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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Bath. Stat.
GIFT OF

Charles L. Johnson

Oi

CX

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON

RIGID DYNAMICS

mm

AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON

RIGID

DYNAMICS

BY

W.

J.

LOUDON,

B.A.

DEMONSTRATOR IN PHYSICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

" ixrjSh/

dyav

"

Ncto ffork

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


LONDON: MACMILLAN &
1896
All rights reserved
CO., Ltd.

Copyright, 1895,

Bv

MACMILLAN AND

CO.

Set
1896.

up and electrotypcd January,

1896.

Reprinted July,

Math. Stat*

GIFT

NortooolJ Prrss
J. S.

Cuahing \ Co.

Bern

ick

.v

Smith

ini ""l Uasfl. CJ.S.A

MATH..
STAT.

PREFACE.
This elementary
treatise

on Rigid Dynamics has arisen

out of a course of lectures delivered by me, during the past

few years,
It is

to

advanced classes

in the

University.

intended as a text-book for those who, having already


the

mastered the elements of


familiarity with

Calculus
Particle

and acquired some


Dynamics, wish
to

the methods of

become acquainted with the


of

principles underlying the equations

motion of a

solid

body.
to the exhaustive

Although indebted
Price for

works of Routh and


I

many

suggestions and problems,

believe that the

arrangement of the work, method of treatment, and more particularly the illustrations, are entirely

new and

original

and

that they will not only aid beginners in appreciating


tal truths,

fundamen-

but will also point out to them the road along which
in

they must travel

order to become intimate with those higher

complex motions of a material system which have their culminating point in the region of Physical Astronomy.

My

thanks are due Mr.

J.

C.

Glashan of Ottawa, who has

kindly read the

proofsheets

and supplied

me
W.

with a large

collection of miscellaneous problems.


J.

LOUDON.

University of Toronto, Aug.

19, 1895.

870

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Moments
of Inertia
I.

PAGE
I

Illustrative

Examples

II

CHAPTER

II.

Vlll

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Axis.
Centre of Percussion
Illustrative
Initial

V.
PAGE

Impulsive Forces

70
72

Examples

74 78
78
S5

Motions.

Changes of Constraint

Illustrative

Examples

The

Ballistic

Pendulum

CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Point.
Angular Velocity
General Equations of Motion

VI.
88 88

Finite Forces

Equations of Motion referred to Axes fixed


Euler's Equations of

Motion

Angular Coordinates of the Body


Pressure on the Fixed Point
Illustrative

.... ....
in
.

98
100
101
105

Space

Examples

......
CHAPTER
VII.

109
1

11

Top spinning on a Rough Horizontal Plane Top spinning with Great Velocity on a Rough Horizontal Plane The Gyroscope moving in a Horizontal Plane about a Fixed Point

12

120 128

Motion about a Fixed Point.


Illustrative

Impulsive Forces

134
137

Examples

CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Point.

VIII.

No

Forces acting

140

CHAPTER
Motion of a Free Body
Illustrative
.

IX.
145

Examples

148

Impulsive Actions
Illustrative

156
158

Examples

CONTENTS.

ix

CHAPTER
The Gyroscope

X.
PAGE

162
its

To

prove the Rotation of the Earth upon

Axis

166
168 169
171

Hopkins' Electrical Gyroscope


FesseFs Gyroscope
. .

Gyroscope of Gustav Magnus

Note on the Pendulum and the Top


Miscellaneous Examples

172

177

RIGID DYNAMICS.
-o-O^JOO-

CHAPTER
MOMENTS OF
i.

I.

INERTIA.

In attempting to solve the equations of motion of a Rigid


in a

Body
it

manner

similar to that

employed for a single

particle,

will

be found that

certain

new

quantities

appear,

which

depend on the extent and shape


and on the way
in

of the body, on its density,


in respect of

which

it

may be moving

some

particular line or system of coordinate axes.


2.

These

quantities

are

called

Moments of

Inertia

and

Products of Inertia.
line is

denned

to be the

moment of inertia of a body about any sum of the products of all the material
disIt

elements of the body by the squares of their perpendicular


tances from this
letter
/,

line.
is

may be denoted

in general

by the

and when /

expressed in the form


is

MK

2
,

where

is

the mass of the body,

called the radius of gyration.

When

the body

is

referred to three coordinate rectangular axes, the

moments

of inertia about the three axes will evidently be


2 2
),

A=Sm(y + s

B = tm(a2 +x

2
),

C=Sm(x2 +y2
(x,

),

being the mass of any element at the point

y, z),

and the

summation being taken throughout the body.

product of inertia

is

defined with reference to two planes


is

at right angles to

one another and

found by multiplying the

elements by the products of their distances from these coordi-

RIGID DYNAMICS.

nate planes, and

summing them throughout


sets of three,

the body.

Products

of inertia exist in

and

for three rectangular axes

D=%myz, E=%mzx,
3.

F=*!)uxy.
of

It is

evident that
is

when the law

m
;

is

shape of the body

given, the finding of a

known and the moment or of a

product of inertia involves an integration

and the following


of integration

examples

will serve to

show how the process

may
will

be used for this purpose.

Further on, several propositions

be given by which the method


4.
(a)

may be

usually

much

simplified.

Illustrations of finding

Moments of

Inertia by Integration,

uniform rod of small cross-section about a line perpenit

dicular to

at

one end.
a,

Here,

if

the length of the rod be 2

and the density


A,,

p,

X2a px2dx=M
(b)

a ~3~

circular arc of uniform density about an axis


its

through

its

midpoint perpendicular to

plane.

In Fig.

1,

let

OA = r, OCA=0, OCB=u;

then the

moment
perpenis

of inertia of the arc

BOD
A.

about an axis through


is

dicular to the plane of the paper

2pds

/~

where ds

an

element of the arc

at

MOMENTS OF
*

INERTIA.

/=Spa 3 fsm 2 ~dd = 4pa f


:i

a (i

-cos 6)d0 = 2llf(i

-^V-

(c)

An

elliptic plate, of small

thickness and uniform density.

Fie. 2.

In Fig.

2,

divide the plate into strips, and then

we have

I about

OY=4y
/about

fa

fa fi ^2 px2ydx=4p\ -x2 va 2 x2dx=M.


2

Similarly,

b OX=M

And / about
evidently be 3

a line through
2

perpendicular to the plate will

Ma + 4

For a
(d)

circular plate a

= b.
a, 2 b.

rectangular plate, sides 2

By

dividing the plate into strips of mass

it

will

be seen that

/about
and
Also,
plate
is

side

2a = zl m

./

4b 2\
\

M4

b2
,

/about

side 2 b

= ^(wf) = M^.

/ about
2

a line through a corner perpendicular to the


).

M^(a + b 2

For a square plate a = b.

4
{c)

RIGID DYNAMICS.

triangular plate.

