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Every time you move something, use your pencil, or walk, you are using
force. These forces are examples of everyday life because that is what a
force is, everyday life. Every day you use force to make your life easier.
Sometimes it is hard to understand how forces help you.
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A variety oI Iorces are investigated to show that Iorces
can change either the shape oI an object or its motion.
Both balanced and unbalanced Iorces are considered.
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f you have ever walked on slick ice, you might know how easy it is to slip and fall. ce is very
slippery because it has little friction. The surfaces of things have little bumps and scrapes that
can be so small you can't see them. These bumps and scrapes are called irregularities. Friction
is caused by these irregularities getting caught on each other as two surfaces rub together.
Some things like glass and ice don't have many irregularities to get caught on, so there is little
friction. Without the friction, you slip. On concrete, there are many things for your shoes to get
caught on so you don't slip.
Friction is a force that always acts in the opposite direction of the object's motion. For instance,
if you were sledding down a hill friction would be opposing the sled.
The force of friction wouldn't actually pull the sled up the hill. t
would only bring it to a stop. Once the sled stopped there would
be no movement between the irregularities, so there would be
no friction.
Your friend wasn't strong enough to move the truck, so he
helped you get to the gas station. Now both of you are back on
the road, driving through some snow. As you go farther south,
the snow turns into freezing rain, and your tires start to slip. Your friend, who you let drive,
panics and jams the gas. You start moving forward a little faster, but without the friction it wasn't
much. You slowly move far enough to get back on dry pavement, where your wheels stop
slipping because there is friction.

Velocity
Does mass change with veIocity?
There is sometimes confusion surrounding the subject of 2,88 in
relativity. This is because there are two separate uses of the term.
Sometimes people say "mass" when they mean "relativistic
mass", 2
7
but at other times they say "mass" when they mean
"invariant mass", 2

. These two meanings are not the same. The


invariant mass of a particle is independent of its velocity ;,
whereas relativistic mass increases with velocity and tends to
infinity as the velocity approaches the speed of light .. They can
be defined as follows,

m
r
= E/c
2

m
0
= sqrt(E
2
/c
4
- p
2
/c
2
)
Where is energy, 5 is momentum and . is the speed of light in
vacuum. The velocity dependent relation between the two is,

