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CHAPTER 1

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Job satisfaction is an important component of nurses lives that can impact on patient safety, staff morale, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the profession. Job satisfaction is dynamic and can vary according to individual characteristics, expectations, style of management, changes to policy and individual lifestyle choices .Ensuring that needs of nurses are met is particularly important during their career since what is laid down here could impact dramatically on nurses contribution in the longer term. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotion state resulting from the appraisal of ones job, an affective reaction to ones job and an attitude towards ones job. Smith et al (1966) defined a job satisfaction as a feeling of workers towards her profession. While Jorde (1984) said that a job satisfaction can be defined as a balance of feeling either positive or negative of a person towards a particular jobs. Spector (1997 p.2) defined job satisfaction as the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. This suggests job satisfaction is a general or global effective reaction that individual hold about her job. Understanding what motivates workers and how this impacts on performance has always interested organisations and managers and different theories have sought to answer this question. Fung-Kam identified four general theories: need/value fulfilment theory, personenvironment fit theory, the theory of career and the theory of work adjustment. Adams and Bond classified job satisfaction theories into three group: discrepancy theories, which examine the extent to which employees needs are satisfied in the work place, equity theories, which highlight social comparisons in the evaluation of job rewards, and expectancy theories which focus on employee motivation. In order for an organization to be successful they must continuously ensure the satisfaction of their employees. It is important to know that there are different kinds of job satisfaction. There are various components that are considered to be vital to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is actually a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only the kind of work they do, the

task that make up the job. While Extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider the conditions of work such as their pay, co-workers, promotion benefits, supervisor, work condition, communication, safety, productivity, and the works itself. Each of these factor figures into an individuals job satisfaction differently. The two theories that have been important in the development of an understanding of job satisfaction in nursing care are Maslows human needs theory and Herzberg and Mausners motivation-hygiene theory. Maslow identified two types of needs; deficiency needs (physical, safety and belonging) and growth needs (selfactualization and self esteem) Herzberg and Mausners theory consists of intrinsic factors or motivators that promote job satisfaction and extrinsic factors or hygiene factors that cause dissatisfaction. This two types of job satisfaction are different, and its helps to look at job from both points of view. The purpose of this research study was to determine the level of job satisfaction among nurses in surgical/orthopaedic ward in Hospital Kajang Selangor. Job satisfaction is one of major factor by which staff feels commitment to the organization where they work. In the cyclical world of health care satisfaction, most people are in agreement that happy nurses lead to happy patients, which inevitably lead to happy hospital administrators.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT This research is done in Surgical/Orthopaedic Unit in Hospital Kajang. Hospital Kajang is a Goverment Hospital situated in the middle of Kajang town. Hospital Kajang occupied 306 beds. The surgical / orthopaedic unit are one of the units in the Hospital kajang. In a month the admission to both of the units are 600-800.The purpose of this study is to assess the level of job satisfaction among the nurses that work in both unit. The finding from the study may ensure that needs of nurses on job satisfaction are met .

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE To assess the level of job satisfaction in Hospital Kajang Selangor. among nurses in surgical/orthopaedic ward

1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the level of job satisfaction among nurses in surgical/orthopaedic ward in Hospital Kajang Selangor. 2. To assess the level of perception on environment on job satisfaction. 3. To determine the relationship of socio-demographic data with job satisfaction.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION 1.What are the level of job satisfaction among nurses working in the surgical/orthopaedic ward? 2.Are perception on environmental have influence with job satisfaction ? 3.What is the relationship of socio-demographic data with job satisfaction?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 1.Most of the staff are satisfied with their job and working place. 2.A good relationship found between the staff and their co-worker.

1.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

PART DEMOGRAFIC DATA -RACE -AGE -MARTIAL STATUS -YEARS OF SERVICES -YEARS OF SERVICES IN THE ORGANIZATION -EDUCATIONAL LEVEL

PART B QUESTIONNAIRE 8 QUESTION ON CO-WORKER RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION.

PART C 8 QUESTION ON ENVIRONMENT RELATED TO JOB SATSFACTION.

