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A timeline of the Barbars

A time-line of the Barbars

(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)


Mounted archers

200BC: Mao-tun unites the Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeastern Mongolia, with capital in Longcheng (near Ulan Bator)

176BC: the Hsiung-nu attack eastern China (the Tocharians)

140BC: Han emperor Wu-ti conducts campaigns against the Hsiung-nu

121BC: China defeats the Hsiung-nu

51 BC: the Hsiung-nu split into two hordes, with the eastern (southern) horde subject to China

50 BC: the western Huns expand to the Volga

48 AD: the Hsiung-nu empire is defeated by the Han and dissolves

337AD: Constantine dies and the Roman empire is divided in eastern (Costantinople) and western (Rome) empire

350AD: Hunnic invasion of South-eastern Europe

376AD: Huns, led by Uldin, reach the Black Sea and the Danube, conquering the eastern Goths

395AD: the Huns raid Armenia

408AD: Uldin crosses the Danube but is defeated by Rome

408AD: the Roman patrician Aetius is taken prisoner by the Huns

412AD: the new Hun leader Donatus is murdered by the Romans and is succeeded by Charato (Karaton), who unifies all Western Huns

425AD: Huns are hired by a western Roman general (Aetius) to fight in Italy during a political crisis

430AD: the new Hun leader Rugida (Rua) signs a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire (annual salary in return for peace)

433AD: Rugida (Rua) signs a treaty with the western Roman empire that surrenders Pannonia to the Huns in exchange for military help

433AD: Aetius becomes the de-facto ruler of the western Roman empire

434AD: Rugida (Rua) dies and is succeeded by Attila (a friend of Aetius) and his brother Bleda

435AD: Aetius employs Huns to fight Vandals and Franks

436AD: Aetius and the Huns destroy the Burgundians

439AD: Attila helps Aetius

441AD: the Huns raid eastern Roman outposts along the Danube

441AD: the Huns sign a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire

445AD: by murdering his brother, Attila becomes sole leader of the Huns, who are centered in Hungary (Pannonia)

447AD: the Huns and Valamer's Goths attack the eastern Roman empire in the Balkans and Attila reaches the walls of Constantinople

449AD: Attila signs a new treaty with the eastern Roman empire

450AD: the new emperor Marcian reneges on the Hun-Roman treaty

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A timeline of the Barbars

451AD: Huns travel from Pannonia and attack Gaul but are defeated by Aetius and the Visigoths

452AD: Huns cross the Alps but renounce attacking Italy for fear of the plague and Attila concludes peace with Pope Leo

453AD: Attila dies

454AD: Goths expel Huns from Pannonia

454AD: Aetius is murdered by his emperor

461AD: the Huns besiege Paris

469AD: the Hun king Dengizik dies and the Huns disappear



BC: the Scythians (or Sakas), a pastoral nomadic Indo-European group, settle between the

Don and the Carpathians


BC: the Scythian king Partatua marries an Assyrian princess


BC: the Scythians invade the Median empire


BC: the Medes defeat the Scythians


BC: the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia


BC: king Atheas unites all Scythian tribes and expands their territory to the border with




BC: Atheas of Scythia is killed in the war against Philip of Macedonia


BC: the Celts in the west and the Sarmatians in the east destroy the Scythian kingdom


70BC: Julius Caesar establishes the north-western border at the Rhein

100AD: Vandals inhabit the land between Elbe and Vistula (northern Germany)

160AD: Vandals inhabit Slesia

270AD: Vandals cross the Rhein

330AD: Constantine grants the Vandals land in Pannonia (Hungary)

360AD: the Vandals convert to christianity

406AD: Vandals cross the Rhein and occupy Spain

407AD: Roman general Stilicho (of Vandal descent) stops the Vandals on their way to Italy

419AD: Gunderic unifies the Vandals of northern (Alans) Spain and southern (Vandals) Spain

421AD: Vandals defeat the Roman army

427AD: Gunderic dies and is succeeded by his brother Gaiseric/Gensenric

427: Gaiseric's Vandals cross the strait of Gibraltar and land in Africa

429AD: Vandals, led by Gaiseric, invade northern Africa and are recognized as an independent kingdom

439AD: Gaiseric conquers Carthage

455AD: Gaiseric's Vandals sack Rome

468AD: A Roman expedition against Gaiseric's Vandals is defeated and Rome recognizes Vandal rule over the Italian islands

477AD: Gaiseric dies

534AD: the Roman general Belisarius recaptures Africa from the vandals


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A timeline of the Barbars



0BC: Poland

50: Danube (Marcomannic war)

