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BASICS

TRANSISTOR: FIRST INVENTED IN 1948 BY J.BARDEEN,WILLIAM.H.BRATTIAN and WILLIAM B.SHOCKLY. Transistors are

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT):


BJT is a bipolar device, since its operation depends upon both majority and minority current carriers. n-type: majority carriers:electrons minority carriers: holes p-type: majority carriers:holes minority carriers: electrons BJT has low input impedence because its input circuit is forward biased. Due to low input impedence,BJT has high external leakage currents i.e.high drive current. BJT is a current controlled device i.e.input current controls the output current. BJT suffer from minority carrier storage effects and it has lower switching speed.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR:


Current is controlled by an electricfield thats why called as field effect transistor i.e.field effects the transistor. FET operation depends only on majority carriers,called as unipolar device. FET has low input impedence because its input circuit is reverse biased. FET has low external leakage currents i.e.low drive current. FETs are easier to fabricate and suitable for ICs because occupy less space than BJTs. FET is a voltage controlled device,i.e.voltage at the input terminal controls the output current. FET does not suffer from minority carrier storage effects and it has higher switching speed. FET is less noisy than BJT.

FET classified into two types Junction FET (JFET) Metal oxide semi conductor FET (MOSFET)

JFET:

JFET has high input impedeance,since its input circuit is reverse biased.i.e.gates are always reversed biased, hence gate current is practically zero.

MOSFET:

MOSFET has high input impedeance.i.e. low drive currents. Also called as insulated gate FET (IGFET) In this oxide material is silicon dioxide(sio2),its acts as a insulator i.e. high resistence. Thats why MOSFET has high input impedence compared to JFET and BJT. Why we are using MOSFETs compared to JFET & BJT in LSI & VLSI applications has high input impedeance i.e. low drive current occupies less area on silicon chip easier to fabricate.

LOGIC GATE FAMILIES:


Logicgate family is a collection of different ICs with same input,output and internal characterstics,but they perform different functions. each logic gate family has its own basic electronic circuit upon which more complex digital circuits and functions are developed. In SSI,MSI,LSI,VLSI,ULSI all these integrations , more number of transistors are present.transistors arrangement based on logic gate families Suppose,implement a NAND gate,transistors are arranged using logic gate families. Different logic gate families are RTL DCTL RCTL DTL TTL ECL resistor transistor logic gate family direct coupled transistor logic Resistor capictor transistor logic Diode transistor logic transistor transistor logic emitter coupled logic

MOS CMOS

metal oxide semiconductor complementary metal oxide semiconductor. RTL,TTL,DTL,ECL are the bipolar logic family i.e.uses bipolar transistors i.e. uses a BJTs. TTL used for small scale integration (SSI). ECL used for the medium&large scale integration (MSI & LSI) MOS and CMOS families uses unipolar transistors called unipolar logic gate families.i.e. uses a MOSFETs.

Fastest logic gate family is ECL i.e. fastest switching speed, but consumes more power.i.e. 40mW. CMOS is the slowest logic family,but Low power consumption.i.e 0.01mW MOS logic is mainly used for LSI and VLSI applications because the silicon chip area required for fabrication of a MOS device is very small.

CMOS Technology Unipolar(FET) MOS,CMOS High input impedeance i.e. Low drive current i.e. Low external leakage crrents. High packing density Low Trans conductance Low power consumption Used in VLSI & ULSI

Bipolar Technology Bipolar(BJT) TTL,RTL,DTL,ECL Low input impedeance i.e high drive current i.e. high external leakage crrents. low packing density High Trans conductance. High power consumption. Used in MSI & LSI applications Especially TTL in SSI.

Packing density: number of components in a chip or circuit. Trans conductance: performance (speed) of the technology or device. CMOS logic gate family is best for transistor arrangement.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ( IC )
JACK KILBY Inventor of IC in 1954

IC: Integration of different discrete components


Integration:All the components connected in a single chip. Disccrete components: Transistors,Diodes and etc. Discrete means small in size. Now a days IC (any circuit or design) has following properties Minimum power Consumption Minimum area occupies High Performance i.e. Speed

Technology
SSI (1961-1966) MSI (1966-1971) LSI (1971-1980) VLSI (1980-1990) ULSI (1990-2000) GSI

No:of transistors
10 100-1000 1000-20000 20,000-1,00,000 1,00,000-10,000,000 >10,000,000

Typical products
Logic gates & Flip flops Counters,MUX,Adders 8-bit micro processors,ROM,RAM

16 & 32- bit Micro processors special processors & smart sensors

SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI GSI

Small scale integration Medium scale integration Large scale integration Very large scale integration Ultra large scale integration (3 million devices on a single chip) Giant scale integration

Moores Law:

Founder of INTEL For every 18-24 months Number of Transistors are doubled Area or Size of the chip decreased by half Operating frequency half Power Consumption reduces.

If any two points satisifies simultaneously then that design is best design. If any three or all four impossible to satisifies simultaneously. VLSI: Large no: of discrete components present in a single chip. Very large: > 1 Million transistors present Scaling : Increasing the no: of transistors

BICMOS:
Bipolar technology + CMOS Technology High performance i.e. speed Low power consumption Complexity of the circuit is high i.e. occupies more area on chip.

SEMICONDUCTORS:
Si, Ge and GaAs ( gallium Arsenide ) Mostly with Silicon based VLSI & BICMOS Technologies. GaAs: Provide high speed logic/fast digital processors. But GaAs has Radio activity nature i.e.When the Temperature increases device Temperature also increases, Due to this device (circuit) will be damages, So GaAs not prefer ,to use in the designing of household equipments.

No: of Transistors in a Gate: Number of Transistors = 2 * No: of inputs.


Suppose NAND Gate has three inputs then

Number of Transistors = 2 * 3 = 6 Transistors

Therefore 6 Transistors are required to design a 3 input NAND Gate. The earliest ICs used Bipolar Technology and Majority of logic ICs used either TTL or ECL. After Introduction of MOS Technology, nMOS Technology used. The main advantage of CMOS over nMOS is Low power Consumption