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TO WI5HF5 T}JI NEWI.'/ IT5 TI.IJ5 ION WOULDLIKETO IXPRE55 I]E5T PI./BLiC/\I B[ I-FFORT9 EL[55[l]Wll-H SUCC[551 TF.^,,A4l,ND lvlAY'fHEiR [rL:f i-[p snBBAl-lcAL

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producing tcxts in the contextof question whenever .4,n underlying trheory is betit'een anti-politics) the relatron radicalpolitics(or rather: criThe complete rcjeclionof any kind of theoretical and practice. ,t,, in tique, not uncomrnon the broad milieu in which thc undercurren! ll reanti'intcrllectual is located, is rnostofthe timc a barely disguised with a critiqueof thc ifilellectualin which is not to confuse sentment, t, : labour. his or her rclationto the rlivisionofinanual anri inteliectual stemsfrort the neglcctof tire lact The incoherencc this relectioir of theobabblingo1-thc to opposed the uselt:ss that the praisedpraatiae" irirplicitas' to ofsocietlr. The reluclance maliethese concept on basecl solne"thooretical" rists,is alrvays pracprevents ultimatejlr nratter a criticalscrutiny of the explicrtnndthusmakether-n subjeot sutliptions that the distjnct featureof lrroletarianrevolutionsis that tice that know itseil'. Marx writes sotnewhere revolulionrs After all, while bourgeois criticisethemselves, to they againanrlagainpause relentlessly deve'lopments and thus blind exeoutionof somcof the rnerelyptlrttc'ul e)cpre,\,\tot7 socio-economio revoluaisoknown as proletarian of accornplished the radicaltransibrmation socicty, -, thingalread.y tion, is the cornpicteuphcavalof rll thc cxrstingsocialrelationswhich claims to end pre-historyby for the firsl time conscknsly/ organisingsociety.Critique, thc theoreticalanticipalion of this transl-ormathat which,while claimingto do the opposite, to negativeIt seeks destroy tion, is essentially Pcrpetuatesthe exisfingmisery. The typr:ol'seli--critique situalion. in ridicukrus the present howcver, mustseem These rvords, big that movement at leaslclairus givcnthe absence significant ofa obsolete is Marx envisaged necessarily 'l conflicl.tng ofclasson vrhichwe havesotnetimes uponthe question to be revolufionary.his touches trehindthe appeataircc of "hidden"classstruggle v:iew,s. Only sorrre us clailr that there'isa permanent ald wagr-earners citiinto capitaiby transfomation into orclinary that the classhasbeenincorporated rs thesethings.We areawarethat as a whole, Ilte undertztrcent re' zens.l{ere is not the placeto discuss Thisbecornesobviouswhenreadingthepiece motefrornadvancingacoherentlineofargumenlation. against G8 sumrnitin,lunc. lronically, the of tcxt on the previouspagcand thc critiqueof the campaign
sorne of the points made ag:rinst that campaign in this issue could easily be applied to the contentiouspiece oftext which some ofrs would rather not have seen printed. 'i'he poetic pathos was rejer:ted by solne as contributing virtually nothing io a political discussionwhile instead spreadinga quasi-religious and lnystic aura ("the air we breathe" eto.) that appeals to emoLion ancldiscouragescriticai rellection. Put this dispute aside, we agree on the necessityto relcct the notion of tire all-encompassing "we" (cornprised of all those involved ln any kind of "'oppositional" movements) that entails the demand to be always constntctive (since we all wanl the sarre...)and thus inhibits the developmenl ofradical critique. In this scnsc" rve don't expect this issue to be particularly popular, espeoiallyamong animal rights activists anclthosc in lavour of spectacular global raves. For corrrtrlents etc.:e-mail: uniundercurent@nistral.co.uk Or: undetcurent c/o sussexalltollotnoussociely, FalnterHouse, . Falmer,tsrightonBNI BDN Univelsity of Sussex, ('our nebsite i s: httr):l/wltw3. m i stral.co. uk/unindercurrent.;

ttre Frcnziedsplashing of the t.ides,with a mind tress ohe<.iienl than a chilcl'r;"ncitlr<;ris he the sarl6i ot Eau<icJaiie. curious e.tpl,ilrerrvho faces lildorado, tho gi!'t that Fatr had lrr,.rrrrisod the hirn. F{e doo;i ru{.rl rescnllile the der:isive wa.ncierer" the ncmail of'{sabelle Elri}rerhcari r.vho is cvervrvliclr ai hornc, alone;, poor i* needs, awav frcrrnfarnilv" property aml pen"nanent "jeib. Themodern travelier i: ihc alicnated, lenrpor&r.y eomputrer usr:nin the'irculr'al ztlrrt--' ol-thc tilohn(F cilies, in which ttrlecorpse c'f counter-cuifure's trip is exposecljn the windows of iis shoppinlqcontcis. Fle il the firrner o{"Chiapas"dragged frorr the land he thought was his,,oniy to be sent tr} ihc slr;rnl), to'rvns Mexico Ciiy and to the industrial zones- flesibie in regard to impoverishrneut.trlc i:; tlre lrorr)r:of. les s pers o r r o f t h e m o i r o p o l istvh o wa n d e r g d a va n d n ig h tu n d cr theshadow anrj the yi :sl f;i ,r:sl tl rr.:;kysemperu,in rvagoils of commoclitiesand ln institrilions. F[e is tlie 'guaranteed' u'orko1. thl orrr.u,lrrrhrs so far I'rcn the positiotl o{'{astestr ratrbit jn tho garne of oarro'rand stick anii vrrhon{),,\',ilr,..j, |11111dc1 lr., $adually d i s a t r r p e a r l n t o ' . h ch cr izo n .Heistir e ir li- n ig r a n t.fig u r e-syrnbei l ot'i henrohi k'l orL l ortt.,the o)itrmef,orm oitlre moderu travele;',which the foroe of capital has f,lown milcs trotr lhc lrllL t :,h(.once regafdedas 'hofire'. He is tire trlacl<worker whose brutal submission ciln rrrylorrqcr hc:r.lrrrlrrrsctl bchinrl the iilusion oliboing"aitemativs'. iIc is thc rnohitre worker. IIc rs all of'ur;. whosc conr]ron :1i,,(.1! Dearc ing colonised: the air we breathe, the space in rvhich wc live. thc ianguagc ivc r;trieali. orrrr lxr4iesrrrrr V/e are fore;edto struggle ove'{/da} for surviva! iu order to lbrgc:tiifc ir:;clf. 'l'he fiely ivords of, bloocl that inscribe the his{ory of tlri: unnrasl,inlro1'thr':irnfltt, rn rlr. rirnes of fencing in, lmve never shine{.inrore than ihey elo today 'i'hc {'ragmirntalionsll.rtrtr iV'i;rrrril;r.ritrcd are contpleted today. We are i'encerl in and dividccl. Capital sought 1o tcar ouf c'on]1rrr]ri\ rrrtrrpieoes b] slspping ort Gut Iftislakes,on the aiicnaft:d pioctucf oi'our stnrggle. We trrsomc hrxrr,:h.ss ;rrrrlinvolunta$/ travellers"wanderers in an alien wor"ld that preiientsirothing new to us. V/ill wc c!(.r i:nl(,v anolhef drunken sieep ofi the beach nor.vthat the only drunkei:nessto wfrich the ivnndcrrr is lllori,r.,{ to give hjrnself to is the inti,,xisaiionol tlle comlnoditv? i,)urclass m$sl become the negation of-negadon. 'l'he pieces o1'the proletariat rnust bc weicled tc'gether. l'iothing is permanently lost ard {he xage is already br:iling. '['he liieefimg o{ the penrmamemrtty tem6lorary amd tixe tenogron"ariEy workens [s mcan.And with it rvrll d:lrn ol'iirg,,:xpr6prian!rnramemt tion of the exprcpdators, We have no iiiusions, l'he honzon is biurued. Ye{ ',rrccannot ovcriooi, thr; ,ircl thrr \\,c can r!llloov 'irace the objective -al ieast- terms lbr an'Jther Internationai. 'l'he last one." (LlYC. and I(. ) fThis texl rves trarrslated f'roin ttrreGreeli rrragazine: 'i'A [ [Al,\trA TF{t fA,{rt,l}tAl1 s1l.jlJ N1 0tl l tc Funded by in theTLI)Ij 'fhe Str-rdent DcvelopmentCiroup doesno1nccessarily agrecrvirlr
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gettinl3 therl, but nol forgetlinlr t() nrl()nn his colieaguesthat they were ab*ut lo bc rir.itslitined I on the coir1erlts these manit-estos. hc ;rr(icle of went unwrittr:il; the Corrms Oificer sulliic:;lrcl that norv wasn'1 the trest timc for if a.,q i.hc stbhaticai:; werc nil really busy (with therr-rcelection canrpaigns)and evcn lhat i1 nright rrakc a goocl li:a.tui'crn thr: Pulst: (which oomcs or.rtin jus1 as tlrr: Satrs'1clbs ccming tr.r thc suunnrer', are a n cn o J.