Let the triangle be


nates, let

ABC, and

choosing

as origin of coordi-

CA,

CB

be the axes.

Then, dividing the triangle into

AC, an elemental mass at (x, y) is equal to pdxdy sin C, p being the density. The distances of this element from AC, BC, and the point C are x sin C, y sin C, and
strips parallel to

a/x2 +y2 + 2xycosC

px2

sin 3

Cdxdy,

n
and / about a
line

-(a-x)
a

2 3 py sin Cdxdy,

through
-(oas)

C perpendicular

to the triangle

= 11
These integrals can
inertia expressed in

2 2 p sin C(.r -f7 +2;try cos C)dxdy.

easily

be evaluated, and the moments of

terms of the two sides and included angle.

(/)

sphere about a diameter.

Dividing the sphere up into small circular plates of thickness

Fig. 3.

MOMENTS OF
dx, as in Fig.
3,

INERTIA.

we have
=2^.p- irfdx

I about a diameter

= pir

1/2

(a 2

x2 2 dx=M~l a 2
)

(g)

A right

circular cone, about its axis.

Fig. 4.

Dividing the cone up into circular


axis, as in Fig. 4,

strips,

perpendicular to

its

we

have,

if

a be

its

height,

I=^ipiry2

dx
a

and

bx

it-

.-.

I=7TP

2 a* J

i = 3f^ f X dx _^3i? 10

5.

Products of inertia can be evaluated in a similar way

but

as they are generally eliminated

from the equations of motion by

a proper choice of axes, their absolute values in terms of


quantities are seldom required.

known

6.

Although integration gives


inertia, yet the

directly the values of

moments

and products of

process becomes
will

tedious for

many

bodies

and the following propositions

be found use-

ful for their

determination,

when one knows the

position of the

centre of inertia.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Proposition
I.

To connect moments and products of inertia

of a rigid body about any axes with moments and products of inertia about parallel axes through the centre of inertia.

Fig. 5.

Let the plane

of Fig. 5 represent
parallel

any plane of the body


which one cuts

perthis

pendicular to the two

axes, of

plane in the point O, and the other passing through the centre
of inertia cuts
it

in G.

Then
7-' 2

for

any point

in this plane,

we

have
r2 =p 2 +

+ 2p-GM.

Hence

for the

whole body we must have


GJlf)

2mt2 = Sm(p 2 + r' 2 -r2p-

=tm/P+tmr' 2 +2p

tmGM
tmGM-O.

= Mp 2 + Smr'
Or, as
it

2
,

since

may be

written

I=Iu + Mp\
where /
is

the

moment

of inertia about

any

axis,

and TQ and

is is

that

about a parallel axis through the centre of


perpendicular distance between the axes.
If

inertia,

the

three parallel axes be taken in a body, of which the third

passes through the centre of inertia, and a plane be taken cut-

MOMENTS OF

INERTIA.

ting these axes perpendicularly at the points O, O', G, then

we

can prove for the whole body, as before, that

/ about axis through

O =I G +3fa2

f
and

about axis through 0'


.-.

= lG + I\Ib
)
y

2
,

I=I'+M(a 1 -b 2

where
If

OG = a,
happens
Also,
if

0'G = b.
00'
,

to be in the line

this relation

is

much

sim-

plified.

O'G

is

at right angles to

00', then

i=r+M(oo')
which relation
bodies.
It is
is

2
.

sometimes useful

in

the case of symmetrical

evident, moreover, from these relations that, of


in a body, the least

all

straight
of

lines

having a given direction


is

moment

inertia
inertia.

about that one which passes through the centre of

Fig. 6.

In the case of products of inertia,


obtained.

similar

results

may

be

Thus,

if

we

require the product of inertia with regard

8
to

RIGID DYNAMICS.
any two coordinate planes
of a body, let parallel planes
inertia.

be

taken passing through the centre of

Let the plane of

the paper in Fig. 6 be any plane of the body perpendicular to


these four planes.
referred to the

Then,

if

P
(x,

be any point whose coordinates


y) and
(x' f y'),

two

sets are

we must have

for

the whole body


2

vixy = -

m (x' +p) (y' + q)


i

= 1/ux'y' -\-p%mx? + q%my + mpq.


.

'.

S mxy = Imx'y' +
II.

pq.

Proposition
inertia about

In the case of a lamina, the


to its

moment of
equal
to

any axis perpendicular


tivo

plane

is

the

sum of the moments about any


the plane through the point

perpendicular lines drawn in

where the axis meets the lamina.


)
.

For
Proposition
about any
line,

/= 1m(x2 +y2 = -7nx2 + -my2


III.

about any three


this line.

moment of inertia of a body knowing the moment and products of inertia rectangular axes drawn through some point on
the

To find

In Fig. 7
let

let

the three rectangular axes be


(x, y, z) }

OX, OY, OZ, and

be any point of the body


at angles ,
j3,

and

ON any line

drawn

from O, inclined

7 to the axes.
perpendicular to
j<

Then /about
and
2 2

ON=1mPN PN being
2
,

OX,

PX = OP - 0X =
2

(.v

+/+;-) - (.r cos +

cos

{3

+ c cos y) a
o.

(.r

+ y2 + s2

(cos 2

+ cos 2 /3 + cos 2 7) (x cos


+y
cos
j3

+ z cos y) 2

= 0' 2 + - 2 )cos 2 a+
.".

2/5 cos /3 cos 7 +

f=-m\(y 2 ->rs 2

cos 2 H

2 %m\yz cos ft cos 7 + ! +

MOMENTS OF

INERTIA.

Fig. 7.

cos 2 + ^cos 2 /3+Ccos 2 7 2

D cos /3cos7
/3,

2E cos 7 cos 2 Fzo% a cos


^4,

B,

being moments of inertia about the three axes, and


products of inertia with
regard to the coordinate

D, E,
planes.

In this expression,

it

will

be seen that

if

the axes of coordi-

nates be so chosen that D, E,

F vanish,

then

/= A
Axes
for

cos 2 a +

B cos 2 ft + C cos 2 7.
and A, B,

which

this holds are called Principal Axes,

Principal
inspection.

Moments
Thus,
if

In
a

many

cases such axes can be found by


axis at

body be a lamina, one principal


Also,
if

any point

is

the perpendicular at that point.

a body be

one of revolution, the axis of revolution must be a principal


axis at every point of its length.

And

it

may be

stated as a

general rule that axes of symmetry are principal axes.

IO
7.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
In

most of the problems dealing with the motion

of

extended bodies the axis about which the


to be found usually passes through the

moment
;

of inertia is

body

but

it is

apparent

that the preceding propositions apply equally to

all

cases where

the axes about which


cut the body.

moments
the
first

of inertia are required do not

Thus

in

proposition the axes parallel to

that passing through the centre of inertia need not cut the

body

in

the case of a lamina, the

moment

of inertia about
it

any
will

line perpendicular to the


still

lamina and yet not intersecting

be the sum of the moments about any two perpendicular

lines

drawn

at the point
;

where the axes meet the plane


will

of the

lamina produced

and similarly the moment

of inertia about

any

line outside of a
line,

body

be known when

we know,

at

any

point on this

the

moments and products

of inertia with

respect to any three rectangular axes drawn through this point.