m
r
= m
0
/sqrt(1 - v
2
/c
2
)
cceleration
Accelerate redirects here. For other uses, see Accelerate (disambiguation).
In physics, acceleration is the rate oI change oI velocity with time.
|1|
In one dimension,
acceleration is the rate at which something speeds up or slows down. However, since velocity is
a vector, acceleration describes the rate oI change oI both the magnitude and the direction oI
velocity.
|2||3|
Acceleration has the dimensions L T
2
. In SI units, acceleration is measured in
meters per second squared (m/s
2
). (Negative acceleration i.e. retardation, also has the same
dimensions/units.)
Proper acceleration, the acceleration oI a body relative to a Iree-Iall condition, is measured by an
instrument called an accelerometer.
In common speech, the term acceleration is used Ior an increase in speed (the magnitude oI
velocity); a decrease in speed is called deceleration. In physics, a change in the direction oI
velocity also is an acceleration: Ior rotary motion, the change in direction oI velocity results in
centripetal (toward the center) acceleration; whereas the rate oI change oI speed is a tangential
acceleration.
In classical mechanics, Ior a body with constant mass, the acceleration oI the body is
proportional to the net Iorce acting on it (Newton's second law):
Newtons First Law of Motion:
|. Every object |n a state of un|form mot|on tends to rema|n |n that state
of mot|on un|ess an externa| force |s app||ed to |t.
%is we recognize as essentially Galileo's concept of inertia, and tis is often termed simply
te "Law of Inertia".
Newtons Second Law of Motion:
||. The re|at|onsh|p between an object's mass 2 |ts acce|erat|on a and
the app||ed force |s 2,. Acce|erat|on and force are vectors (as
|nd|cated by the|r symbo|s be|ng d|sp|ayed |n s|ant bo|d font}; |n th|s
|aw the d|rect|on of the force vector |s the same as the d|rect|on of the
acce|erat|on vector.
%is is te most powerful of Newton's tree Laws, because it allows quantitative
calculations of dynamics: ow do velocities cange wen forces are applied. Notice te
fundamental difference between Newton's 2nd Law and te dynamics of ristotle:
according to Newton, a force causes only a change in velocity (an acceleration); it does not
maintain te velocity as ristotle eld.
%is is sometimes summarized by saying tat under Newton, F ma, but under ristotle F
mv, were v is te velocity. %us, according to ristotle tere is only a velocity if tere is
a force, but according to Newton an object wit a certain velocity maintains tat velocity
unless a force acts on it to cause an acceleration (tat is, a cange in te velocity). s we
ave noted earlier in conjunction wit te discussion of Galileo, ristotle's view seems to be
more in accord wit common sense, but tat is because of a failure to appreciate te role
played by frictional forces. Once account is taken of all forces acting in a given situation it
is te dynamics of Galileo and Newton, not of ristotle, tat are found to be in accord wit
te observations.
Newtons Tbird Law of Motion:
|||. For every act|on there |s an equa| and oppos|te react|on.
Type of Force
(unJ Symbol)
escription of Force
Applied Force
Fapp
An applied Iorce is a Iorce that is applied to an object by a person or another object. II a person is
pushing a desk across the room, then there is an applied Iorce acting upon the object. The applied
Iorce is the Iorce exerted on the desk by the person.
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ravity Force
{also known as Weigbt]
Fgrav
The Iorce oI gravity is the Iorce with which the earth, moon, or other massively large object
attracts another object towards itselI. By deIinition, this is the weight oI the object. All objects
upon earth experience a Iorce oI gravity that is directed downward towards the center oI the
earth. The Iorce oI gravity on earth is always equal to the weight oI the object as Iound by the
equation:
Fgrav = m * g
ere g 98 n/kg (on LarL%
and m mass (in kg)
(Caution: do not conIuse weight with mass.)
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Normal Force
Fnorm
The normal Iorce is the support Iorce exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable
object. For example, iI a book is resting upon a surIace, then the surIace is exerting an upward
Iorce upon the book in order to support the weight oI the book. On occasions, a normal Iorce is
exerted horizontally between two objects that are in contact with each other. For instance, iI a
person leans against a wall, the wall pushes horizontally on the person.
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Friction Force
Ffrict
The Iriction Iorce is the Iorce exerted by a surIace as an object moves across it or makes an eIIort
to move across it. There are at least two types oI Iriction Iorce - sliding and static Iriction.
Thought it is not always the case, the Iriction Iorce oIten opposes the motion oI an object. For
example, iI a book slides across the surIace oI a desk, then the desk exerts a Iriction Iorce in the
opposite direction oI its motion. Friction results Irom the two surIaces being pressed together
closely, causing intermolecular attractive Iorces between molecules oI diIIerent surIaces. As
such, Iriction depends upon the nature oI the two surIaces and upon the degree to which they are
pressed together. The maximum amount oI Iriction Iorce that a surIace can exert upon an object
can be calculated using the Iormula below:
F
Irict
F
norm

The Iriction Iorce is discussed in more detail later on this page.
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Air Resistance Force
Fair
The air resistance is a special type oI Irictional Iorce that acts upon objects as they travel through
the air. The Iorce oI air resistance is oIten observed to oppose the motion oI an object. This Iorce
will Irequently be neglected due to its negligible magnitude (and due to the Iact that it is
mathematically diIIicult to predict its value). It is most noticeable Ior objects that travel at high
speeds (e.g., a skydiver or a downhill skier) or Ior objects with large surIace areas. Air resistance
will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 3.
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Tension Force
Ftens
The tension Iorce is the Iorce that is transmitted through a string, rope, cable or wire when it is
pulled tight by Iorces acting Irom opposite ends. The tension Iorce is directed along the length oI
the wire and pulls equally on the objects on the opposite ends oI the wire.
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Spring Force
Fspring
The spring Iorce is the Iorce exerted by a compressed or stretched spring upon any object that is
attached to it. An object that compresses or stretches a spring is always acted upon by a Iorce
that restores the object to its rest or equilibrium position. For most springs (speciIically, Ior those
that are said to obey Hooke's Law), the magnitude oI the Iorce is directly proportional to the
amount oI stretch or compression oI the spring.

.9;9 ubeu9 let.0
u|||ng forces and rubber bands Sloly sLreLc a rubber band and
Lnk abouL aL you are dong MosL people use Lo ands placed aL
opposLe ends of Le rubber band and pull L eac and aay from
eac oLer 1s means Lere are Lo pullng forces acLng on Le
rubber band n opposLe drecLons no Lry Lo sLreLc Le rubber band
by usng one and and by grabbng Le rubber band aL only one place
We kno Ls possble Lo sLreLc Le rubber band L one and usng
your Lumb and fnger aL Lo dfferenL places buL can you fgure ouL a
ay Lo sLreLc Le rubber band by applyng Le force aL only one place?
lf you ooked Le rubber band over someLng Lo sLreLc L s Lere
only one force acLng aL only one place?