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YOU .At{b T}{E Ui\lIONl Fuck oft no,ytru arei No, 1.ou ara! No, honestly,iln not. Accountabil il,...representation...'ycrtr'on at 6ni llussexis very keen on thesewords,but do they ineansorn*thingrnorethan catchygraphicson a poster? re-eiection A fe,r.v weeks ago al wriler lbr the lladger had the ideato write an articie directly questioning the union satrbatical officers on how far they had firtfilled their electionprornises office. It in rcemedlike a usef'u1 exercjgein accountabiiity. and r.vith some of the Sabs stantling for reeleotlon, very topical. What she needcd was their election rnanifestos, order to compare ir"l 1ltelr r'vordswilh {heir inaction. Fightrng '['alk about Fighting t'ees loolcsand soundsgood at electiontime, but there were reasons trelievc t*r it hail all beena lot ofhot air. uot leasttrecause ofthe lack o{'any suggestion fee-paying to First Years that they might refuse to pay like those rad. Onford students.So the raa"iter asked the tjnion Cornurunications Oft'iccr to Communicateto her the locatioil of thesemanifbstos. He saidhe hactcopiesat home.that he rvould bring thenr-tbrher. As ManagingEditor of the Badgcr he aiso informeciher tlrat it wouid noi bc possible to print ihis articie duringthe elections becausethree of the sabbaticals were standingfor re-election. Any publicity nrightjeopardise their 'l of their rilals' canrpaigns. his turned out to have been an F.xecutivel)ecision rrn his part, and one rve find Slrange- what better moDtenl to examinethe rc;lesof the union officers than Was .justasthcVare atte$pting to be re-elected? that the fainl aronraof faraway coffee'/ - no, it wasJustsomepassing tca. The next hl,o weekspassed rvilh the writer asking the Comnrunioations {Jfficer repeatcdly flor the manifestos, and y/ith him repeaterii*7 lbr-

Irinally, responding to a request lrorn an eclitor on the tsadger to bring the infblnration, he said he had it F{e handed it over. But it turncd out 10 he his own election publicity; no nranilrs{rr. no his own nol his five colleagues' l{o rvhrrre WEITE the rnanifestos? Oh! You rre:urt the manitrbstos?'l'hey're kept in that oliicr: thi:re. I)on't you worry, he said, 1'll havr:ir r,r,orrl irrrdgct theln for you. 'llhe stench o' collcc nor.r'lllled the attempted writer's nostrils. thu irirzr: ol'stupidity was starting to dlspcrse. thc r,,,r ircr went h cr sclf,to the S eorctaryto l hc i .l rrrorr(i enerai fi,4anager ancl asked {'orthc rnanilcstrrs No ltrotrle m , l' vc g ol thern ri ghl hr:rc i n tl ri s {l l c. 1998, sh e sa id , ju st a rni nul c. u,hal l l rr' - l hcy w ere gone. 'l'he ulion olllccs havc brr:n scarclted, {iies have hecn turned oui, clucstiorrs lrave been 'tiu1 asked the missing, rrttniicstos l)irvc stayed missing...-l'he Comnrs. ()lllcsr has apologisecl and put his f,ailureto dilcct tlru rvriter to the correct ofiice immecliately clou,n lo an initial l\{isunderstanding of thc rcqucsl, though peopie stailding next to hilx a1the tirnc understotNlperl'ectly well what rvas rcquircd. 'l'hc two weeks' delaSri11producing the wrong documcnls cat'r bc explaine<!by his having boen Vory Bt;sy. Ther rnissing manifestos have been blarncd on lasl year's elections Returning Offioer who yorr'll nevcf guesl; rs nol here rtny nr(]re and lell no fbrwarrJing address. There are tlvo lna.yorpossiblc c,tplanations for this catalogue of errors/cieceit. T'hey are; error or profbssional incoupeti:nce- and decejt or shady deaiings, Tragrcalll', the manifestos r"rerc almost certainly composcd of vague and meaningless guff:16131i'1snwofthy of alleged n'loonlit creepings around fiiing ca.binets and shadorvs imagirred on walls of locked officgs. But now we 'li nevcr know.

On Saturday 6th Fcbruary a denronstration against institutional racisnr will ta[<e place in I-ondon. The leaflet ofthe organisations calling for thal dcmn is docLrrnentecl bclow. 'il.rc rcccnt case ofRoger Sylvester, who dicd in policcroustody, underlines their cause. Llowcver" while wc suppori their demonstration rve ccnsider the demand fbr civil rights to be contradictory in so f-ar as these rights can only bc guaranteed by tire state, r.c. the very institution r,vhich lies logically at the ccntre of racism. The organisations seern to oppose a better state to the prcsent racrst one while we would argue that it is thc essenccofsl al cs 1op roduc c rac i s m . I'he re.velations in the Stephen Luwrcnc:e inquir.y have higlzlightcd /.he instit?.ttk)nal rucisrt o{ thc police antl wholc crintinal justice sl,\tefiI. h,l(rltt recent cases have exposed tlxe iniustice ryhich a/Jict,s bluck, ,4sian and otlzer ethnic l?iinority people especially, antl poor pcoplc gcnerully .

Ncnu lhu govcrlrnaenl is prupo,sing naw rocisl laws agai nsl intmigranls untl aq,lunse ekers. I'hc Stelthen [,uwrenr;c rnquiry higltligltecl the lusltce work lhal wotnert do, rn parlnttlttr black wrnnen. lI/itfuntt v<nnen voices mttch of tvhdt tr)ntntrnitir'.t ,trf1i't in :ttrvtving tdL t\l vutlenae urtd pur,tuing.lu,\tice would retnin hidt]en. '['lte grtmp,t untl indivitluals b<:low urt: tn", guni,sing u National (:ivl llighls Marr:h in Lontlon on 6th |"cbruurv next yeLtr, shorlltt he.fitra lltc puhliculion o.f lhe rt:porl o/ the Stephen l,utr'rcnL:e inquiry, und when rhe new Asylunz Bill wil! he going befiru Puriia*tent. !'his alk*y lhc hlack ancl Asian com)nunities and drrt.i-raai,\!,r/o declure our verdtcl on the rutitut.bnal rucistn ol the police, of government legislcttitsn sttclt a.t asylunr &. intnigrdtiorl laws, lhe legal ,t.y:ilem, and on the raci,ct ki/lers who lmvc g,ofie unpltngovenltnent tlxil uhet!. lt will setve notice on tJ?a we won't he tiuped or pacified lt.yan1, ut,vnelir: "reJbrms". 'vStrck Sir Ptnil (bndon E Jttslice/or vi(:tims ol deulhs in polk:e cu,rtodlt & pri,"ons(...) * ,lttstice /br victims o.[ racisl rnltrders q.t1d uitacks I (..) 8 ,Iuslice.fbr rntmigranls und as.vtun seeker.t /... ) * Slop police lurassrnent!(... ) * l.'or the rigltt ol cot11t111.u1i4/ tlefbnce againsl rilcist atta.ckst *Ruild an Independent Civil llight,t Movement.l The demonstration starts on Saturday 6th February 1 pnr in Brixton. For details call: 0976 916 956