8.

Townsend's Theorem.
closed central curve, of any magnitude and form, beingin
its

supposed to revolve round an arbitrary axis


intersecting
its

plane not

circumference;

the

moment

of

inertia

with
its

respect to the axis of revolution of the solid generated by

area

is

given by the formula

/=J/(^ + 3 /,2 ))
where
and

M
the

is

the mass of the solid generated, a the distance of

the centre of the generating area from the axis of revolution,


//

arm length

of the

moment
its

of inertia of the area with

respect to a parallel axis through


For,
if

centre.

dA be

an element of generating area,

I=2irp-^L[(a + xfdA],
p being the density, and
.

x
[

a variable coordinate.

1=2 irpi

(<7*

+ 3 a\x + 3 <7.Y-+.YS )dA\.


MOMENTS OF
But, by the
centre,

INERTIA.

H
its

symmetry

of the

generating area with respect to

%(xdA)=o and l(x z dA)=o.


.-.

I=2ir P ![(a* + 3ax2 )dA],

Illustrative
i.

Examples on Moments of

Inertia.

Find the moment


b.

of a rectangular plate about a diagonal,

the sides being 2 a, 2


In
this,

applying Proposition

III.,

we have
2

I=A
moments.
.-.

cos 2 6 +

Bsm

6,

the centre of the plate being the origin, and A,

principal

I=M 2

a 2 b2

Sa 2 + b 2
Apply

2.

sphere or a circular plate, about a tangent.


I.

Proposition
3.

Find the moments

of inertia of a rectangular
;

parallelo-

piped and of a cube, about their axes of symmetry


diagonal.
4.

also about a

The moment
is

of inertia of a right circular


,

cone about a
b

slant side

20

a 2 + b2

a being the height and

the radius

of the base.
5.

If

is

the length and b the radius of a right circular

cylinder, the
r

moment
,.

of inertia about an axis


-,

tre of inertia perpendicular to its axis

...

through the cen,\

M(a

is

Ytr\.

6.

The moment

of inertia of a

pendulum bob, density

p, in

the form of an equi-convex lens of thickness 2/ and radius

a,

about

its

axis

is

irp

(2

ax x2

2
)

Ix.

12

RIGID DYNAMICS.
7.

Find the moment

of inertia of

an anchor ring about

its

axis.

8.

The moments

of inertia of
-,

an ellipsoid about

its

three axes

are

M5

M'
5

M5

To

find these, either divide the solid ellipsoid

up into

elliptic

plates, or

deduce from the case of a sphere.

9.

triangular plate of uniform density.


find the

(1)

To

moment

of inertia about the side

BC.

}Zt%Mzm%M^^^@mm>r j
jc

JR

a.
Fig. 8.

In Fig.

8,

divide the triangle into strips of

mass pydx, where

y = B'C.
Then / about
(2)

BC= Zpydx

.r

=/)

f^

LrV.r = J/^-.

About

a line through the centre of inertia parallel to BC.

T-j)= M ts
p*
f-

f
BC.

(3)

About

a line through

parallel to

I=M r

MOMENTS OF
(4)

INERTIA.

13

About

median

line.

In Fig.

9,

divide the triangle into strips parallel to

BC, as
sin

before, and let

y = B'C

Then

the mass of a strip

is

pydx
1

D,

and

its

moment

of inertia about

AD

is

pydx

sin

D
s

V sin 2 D.
12

Hence /

of triangle about

AD = ^2
r

dx,

and y =

ax

AD'

.:

Z=M-a

sin 2

24
(5)

About

a line through A, perpendicular to the plane of the

triangle.

Use

Fig. 9, and the


),

moment

of inertia will

be found to be

b2

+ c2
About

a, b, c

being the three sides.

4 V
(6)

3/
a line through the centre of inertia, perpendicular

to the plane of the triangle.

/=^(, 2 4-^2 + ^2
?

).

36
10.
(1)

Find the moment of inertia of a hemisphere about


Its axis.

(2)
(3)

(4)

A A A

tangent at

its

vertex.
its

tangent to the circumference of

base.

diameter of

its

base.

14
ii.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

The moment

of inertia of
is

an ellipsoidal shell of mass

about the major axis


diameter,

+c

For

a spherical shell

about a

I=M^a

2
.

Deduce, by differentiation, from the


12.

ellipsoid

and the sphere.

For an oblate spheroid (such


e,

as
of

the earth), of excen-

tricity

composed
of inertia
is

of

similar strata
its

varying density, the


is

moment
where a

about

polar axis

7rVi

2
J

A p\ dx,

the equatorial radius and p the density at a distance

x from
is

the centre.

This can be integrated when the law of p

known.
13.

The moment
its

of

inertia
is

of
,

a paraboloid

of

revolution

about
base.
14.

axis of figure

where

is

the radius of the

The moment

of inertia of the parabolic area cut off


is

by

any ordinate distant x from the vertex


gent
at the vertex,

J/f x2 about

the tan-

and

M about
v

the axis, where

is

the ordi-

nate corresponding to
15.

x.

The

radius of gyration of a lamina bounded by the lem(1)

niscate r 2 = a 2 cos 2$,

about

its

axis

is

-Vtt f
4

(2)

about

a line in the plane of the lamina through the

node and perpenat

dicular to the axis


.

is

-Vtt + |;
4

(3)

about a tangent

the node

15

a 1 -V7T. 4
16.

To

find the radius of gyration of a

lamina bounded by a
it

parallelogram about an axis perpendicular to


tre of inertia.
If 2a, 2 b,

through

its

cen-

(Euler.)

be the lengths of two adjacent sides of the parallel-

ogram, then, whatever be their inclination,

= '^^-

MOMENTS OF
17.

INERTIA.

15

To

find the radius of gyration of a hollow

sphere about

a diameter.

(Euler.)
-o

2
5

a h b'
rt

-#
radii.

a and b being the external and internal


iS.

To

find the radius of gyration of a truncated

cone about

its axis.

(Euler.)

10
a, b,

az b3

being the

radii of its ends.

19.

The moment
of
;/

of inertia of a lamina

bounded by a regular
its

polygon

sides,

each of length 2 a, about an axis through


its

centre perpendicular to

plane

is

_^i + 3 cot-And
any
from this
it

can be seen that the

moment

of inertia about

line in the plane of the

lamina through the centre

1+3
12 V
20.

cot 2

//

quantity of matter
a,

is

distributed over the surface of a

sphere of radius

so that the density at any point varies in-

versely as the cube of the distance from a point inside distant b

from the centre.


ter

Find the moment of inertia about that diameinside,


is

which passes through the point


of the principal
if

and prove that the

sum

moments there
?

equal to 2

(a

).

