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Summary of Periodic Table Group II Properties of Group II Element

Group II element Atomic No. Atomic Radius 1st I.E.

Be 4 Mg 12 Ca 20 Sr 38 Ba 56

Down the group Nuclear charge increases. Significant increase in screening effect outweighs increase in nuclear charge Effective nuclear charge decreases down the group Weaker electrostatic attraction between nucleus and valence electrons Valence electrons are further away from the nucleus Smaller amount of energy needed to remove the valence electron (for1st IE only) Group II metals have giant metallic lattice structure Down a group, atomic radius increases Weaker electrostatic attraction between the cations and sea of delocalised electrons Metallic bond strength decreases

Melting Point

Chemical Reactivity Gp II metals are very good reducing agents

Reducing power & chemical reactivity increases down the group Down the group, the atomic radius increases it becomes easier to lose the 2 outermost electrons (oxidation more likely to occur) (OR the ionisation energy decreases thus valence electrons are more easily lost) E is negative and decreases M2+ + 2e M E < 0 2+ + 2e Mg E = -2.38V e.g Mg Ca2+ + 2e Ca E = -2.87V Reactivity of Group II elements increases. (e.g. Ca is more reactive than Mg)

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Group II element Reaction with water

Be No reaction with cold water or steam

Mg Reacts very slightly with cold water It reacts rapidly with steam to form oxide MgO dissolves partially in water to give a weakly alkaline solution Mg(s) + H2O(g) MgO(s) + H2(g) MgO(s) + H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq)

Ca Reacts vigorously with cold water to give sparingly soluble Ca(OH)2

Sr Reacts vigorously with cold water to give sparingly soluble Sr(OH)2

Ba Reacts vigorously with cold water to give soluble Ba(OH)2

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s) + H2(g)

Sr(s) + 2H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(s)+ H2(g)

Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

Reaction with Oxygen

All Group II metals burn with a bright flame to form basic oxides. (exception: BeO which is amphoteric) 2Ca(s) + O2(g) 2Sr(s) + O2(g) 2Ba(s) + O2(g) 2CaO(s) 2SrO(s) 2BaO(s)

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Reaction of Group II Metal Oxides with Water Group II Oxides Nature of oxide BeO
Amphoteric (ionic bond with covalent character since Be2+ has high charge density) (reacts with both acids and bases) BeO + 2HCl BeCl2 + H2O BeO + 2OH- H2O Be(OH)42Insoluble in water





Basic (ionic bond) (reacts with acids to give salt and water)

MO + 2HCl MCl2 + H2O M = Gp II metals

Dissolve in water to give an alkaline solution (pH 10 13) Slightly soluble in water (pH9) MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 CaO(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) SrO(s) + H2O(l) Sr(OH)2(aq) BaO(s) + H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq)

Reaction with water

Thermal Stability of Carbonates, Nitrates and Hydroxides Thermal stability of Group II salts increases down the group or Thermal decomposition temperature of Group II salts increases down the group Down the group, size of cation increases (while charge remains unchanged) charge density of the cation decreases polarising power of the cation decreases cation is less able to distort electron cloud of an anion thermal stability of compound increases. M(NO3)2(s) MO(s) + 2NO2(g) + O2(g) (brown gas) MCO3(s) MO(s) + CO2 (g) M(OH)2(s) MO(s) + H2O(g) where M refers to any Group II metal

MgO is used as refractory lining for high temperature furnaces because of its high melting point. CaO (quicklime) or CaCO3 (limestone) is used for liming (increased soil pH).

MJC 2011

MJC 2011