"fi|y liberalion distrdcts people from Sociol Eevolalion " {see artkle on Aniwul Rights ldeolagy)

systenn kus wanfks, fke &reekedwawtir,tawl FeFffi6 pflsf fwlo nawber furawgiaf wnw{mastrwdwBfefe na stwpdstiff.A wws! &eow wnfvercioceatpied, fwt'lowed wenercrcws &y sf s&safs kwsbeess kwveiained iwns sifrswtianwhiekno ties. Ter&wissf se&awls weewpafions wkirfi twkep{wae fwngerresewrbfe# ffwdigianwl f&e nesr fke {hristnas frofidayseve{yye&n iw tke sfreefs of &tfumwt'ar towwstsf 6reeep, ntilifwnf demonsfrwfions ewsscqd @lker pfse, lrot expe{ienrc# o long fiwe in for sf vssf nsrnbe{st@ok wl{ 6raece, Also kig ractd&loekshy pwpils wevewirwessed ursund 6reesc"Tlaeir eornmow &wsis;fhe figitf wgainsffhe new lww af fhe edaewtion 25H5, wkicft wiwnE restrwafaring edvewyion needsof capifwlism,fhs rvfing svste$,lowsrds fhe sdvsweed eiusses wifk pwnk, while the nedis hwve havesferted fo Fewsf sf of lained in the prwpogandw thc Sfdle,constonily speo,/riwg now-edatsfionalelemenfsFakingever tfie fo @tcapfrFioAsSurnthew iaio drag+rwffickingpfarcs" Af fhe fime fhuf tfti$ &rfide is fueinE wriflcn tke situatiowhus nof thwnge{" A firsf anolysis af t&e evenlsis otfewpfed here, with thesn" dertyingpwrpasaaf slteddinglighf on wsfraggle thsf seqws8@
exwpa the fiffiifs af edacsfion snd ta eNlend ifs criliqwe fo the fafwlify af eonfemparary sodety"


channetrtlrough which the iabour ftrrce rs allocal ed i n thc producti orr.i l s rc < trgl ni s ati onuat inherently ncccssary in cvcry step ofthe r(istructuriirg ol'Grceir oapilai. Yet, their plans 1'orthc educationai syslerndid not proceed according to therr wishes.

{he &rcek edacatiasal $y$ten ifi fhe psst The einergence of soctal democracy as the cotninonly accepted model of socia.l organisation in the 50's and 70's indicated a major oponirtg o1' what lvas forme rly a highly seleclive" eltte school systenrto the nrajorily o1'the population. Under the ideological banner of'equal opportuni ty', the new schoo ls ) s tc m w as c real eds o as 1o adapt into the populisl oullook ofthe slatc, but its democratic image could not balance the reality ofa classbasedsociety. Thc ncw cducational system, being responsible for the selection of the future labour force, suddenly found itself at the centre ofthe major social conflicts. The gradual collapse of social dernocracy highlighted the anachronislic eharacter of the social denocratic educational systsln. Ilnpoffant changes started to be considered, and the right r.ving govemment of the late seventies and early eighties attempted the first reftrrms, focusing on thc need of dircctlv connccting the uni' versities to the market and introducing the notion of specialisation.Although these plans did noT succeed under the conservarivc govemments, the election of PaSoK in 19Bl rnanaged to gradually implemcnt these changes. In the rvitrter of 1990-1991, the sccond major attempt of the right wing govemment to adapt the educational systen to the advanced needs of capital rvas introduced. A maior conllict broke out, quickly tuming into a political crisis, wilh the eventual resignationofthe minister of education. Once again, it became obvtous to the nlling classes that the nccessary changcs had ro be irtplerncnled by the 'socialist' PaSoK. Thus, in 1997, PaSoI( voted in parliarnent (during the summer holidays of course) for the educationai law 2525.

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Being still the most backrrrard country of the European Union, Greek capital has realiscdthe irntrinentneedto spcedup thc process ofrnodernisation the socialrehtions.. solnething nf the wereobviously able righfrvinggovemments not to accornplish. election The ofK. Sinritis(a personalityheavily favouredby his Europeancounter-parts, their rcrrarksfollorving electoral as his victory clearly dernonshate) Pnme Mrnister as governmentindicated of the social-democratic that Greecelr,asenteringa new phaseof drastic 'Ihe PaSoIt govelnfiellt was dedioaled changes. to implementthe needsof capital"but it was unto der scriouspressute speedup this processin

orderto meetthe requirements the Maastricht of Trearyand to join thc 'festival' of the Singlc Markct. It adopted a Thatcherite atlitirde ancl showed liorn theverybeginning nothingopthat posingtheir plansr.voukl tolerated. be Staning fronr a gradual restructuringof the work rclations,and movingon to decreasing numbcr the of farmers,the road to structuralmodernisation (read:hell) was pavedwith the deterrnination of the the governmenl, coilaboration ofthe unions use andthe occasional ofthe riot police.But this road had to eventualiy go through the edrcational systeftr,And, as the integratedunionists exclainr.since the educationalsystemis the

fhe lnw !59,5/97 The new super-larv is obviously ali emtrracing. Starting lrom the teachers in the schools, it rs

to then extended the pupilsand rt finallYalters the universify systom.its overall putpose'lThe functioningtocreationof the education-market, tally on temrsof its lawsandprioritics. Concerningtht: teachels,the larru'esscntially abolisltes thc previous rvay of errtployn'!ent.Unclerthe old systeruthe teachcrswould entertheir namein a yearlist and rvaitto be aplninted by the state.Although this systenrhad treal all its {aults,it basicallyfbrceclthe statel.ct applicantson an equal basis,and i1 guaranteed lppennanenl fbr entploiment thosewhl rvere this is beingre\,Viththe new syslem, frointed, already placedwith a iurther exatn(the teachers had tc go through exams to get their dcgrec) rvhich effectiveiy ifltroducesthe notion al fittl' u'e, andfbrces thosewho lail the exarusto become flexible/temp workers in scarch of cm' ployment outside the educationsystem. In esthe sence:11decreases number ol'teachersby and, more rcnderingthosewho lail unen,ployed, importantly, ytertonally guilt'v far their unernpioyinent. lior those who manage1o pass the exam, a destiny not much better arvaitstlrem: by their permanentassessment state oiflcials, with the ultirnate atrn of making them totally

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workers/slaves. obedient Jn relation to the pupils, the new law transfonnsthe sshoolsinto race tracks of comthe petition. It attemptsto decrease number of thosegoing into higher educationand it doesso While in the by alteringthe systeurof entrance. past, those who finished school would have three chatcesto go through iln exalr systcmln orderto get into universit]',this is now being replacedby a constantexam period during the final yearsat school,which, amongothers,means that pupils now only haveone chanceto get into 10 University.Thosewho do manage get the paper indicatingthat theyhavefinishedschoolwill is but be allowedto enter university, the t-ac1 that evenlesspeoplewill actuallybe able to get hold ofthat paper. Through constant assessment in the school, the workload will be severely intensified. The fragrnentingand alienatingcompetition among the pupils will be increased,since in high achievernents schoolwill now bc determinant ofthe pupils' futtre, and the class divisionsalreadyexistingwithin the schoolswill be enlarged.IJnder the new system,those who do not "pertbrm' as well as the otherswill be sent

to the 'llEE (technical schools), thus ensuring that their labour force is nol wastedbut sltiltully in absorbed the production.The distinctionsbetweefl the 'good' obetlientpupils and ths 'bad' disobedientones will become the everydayex' perience the pupilsand the hallmarkof the of educationsYstem. 'new' innovated the tlte Regarding univcrsitystudents" new larv containsa seriesof changesin the proa indicates shiflt grammestudies that essentiallY The rrniprograrnmes. to more market-oriented versity degree will suddenly be measuredin terms of the credits that the individual snrdenl has collectedthroughoutthe yearsol'university/ misery iife, in contrastto the previous systeln u'here every degreecarried the same value reindividual gardless the grade,thus increasing of competition. But even rvhen tlre studentshave rranaged to get the degree,they will then be forced to follow the new "flexrble" studies'progralnmes (PSE) which rvill 'upgrade' their degree (i.e. add credits to it), and render them more flexible to cxploitation. The new system brings forward the conceptof'lifeJong training', wl-ucheffectively rneansthat the students with the will constanllytry to equip themselves 'necessary' qualilicationsto find what in the etrd turns out'to bt: a lemporary.1ob,since the employer will prefer the graduatewith the more (i.e. the more credits). modern quatrifications then cleverly becomesa matter Unemployrnent of personalfailure: it is your faril that you can't are get a iob. because 1rr.rr unableto follow the to dcgrcc to be upgradcd PSE in order for _your exploitalion. thelevclof advanccd the Sldteprcsenls,the iledia represen! to Although resistance this larv seemsa ralher obviousreactionfiorn all sides"it is quite important fo stressthe crucial role playedby the govin ernmentand media propaganda dctcmining any sort ofresistance the publicopinionagainst to the govemment'splans. By pointing at the prcvious naturc of the education system, and specificallyat certainpartsof it that were commonly accepted as wrong, the govrnment its aimed at presenting reforms as an attemptto rid the educationalsysteinfrom all theseundesirableelemenls. the Thus,for the teachers, negatlveaspects (the ofthe old systemwere severelyemphasised fact that some teachers had to wait for a long