What

the point be outside

CHAPTER
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
9.

II.

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

Ellipsoids of Inertia.

At any

point

in

a rigid body let there be taken three


as in Fig. 10.

rectangular axes

OX, OY, OZ,

Describe with

as centre the ellipsoid,

A + By 2 + Cz -2Dyz-2 Ezx - 2 Fxy =


1 1

c,

Fig.

10.

16

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
where A, B,
C,

AND PRINCIPAL

AXES.

\y

D, E, E, have the meanings already attached to

them, and are positive.

Then,
in
is

if

OJ be any
y

line

drawn from

O, and cutting the ellipsoid


inertia of the

the point P, the

moment

of

body about

OP

A
where
But
a, /3,

cos 2 + i5cos 2

/3

+ 6'cos 2 7

=/,
coordi-

7 are the angles which

OP

makes with the

nate axes.
if
r,

x, y, z,

are the coordinates of


have, since the point
is

the point P, and

if

OP =
And

we must

on the ellipsoid,
=c.

It*=Ax*+Bf+C
since this relation
is

true for any position of

OP, we see

that the

moment

of inertia about

any

line

drawn from

will

be

inversely proportional to the square of the corresponding radius

vector cut off by the ellipsoid.

Any

such ellipsoid

is

called a

Momental
10.
If

Ellipsoid.

we

refer the ellipsoid to

its

axes OA, OB, OC, then

D, E,

disappear, and the axes of the ellipsoid are therefore

what we have defined as Principal Axes.


11.
It is

evident that any set of principal axes at a point


in the foregoing

might be found

manner, namely, by constructin

ing a momental ellipsoid at the point

question and trans-

forming to the axes of

figure,

which would therefore give the

directions of the principal axes.

And

it

may be

stated also that

three principal axes necessarily exist at each point in space for

a rigid body, since the above process can always be performed.


12.

From

the properties of the momental ellipsoid


is,

it

follows

that at any point there

in general, a line of greatest


;

moment

and

also

one of

least

a spheroid, the

moment if the ellipsoid degenerates into moments of inertia about all diameters perpensame
;

dicular to the axis of the spheroid are the

if

it

becomes

a sphere, as in the case of

all

regular solids at their centres,


all

the

moments

of inertia about

lines

through the centre are

^
equal, a proposition

RIGID DYNAMICS.
which can be applied with advantage
to

the cube, proving that the

moments

of inertia

about

all

lines

through the centre are the same.


13.

For a lamina,

at

any point, the section made by the


is

cor-

responding momental ellipsoid


the point.

called the

Momental

Ellipse of

Illustrative Examples.

1.

To

construct a momental ellipsoid at one of the corners of

a cube.

Taking the edges as axes, A=B=C, DE=F, and the equation for the momental ellipsoid becomes

A (x

+j>2 + z2 )

- 2 D{xy +yz + zx) = e,


of the

which on transformation would give a spheroid

form

A'x2 + B'(y 2 + c 2 )=c',


and
it

can be seen that one principal axis

is

the diagonal through

the corner in question, and any two lines at right angles to one

another and to the diagonal


2.

will

be the other two principal axes.

To

find the

momental

ellipsoid at a point

on the edge of
evident by
axis.

a right circular cone.

Choosing axes OX, OY, OZ, as


inspection that

in

Fig. 11,

it

is

D=F=o,

and the axis

OY

is

one principal

Then,

if

AB=a, OB = b;
2
1
,

BG = \a,
4

and

A=J/( 5--+\
\20
IO
of

B=A+Mb C=M -^, E = M,


10

and the equation

the

4
is

momental

ellipsoid at

(3 b*

+ 2 a 2 )x2 + (23 b + 2 a 2 )f + 26
2

lr.z

O abxs = c. any point along

The momental
the axis
.//>, is

ellipsoid at the point A, or at

a spheroid.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA

AND PRINCIPAL

AXES.

19

Fig.

11.

3.

The momental
is

ellipsoid at a point

on the rim of a hemi-

sphere

4.

The momental

ellipsoid at the centre of

an

elliptic plate is

5.

The momental
(b
2

ellipsoid at the centre of a solid ellipsoid is


2
)

+ c2 )x2 + (c2 + a

f+

(a 2

+b

)s 2

c'.

14.
If at

The Ellipsoid of Gyration.


a point in a body an ellipsoid be constructed such that
of

the

moment
of the

inertia

about any perpendicular drawn from


is

the origin on a tangent plane

equal to

Mp 2

where

is

the
it

mass
called

body and p the length of the perpendicular, an ellipsoid of gyration. And, since, referred to its
definition

is

axis,

we have by
must be

A=Ma
C=Mc
A B

about the axis of


about the axis of
.,

x,

B = Mb 2
equation

about the axis of y, and

z, its

M
of
its

This ellipsoid

may
;

also

be used to indicate the directions of


equation,
it

the principal axes

and, from the form

is

20
apparent that
it

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

co-axial,

but not similarly situated, with a

momental
15.
it

ellipsoid.

When

ellipsoids are constructed at the centres of inertia,


of

is

customary to speak

them

as central ellipsoids.

16.

Equimomental Systems.
systems are equimomental when their moments of inertia
lines in space are equal each to each.

Two
about

all

And

from this

definition,

taken along with the two fundamental propositions

already proved,

1= A
it

cos 2 a +

B cos

/3

+ C cos 2 7,
when they have

follows that systems will be equimomental


1.

2.
3.

In

The same mass and centre of inertia. The same principal axes at the centre of inertia. The same principal moments at the centre of inertia. some particular cases we may, instead of considering
its

a
in

system or single body, use a simple equimomental system


determining

motion

but generally the labour of proving that

systems are equimomental, or of finding a simple system which will be equimomental with a complicated one, is greater than
that of solving the problem directly.

The

following examples,
is

however,

will serve to

show how the process

carried out.

Illustrative Examples.

1.

Show

that three masses, each equal to

M placed
.

at

the

middle points of the sides of a triangular plate of mass

Af, are

equimomental with the


If this

triangle.
all

equimomental system be assumed,

the problems in

connection with a triangular plate, such, for example, as finding

moments
lines,

of inertia about the sides, perpendiculars,

and median

are very

much

simplified;

but the difficulty of proving

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
this

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

21

assumption

is

greater than that of solving the problems, as

has already been done by a direct process.


2.

In an elliptic plate, find three points on the boundary at


if

which,

three masses each equal to

M be
o

placed, they will form


is

a system equimomental with the plate, whose mass


3.

M.

Show

that three points can always be found in a plane area


to

of

mass M, so that three masses, each equal

M
3

placed at

these points will form a system equimomental with the area.

