Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

Page

hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
uiowth & Bevelopment
Head circumference with age Remember 3, 9, and multiples oI 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm


Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereaIter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65 kg

Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-single words
2 years:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
3 years:
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-rides tricycle
4 years:
-draws square
-counts 4 objects


Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
$hort stature: differential ABCDEFG:
Alone (neglected inIant)
Bone dysplasias (rickets, scoliosis, mucopolysaccharidoses)
Chromosomal (Turner's, Down's)
Delayed growth
Endocrine (low growth hormone, Cushing's, hypothyroid)
Familial
GI malabsorption (celiac, Crohn's)

Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama Is In Pain, Papa
Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years

erez ref|ex LllclLlng Lhe LrLz reflex wlll make Lhe baby LL

Cerebra| pa|sy (C) most ||ke|y cause C Cerebral alsy
Chlld remaLure
1he premaLure braln ls more prone Lo all Lhe posslble lnsulLs





Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
N0TRITI0N
Milk protein: women vs. cows Woman: Whey (mostly)
Cow: Casein (mostly)


Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH:
InIant:
Allergic condition reduced
Best Iood Ior inIant
Close relationship with mother
Development oI IQ, jaws, mouth
Mother:
Econmical
Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape
Guards against cancer: breast, ovary, uterus
Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced


Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)










Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
Infectious Bisease
#ubella: congenital signs "#ubber Ducky, I'm so blue!" (like the "Rubber
Ducky" song):
#ubber: #ubella
Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus, VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis.
I'm: Eyes (cataracts, retinopathy, micropthalmia, glaucoma).
Blue: "Blueberry MuIIin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin purpura)
Also, deaIness, growth retardation, and some more.

Measles: complications "MEA$E$ COMP" (complications):
Myocarditis
Encephalitis
Appendicitis
$ubacute sclerosing panencephalitis
aryngitis
Early death
$h!ts (diarrhoea)
Corneal ulcer
Otis media
Mesenteric lymphadenitis
Pneumonia and related (bronchiolitis-bronchitis-croup)


$eptic Arthritis: most common cause

$taphylococcus Aureus is the most common cause oI
$eptic Arthritis in the pediatric population.







Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
Respiiatoiy System
Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
$tridor
$ubglottic swelling
$eal-bark cough

Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock the "C#ADE":
Cystic Iibrosis
#ings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ #espiratory inIections
Aspiration (swallowing dysIunction, TE Iistula, gastroesphageal reIlux)
Dyskinetic cilia
ung, airway, and vascular malIormations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord
dysIunction)
Edema (heart Iailure)
















Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
uI System
Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric stenosis is 3 P's:
Palpable mass
Paristalsis visible
Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks aIter birth)

Gastroschisis: usual location GasT#oscHIsis usually occurs on the
#IGHT side oI the umbilicus.
(Unscramble the letters).

Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction
Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla oI vater.
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it.

|||rub|n phototherapy llrDbln absorbs llghL maxlmally ln Lhe
De range













Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
CvS
Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types Use your Iive Iingers:
1 Iinger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 Iingers up: Dextroposition oI the Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 Iingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3Tri)
4 Iingers up: Tetralogy oI Fallot (4Tetra)
5 Iingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (55 words)


Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Truncus arteriosus
Transposition oI the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetrology oI Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types 5 T's:
Tetralogy oI Fallot
Transposition oI the great arteries
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary aTresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage








Page 8
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
Renal System
Hemolytic-Uremic $yndrome (HU$): components
"Remember to decrease the #ATE oI IV Iluids in these patients":
#enal Iailure
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Thrombocytopenia
Encephalopathy (TTP)

Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHI1K:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Bladder (cystitis)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Exercise induced
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Glomerulonephritis
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
InIection (UTI)
In 1ury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)











Page 9
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
uenetics
Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF PANC#EA$:
Cough (increase in intensity and Irequent spells)
Fever (usually low grade, unless severe bronchopneumonia is present)
Pulmonary Iunction deterioration
Appetite decrease
Nutrition, weight loss
CBC (leukocytosis with leIt shiIt)
#adiograph (increase overaeration, peribronchial thickening, mucus plugging)
Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas, tachypnea, retractions)
Activity (decreased, impaired exercise intolerance, increased absenteeism)
$putum (becomes darker, thicker, and more abundant, Iorming plugs)

Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANC#EA$:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insuIIiciency (symptoms oI malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing oI Iingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
#ectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia oI vas deIerens
$putum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)

WAG# syndrome: components WAG#:
Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Gential abnormalities
Mental retardation

Williams syndrome: features WIIAM$:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)

Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
ong philtrum
arge mouth
Increased Ca
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Mental retardation
$welling around eyes (periorbital puIIiness)


#ussell $ilver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Bossing (Irontal)
Clinodactyly/ CaIe au lait spots
DwarI (short stature)
Excretion (GU malIormation)
Face (triangular Iace, micrognathia)

Vacterl syndrome: components VACTE#:
Vertebral anomalies
Anorectal malIormation
Cardiac anomaly
Tracheo-esophageal Iistula
Exomphalos (aka omphalocele)
#enal anomalies
imb anomalies

Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:
Absent
Thymus

$turge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features $turge-Weber:
1. $eizures
2. PortWine stain


Page
hLLp//LheworldofpedlaLrlcswordpresscom/
Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTH#IE:
Galactosaemia
Urine |maple syrup urine disease|
THy#oid |hypothyroidism|
Inborn Errors oI metabolism |eg: PKU|

Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie Cards Can Help Predict
Bad Metabolism":
Galactosaemia
Cystic Iibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hypothyroidism
Phenylketonuria
Biotidinase deIiciency
Maple syrup urine disease










%,38