was prioritisedas a beilrgappointed time bef'ore negative aspectin relationto tlre plansofgetting rid of a large numberof thenr),so as to prescnt the eram systcrras providinga more direct and meritocraticway of employnent (or should rve Moreover,the examswere say unemployrrent). to supposed improvethe level ofteaching, an argumenlwhich worked in a twofold way: on the etc) who to one hand it appealed those(parents, were coinplainingabout the low level of teaching experiencedin the state schools, without the everquestioning fact that taking a three hour exarndoesnot lmprove anyone'slevl;l. It has to be noted that the official languageof thc State sometimes replaced the rnininral ability of thought among its passive recipicnts. On the bea othei hand,it created further fiagmentation since, apart tweeri the pupils and the teachers, from seeingtheir tcachersas personallyrespcrnand alienationthey cxsible tbr the oppression perience,the pupils sometimesidentifo these of problemsas stemmingiiom the low levetr the Thus, some pupils rvere ready to acteachers. of refbrmsasa means irnprovceptthe proposed ing the situationin the schools.Yet, althoughit and indeedhealthy, fcrr the puis unavoidable, pits to direct their angertowardsthosewho repone this resent alienation, of themoslprornising thingsof this movementwasthe jhct that the pilpils refused to accept the propagandaof the Stateand did make minimal - but crucial- connectionswith thoseofthe teachers'who refused to acceptthe law and who, itr onc way or anofJune. the other,continued movement ln terms of the pupils the propaganda T'heold systemof was more skilfully disguised. enlering university through an examination at the end of school was indeed appalling.Pupils ,were supposed leam whole books by hcart, to almost in relation to horv and were assessed many comasand wordsthey forgot to add when memorising texts in thcir clam paper.Thus, the when the rnirristerproclaimedthat with tbe new systemcvcryonewith a paper sayingthat they have finished schoolwould get in university,a lot of people ll for it. Moreover, even when reality of the new law startedto bethe a<;tual a come known and understood, lot of people were ready to accept it on the pathetic grormds that at leastsone changeswere rnadein the educationsystem. to not As for the students, much nee<Jed be feelingof comaddedto the alreadygenerahsed

petition and submissionto the new tteeds otr' capitalisrn. The majority of the students in quo, anrl evenif Greecealreadyacceptthe status a lot of them votcd for the occupations,it seemedas ifthis decisionwas rnore influenced by their desireto extendthe Christmasholidays by a few weeks, than any actual oppr:sitiontc the law. Moteover, the ibct that quite a kit of started10 collapseone afstudsnts'occupations ter the other shortlybefore the ofhcial holidays, 't/'/ere not indicatedat that time thal the siudents to to prepared losetheir term. Needless saythat onoeagain,the socialrole ofthe studentwasexposedfor what it actually is: a passiveand unirole. versailydespised {ha pupils' ortuputions The first occupationsof the schools started in late October.Soonthcy spreadout, and by early Dccember more than 1000 schools (there are werc trccupicd. in abour3500 schools Greece; follov'redby numerousuniversity occupations, all with the sautc'deinand":the cornpletewtthHowever, the drawal of the new law 2525197. {brrn that the struggletook was not always as promisingasits numbers. it So far as schoclsare concenred, is crucial to understand that they are very separated fiort each other, somethingwhich does not allow a solidarityamongtheln. Apart direct and constant fronr the soatialdistanccand a lack of commu-

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the schools are separated nicalion cha.nnels, but from each other ol the basrsof a per:r-rliar strong factor: the pupils of one school tend 1o irlentifywittr 'their' schoolas being'thebcst' in 'Ihis the area, and disregardall other schools pupils self-imposedghetoisationmakes sorne cvenconto very reluctant acccpl-or solilclimes sidcr- the allelnpls of studentsor tgachers(or else) to extencithe stmggle and ffiake w,hoever ofsociwith other sections valuabieconllections of by ety, a fact which is rvorsened the existence a'Comrnunist' party-led'Pupils' Comrrittcc" k.r whichprelends bc thc only ffue reprcscntalivc of the pupils"movement. Loyal only to its dogmatistn,the 'Communist' party (KKE) cal1sfor local road blocks instead and tries to eradioatcany big demonstrations, of radical expressions the pupils, who in the the,vcreate, midst of the revolutionarysituations stafl to developa rnore rigld oritiqueof contemporarysocietyand ofits iackeYs, However, the 'Communist' pa$y is obviously and not in aonlrolollhe movernent, many pupils when facingthem very reasonably havereacted of in many schools,representatives KKE have been violently kiclted out. llurlheflrore, auton(ito hav.'hccncreated cotlnlet' mouscomtnittccs act the KKE onc and their actions and leallets managedto overcomethe dearl end of i(KL's ideology and to radicalise the content of the slruggle. fhp St.tdents The students'position is different frorn that o1. the pupils. T'he experienceof the political studentshas led them into rejectingthe dogmattsn of KKE, but has not 1edinto a critique of ideoldrau'n ogl' as such.Ilence lhey arc massivclv into splinterleft s'ing groopswhoseonly differtjnable to underenceto KI{E is proportionate. in sociery a revocontcnrporary standor analysc lutionary way, the militant ideologyof sludents stopsthem from developinga critiquc of studenl tn life As suchthey only relateto the struggles a way. spectacular The most striking exampleis thal of NAR.(New Letr Trend), a splinter group which disassociated itself from KKE only a few yearsago, and in which enjoysa certaindominance the student rnilieu, but which has not equally disassociated itself frorr the dogmatisrn of Stalinisrn. Although more populist than actually Stalinist,

NAR has always tricd to inrposcitself as the leading group of any studentstruguncontested its gle, with the purposeof increasing power baseandimprovingits militantimagc. The rest of the left wing groupshavc not so far rnanaged to contest the dorninant image oi' with disagree NAR. Eventhoughthcy pcrsonally in they havcprovedtotallyuseless its practices. level. thenrat a collective conf'ronting il However, necds1obe pointcdout that not all positiort pirtlletic groltPc in tllt sitlttc are studctrt groupsnave ap* Sonreanarchistor autonomous pearedwith a more rigid cfitiqu of university, and they have trted to point out that the struggle problem' nor is 1l1e is not a nrerely educational speciflc larv only a problem of education. In their leaflets, they have pointd out that the struggleshould not confine itself to a mere opto position this spcciliolaw but shouldextend io critiqueof the societythe ruling a generalised are classes tryingto huild. Althoughmrrchc|edit shouldbe given to them" of their correct understanding the underlytng purposes ol'the law doesnot always lcad thern that into an understanding even if the law in itan withdrarvn,this would represent lmself r.vas portant victory since it rvould mean that state onc wouldbe abandoning ol'their and caprtal 'llhus it in rnajor tools of mcrdernisation Grecce. leafletssfressis quitecommonto rcad anarchist a ing tbat the larv 2525 shouldnct be considered givesthe which sometimes priority, an argument impressionthal the particularstruggledoes no1 thenr. intercst fhe swogglecaniinues".. and The hopeso{'1hegovernrnent the njnlster that the situation would de'escalateafter the Christmasvacationswere not satisfied l'he ptlpils increasedthe amountof occupiedschools, did not stop and the militant demonstrations Yet, somethingshad changcd. For the government, thc continuation of the struggle transtbrmed the educationalproblem into a rnajor political orisis. The stubbornattithe tude of the minister now demanded (unwillsupportof the restof the goveming sumetimes) ment, whereasthe rnajority of the newspapers started demanding a solution dictated by the prime minister himself. At the same time, the governmentinitiated a 'crisis committee'(cotnlaw and orofeducation, posed ofthe ministers