The

situation of the points

is

shown

in Fig. 12,

which repre-

sents the

momental ellipse at the centre of inertia of the area. may be anywhere on the boundary of the ellipse B and C
;

are so situated that

BD = DC and OD = DE.

Fig.

12.

4.

Find the momental

ellipse at the centre of gravity of a

triangular area.

22
5.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

The momental

ellipse at

an angular point of a triangular


its

area touches the opposite side at

middle point, and bisects

the adjacent sides.


17.

Principal Axes.
find the principal axes at

To

any point

of a rigid body, three

rectangular axes might be chosen, and the conditions

%mxy=o,

"%myz=0, -in.:x=o, would be


cither

sufficient to solve the problem,

by direct analysis or by the construction and subsequent


But

transformation of the equation of the momental ellipsoid.


this process

would often be tedious, and

is

generally unneces-

sary.

Usually, by inspection, one at least of the principal axes

can be found, as has been already mentioned, and then the other

two may be obtained by the following propositions.


Given one principal axis at a point, Let
to

find the other two.


let

be any point

in

the body, and

OZ, drawn perpenone another as

dicular to the plane of

the paper be one perpendicular axis.


at right angles to

Take any two

lines,

OX, O Y,

Fig.

13.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
axes
in this plane,

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

23

and

let

OX'
(x,

OV

be the other two principal

axes at O.

Then

if

be any point

y) or (x '/), and the

body extends

above and below the plane of the paper, we must have as a


condition
that

OX',

OV

shall

be principal axes, Imx'y' =

throughout the body.

But x'=x cos

d+y sin

6,

and y'

= x sin

+y cos

6.

Therefore the condition becomes

1w\ ,r2 sin

$ cos

6+y2 sin 6 cos 6+xy cos 2 6 sin 2 B\ = 0,

which becomes, on reduction,


2 Ijnxy a tan 2 a = f
.

2 mx-'

= B FA
2
] vi) '

according to our previous notation.


If,

then, A, B,

F
is

be found

in respect of

any two rectangular


of

axes

OX, OY,

known, and therefore the position

OX',

OV.
18.

The

condition that a line


of its length
is,

shall

be a principal axis at

some point
satisfied.

that taking the line as axis of z and

the point as origin, the relations


It is

1,mxz=o 'myz=o
i

shall

be

not true, however, that


its

if

a line be a principal
at
1 1,

axis at

one point of

length,

it

will

be a principal axis
in Fig.

any
the

other, or at all points of its length.


line

For example,

OX

is

a principal axis at the point


it is

B on

account of the sym-

metry

of the cone, but

not a principal axis at the point O.

Similarly, in a hemisphere,

any diameter
in

of the

base

is

a prin-

cipal axis at the centre of the base, but not at a point

on the

rim.

There

is

one case, however,


its

which a

line is a principal

axis

throughout

length,

and as

this is of

some importance,

the following statement and simple proof are given.

19.

If a line be a principal axis at the centre of

inertia,

it

will be a principal axis at every point of its length.

24

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Let a portion of the body be represented
in

Fig. 14,

being

the centre of
inertia,

inertia,

00' the

principal axis at the centre of


at

OX,

any rectangular axes

O, perpendicular to

00', and OX',

OY parallel axes through

0'.

Fig.

14.

Then we

have, by a previous proposition

tmx'z* at

0'=tmxz
0'=tmyz

at

0+M(kx),
0+M(hy).
t

and But
.-.

tmy'z' at

at

x-=y = o-=^.mxz = ^.myz by


^)/ixy = o = lmyc',
a principal axis at

hypothesis.

at O'

and therefore 00'


at
if

is

(9',
it

and therefore also

any point

in

its

length.

Conversely,
all

may be shown
its

that

a line be a principal axis at

points in

length,

it

must

pass through the centre of inertia.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
20.

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

25

To determine
if

the locus of points at which the momental

ellipsoid for a given

body degenerates
which
it

to a spheroid,

and the

points,

such

exist, at

becomes a sphere.
principal axes at the centre
its

Let the body be referred to


of inertia,

its

and
:

let

A, B, and

its

mass

three
at

be

principal

moments, and
C,

(1)

If all

moments be

unequal, say

A >B>
ellipse

there

will

be no point at which the momental ellipsoid for that


will

body

be a sphere, but

any point
I'

on the

x2

A=C
or on the hyperbola,
2 .r x*

+ B^C = M' C = '


1

z* c2

A-B B-C
it

J_r> Jlf

J = 9,

will

be a spheroid with axes of revolution touching the conic

at

P.

The momental
If

ellipsoid

at

all

other points will have

three unequal axes.


(2)

two of the moments be equal, and each

less

than the

third, say

A >B=C,

there will be two points at which the mowill

mental ellipsoid for that body

be a sphere,
)

viz.,

the points
inertia.

on the axis of

x, distant -v/(

from the centre of

At every other
will
all

point on the axis of x, the

momental

ellipsoid

be a spheroid with the axis of

as axis of revolution.

At

points not on the axis of

the momental ellipsoid will have

three unequal axes.


(3)

If

two

the third,
will

moments be equal, and each greater than say A = B>C, the momental ellipsoid for that body
of the
2,

be a spheroid at every point on the axis of


-A

or on the

circle,

* 9 +J
1

9,

C-

--an

"

At

all

other points

it

will

have three unequal axes.

26
(4)

RIGID DYNAMICS.
If

A=B=C,
the above
is

the momental ellipsoid will be a sphere

at

the centre of inertia and a spheroid at every other point.

From
it

it

is

seen at once that in the majority of


all

bodies there

no point for which

axes

drawn through

are principal axes.

Illustrath u
1.

Examples.
an

To

find the principal axes of a triangular lamina, at

angular point.

One

principal axis

is

point perpendicular to
in the following way.

drawn through the angular the lamina, and the other two are found In Fig. 15, let OA, OB be two rectanthe line
of
will

gular axes,
lamina.

OX, OY the principal axes in the plane Then the angle which OX makes with OA
jfi>
2

the

be

given by the formula tan 2 6 =

where

Fig.

15.

A = moment

of inertia

about

OA

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

27

B = moment
I

of inertia about

OB
co)'

p sin

Co

(x

+y cos

dxdy,

and

p sin <o{x-\-y cos co)y sin codxdy,

p being the density of the lamina, and the axes of

x and y

lying

along the sides of the triangle.


It will

be found, on evaluating these integrals, that


tan 2 n =
.

b sin
cr
eo

to

(a
i

+ ab cos &) + b
;

2 b cos
2

00)

'
to

cos 2

As

a simple case,
2 #

let

=-

then the triangle

is

right angled,

and tan

= -^

^, as can easily be found independently of the

above formula.
2.

To

find

the

principal

axes at any point of an elliptic

lamina.

In Fig.