1.7 CONSTRUCT AND MEASUREMENT SCALE

CONSTRUCT

MEASUREMENT

SCORE

PART A -RACE SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC -AGE DATA -MARTIAL STATUS -YEARS OF SERVICE -YEARS OF SERVICE ORGANIZATION -EDUCATIONAL LEVEL -POST BASIC COURSE

FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE IN

PART B 8 MEASUREMENT ITEM ENVIROMENT RELATED (QUESTION 1-8 ) TO JOB SATISFACTION. -LINKERT SCALE (8 ITEMS) -USING SCORE (1,2,3,4,5)

TOTAL SCORE

PART C 8 QUESTION (QUESTION 1-8) RELATIONSHIP OF -LINKERT SCALE (8 ITEMS) SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC -USING SCORING 91,2,3,4,5) DATA TO JOB SATISFACTION.

TOTAL SCORE

1.8 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

SCALE / ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

1.To assess the level of job satisfaction Discrete among nurses in surgical/orthopaedic Descriptive analysis ward in Hospital Kajang.

2.To assess the level of perception on Linkert Scale environment on job satisfaction

3.To determine the relationship of socio- Linkert Scale demographic data on job satisfaction.

1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 1.Time given for data collection is limited and there is constraint of time. This could affect the data collection in this study. 2.Sample size is small; the finding will not be generalized to a much larger target population among nurses.

1.10 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITATION Nurses A highly trained and skilled professional who care for the sick an infirm and are registed with the Board of Malaysian Nursing Associassion. Surgical Unit It is a place or unit when patients are taken care of after surgical procedures and it also contain a combination of post operative surgical patients as well as other sick patients with condition that are not surgical but required hospitalization. Orthopaedic Unit A unit that cares for the predominantly orthopaedic elective and acute patients. Job Satisfaction A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job, an affective reaction to ones job and an attitude towards ones job. Enviroment Actual physical surroundings in which nurses work. Examples are the multiple stimulai that affect concentaration, or the lack of any space that is quiet, or the lack of room to do the work small tight space with many people .Episodes in which nurses have experienced verbal assaults, physical violence, and / or feelings of conflict or friction with co-workers, particularly physicians. Factors that create an atmosphere that is noncollegial and nonprofessional. Examples are decreased loyalty to the institution by co-workers, decreased unit cohesiveness, lack of trust and respect, the presence of time clocks, and the lack of perquisites equal to physicians such as a nurses lounge

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter will cover a review of literature explaining the concept of job satisfaction among nurses in Surgical / Orthopaedic ward Hospital Kajang.

2.1 JOB SATISFACTION The history of job satisfaction stems back to the early 1900s with the situationist perspective on job satisfaction. This perspective states that satisfaction is determined by certain characteristics of job and characteristics of job environment itself. This view has been present in the literature since the first studies by Hauser, Taylor and the various projects at the Western Electric plant in Hawthrone (Cranny,Smith & Stone 1992).These studies follow assumption that when certain set of job conditions are present a certain level of job satisfaction will follow. Job satisfaction has been defined as a fluctuating attitudinal state that a person holds about his or her job (Kramer & Hafner, 1989). Conrad, Conrad,& Parker 91985) described it as a match between what individuals perceive they need and what rewards they perceive they receive from their jobs (p.163).In addition, a number of theoretical frameworks have been applied to the concept of job satisfaction including the Hierarchy of Need theory (Maslow, 1954) and Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene theory (Herzbergs, 1966). Cavanagh (1992) noted that these theories attempt to specify particular needs that must be met or values that must be attained (p.705) if an individual is to be satisfied at work. Given that job satisfaction has been found to be related to performance within the work setting (Landerweerd & Boumans, 1988),it is not surprising that the concept of job satisfaction has attracted much attention (e.g Munro, 1983; McGrath, Reid, & Boore, 1989; Borg, 1991; Mira, Aranaz, & Vitaller, 1992). A range of findings has been reported in the literature of health care and nursing. Simpson (1985) noted that while all levels of nurses reported some dissatisfaction at work, males experienced greater job satisfaction than females. This may be attributed to the fact that males advance more rapidly than females (Lupton & Najman, 1995). Butler and Parsons (1989) found that nurses ranked monetary rewards as the most influential aspect of job satisfaction when compared with other factors like managerial support, free expression and professional development. Williams (1990), in a comparison of general and critical care wards, found that nurses ranked salary and autonomy as the most important elements of job satisfaction while organizational policies and task requirements were rank least important.