der, internai atfairs andjustice) with the purposc ol'resoiving the problcm. I he result \'vasa malor 'carnpaign" of 'distressed' parents (read: tllcrnbers ol thc parl v ol 'PaS oK t l ttac k i ng l he oc c ttpied schools with thc airn o1'physically stopping thenr. On the othcr hand, the students' ocoupatlons were also incrcased, indicating that the puptls and students were detennined to continue the struggle until the law was totally abolished. T'he pupils' respolse to lhe 'distressed parents' only meant that even more pupils stayed in the occttpied schools to protect thetlr, and tlrat their dccilcatiofi to the struggle becamc rnore fierce. AI that point the oppositron party of tho righl wing proposed a vot{i 01'no conlidence against the minister of cducatiorr in parliament This was a decisivc movc At first it was treated wilh contemot bv the left. since it indicated that the


whole ol'PaSoK would be fbrced 1o fully support the minister o{'educatton, and as such he could not resign in the near future. llowever, this move was cleverer than that. Thc stlbse' quenl. supporl ofthe whole pafry mcant that thc etiucation problem \vas now oflicialiy a govenlrnent crisis that ctiuld no longcr be resolved by positioning the minister as lhe scapegoat, fol' lowcd by a rcsignation freim his post The propos al o{ - thc oppos i l i on parl ) tnc anl that r:rthc r the primc minister r,tould ftrrce thc nlilister of s to c J Lrc ari on rc s i gn(thus c aus i rrg el i ousi ntc l nrl prohlems) or else that the rvhole gove{nmenl would have to reslgn. Fke strwEgfe now The situation at this lnornent seems to he at a halt fiorn both sides. 1he passing ol th(r law 2525197 remains an unavoidable necessity for the government and Clapital, but thc situation seems to indicale that thc governmenl lvill be forced to back down, sincc thc pupils are in a position no'iv that they have nothing to lose bv continuing liir a 1'eiv more weeks (whereas the government has). '['he The situation at the moment is explosive goveml)rerlt'slast chancesdcpend on tefforising the pupils (Arscnis declared that many schools have effectively lost the winter term)" while the pupils strongly depend on whether connections will be made with other sections of the populatloil. At this point, the necessity for the continuahon of the struggle poses itself historically; the fight against the law 2525 wili eithcr gc beyond the limits that the varittus professionals (unionists" students, 'cotnnrunists', etc) seelt to inlpose on i t, or i t ui l l c ol l aps e.For the outc ome w i l l rrot only dctennine the future ol Greek modemisatiorl bu1 it will also prove to be the basts upou which fr-rther struggles will be lbught.





fhe otrfside exan renfres Anarmunfof lheJuneevents is of ireerc / 1s$lttgCleir-6tpse,.Jutt-UJ rddtess. fton out canlod avoiloble Saneideasfor fhis artidehwe beenrippedaff fron o . fhk is nagazine Greek ELaul4JE::_!AaAPr4t.) alsoatnilsble.

fretently, the University library dedicuted part ol : i :.' I r


ils spaa far a small exhihition on the Paris


1" ,

Commune.At first lhis come with some surprise: how was il thdl, in ,he midsl of the boredom oI

I '", , ,:

ocodemic life and lhe totol Isck of interesl in dny issues of impoilance, the library was will' ing lo commemofore one of the mosl crutiat proIeldilan revolurions ol lhe nineteenlh centary? feL oar surprise qui*ly vanished when wc

li$tli,,iii ii$ 'lll.ii .iri '': lii


gave tfiis exhibition a closer look. Nal only is the exhibition of a purely academit nalure (looking ot historical events as spedocles ond


lhus a-historicolly), bat it is also tuking lhe tommune oa! of rcnle$ desaibing it by using

some of the mosl rcmmon illusions found in the

'iiii cliil iiri rffii

bourgeois world. fhis article can es as o tesponse to lhe exhibition. Our oim is not ro con' vince the people responsible lo take into dccoanl onorher pelspective, thas lalling into the liherol ideology ol 'all views shoul{ be heordi rather, ele aim lo remind lhem thdt, even in the 0isneyland they entlruct, the distorlion of history does not ga hy annoticed,

lti,,l l*,ir,l:r,i$.,:, ,i.ri';id,fi4rji,j:Jf;ji.{r,F'i;rrl Cornmune. The library exhibition claims At one point" the library exhibi.ir'!r*i,l]. tion ciaimsthat although frotn "... ,i*fr /.tlrj'i::1fi'rJ';i!r.l'iln/:. that this was a rcsult of thc nationalistic ideas of the masscsar)d the fact thc vcry outsetthe Communewas that "...rnany l)arisrans who had in associated the public rnind to l.Jr,li:i,.:l? lfit {:;r#,jJ;,fi3rj*, _if'l,uril:r beyond sirnithe Marrism,[hutJ. bome the brunt ol 'th.' rc c c ntC errnan ' " had of-fensiveon behall-ol'their oountrv larity in nanre,the Conrmune only to have surrencler lbrcc{ on i;r*i+l I'glr,r 'r lri"ri' ,pfll;;r;il1i'1;1"nothingto do with comrnunisrn" (quote frorn the library e.rlribithem, t-e angr,v and bctrayed" lt (quote from thc litrrary cxhibition). rron).Bul wlral is thc conscious .ri:i1;r,r:llg ,Sj;,*,",',i.i .1{r,rlij, ii;l.iii:, riil Yt:t, this presupposition clearly igdecisicrnof the workers thernnores a variety of faots visible to selves to take control cf tiieir tr'1il'ilrl;'lrl{'i"'ri$' ri 'iig'i' ll'iir':tl f'}b'ri" lives throughan armedrevolution anyone who looks at ,ft" poti* iu*I{ovr can this rrune: firstly, on the 30'L ol March, if not communism? the Comrnune declared that all forclairn be acoeptedwhen all the .c/lfjrirp,,f ,{rri,r#lli$r ,f,&dt #l oigncrs could be elected in the Comacts of thc Clommune(abolition mrrne hecause " tirc flag of thc of private property; abolition of " (lomtnune rvas the flag o1l l""r".il1rall;il;:rl+lv"rtlv.d" the military service;atrolition of tional dernocracy''. Seoondly" this the rents olved to tire rich; the ;rinr:ilr:ri,'ir '' i" i.r' cxplanatiorr thils to cxplain or comcreation of workers' councils hv prehend- the l-aot that thc Commugiving all p0wer ovr the facto{'ri1'J'{1tt1r:r l: /ir'L nards destloyctl on the 12thof Apnl nes to thosewlro workedrn tltem; rn thc monurnento1'thc r i c tory o[ V c nthe equation all salaries the of i'' jrrf+{t}' le+? {l';i "r''ii! to dornc for being a synrbol oinatronarClommune those of the w'orkism aud hatred an-rong the people. ers; etc) point to the direction of

The ParisCommune ernerged the end of the at donrinanceover the organ'isation social iife of Prussia war between zrndFrance. Tlie del'eat of on thebasisof a rejection capitalist oI socialrcFrancein the battlefields lrrclught Pmssian t]re lationsand ofths statsapparatus. armvoutside Paris, with the subsequent rr:sull oi' 'l'heestablishnrcn{ the Coinmunc "Paris ihe fonnation ol' the National Gr"rard. lvith of started could not[...j det'end the ftrnnationof thc rnunicipalcounc'illors, itself without armingthe chc,working class, without transforming it into a L;en universalsuffiage,responsible by and revomilitary fbrce and without training it militarily cable at all limes, the rnajority of whom werc lbr war. But when Paris is armed. that means workcrs.lror the first time aflcr 1848,the streels that the revolution is anned." (K. and that with of Paris were sal-e, M.arx, Declaratbn of t:he (iercntl of the absence the police. "'We, ' jr']fri,Lr 6,r,.,1:;"a'1l..,.rl,tii!;rlij'r{.jlxi,iiiii. (ituttci! ttf the lnternationtt/ ll,t.gttsaida menrber the Cornmurre, of ciffiiotl. o/ Workers fin lltt civrl tvuhear no longer of a.ssassinations: i:.i,:.,;: lrr dif /iirii.r]ii.l'lr'1",iil' ,il.i'l]lI!' l4lrr""rul]i lhefl and personal assault; il in p.rancc in lg7 t). whcn lhe chicl' general cf [rranoc,'l'hicrs. deoidcd to seemsindeedas if the poiice had surusnder to Ptrssra tlrc arnred peoi'lrt.l'.1#,-,i i;1r'ii'a1r'1 /i6i,ys;:l;+.i1,'dragged along with it to Verple oi'Faris rel-uscd to grve back sa i l l e s a l l i ts co n se r \a l i vc their weapons and dcclared the Paris friends,"

