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Meridian Junior College

Summary of Periodic Table - Chemical Periodicity

Physical Properties of Period 3 Element

Period 3 element Atomic No. Atomic Radius Graph 1 Ionic Radius Graph 2 Melting pt Graph 3 m.p. from Na to Al due to increasing metallic bond strength as no. of valence e- contributed per atom into sea of delocalised electrons Na 11 Mg 12 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18

Across the period, nuclear charge & negligible in shielding effect, effective nuclear charge atomic radius Formation of Cations Ionic Radius from Na+ to Si4+ as nuclear charge (each ion : Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Si4+ have 10 e-) High m.p. due to giant metallic structure. There is strong metallic bonding. Highest m.p. due to macromolecular structure. Numerous covalent bonds between Si atoms arranged tetrahedrally in a 3Dimensional structure. Low electrical conductivity as Si is a metalloid Formation of Anions Ionic Radius from P3- to Cl- as nuclear charge (each ion : P3- , S2-, Cl- have 18 e-) Low m.p. due to simple molecular structure. Weak van der waals forces between molecules. M.p of S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar due to decrease in size of electron cloud as no. of electrons decreases.

Electrical conductivity Graph 4 First I.E Graph 5

High electricial conductivity, from Na to Al as no. of valence e- contributed per atom into sea of delocalised electrons Generally 1st I.E. across period as nuclear chare g and negligible increase in shielding effect, effective nuclear charge more energy required to remove the valence electron

Non-conductor of electricity due to absence of delocalised electrons or mobile ions

Electronegativity Graph 6

Lower 1st I.E of Al than Mg as the 3p e- in Al is at further away from the nucleus compared to 3s e- being removed in Mg; Lower 1st I.E of S than P as a paired 3p e- in S is removed which experiences inter-electron repulsion compared to an unpaired 3p ein P. across period as nuclear charge and negligible increase in shielding effect, Effective. nuclear charge across period.

MJC 2011

Summary of Trends exhibited by Elements across Period 3 Atomic radius / nm

Graph 1

Ionic radius /nm

Graph 2

Graph 5


Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ Si


Proton number
Na Mg Al Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Si


Proton number

Electrical conductivity

Graph 3

Graph 4

Graph 6

Na Mg Al




Proton number

MJC 2011

Chemical Properties of Period 3 Element

Period 3 element Reaction with dry O2* Na Very vigorous Burns with yellow flame Mg Very vigorous Burns with bright white flame
Mg (s) + O2 (g) MgO (s)

Al Needs to be heated to 800 0C due to presence of the protective Al2O3 oxide layer
4Al (s) + 3O2 (g) 2Al2O3 (s)

Si Slow Needs to be strongly heated

Si(s) + O2 (g) SiO2 (s)

P Vigorous Forms a dense white smoke

P4(s) + 3O2 (g) P4O6 (s) P4(s) + 5O2 (g) P4O10 (s)

S Slow Burns with a blue flame With excess O2, SO2 is oxidised to SO3
S(s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g)

Cl ---

Ar ---

2Na (s) + O2 (g) Na2O (s)

Reaction with dry Cl2*

Very vigorous
Na (s) + Cl2 (g) 2NaCl (s)

Mg(s) + Cl2 (g) MgCl2 (s)

2Al(s) + 3Cl2 (g) Al2Cl6 (s)

Si (s) + 2Cl2 (g) SiCl4 (l)

Slow 2 chlorides (PCl3 & PCl5) formed PCl5 formed in excess Cl2
P4(s) + 6Cl2 (g) 4 PCl3 (s) P4(s) +10Cl2 (g) 4 PCl5 (s)

Slow (Not required in syllabus)



Reaction with cold water*

Reacts vigorously with water to form hydroxide & H2(g)

2 Na (s) + 2 H2O 2NaOH(aq) + H2 (g)

React very slightly with cold water but burns in steam.

Mg (s) + H2O (g) MgO (s) + H2 (g)

Al reacts with steam. 2 Al(s) + 3 H2O (g) Al2O3 (s) + 3 H2

No reaction

MJC 2011

Properties of Period 3 Oxides

Period 3 oxide Oxidation No. Structure Nature of Oxide Reaction with water* Na2O +1 MgO +2 Al2O3 +3 SiO2 +4 P4O6, P4O10 +3, +5 SO2, SO3 +4, +6

Oxidation no. of oxides across period as no. of valence e- available for bond formation Giant Ionic Lattice Structure Ionic & basic Forms NaOH with water (pH 13) Forms Mg(OH)2 with boiling water (pH 9) Ionic & amphoteric No reaction (pH = 7) Giant molecular Structure Simple molecular Structure Covalent & acidic Form H3PO3, H3PO4 with water
(pH 2)

Form H2SO3, H2SO4 with water

(pH 2) SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq) SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) MgO (s) + H2O(l) Al2O3 does not dissolve in water because of P4O6(s) + 6H2O(l) 4H3PO3(aq) 2NaOH(aq) Mg2+ (aq) + its extremely high lattice energy 2OH (aq)
- Large amounts of energy are required to break the numerous strong covalent bonds, solvation cannot occur.


P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) 4H3PO4(aq)

Reaction with acid*

Form salt and water

Na2O(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

Forms Al3+ (aq) Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) 2AlCl3(aq) + 3 H2O(l) White ppt dissolves in excess NaOH to form colorless complex, Al(OH)4 (aq)
Al2O3(s) + 3H2O(l) + 2NaOH(aq) 2NaAl(OH)4(aq)

No reaction

Reaction with alkali*

No reaction

Reacts with conc. NaOH to form Na2SiO3 (aq)

SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l)

Forms salt and water

P4O6(s) + 12 NaOH(aq) 4 Na3PO3(aq) + 6 H2O(l) P4O10(s) + 12 NaOH(aq) 4 Na3PO4(aq) + 6 H2O(l) SO2(g) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na2SO3(aq) + H2O(l) SO3(g) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)

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Melting Points of Period 3 oxides

pH of resulting solution when Period 3 oxides react with water

Graph 7

Graph 8

pH of solution

pH of resulting solution when Period 3 chlorides react with water

Graph 9
oxides 7






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Properties of Period 3 Chlorides

Period 3 chloride Oxidation No. Structure Reaction with water* NaCl +1 MgCl2 +2 AlCl3 +3 SiCl4 +4 Simple molecular structure
Slight Hydrolysis acidic solution Al2Cl6(s) + 12H2O(l) 2[Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) + 6Cl-(aq) [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+(aq) + H+(aq) Complete Hydrolysis acidic solution SiCl4 + 2H2O SiO2 + 4HCl Complete Hydrolysis acidic solution PCl3 + 3H2O H3PO3 + 3HCl PCl5 + 4H2O H3PO4 + 5HCl

PCl3, PCl5 +3, +5

Giant Ionic Lattice structure

Hydration only No hydrolysis neutral solution NaCl (s) +aq Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) Slight hydrolysis slightly acidic solution MgCl2 (s) + 6H2O [Mg(H2O)6]2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) [Mg(H2O)6]2+(aq) [Mg(H2O)5(OH)]+(aq) + H+(aq) Neutral pH = 7 Slightly acidic pH = 6.5

Acidic pH = 3

Acidic pH = 2

Acidic pH = 2

MJC 2011

MJC 2011