and rules by the learned managers, it was felt that HR managing was not so typical. 6.0.8 But, emerging HR trends of Information Technology industry can not be managed properly by the old traditional HR techniques . As it is commonly known that man learns by experience. 50 years of introduction of computers has provided us the areas to be additionally addressed by the HR managers in IT sector. Indian IT industry is not an exception. Moreover, due to existence of old conservative .and protective labour laws it is not possible to meet the ever-growing international competition in the IT services. 6.0.9 Hence, the IT industry has been devising newer Personnel Management/ HR techniques which specifically meet the needs of IT industry. The main reason for this is high standards of

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education and professional training required for this industry. Secondly, there is excessive job demands for developed countries in this sector and high wage standards. So, HR managers mainly in developing countries like India find it very difficult to retain and recruit their manpower. HR managers worldwide has devised handsome compensation methods like Profit Sharing, Employee Stock Option Schemes ESOP etc. Though over the period few schemes has flopped like ESOP due to heavy fall in company share prices.

6.1 Finding
6.1.1 As given out in Chapter 1, the employees opinion survey regarding status of HR management in Indian IT Industry and success of emerging HR trends was conducted through the use of a structured questionnaire. The survey was conducted by randomly selecting 100 persons working in Indian IT Industry. The respondents observations in this respect are described in brief in the following paragraphs 6.1.2 The 54% of the were Male and 46 per cent of the respondents were Female. It was observed that IT industry is dominated by the software professionals (46%), computer hardware and marketing services of IT are sharing the other half. 6.1.3 The respondents were asked to comment whether the HR needs of Indian IT industry are different from traditional HR Management systems.. The majority of respondents (69%) view that HR needs of IT industry are different from old economy sector and HR managers in IT industry has to keep this into mind. 6.1.4 The IT industry has been devising newer compensation methods like Profit Sharing/ Stock Options etc. to increase employee welfare and receptivity. 46% of the employees opined that newer compensation methods has a positive effect in IT industry while 26% said that it has a negative effect on employee welfare. 6.1.5 As per 48% of the respondents IT organisation has more concern for profit motive than employees welfare. While 43% were not agree to this proposition

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6.1.6 51 percent of the respondents strongly agree/agree to the statement that grievance are handled properly in the Indian IT industry. While 33% think otherwise. 6.1.7 Whether top management awareness about working conditions of the employees and state of working conditions in the IT organisations, 65% of the respondents view that the top management's are not aware or little aware about the employees working conditions in the IT organisations . Only 4 percent vouched that top management is very well aware about the nature of working conditions and 16 percent say "Much Aware". 6.1.8 Cordial employee employer relationship is very essential in the upcoming highly competitive economy. The state of employee employer relationship in Indian IT Industry was measured through the next question. The state of employee-employer relationship is very encouraging. 58 percent of the respondents has graded it very good and above. While 42 percent consider it satisfactory and below. 6.1.9 Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees was the a query from the randomly from IT industry employees. 61% of the employees view that Indian IT companies are unable to retain its employees due to most attractive avenues outside . 22% of the respondents has suggested to increase the wages to international level to increase employees retentivity in Indian IT industry. 36% want more foreign postings, 10% suggest increase profit sharing and 11% suggested more promotions. 21% of the other suggestions included lateral induction directly institutions and better HR management. 6.1.10 Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained. The separate Labour Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:. This hypothesis was presented to the respondents. The majority of respondents (89%) strongly agree or agree with the hypothesis that Indian IT sector requires separate labour management system/ regulations. While only minority of 11% has given divergent views. Further, 67% of the respondents has opined that old agitational techniques of trade unions are not desired in IT industry.