The crucial role playedby the fbreignersin, and their treatmentby, the Communesimply fortrids the allegation that the uprising was a result of nationalpride. Contrary to thc ideological utterances found in the library exhibition, the Conrmune was to serveas the lever for uprootingthe economical foundationsupon ivhich reststhe existenceofclasses, and it did so by cstablishing its

the destruction the c'lass of basedsocietyand of class dottinance? As soouas Thiers had realisedwhat was going to on, he beggedthe Prussians help him liberate Paris. The refusal of the Cermansmeant that Thiers was to perform the task by himself, The in anny startedgathering Versailles,and the battles with the Communards began.Although the

rul;,lu inry- li[ tiiil', mli'lm il,iliwiflilllill',,, ffi ,nrun ffi ""'flilI']ffi'!ilrfrffiffiiff qu,lii'
qlHnl'$iiilil 'fril'ffilinu,mffim{ii;lniifii;lflr ifi ffifli ntrtrr iln u$i; flfirrn, tli'iil[ium*t'flf "''
The compoign sumn*nit cacinst eeononric the
On,fane l8th, leading politieians of fhe eight higgest etunofiries will gafher in Cologne(6ermany) to tslk ohoat lhe falare of the worfd economl ond as slnost o!wflysr fhis will be the Iorgef of profesfs.
A ,norld-rvide allianoe is fonning which is according to the bulletin ol'the Brilish activists' driven by thc "rccognition that thc global capitalist systclr is at the root of our social and ccological troubles." But what sounds like a point of departure for a critical analysis is unl'ortunatcly all the campaign has to szryabout its position. Instead o1'goi ng bc y ond thi s k i nd of' c onrrnonpl aoc, i t si rnpl y statc sthat "a gl obal rnov emenl of'resi startce rs ri s i ng", and readi ng thc I' ew propagandaleallets produoedso far one soon rc. al i scsthat rt i s all aboul quarrti ti esW e are i hus told that there were lots of people on the slreets pcoat last year's economic sunrmit ("...2oo1ooo ple in India..."), lots of agit-prr,rpmaterial has becn produccd ("2t1,000 lovciy little folding leaflets..."). lots of different groups are involved (incl. trndc unions, peacegroups, church agairrst povertv, nalional r,rnjonof studcnts - to narne but a ferv) and, last but not least, the campaign bursts of tirnlastic ideas for action: "giving out liee food...lots more custard pies...laughing ail the way to thc bank...sound systenr in balloon tloating above the City!". fhem and as "We are nrore possible than tlrey can polv* erfully imagine" the campaigu tr:umpets - but this them-versus-us-logic is odd on several counts. Not only has global capitaiism - the allegecl targct - nothing to do with a simple "them". What is more, the collective "us" that is bcing invoked is uttcrly vague - "a growing alliance of social and environmental movements". The only thing all the diff'erent groups lrave in common is that in one way or the other they are atfected by global capitalism - but that, again, is merely a commonplace, insufficient as a basis for collective resistance beyond the syrnbohsm of raving a couple of hours against the gathering of some character masks in Cologne. IJut far liom being a minor nristake of the June 18th canrpaign, this indifference tor.vards the social contcnt of movcmcnts is its very csscnoe. ln their orm words: "The longer the lis1, the more et'fectivethe action." Following the requircments of media represenlation, it seeks to bring together masses.lf'he result is pure mystification. On the one side, u'e have the apocalypiic scenario - "economrc crisis, the millenniurn bLrg. environmental crisis, *ar fainine, poverfy" which then is countered by the celebrated diversity of countless firovements all around the world. The assumption is thal anyonc suffering liom the pre-sent social order is by tris very nature for its overthrow. Yet the vast rlajonty of the groups and movements listed are directed against spccific consequences atrd aspects <if

Communardsmanagedto hold their posilions for sonretinre, thc constailtbombirrgol'Paris and the trackof co-ordinationcventually lecl to ln the <lownfallof thc Comnrune. the aftermath, more tharr 20,()00 pcople were exccuted, or were imprisoned exiled tltousands wlrereas rvcre uotnlnitled Surelymany rnistakes the For example" refusalto seizethe Frenchl'lawasdcspcrtionalBanI al a ttlnewhetttnottey was ately nee<ied ofvital ifrportance A.gain'the the of existence the armedartistslvho defended in Notre l)ame from the arsonists the nameof an that the Cometernal aestheticvalue, s.ignified were still indecisivein regardsto the munarcls totality of their wcaponsand arms does Thc internal problemof cohcrcnce it but of fall uponth,:spcctre theCotnmunc. " no1 the is time to examine Commune Juslas an prrmitivisrnof cxarnple revolutionary outrnodcd but ovcrcotnc" are tnisltlics easily ali of rvhose as a positivc experitnentwhosewhole truth has nol been rediscoveredor lutfilled to this 1'he Situationnrsle, t es ott day."(lnternatronale (bmtnune, 7962j thePar i,s the The attemptto present ParisCommune by as a nationalisticrevoit, mainly characterised l1s mob' unableto even utlderstand a sengeless o\!'t1powers. only tcstifies l'trr thc desire lo

eradioate any historica'l nremories of ernanclpation. Yet, what appears to have been one of the la ilu r cs o f the w orLers' movol nel l t'temai ns onc so o f its m o st itnpofl anl successes far'

r.At somc point of flle text accon'lpanying libraty the that "..'the generals were sxhibition, it is clairned taken into custody by their own men alrd clumsilv who slto{ irr fiont of the rnob" suely' the genitrscs wrote this miglrt have done a little more resealchbeWhat actually happened fore utteting such nonsense. was that the two generals(Lekonte and Thomas) orworkers lhcir Uoopsto openfirc al an uttarrncd tlcrctJ soldiersrefused-1lregenetdoilonsttation. Mren the als st:rrlctlsucaring at thenr with rage. sotnedling rvhich lesulted into the soldiers tuming theil guns and shootingthem itl againstthe gelcrals theniselves stead.Clcarly, this was an act ofjustifred proletailan outrageaild not one of a ruthlessmob as they wish tct 11. Dlesent

capitalism- The sercondaryra'eaving together of all the single-issue-movcments leads not to a rejection of the totafi11 ef 5esictj - quite the reverse. it is simply an incoherent patch-work of people who, at least lbr a day. corne together and partl' - or throw somc custard pies in so'reirody's facc "6tobal Cspitslist, "'.,. Preoccupied rvith listing groups and original ideas f'or actions, the camputgn has dispensed lvith critical analysis. This is an imrnediate conscqucnco of the aim to bc as l-rroad as possible:Any clarification ofthe political obiectives cl'the .Iune 18th campaign woulcl reveal thc lack o1'a politioal consent betwecn c.g. thcl Zapatrstas and the NLJS, the ira.de unions and autonomrsl gror"ips.-fhis Iiind o1' short-sighted canrpaigning is based on tho vcry absence of a clear oritique of "giobal capitahsm" in ordei r{r suit virtually everybody. What remains o1'the proclaimed anti-capitaltsm is but a bunch of slogans. ijowcver, ,uvhilcradical critique of capital is obviously out cvcn alnongst those who pretend to practically opposc it, vanous rcsentments agalnst certain aspects of the prcsent-day situalron are falher grorving, rvirh "globalisation" being buzz-word numberrone. Thc lall< of "gloiral capitalism" the carnpargn displays u,ithout any clarification is pertectly well in harmony with the presentrnedia hype about globali-<ation. This consistsmainly of bemoaning the facl that. confronted n'ith an apparently unliririted {luidity ot global capital, the power o1'the nation state is vanishing . Virtually everyone has a dislike for "globalisation": Left-rvingcrs are concerned about the future ofdemocracy - sincc the politicians rviro are now allegedly rendered poweriess wert) at least democratically elected rvhereas citrzens have no say in 1he decisions that thc vigous execulives of rnultinational comorations take. Subcommandanle iv{arcos, spokesrnan of everybod1,'s d;Lrling, the Zapatistas in Mexico, seesthe organrc cultures ofpeoples being threatened by the evil fbrces ol globalised finanoe capital. -fhe French fascists ol the Front National relsct lt as an altack on the soveroignty of Lhe nati{rn state artd a threal to lational culture. l'he recenl. campai$r against the MAI (Multilateral Agreerrent on Investmcnts), rn rtany regards similar to the present.hnc I Sth canrpaign, dreu,