150AD: Roman expansion in Europe halted

200AD: Visigoths (Balthi family, forests of Central Europe, originally known as Tervingian Goths) and Ostrogoths (Amals family, from the Don to the Dnestr, originally known as Greuthungian Goths)

238AD: First Gothic incursion into the Roman empire

250AD: Goths settle in Scythia (Black Sea)

268AD: Goths raid Athens

340AD: Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible")

370AD: Ermanarich rules all the Greuthungian Goths from the Baltic to the Black Sea

375AD: Ermanarich is defeated by the Huns and commits suicide, while his Goths become subjects of the Huns

376AD: the Tervingian king Athanaric is defeated by the Huns and his Goths are pushed into the Carpathians by the advancing Huns

376AD: Athanaric's rival Fritigern converts to (Arian) christianity in order to benefit from Roman help, crosses the Danube and demands admission to the empire

378AD: the Romans are defeated at Hadrianapolis by Fritigern's Goths and the emperor is killed

395AD: Stilicho (a German of Vandal descent) is appointed supreme commader of the western Roman army

390AD: the Gothic general Alaric is hired as a Roman commander

395AD: Alaric unifies the Goths of the Balkans (Visigoths)

397AD: Stilicho attacks his old friend Alaric, but lets him repeatedly escape

401AD: Alaric invades Italy but is defeated by Stilicho (who lets him escape again)

402AD: the western Roman empire moves its capital from Rome to Ravenna

408AD: Stilicho is assassinated in a coup

410AD: Alaric sacks Rome

411AD: Alaric dies on hs way to Africa and is succeeded by his brother-in-law Ataulf, who marches back north to Gaul

412AD: the Romans expel the Visigoths and force them to settle in south-western Gaul and help fight the Vandals

414: Ataulf marries Galla Placida, the emperor's sister

415: Ataulf marches into Spain where he is assassinated and is succeeded by his brother Wallia

418: the emperor grants Wallia's Visigoths to settle in Aquitaine (Atlantic coast of France)

447AD: Valamer unifies Goths in Pannonia and helps Huns fight the Romans

451AD: Visigoths help Rome fight Huns (and their subjects Valamer's Pannonian Goths)

454AD: Valamer's Goths expel the Huns from Pannonia and his Goths regain their independence

456AD: the Visigoths enter Spain

462AD: Visigoths gain Narbonne

466AD: Euric becomes leader of the Visigoths

469: Euric conquers Gaul as far as the Loire

471AD: following a revolt against Rome, Strabo is appointed general and leader of the Thracian Goths, who are "foederati"

473AD: Euric invades Catalonia

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A timeline of the Barbars

476AD: Theodoric becomes king of the Pannonian Goths

475AD: Euric declares his independence from Rome and founds the Visigothic kingdom in Spain

476AD: Euric invades southwestern France

476AD: Pannonian Goths revolt and Theodoric is appointed general by a contender to the title of emperor

476AD: Strabo dies

476AD: Odoacer, a mercenary in the service of Rome, leader of the Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, deposes the western Roman emperor and thereby terminates the western Roman empire

480AD: Euric invades Spain

484AD: Euric dies

484AD: Theodoric becomes consul

488AD: Theodoric unifies Pannonian and Thracian Goths (Ostrogoths)

488AD: following orders from the eastern Roman emperor Zeno, Theodoric's Ostrogoths (still settled in Pannonia) invade Odoacer's Italian kingdom

493AD: Theodoric's Ostrogoths kill Odoacer and Theodoric becomes the new king of Italy, with capital in Ravenna

496AD: Franks attack the Visigoths in France

507AD: Visigoths are defeated by the Franks and move to Spain

508AD: Theodoric de facto annexes the Visigoths (southern Gaul and Spain)

526AD: Theodoric dies and his kingdom disintegrates

534AD: the Visigoths move their capital to Toledo

536AD: the Roman general Belisarius lauches a campaign to recover Italy

539AD: the Ostrogoths conquer Milan

546AD: the Ostrogoths led by Totila sack Rome

546AD: the Lombards under Audoin invade the Danube valley

550AD: Codex Argenteus

550AD: Getica

553AD: the Ostrogoths are expelled from Italy by the eastern Roman armies

554AD: the new king of the Visigoths, Athanagild, accepts the emperor's sovereignity over Spain

561AD: the Ostrogoths are destroyed by the eastern Roman empire

568AD: Alboin's Lombards, expelled by the Avars from Pannonia, invade northern Italy

569AD: Leovigild becomes king of the Visigoths

580AD: Arian synod in Toledo

586AD: Leovigild dies after unifying most of Iberia

587AD: the new Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism and the Gothic language is abandoned