16, let

O' be the point

(a, /3)

at

which we require the

Fig.

16.

28

RIGID DYNAMICS.

principal axes.

Then
is

the angle 6 which O'X' makes with the

principal axis at O'

given by
tan 2 6 =
n
2

B-A
OX+ M&

where

A=I about

0'X'= I about

=m(^+&\
\4

B = I about 0'Y'=I about


.4

<9F+J/,r

=^g+4
and
.F= ^ w/.r>' = tmx v + J/k,3 = Mu3.
tan 2 # =
(

Ma/3

m(^ + A-J/(-+{3"
=
The
third principal axis
is,

8/3 (^_//2) +4 (2_ /3 2 )

of course, at right angles to the

lamina, through the point


3.

O'.

To

find at

what point

a side of a triangle

is

a principal

axis.

Fig. 17

shows the construction and


is is

proof.
is

BC

is

the side

in

question, and

bisected at E.
bisected at O.

BC, and
system

DE at

drawn perpendicular to Then, taking the equimomental

AD

the middle points of the sides, in order that the

inertia-product
lar to

the side

F may BC must

vanish, the principal

axis

perpendicu-

bisect the join of the mid-points of the

sides

AB

and AC, hence BC,

OY

are the principal axes in the

plane of the lamina at the point 0.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

29

30
9.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Determine the condition that the edge
of

any tetrahe-

dron

may be

a principal axis at

some point

of its length,

and

find the point.


10.

Two

points

P
Q

and

are so situated that a principal

axis at

intersects a principal axis at Q.


at

Then

if

two planes

be drawn

and

perpendicular to these principal axes,

their intersection will be a principal axis at the point

where
Q.

it is

cut by the plane containing the principal axes at

P and

(Townsend.)
21.

In determining the directions of the principal axes by aid

of the relation tan 2

-2 F B
.

-,
1

if

F=o

and

at the

same time

B = A,
axes
if
;

then the value of 6

is

indeterminate, and any two axes

perpendicular to the given one and to one another are principal


if

B=A
B

and Fia
is

finite,

then tan 2 6 = infinite and

2 6

=2
2

F=o, and

not equal to A, then tan 2 d = o and 6 =

or.

CHAPTER

III.

D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
22.
;//,

In determining the motion of a single particle of


if

mass

three rectangular axes are chosen, and

X,

Y,

be the

accelerations in the directions of these three axes, the equation


of the path
is

found from the relations

d\v
1)1

-=
dfi

32

RIGID DYNAMICS.
of
all

sum

the forces acting on the individual particles which

compose the body.

Thus, for

all

the particles,

we must have

X(m^)=t(mX) +%{/,),
= SU^V- ^( w F) + S(/
dt 1 )
( f-

2 ),

111

Jf~

S(mZ)+2(fs),

and D'Alembert's principle states that

2(/J=2(/2)=2(/3)=o.
23.

The

equations of motion of a rigid body, then, are

*(-s)

D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
m\ y

33

z
dt'
1

dt*

m\ z

dhdf-

X-

dh
di-

= M,

(B)

ns

d 2y
dfl
~

y df>

d^x

where L, M, TV are the couples produced by the external


25.
It

forces.

may be

stated here that D'Alembert's principle holds

also in the case of a

system of bodies moving under their mutual


It

actions and reactions, and applies to the motion of liquids.


is

a direct consequence of Newton's Third


26.

Law

of Motion.

Deductions from D'Alemberfs Principle.


of the equations (A),

Taking any one

we have

1m = 1m X.
dr
But, by definition of the centre of inertia,

1mx=Mx.
and
2 v d x= Z7)l -

n^-d^x M
dfi dfi

r-

Therefore the above relation becomes

MrdKx
dl-

ImX,

and similarly for the other two.


(1)

Hence, the motion of the centre of gravity of a system under

the action of

any forces

is

the

same as if

all the

mass were

col-

lected at the centre of inertia

and all

the forces were applied there

parallel to their former direction.

And

so the problem of finding the motion of the centre of

inertia of a system,
of a single particle.

however complex,

is

reduced to finding that

34

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Moreover, taking one of the equations
(B),

since
it

we may choose
is

the origin of coordinates at any point, let

be so chosen that at the time of forming these equations the


coincident with
it,

centre of inertia
velocity

but moving with a certain

and acceleration.

Then, evidently, we must obtain a


as the foregoing, just as
if

relation of the

same form

we had

considered the centre of inertia as a fixed point.

In other

words, such a relation as the above will hold at each instant of


the body's motion, independently of the origin and of the position of the body.
(2)

Hence, the motion of a body, under the action of any finite

forces, about its centre of inertia, is the inertia

same as

if the centre of

were fixed and the same forces

ivere acting on the body.

27.

The two

previous deductions are

known

as the principles

of the Conservation of the motions of Translation

and

flotation,

and show us that we may consider the two motions independently of one another.

28.

Impulsive Equations of Motion.

Since an impulse can be measured only by the change of

momentum

it

induces in a body,

in

applying D'Alembert's Prinalter the expressions for the

ciple to impulsive forces

we must

effective forces,
of

which

will

be represented not by the products

masses and accelerations, but by the products of masses


All the preceding relations will hold
if

and changes of velocity.

equally for impulsive forces


for accelerations.

we then

write changes of velocity

Thus, such a relation as

D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
for finite forces will

35

become

2/#

ISHI) !-
of each particle of
J

for impulsive forces


7//

where the velocity


to
[

mass
of an

is

changed from - abruptly


dt

\dt

by the action

impulse X.

And

it

may be

said, generally, that

equations of

motion for impulsive forces can be obtained from the corre-

sponding equations for

finite forces

by substituting

in

the latter

changes of velocities for accelerations.


29.
in

In forming any relations for impulses,


all finite

it

must be borne
be

mind that
;

actions, such as that of gravity, are to

neglected
will,

after the impulse has acted, the

subsequent motion

of course,

be found by applying the equations for the

finite forces

which usually are called into play after the impulse

has operated.
Illustrative Examples.

1.

rough uniform board, of length 2 a and mass m, rests on

smooth horizontal plane.


other.

man

of

mass HI walks from one

end to the
of

Determine the motion.

This example furnishes an excellent illustration of the truth

D'Alembert's principle, which asserts that the motion of the


if

centre of inertia of the system will be the same as


there
all

we

applied
its

the forces external to the system, each acting in

proper direction.

All the forces at the centre of inertia are

then downwards, and as the centre of inertia cannot move

downwards,

it

must therefore be

at rest

and as the man walks

along the whole board, he will therefore advance relatively to


the fixed horizontal plane through a distance 1 &

Jll+m

and the

board will recede through a distance

M+m

36
Analytically,

RIGID DYNAMICS.

we have

for the

motion

in a horizontal direction,

since there are no horizontal forces external to the system, the

equation

v d x = 0. n -m
2
r

dfi

*%->
and
.".