exactly npon this ideolopXr: As the MAi soughl to give lbrcign capilal a better posrtion agarnst national legislation. thc opposition against it drsplal,ed a sornetirnes extrerile nationalism and rvas praclioally propaganCa fbr the state. A comuron response to globalisation is thus 1hc caii lirr a rc-rcgulatton of thc cconomv h \ th ( sti l l L. N eo-l i trcral rsnr another btrzz-w ortl uscd basicalI,vsynunvnrousl1,. oflcn countered is r'r,iththc denrand fbr a Kcynesian polrcy. popuiar cspccially among lradilional lcl'ty social dr.:lrnocrats and tradc-unionists. Keynes acknowledged thal in order to prevcnt crises, the state has 1o intervcne actively into the tnarkef by direotly creating iobs (which, according to Keyiles, couid practrcally rncan to make peopie dig holes and flll thern a{lerwards) and gcncrally raising denrand (to con.rpcnsatecapital's tendency to overproduction). lt is not at all suqrrising thal in the present situation lefit' intellccluals lrke lrrrc llohsbar.nr proclaim "tlre end of neolibcralisrn" and beg Ne$,Labour to adopt a more Keync.sian stratcg)- of taxation and redistribution. ln gencral. therc are hopes that the current hegemony of social democratio governrrtents in Europe could clear the u/sy f'or an allcrnativc to "neoiiberalisnr". While the "lune i 8th campaign does not raily lbr social den,ocracy, the vague opposiiron 1o "global capitalism" it spreads is totail1 comnatibie tith addressing the state as a sutr)* posed counter-polc to the rnarltet- Atrd in fact, many of tbe movements the canrpaign is glad to have on hoarclwork along thesc lines. "fhe heart ol the etanomy" The uncrilical conccpl of' capitalism tire campaign seems to subscribe to is illusliaicd bv the concentration on the fin;rncial sector ol capilal: the global actions will take place in ihe linanoial districts, understood as the "heart of the global cconomy". While production appears to be tnerely a technical process in which useful things are made, moncy and financial instittitions are regarded as thc cssenceol capilahsrn. Yet although capitalistn cannot dispense with a developed banking svslern,it essentiallydcpcnds on the production of surplus-val'.rc throlrgh the. exploitation o1'wage-labour. 'lhe vast sums of value circulating in the banking districts rcpresent the successful result of this nrocess - and if thcy don't, the next crash is imminent. Therefbre it nould rather make sense to occunv somc fac-




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an1,bcttcr than ''big busincss"? Signiticant parts oftlre canrpaign seeni lti slick 10 thcsc notions: oomnrunity-ba.sed cotnershop versrrs Somer{leid's, small peasanlsversus aE()*capital and so otr. "Srnall rs beauli{u}" rvas alicr all a tr,iriy pol l ul l r s i ogi rrr atnungr(c -ac l l !i \15 'Ihis perspecilvc on capital gots pro{bssionaiised try groups like Corporate Watch anci Lhernatryinitialives busily catakrguing tlie nianl' sins and crinres of' indiviclual corpuraticris, rvhich practically mcans, most o{' the ti!lc, launching boycotts ald thus spreacliirgthc idca o['"consnmcr's polver". 'Ihtis" thc opposllion to l i hel l i s bas ed on thc i r i nv ol v ernerrt n N i geri a, i we are supposed not tc, cat ceftaiil chocolate bars lrccauseNestle does this anil thal and su on The criticlr.rc the lundarnental logic oi-capilal of is replaced rvitb a positivistir: and moralislrc ;tpAli this negleols the insight that eapital trrroach. in ail i1s lbrms desclvcs abolition - and the fanrily olr,ned sweat-shop is trv no means any less annoytng as a rvorkplace than A Ict'l-. Confa sion ond pse uda-pra ctice A l l thi s i s no1 l o s ay that rhc J unc 18i h campaign wuuld be in lhvour ofsweat shops and state rcgulalron, nationalisrn or social democlacy. Jt is none of this, but at thr; sarne tirns shou,s no interest in ana.lysing the dead-ends rnto which tlre articulation of socral dlscorrtenl. runs today. Instead it employs a naive strategv of imurodiacy: the imaginativc hippy-individual who "takcs his desirc for realily" is depictod as the ultinrale resp{lnscto global capitalism',vhich essentially is cornprised of tranks anrl co4rora11ons- by "them''- the evil inlurnan rnanagers run and yuppies. Everything is suppose<l to be so clear-cut and self'-cvidentthat any iirlher reileclion oan be dispenserlwith - hence the ignorance ol the rnarry ideological and practical w;lvs in w hi c h oppos i ti on gets neutral i s edi i l ' i t i s not compiicit with capital right from the beginning, as probably most of the groups on the canrpaigrr's list are ani,rvay). The call lbr mass action aftounts to confusion about the social ob.jcctivcsofthe alleged "global resistance"and ultirnatoly leads 1o mcrc pseudo-practice, i.e. much ado about nothing that givcs thosc involved thc illusion lo lay the ground "for huge social and poiitica.lchsnges".

'lhe world according lo vrlgrr anli-calrilalism. Fronr the sorial-refornrist mout hl_y l,r Moldc lliploilatique" "

torics - if thcrc is such a thing as "thc hcart ol'

l{re economy" it lies there and not at Barclays' Rank. 'l'his rnay sor.rndlike an inelcvanl fi'rotnote. But one has to keep in mind that especially thc rcoent crises in the financial sector have nurtured resentment against linancc ca.pital and prompted calls lirl a rc-rcgulalion ol'the world economy. 'l 'he 'l i tr rc s s tatc d l us t s urnrnor that "thc l Ml "s fol tl l atl ( )l ]has s rrnkto tts l ow c s l s rnc c thc trodv w.ts sct ul) in 19.1.1", social rclirrrnand ists contc up u,ith proposals atrout taxation on "r-rnproducl i ve" spec ul atrr,e api ttl (s o the s tatc c can rcdistribul': nronoy iirr thc bencllt ofall and c:rcalc jobs .). The campaign's 0oncontralion on the l l ni rnc:i alnsti t uti ons ftrrl sto c l i s ti neui s h ! i i scl l 'l i onr l hcsc pro duc ti v i s tanc lpopLrl i stc nc l c nl cies. 'l 'tri srri sl cadrng fi x ati on on { i nanc cc api tai seens to bc correctedby the second target ofthc carnpaign. thc nrultinational corporations. l3ut w hy prrvi l cgc rnul ti nati onal s 'A re nati onal c or/ poratroBs lcss capitalist? Are snrall enterprisr:s

