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FORCE AND MOTION

2.1 AAALYSIAC LIAEAR MO1IOA

Distance and displacement
1. Types oI physical quantity:
(i) Scalar quantity:
..........................
(ii) Vector quantity:
.........................
2. The diIIerence between distance and displacement:
(i) Distance:
............................
(ii) Displacement:
..........................
3. Distance always longer than displacement.
4. Example: The Iollowing diagram shows the location oI Johor Bahru and Desaru.
You can travel by car using existing road via Kota Tinggi, or travel by
a small plane along straight path.
Calculate how Iar it is Irom Johor Bahru to Desaru iI you traveled by:
a. The car
b. The plane

Solution:

Hands-on Activity 2.2 pg 10 oI the practical book.
Idea oI distance and displacement, speed and velocity.
\$peed and velocity

1. Speed is
.................................
2. Velocity is:
..................................
Kota Tinggi
60 km
41 km
53 km
Desaru
Johor
Bahru
3. Average oI speed: ...........................

4. Average oI velocity:
.............................
5. Example:
An aeroplane Ilies Irom A to B, which is located 300 km east oI A. Upon reaching B,
the aeroplane then Ilies to C, which is located 400 km north. The total time oI Ilight is
4 hours. Calculate
i. The speed oI the aeroplane
ii. The velocity oI the aeroplane

Solution:

Acceleration and deceleration
1. Study the phenomenon below;

Observation:
..............................
2. Acceleration is, ............................
Then, a
3. Example oI acceleration;

20 m s
-1

0 m s
-1

40 m s
-1

Or, a v u
t
A B C
t 2 s
t 2 s

Calculate the acceleration oI car;
i) Irom A to B

ii) From B to C

4. Deceleration happens
............................
..................................
..
5. Example oI deceleration;
A lorry is moving at 30 m s
-1
, when suddenly the driver steps on the brakes and it stop
5 seconds later. Calculate the deceleration oI lorry.

Analysing of motion
1. Linear motion can be studied in the laboratory using a ticker timer and a ticker tape.
ReIer text book photo picture 2.4 page 26.
(i) Determination oI time:

(ii) Determination oI displacement as the length oI ticker tape over a period oI
time.

x
y

(iii) Determine the type oI motion;

20 m s
-1
0 m s
-1

40 m s
-1

...................................

......................................

...................................
(iv) Determination oI velocity

displacement ......... time
..............
Velocity, v

(v) Determine the acceleration

The equation of motion
1. The important symbols :
..........................
..................................
..
2. The list oI important Iormula;

Length/cm
8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0
u
v
ticks

3. Example 1 : A car traveling with a velocity oI 10 m s
-1
accelerates uniIormly at a rate
oI 3 m s
-2
Ior 20 s. Calculate the displacement oI the car while it is accelerating.

Example 2 : A van that is traveling with velocity 16 m s
-1
decelerates until it comes to rest.
II the distance traveled is 8 m, calculate the deceleration oI the van.

Execise 2
1. Figure 2.1 shows a tape chart
consisting oI 5-tick strip. Describe
the motion represented by AB and BC.
In each case, determine the ;

(a) displacement

(b) average velocity
Figure 2.1

(c) acceleration

2. A car moving with constant velocity oI 40 ms
-1
. The driver saw and obtacle in Iront
and he immediately stepped on the brake pedal and managed to stop the car in 8 s.
The distance oI the obstacle Irom the car when the driver spotted it was 180 m. How
Iar is the obstacles Irom the car has sttoped.

Length / cm

16

12

8

4

0
A B C Time/s

22 ANALY\$ING MOTION GRAPH\$

The data oI the motion oI the car can be presented..............
The displacement-time Graph

0m 100m 200m 300m 400m 500m displacement
0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s time
a) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

........................

........................

time (s) ..........................
b) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

..........................

.........................

time (s) ..........................

c) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

..........................

.........................

time (s) ...........................

d) Displacement (m) Graph analysis:

...........................

............................

time (s) ...........................

.........................

The velocity-time Graph

c) v (m s
-1
) Graph analysis:

.......................
...................
..
e) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

........................

........................

........................
time (s)
........................

I) displacement (m) Graph analysis:

A B ........................

........................

.......................
O C time (s)
a) v/ m s
-1
Graph analysis:
........................
........................
.......................
t t / s

b) v/ m s
-1
Graph analysis:
.........................
......................
......................
t t / s ......................

.....................
t
1
t
2
t (s)

d) v (m s
-1
) Graph analysis:

..........................

......................
...................
.. t (s)
...................
..
....................
....

e) v (m s
-1
) Graph analysis:

.........................
.......................
...................
..
t (s)
...................
..
Examples
.....................
1. s/m

!
"
#
\$
0 2 4 6 8 t/s
Calculate:-
(i) Velocity over OP, QR and RS
(ii) Displacement

Solution :

2.

Excercise 22
1. (a) s/m (b) s/m (c) s/m
10

t/s 0 2 4 t/s t/s

-5 -10
Figure 2.21
Describe and interpret the motion oI a body which is represented by the displacement
time graphs in Figure 2.21

2. Describe and interpret the motion oI body which is represented by the velocity-time
graphs shown in Iigure 2.22. In each case, Iind the distance covered by the body and
its displacement

(a) v/m s
-1
(b) v/m s
-1

10

!
"
#
v/m s
-1

10

5

0 2 4 6 8 10 t/s
Calculate:-
(i) acceleration,a over OP, PQ and QR
(ii) Displacement

Solution :
t/s 0 2 4 t/s

-5 -10

Figure 2.22

2 &NDER\$TANDING INERTIA
Idea of inertia
1.
..................................
..
2.
..................................
..
3.
..................................
..
Hand-on activity 2.5 in page 18 oI the practical book to gain an idea oI inertia

4. Meaning oI inertia :
....................................
..
..................................
..
Mass and inertia
1. ReIer to Iigure 2.14 oI the text book, the child and an adult are given a push to swing.
(i) which one oI them will be more diIIicult to be moved ...........
(ii) which one oI them will be more diIIicult to stop? ............
2. The relationship between mass and inertia :
...................................
...
3. The larger mass
.............................
..................................
..
Effects of inertia
1. Positive eIIect : ............................
(i)
.................................
(ii)
...............................
..
(iii) ...............................
..
2. Negative eIIect :
.............................
(i)
...................................

..................................
(ii) ...............................
..
...............................
..
(iii) ...............................
..
...............................
..
(iv)
.................................
Execise 2
1. What is inertia? Does 2 kg rock have twice the inertia oI 1 kg rock?
..................................
..
..................................
..
..................................
..
2.

Figure 2,3

A wooden dowel is Iitted in a hole through a wooden block as shown in Iigure 2.31.
Explain what happen when we

(a) strike the top oI the dowel with a hammer,

.................................

.................................
(b) hit the end oI the dowel on the Iloor.

.................................

................................