-=0
dt

or constant.

If

the

man and board

start

from

rest, as

we have supposed,

then

dx
dt

.:

5r= constant,

which means that the position

of the centre of inertia

remains

unaltered throughout the motion of the two parts of the system.


2.

Two

persons,

A
B

and B, are situated on a smooth horizonafter a time

tal

plane at a distance a from each other.

to B,
slide

which reaches

t,

show
,

A throws a ball that A will begin to


If

along the plane with a velocity


in

where

is

his

own

mass and
3.

that of the ball.

person
get off
?

is

placed on a perfectly smooth surface.

How

may he
4.

Explain

how

a person sitting on a chair

is

able to

move

the chair along the ground by a series of jerks without touching the ground with his feet.

5.

How

is

a person able to increase his amplitude in swing?

ing without touching the ground with his feet

D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
6.

37

Explain

dynamically the method of high jumping with

a pole;

and show that a man should be able to jump as far

on a horizontal plane without a pole as with one.


7.

Two

coins, a large

and a small one, are spun together


vertical.

on an ordinary table about an axis nearly

Which

will

come
8.

to rest

first,

and why
is

circular board

placed on a smooth horizontal plane,

and a

clog

runs with uniform speed around on the board close

to its edge.

Find the motion

of the centre of the board.

30.

The Principle of Energy.


of

Before entering upon the discussion


rigid body,

the motion

of

what
it

is

known

as the principle of energy will be

explained, as

is

exceedingly useful, and often gives a partial

solution of a problem without any reference to the equations


of motion,

and

in

many

cases

furnishes

solutions which

are

both simple and elegant

when compared with


mass

those obtained

by the use of Cartesian coordinates.


If a

single particle of

be moving along the axis of

x,

under the action of a force


as the equation of motion,

in the

same

direction,

we

have,

d 2x

rr

And

multiplying both sides by

dx

and
*/0

integrating,

we

get

m
where

,2_j/2 )= C'pdx,

V is

the

initial

value of v or

civ

dt

The expression on
change
the force from o to x.

the left-hand side of the equation

is

the

in kinetic energy,

which

is

equal to the tvork done by

38

RIGID DYNAMICS.

What
and
of

is

true of a single force acting in a definite direction


particle of

of a single

mass

is

also true of a

forces acting

on a rigid body or on a system.

number Then the


of forces

analytical expression for the

work done by a system

becomes

tmC{Xdx+Ydy+Zdz),
which must be equal to
j

2mv*-%tmV2

In the general case, where bodies

move with both

translation

and rotation, the

total kinetic

energy can easily be shown to


at the

be that due to translation of the whole mass collected


centre of inertia considered as a fixed point.

centre of inertia, together with that due to rotation about the

For

if

x, y,

z be the coordinates of any particle of mass


at

and velocity v

time
,
?;,

/,

and

x, y, z be the coordinates of the

centre of inertia,

the coordinates of the particle referred

to the centre of inertia, then the total kinetic

energy

is

equal to

-?//:-

-h^hshsh
of

since by definition of the centre


disappear.

inertia

the other terms

This proves the proposition.

31.

According to the kind

of

motion and the choice


for

of coor-

dinates

and

origin,

this

expression

energy

will

assume

various forms which will be given under the discussions of the


special cases throughout the treatise.

Twice the energy

is

termed the

vis viva.

D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
32.

39
;

To

find

the work done by an impulse

let

be the
;;/

measure

of

an impulse which, acting on a particle of mass


V,
is

moving with velocity


then the kinetic energy

changes

its

velocity suddenly to v

changed from \

mV

to

mv

2
.

Work done by

the impulse

= % mv2 | m V 2 =

-|

(m v m V) (v + V)

since the impulse

is

measured by the change

of

momentum and
body where

is

therefore equal to

mv m V.

similar relation will evidently apply to a rigid

v and

are the velocities of the point of application of the

impulse resolved in the direction of the action of the impulse.

Illustrative
1.

Examples on Energy.
from a horizon-

rod

OA,

of length 2 a, fixed at O, drops


:

tal

position under the action of gravity


it is

find its angular velocity

when

in

the vertical position OB.

(See Fig.

18.)

a,

Fig.

18.

28

RIGID DYNAMICS.

principal axes.

Then
is

the angle 6 which O'X' makes with the

principal axis at O'

given by
tan 2
n

B-A
OX+M&

where

A=I about

0'X'=I about

=jn(^+^y

B=I about

0'

about

O Y+ Ma?

-*(M
.4

and

F=tmxy=tmxy + J fa/3 = Ma/3.


tan 2

J/a@

=
The
third principal axis
is,

8/3
(tf2_2 )+4(a2_ /32)
-

of course, at right angles to the

lamina, through the point


3.

O'.

To

find at

what point a

side of a triangle

is

a principal

axis.

Fig. 17

shows the construction and

proof.
is

BC

is

the side

in

question,

and

is is

bisected at E.
bisected at O.

AD

drawn perpendicular

to

BC, and
system

DE at
3

Then, taking the equimomental

the middle points of the sides, in order that the

inertia-product
lar to

the side

F may BC must

vanish, the principal

axis

perpendicu-

bisect the join of the mid-points of the

sides

AB

and AC, hence BC,

OY

are the principal axes in the

plane of the lamina at the point O.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

29

M/
JS

42

RIGID DYNAMICS.
at the
inertia.

motion of translation upwards represented by aw, and same time the stick keeps on rotating about the centre of

Owing

to the action of gravity, the

motion of translation ceases,


drops to the ground in

alters in direction,

and

finally the stick


it

an upright position.

The time
is

takes the centre of inertia to


its

move from

its

second position to

final

position

when the

stick pitches upright

found from the well-known formula for

space described under the action of gravity, which, in this case,

becomes

a=-aa>'-t+%gP.
The
condition for pitching upright
is

(b)

evidently to be found
(2)

from the condition that the rod after leaving position


rotate through (211+
fore

must
there-

1) before touching the ground, and


2

to'-t=(2n+i)-.
2
(a), (b),

(c)

and

(c)

give the result


9

where
3.

p=(2n+i)
2

uniform heavy board hangs

in

a horizontal

position

suspended by two equal


If

parallel strings fastened to the ends.


it

given a twist about a vertical axis, prove that

will

rise

through a distance
to

6 C3

where

2 a

is

the length of the board, and

the vertical twist.


4.

cannon rests on a rough horizontal plane, and


at the

is

fired

with such a charge that the relative velocity of the ball and

cannon
If

moment when
show

the ball leaves the cannon

is
\x

V.

M be the mass
(

of the cannon,

that of the ball, and

the

coefficient of friction,

that the cannon will recoil a dis-

tance

\M+m)

on the plane
2 u< r

D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
5.