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Are animsls u tloss? lt is a sign af oor tines ths, msny peopleprobohly respondIo this qveslion wilh a resoanding: '"Hmmmm, this takes some consideralioo"'",insteod of s prompf: "No, hollocks."
F.oxeskilled in hunts or cats torfured for whatevet obscure purposes figure morc prominently in tlie compassion-cconnmyof the avcrage decent citizen than sorneonc like Sirnon Jones, a Sussgx student taking a year off who was killed on the first day of his new shit-job which he was forced to take under the Blairite New f)eal regime. Anirnal rights actions -- ranging liorn grannllfriendly Sunday dcrnos in dre oorurfryside over the absurd hurger strike of Barry Horne to the tenorist acts of the Animal Liberation Fronl -- receive vastly more attcntion than "people's" riglrts actions of any kind. Tlre reason why all this is so can be found iri tle reforrnist ideology a1the heart oflhe animal rights dogna (1). Animals constitute the perlect victims -* they don't talk back. In contrast to oppressedpeople, who lnay not only be oppressed,but also racist or sexist thernselves,a,'iimalsare only passively srffering. This mezurs that the activist ls ilot required to deal dircctly with the objects of her activism. Instead, she will constantly inhabit a necessary role. Sincc anitnals cannot liberate themselves" lbe human liberalor is needed. Sinoe animals cannot decide their own fate (presrtpposurg

tbat a soncept like "fate" applies to animals).the hunan liberator will alwa.vs be necessary to take dccisions fbr "her" victirns (2). 1'[r'isgives the activist the gratificatiol of being essential ti.r tr.re slruggle. ln contrast, would the aim be the liberadon ofhumans rvho suffer under the capitalist system, who are forced into spirit- and, as in tle case ol'Sirnon Jorres, literally body-crushng work, the activist nrust loose her valtgtntd role rather quicltly alrd the victinrs urust become agents of tlreir own irecdonr struggle. 'l'his loss of pctsition can be an rurconrfortableprospeot fbr certain kinds of activists and the cause of aniural liberatiou, where the power position of the liberator is gualartccd, appears as a welcoine altei"native. 'This, however, does only dernonshate that anrmal righls acliwsts are not and carutot be revolLrtionary, but not the twisted nature ol'theii ideology. For animal rights actinsts, the alleviation of thc su{l'eringof animals, which is rcal arrd despicable, is and in tlreir view should be the oentral issue of the struggle lbr freedorn. I'ltis has rnultiple implications. For one tJring,it places the suffering of anirnals on a highcr level than the suffering of hunrans. 'l'his is the result of either self-hatred or an utterly twisted ideology of history. In the former case, aninral rights activists see ltunnns as usl1lg" abusing, tofluring and killing animals fbr no apparent reason, This is, however, the fallaoy in their argument. It is, of oourse, fairly easy not to be personally ulplicated in the process of alitral erpioitation (everyone can become rega4 lbr example). But this focus on imrnediate persoual action, which is one of the reasons that make the moveobscures a larger mcnt so pr,rpular, sinultanc<.rusly theoretical perspective 'rvlrich wouid mal<e olear that auirnals are at present treated the way they are out of prrcly monstary motives. lt is thursllot some evil inhcrent in hurnannature that is responsiQlb, but au econornio system ilrat in the name ofpr6fit commodifies everything. Some animal rights actilrits recognise these contradiotions within the movemcnt and inslead have dreamt rtp a bizarre theory on oppresslon. lhcy rcoogmse that humans aren't ali bad and that hrunans in their roles as workers, wotnen, mlnotlties, or generally as the alienated a{e iust as exploited as animals. Now. the theilry goes that thc exploitation of animals is the first and central instance ol' oppression. All others" wage-slavery, sexism, raoism, etc. are outgroMhs of this first oppression. I:Ience, we have to fight the exploitation of anirnals and everything else wiil fhll ittto placeIn other words, if only people leamt being nice to

:rntnrals, lhey woulcl icerrrlo lre rriceto each other as well. It is ralher littilc to elaboratc this strallge perspectrve any fiirlhcl Suflicc it 1osay thaf llitler was a velislarianand lovcd his Cicrnrarr Slrel>hertl d()gs. Llowcvcr, all this lvcirdrrcss pales intcl insignificanoe whcn onc analysestlre reformist consequcnces ol'anirnal lghts ideology: '['he rrarrowrnindcd and fanatical insistcnce that the rnost nnportant problen to fight against is the suffering of ar.dmals. esst:nce In flris mcans that tirey roally scc: nothilg wrong r.viththe ecronomic ordcr as it is, if Ortl ; i l rvcrerr'li r tl r.' s ur:ts l \ e\l j ul l l trc n{ 5 l ai l i l Oi nrals arrd slauglrtcrlrorrsos. Ma.ny liberal actrvists within thc nro\,!rilcnt ficcly admit that tlxs is thclr position, cl.rilornisccl lhcir heroine Anita Rodirr dick, tltc lltxly Slrop li;urrtlor(anclthe adrninistration's fdvoruilc Srrsscr graduate), rvho inairaged t<r becone onc ol' thc riohest people in Britain with her brand o f u rrrrpirssiorratc czrpitalisrn. Ner,'enrrind tliat she busls rrniorrs hel overseas in factories;aftei all shc rc:rllv cares abouL these people ald knows wlial is lrcst fbr thcm. lJiurecessary disto cuss, thcsu pcoplc a|c crrernios, whether tliey like anitnalsor rrol I lorvcvcr,u,ithin thc animal liberation movr:nrcrrt lhcrc arc lhose selFstyledrevolu. tionarics rvlro eorrsrtlcr llrerrrselves sornesofl ttf' as chosenpeoplc rvho havc seenthe light. Ptiure examples of llris altitudc is thc Airimal Liberatiorr Front,but also lhosc l-ltrn1 Sabswho are convinced tbat their pallnrililarl, garnesin the countrysideare 'l'he an mporliurt cor:tritrutiorr the classstrrrggie. to important thirrg lo lcnrcrnberis" however, {hat the capitalist svstcrrr ikrcs not need fcrx hunts or slaughlerhouscs. anylhing. it would probaltly be If oll Lreller lvrlhout lhent as il could serveas pfopagarrdaorr horv corrrpalib|;this mode o1'production is '"r,ith valucs.And i1 is lrood, hcalthy, enlightcnod cxaclly thrs which is the ccrrtral ibult of thc an'imal righls idcology. It does not attack the core of the pt'oblcm,it does not attack the capitalistorder. As nlentloned above. tbr the ljberals (rnany of them rvrth a post-68 scll-out trarula), this is the beauty ol it I hcy can live out thcit fallasics o1'political irctr\'rsnl witlrout distLrrbrrg But strbLLrbia. the illore radrc:rl;urimaltightists, whose dedicationtlus articlc rrcrllrcr tloubts nor belittles. should considr:r hou rrrrrrrh di(forenceit would ntakc to them and to tlrc livirrg conditions in this world if ody animal oppressr()n was elirninatedand tlre rest renrained tltc s:rrnc.SLrlcly,the conclusioncan only be that anirnallighls are not on the top ofthe priority list. Ol urrrrsc, a strugglc aimed at, to usc a trendy tcnl. the herrt of global capital takes a lot nore

tntcorrrlorlable arralysls and vision tlran ihc sirlple ammals-good. people.-trad logic. But at ieast rt is a stluggle lbr libcration a:rd no1 ibr a rcfonn o1'a rnurderors syslen. This is not 1o say that animal lights shoLlld bc on the lisl o1'pr-iorities even not as a rninor achievomerrllike. say" the abolition of r,vagelabour not autornatically would entail a betl er trc al rnel rl -anrm;rl s . ol lleoause thclc ars much more iinpodant targcts to attack and anirnal riglits aoiivists waste tune and Lrnergy- a slde-issue, on thev essentially scrvc to sustarntire stahts cyrro. Ancl irr this context it is not a coinordencethat iiniural nghts aclions recerve rnuch more rnsdia attention than rcal rt:volntionary actious. By focuss'ingin on this kuid of activisrn, tht: modia and public del:ate fLrnctionas PR agenoies fbr the anrrnai dghts ntoveileni even rvhen condernnilg il. Itr ilris way il draws people rvho liavc energXrand political dedication away fi'onr the reai sfirggle and keeps tlrem irr a safb realm in which the systeln car provc ils generosity by apparently refirnning itselfas a consequenceof puirlic; pressure -- wonderlirl, a pei.rpie's delloorar:y! Yet everything rernains the saure, expect for the systcm that lras become strongcr and in that way cail rrore effectively go aboui its business of exploitation.
(l) lVc usc rcfbmism not ir ihe slrict sclsc- I c tbc lcgalist and parliamettan, '-road to socialism" duough "gradual inprorcrncilts" as opposd lo a re\rluti.Jnal stratcg]..., but srnplv as d temr lbr those who ais to changc rninor aspwts of lho presont so ciely whilc not contsling it as a whoie. results o1'tlris abomd Animals that arc ''iibcratad" liom laboratorios oftcn citlir dia in na{urc or rctrm to the laboratories. because tlrcy arc nngblo to survil'g b-y tiremsclvcs. Anothef poprilar oceltrr'cucc is thc "iibcration" of izuge nunbers ol one speores inlo onc arca *tich conscqucntly \rccks bavoq od thc eco sl s{cn of lhis arca- killing Ioads of indigcnous animals. (2)'fragic-conricai