603AD: the Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia

612AD: the Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity

614AD: the Visigoths reconquer all of Spain from the Roman empire

620AD: the Visigoths conquer the last Roman possession in Spain

711AD: the Moors invade Spain and destroy the Visigothic kingdom

718AD: Pelayo unites with the Visigothic leaders who have been defeated by Tariq, and creates the kingdom of Asturias in northwestern Spain, thus creating the kingdom of Leon

751AD: the Lombards, under king Aistulf, conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines

774AD: the Franks of Charlemagne annex the Lombards

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A timeline of the Barbars



260AD: Paul of Samosata preaches that Jesus was not God

264AD: A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata

268AD: Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man

311AD: Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage, claiming independence of church and state

313AD: Constantine recognizes the Christian church

314AD: Donatism is condemned as a heresy

316AD: Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa

318AD: Arius (b 256), a student of Lucian, preaches in Alexandria

320AD: Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops

325AD: at the council of Nicaea the Arians are defeated

340AD: Ulfila converts the Goths to Arianism

353AD: the new emperor favors Arianism

379AD: the Roman empire bans Arianism

411AD: thanks to St Augustine, Donatism begins to decline

496AD: Clovis converts the Franks to catholicism

534AD: the Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals

555AD: the Franks conquer the Arian people of France

587AD: the Visigoths convert to catholicism

639AD: Islam invades Africa and Donatism disappears

650AD: Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism


375 AD: nomadic Mongolian tribes of central Asia (possibly remnants of the Hsiung-nu, Xiongnu, Huns) organize themselves into a confederation, the Juan-juan (Avars)

394 AD: Kutelburi becomes khan of the Juan-juan empire, that stretches from Manchuria in the east to Lake Balkhash in the west

450 AD: the Juan-juan fight the Northern Wei dynasty

500 AD: the Juan-juan convert to Buddhism

552 AD: the Juan-juan are defeated and expelled by their Turkic-speaking vassals

558 AD: the Avars (remnants of the Juan-juan) invade the Russian steppes and push the Slavs to the west

560 AD: the eastern Roman emperor Justinian hires the Avars to fight the Huns and Slavs

568 AD: the Avars invade Pannonia and Dalmatia, expelling the Lombards who move towards Italy

571 AD: the eastern Roman empire signs a peace treaty with the Avars

590 AD: the empire of the Avars extends from the Volga to the Danube to the Baltic Sea

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A timeline of the Barbars

599 AD: the Avars capture and execute 12,000 Byzantine prisoners

626 AD: the Avars lay siege to Costantinople

796 AD: the Franks defeat the Avars

810 AD: Bulgars, under king Krum, destroy the Avars


630: the nomadic Turkic-speaking Khazars emerge from the break-up of the western (Kok) Turkish empire and settle in southern Russia with capital at Balanjar (Verkhneye Chir-Yurt)

640: dual kingship (kagan and bek)

650: the Khazars' expansion drives Bulgars westward

683: Khazars raid Armenia and Georgia

725: the Khazars transfer their capital to Samandar in the northern Caucasus

730: Khazars raid Azerbaijan

737: the Khazars are defeated by the Arabs and forced to convert to Islam

750: the Kazars transfer their capital to Itil (Atil) on the Volga River

762: the Kazars invade the Transcaucasus

860: Cyril visits Khazaria

861: the Khazars under king Bulan convert to Judaism

896: the kingdom of Hungary is formed by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes

939: the Khazars defeat the Rus led by Oleg

965: Khazars are defeated at Sarkel by Svyatoslav of Kiev

1016: Byzantine emperor Basil II and the Rus defeat the last Khazar kagan Georgius Tzul


1600 BC: Stonehenge

1200 BC: Celts inhabit northern France and western Germany

500 BC: Celts settle in the British islands

400 BC: Celts use iron

400 BC: Celts invade Northern Italy

300 BC: Celts settle in Ireland

279 BC: Celts raid Delphi in Greece

58 BC: Julius Caesar conquers the French Celts (or Gauls)

47 AD: Rome conquers the English Celts (or Britanni)

410 AD: the Romans withdraw from Britain

432 AD: the Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland

750 AD: several monasteries founded in Ireland, from which Irish monks evangelize the rest of Europe

795 AD: Vikings raid Ireland

831 AD: Vikings invade Ireland and found Dublin

850 AD: Vikings trade slaves along the Dniepr and Volga

968 AD: Brian Boru defeats the Vikings

1002 AD: Brian Boru unifies all of Ireland

A timeline of the Barbars

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