An alternative view is that salary constitutes only a small facet of job satisfaction compared to other factors which may be perceived as being much more important. For example, workers have reported dissatisfaction with jobs with low autonomy (Smith, 1969), and Mayo (1945) claimed that the most important determinant of job satisfaction is that of group interaction-good working relationships amongst employees can alleviate stressful working conditions by increasing morale. This finding was later supported by Vroom (1964), who found that people in isolated positions within the workforce have a higher turnover rate than those in positions involving some degree of interaction. In contrast, Cavanagh (1992) found that a range of factors including participation in decision making, education and opportunities for advancement contributed positively to nurses job satisfaction. Some studies have highlighted the importance of other facets of work. Kramer and Schmalenberg (1991) found that job satisfaction was closely linked with organization culture of excellence which recognized peoples levels of involvement, commitment and enthusiasm. Gillies, Franklin,& Childs (1990) noted that an organization climate which fostered responsibility, warmth and support contributed to high levels of job satisfaction among nurses. Some early studies of job satisfaction in the mental health area have shown that job satisfaction amongst nurses is related to the size of the hospital. The larger the hospital,the lower the levels of satisfaction amongst nursing staff (Ullman, 1967). Similarly, Rumps (1979) study of several Australian psychiatric hospitals found that one of the major factors of job satisfaction amongst different grades of nursing staff was the way medical staff responded in their interactions with nurse. In large institutions, the social distance between the professionals appears to be greater and results in lower level of job satisfaction. Lack of job satisfaction may influence people to leave and when people leave this cause extra strain on others (Sullivan & Decker, 1992). Castledine (1994) noted how turnover can create a vicious cycle in that when discontented nurses leave, those who remain also get discontented and may decide to leave. These conflicting findings suggest that managers need to be aware of the different facets of job satisfaction so that effective policies and strategies may be put in place to address problem areas at a local level. Continuous monitoring of job satisfaction may be a useful management tool to facilitate the development of the organization.

2.2 ENVIRONMENTAL

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

3.1 STUDY DESIGN This is a cross sectional descriptive design in data collection among nurses who work in surgical / orthopaedic unit of Hospital Kajang Selangor.

3.2 POPULATION Research population was nurses working in surgical/orthopaedic ward 1 (male) and surgical / orthopaedic ward 4 (female). This two wards are combined ward of surgical and orthopaedic. This study was conducted in this two wards.

Inclusion Criteria -All nurses working in surgical / orthopaedic ward 1 and 4. -All staff that understand Bahasa Malaysia and / or English. -All staff who agreed to participate in this research.

Exclusion Criteria -Staff who do not agreed to participate in this research. -Staff who are unable to complete the questionnaire.

3.3 SAMPLING METHOD The respondents of this study were the nurses who works in Surgical / Orthopaedic ward 1 and ward 4 who fulfilled the stated criteria. To obtain a representative sample, selection sample were using the universal sampling method. The population was based on nurses works in Surgical/Orthopaedic.

3.3.1 SAMPLE SIZE. Sample size was based on all nurses who worked in Surgical /Orthopaedic Ward 1 and ward 4.The sample size is 50 respondents and all nurses complete the questionnaires.

3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Research instruments consist of 4 parts of the questionnaire. Part A Part B -Socio Demographic Data. - 8 Questions on Environment related to job satisfaction. Each item was

rated on a 5 point Linkert scale with response option ranging from not at all satisfied (1) to Very satisfied (5). Part C -8 Question on to determine the relationship of socio demographic data on

job Satisfaction. Each items was rated on a 5 point Linkert scale with response option Ranging from not at all satisfied (1) to very satisfied ( 5 ).

3.5 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE Data collection was carried out using Part A, Part B, and Part C of the questionnaire form which consisted of bi-langguage which are Bahasa Malaysia and English.The Head Nurse of unit was explained the purpose of the study and the data collection procedure. After the explanation, the researcher approached the respondent. The respondents were explained the purpose of the research. Consent was taken from the respondents. Questionnaires were administered to the respondents who work on that day and the balance questionnaires were given to the Head Nurse to help distribute to the nurses who are on leaves, night off, off and given to them when they came back for work . The questionnaires were collected after the respondents had completed it.

3.6 DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 10. The questionnaire consists of 3 parts. Part A consists of socio Demographic Data. Part B consists of