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6.1.11 Whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector . 53 percent of the respondents has replied in Yes to this question. While 35 percent has a negative viewpoint.. 6.1.9 The largest 57 percent of the respondents view that there should be only welfare association in Indian IT industry. 21% need no trade union and 13% like single trade union only.. 9 percent of the respondents opted for multi trade union. 6.1.10 In the end respondents were asked to give their overall assessment/ grading of emerging trends of Indian IT industry. The overall assessment on five point scales of excellent, very good, good, satisfactory and poor. 65% of the respondents were in positive grading of excellent, very good and good. While 35% gave a assessment of satisfactory and poor

6.2 CONCLUSION
6.2.1 Hence, it can be concluded that Emerging HR trends of Indian It industry are quite different from the old economy industry. India is considered one of Super Power in Information Technology and allied fields. Majority of world leaders in IT sector are outsourcing their requirements from Indian IT Industry and recruiting Indian IT professionals. Hence, the Indian Government must allow the Industry to meet international competition and desired environment in respect of Labour Laws and financial rules must be liberalized for this Indian IT Industry. Moreover, HR managers in Indian IT Industry must keep the sensitive nature of IT professionals and state of greater opportunities outside in mind for devising HR policies for their organisations China is also entering this area vigorously and Government of India must help Indian It industry to meet this challenge.

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LIMITATIONS

Some of the respondents refused to fill the questionnaires. The responses may vary as some respondents did not want to come up with real answers. The resopondents were busy in their work so they might not have given actual responses.. Limitation of time. Small sample size. And like any other research the limitation of personal bias of respondents limits the scope of the study.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Burack, E.R. & Mc. Nicholos, T.J. Human Research Planning: Technology, Policy and & Change, The Comparative Administration Research Institute of the Centre for Business and Economic Research, College of Business Administration, Kent State University, 1973. 2. Coch, Lester and John R.P. French, "Overcoming Resistance to Change," Human relations, Vol. I, 1948, pp. 512-532.3. Douglas, Paul.H. & Aaron, Director. The Problem of Unemployment, Macmillan, N.Y. 1931. 3. Edwards, John et.al., "Manpower Planning", John Wiley, New York..,1983 4. Gelden, P Stevan," Report Writing for Business and Industry", Business Communication Service. 5. Kothari, CR." research Methodology Methods and tech- niques", Wiley Eastern Limited. 6. Lawler III, Edward E., "Control Systems in Organizations," In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, (Rand-Menally, 1976). 7. Mustafi, CK 1981. "Statistical Methods in Managerial Decisions, Macmillon New Delhi. 8. Pareek, U and T.V.Rao, 1981, "Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems", Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi. 9. Ramaswamy, E.A. & Uma Ramaswam. "Industry and Labour", Oxford Press: New Delhi, 1981. 10. Rao, T.V. and Abraham, E.A.," A Survey of HRD Practices in Indian Industry, in Rao, T.V. and Pereira, D.F., Recent Experiences in HRD, New Delhi, Oxford & IBH, 1985. 11. Robertson, J. et.al. "Structure and Employment Prospects of the Service Industries", Department of Employment, Australia, 1982.

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12. Shadecor George W, " Statistical Methods" The IOWA State University Press, AMES, IOWA, USA (6th edition) 13. Silvera, D.M., "Human Resource Development", 1988, The Indian Experience.Higher Education and IT: 14. Ehrmann, Stephen C. "Reaching Students, Reaching Resources: Using Technologies to Open the College." _Academic Computing_, April 1990, pp. 10-34. 15. Penrod,James I., and Michael G. Dolence"Concepts for engineering Higher Education." _CAUSE/EFFECT_, Summer 1991, 16. 5 Mark J. Wallace, Jr., "Rewards and Renewal: Competitive Advantage through Workforce Effectiveness," Paper presented at American Compensation Association National Conference, Anaheim, California, 1993. 17. Helen Murlis and David Fitt, "Job Evaluation in a Changing World," _Personnel Management, May 1991, pp. 39-43.

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LIST OF TABLES

2.1 4.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

4 R's OF HR IN IT ESOP IN INDIAN CONTEXT RESPONDENTS PROFILE - EDUCATION-WISE WHETHER HR NEEDS OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY ARE DIFFERENT Emerging HR TRENDS OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY ARE DIFFERENT WHETHER IT INDUSTRY HAS POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITS EMPLOYEES

5.6 5.7 5.8 5.10 5.11 5.13

GRIEVANCE HANDLING IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY IS PROPER TOP MANAGEMENT AWARENESS STATE OF EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP IN IT INDUSTRY SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASE RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY INDIAN IT INDUSTRY REQUIRE SEPARATE LABOUR LAWS/ RULES EXCESSIVE COMPETITION IS HARMING EMPLOYEES LONG TERM WELFARE

5.14

ROLE OF TRADE UNION IN IT INDUSTRY

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QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Sir/Madam, I am a management student of RITM (Rameshwaram Institute of Technology & Management ). As part of course I am undertaking this Research study. I would a request you to kindly answer a few questions. This questionnaire gives you the opportunity to express your opinion regarding various aspects of HR PRACTICES AND ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES IN IT SECTOR As you are all aware that Information Technology (IT) industry is achieving a great success in Indian employment context. As you are to a part of IT industry and must be observing that the HR trends of IT sector are quite different from the conventional old economy sectors. The results shall be submitted to the university in the report format for the usage of researchers and other concerned authorities. As is the case for entire study, no individual will be identified. Only group averages will be reported. Thanking You Date .....

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Personal Profile of the Respondent


1.(a) Place of survey.................................. (b) Name............................................. (c) Address........................................... (d) Male/Female....................................... (e) Educational qualifications: (i) Non Tech Graduate or below (ii) Non-Tech Post-Graduate (iii) B.Tech/BCA etc. (iv) M.Tech/MCA/MBA (f) Your Nature of Job: (i) Computer Hardware (ii) Computer Software (iii) Marketing Services of IT (iv) HR/ Personnel management 2. Whether you feel that HR needs of Indian IT sector are different from old HR practices.(Please Tick) (i) Yes (ii) No 80

(iii) Can Not Say 3. Whether new compensating methods being adopted by the various IT companies are positively effecting the employees welfare? (i) Positive Effect (ii) Negative Effect (iii) No Effect (iv) Can Not Say 4. "Indian IT sector companies has a positive attitude towards its employees and are not neglecting their welfare and prospects for their profit sake." Do you agree with the statement. (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 5 "The grievances of the employees in Indian IT sectors are handled properly". To what extent do you with this statement. (i) Strongly Agree (ii) Agree (iii)No Comments (iv) Disagree (v) Strongly Disagree

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6. How much do you think the top management of your organisation is aware of the working conditions of its employees? (i) Not at all aware (ii) Very little aware (iii) Somewhat aware (iv) Much aware (v) Very much aware 7. What is the state of employee employer relationship in Your Organisation (i) Excellent (ii) Very Good (iii) Satisfactory (iv) Poor 8. The most of the employees of Indian IT sector or highly educated and sensitive in nature. Moreover, the opportunities outside are very attractive, Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees.(Please Tick) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) Comments 9. What the HR managers of Indian IT sector should do to increase the retentivity rate of its employees (Please Tick)

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(i) Increase wages to international level ii) Increase foreign postings iii) Increase profit sharing (iv) More promotions (v) Any other(please specify) __________________________ 10. "Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained. The separate Labour Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:. Do you agree with this proposition. (i) Strongly Agree (ii) Agree iii) No Comments (iv) Disagree (v) Strongly Disagree 11. Whether old methods of employees association/trade union like strike or Gherao

etc. are desirable in Indian IT Sector (Please Tick) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 12. In your view whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector.

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(i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 13. Whether do you feel there is any roll of trade union in the IT Industry? (i) No Trade Union (ii) Single Union (iii) Multi Union (iv) Only welfare association (iv) Can not say 14. Give your overall assessment of HR Management in Indian It Industry. (i) Excellent (ii) Very Good (iii) Good (iii) Satisfactory (iv) Poor 15. Please give your comments and suggestions to bring further improvement in HR Management in Indian IT Industry. Thank You,

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