43

fine string

is

wound around
in

a heavy grooved circular

plate,
freely.

and the free end being

fixed, the plate is

allowed to

fall

Find the space described


coin
is

any time.
ordi-

6.

spun about an axis nearly vertical upon an


position of rest.
is
;

nary table.

Form
its

the equation of energy at any time as the

coin descends to
7.

narrow, smooth, semicircular tube

fixed in a vertical

plane, the vertex being at the highest point

and a heavy
If

flexi-

ble string, passing through

it,

hangs

at rest.

the string be

cut at one of the ends of the tube, to find the velocity which

the longer portion will have attained


tube.
If

when

it is

just leaving the

a be the radius of the tube,

the length of the longer por-

tion, then,
is
it

on equating the kinetic energy at the time the string


given by the relation

leaving the tube to the work done by gravity up to that time,


will

be found that the required velocity

is

frgal2 ir- -(V-4)


8.

Explain

why

the grooving in a

rifle

barrel diminishes the

force of recoil.
9.

rough wooden top


axis,

in the

form of a cone can rotate

about

its

which

is

fixed

and horizontal.
it

fine string is

fastened at the apex, and


pletely covered.

wound around

until the top is

comis

small weight attached to the free end

allowed to

fall

freely

under the action of gravity, unwinding


its

the string from the top which rotates about


the angular velocity of the top

axis.
is

Find

when the

string

completely

unwound
weight. *"
10.

also,

the equation of the path of the descending

Two

equal perfectly rough spheres are placed in unstable


;

equilibrium, one on top of the other

the lower sphere resting


If

on a perfectly smooth

horizontal

surface.

the

slightest

24

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Let a portion of the body be represented
in

Fig. 14,

being

the centre of
inertia,

inertia,

00' the

principal axis at the centre of


at

OX, O

any rectangular axes


parallel axes

O, perpendicular to

00', and OX',

OY'

through 0\

Then we

have, by a previous proposition

Imx's' at O^tfnxz at

+ M(/ix),
0+M(Ay).
by hypothesis.

and

tmy'z' at

0'=tmyz

at

But
.'.

x=y = o = -wx.z = 'E;//yz,


Smx'y'=o=Smy'z',
is

at O'

and therefore 00'


at
if

a principal axis at O', and therefore also

any point

in

its

length.

Conversely,
all

it

may be shown
its

that

a line be a principal axis at

points in

length,

it

must

pass through the centre of inertia.

ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
20.

AND PRINCIPAL AXES.

25

To determine
if

the locus of points at which the momental

ellipsoid for a given

body degenerates
which
it

to a spheroid,

and the

points,

such

exist, at

becomes a sphere.
principal axes at the centre
its

Let the body be referred to


of inertia,

its

and
:

let

A, B, and

be

principal

moments, and
C,

its

mass

three

(1)

If all

moments be
at

unequal, say

A >B>
ellipsoid

there
that

will

be no point
will

which the momental

for

body

be a sphere, but at any point

P on
_
'

the ellipse

x%
or on the hyperbola,
.r

A-C^B-C~M'
2

r2

A-B B-C
it

M'

y = o,

will

be a spheroid with axes of revolution touching the conic

at

P.

The momental
If

ellipsoid

at

all

other points will have

three unequal axes.


(2)

two

of the

moments be

equal,

and each

less

than the

third, say

A>B = C,

there will be two points at which the mowill


-

mental ellipsoid for that body

be a sphere,
)

viz.,

the points
of inertia.
ellipsoid

on the axis of

x, distant -v/(

from the centre

At every other
will
all

point on the axis of x, the

momental

be a spheroid with the axis of

as axis of revolution.

At

points not on the axis of

the momental ellipsoid will have

three unequal axes.


(3)

If

two

the third,
will

moments be equal, and each greater than say A=B>C, the momental ellipsoid for that body
of the
z,

be a spheroid at every point on the axis of

or on the

circle,

Ivl

At

all

other points

it

will

have three unequal axes.

46

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Then by D'Alembert's
:vi

principle,

we have

%mX+P

cos a 1

+ P 2 cos

<c

2,

tm^Z = $m Y+ P
2;
-ji

cos

(3 X

+ P 2 cos /32

= - m Z+ P\ cos 7 + ^2 cos 72
2

X,

V,

Z, being the accelerations on the unit mass m.

*'

Fig. 21.

We

must have,

also,
2

the relations

^
2..V/

/ tflz
i/

#d y
- .rr
-

/^l COS ySj P 2 z2 COS /?2

-w( -^-^

^2

';/

iJ

= J/ Pl*l C0S K A-2 cos


l

where Z,

J/, iV, are the couples

produced by the external

forces.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


It will

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

47

be seen that there

is

one relation independent of the

pressures

d 2y
dfl

d2x\
' df-

and

this gives at once,

by transformation to polar coordinates,

^mr2
and

d2 9
df-

=N,

^_ moment
~dfi~~

of external forces about the fixed axis of inertia about the fixed axis

moment

which, evidently, on integration gives the angular velocity at

any time, and consequently the angle described


time.

in

any given

35.

Angular

Velocity of

Any Heavy Body about a Fixed Horiacted

zontal Axis.
If

the body moving about a fixed horizontal axis be


only, the angular velocity at

upon by gravity

any time can be

rj_

Fig. 22.

36
Analytically,

RIGID DYNAMICS.

we have

for the

motion

in a horizontal direction,

since there are no horizontal forces external to the system, the

equation

Zm

= 0.

dt 1

^f=and
.".

=0
dt

or constant.

If

the

man and board

start

from

rest, as

we have supposed,

then

dx =
dt

o.

.".

x= constant,

which means that the position of the centre of inertia remains


unaltered throughout the motion of the two parts of the system.
2.

Two

persons,

and B, are situated on a smooth horizonafter a time

tal

plane at a distance a from each other.

to B,
slide

which reaches B

/,

show

A throws a ball that A will begin to


If

along the plane with a velocity


j>i

where

is

his

own

mass and
3.

that of the ball.

person
get off b
?

is

placed on a perfectly smooth surface.

How
move

may he
4.

Explain

how

a person sitting on a chair

is

able to

the chair along the ground by a series of jerks without touching

the ground with his

feet.

5.

How

is

a person able to increase his amplitude in swing?

ing without touching the ground with his feet

D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
6.

37

Explain dynamically the

method

of

high jumping with


far

a pole;

and show that a man should be able to jump as

on a horizontal plane without a pole as with one.

and a small one, are spun together on an ordinary table about an axis nearly vertical. Which will
7.

Two

coins, a large

come
8.

to rest

first,

and why
is

circular board

placed on a smooth horizontal plane,

and a dog runs with uniform speed around on the board close
to its edge.

Find the motion

of the centre of the board.

30.

The Principle of Energy.


of

Before entering upon the discussion


rigid body,

the motion

of

what
it

is

known

as the principle of energy will be

explained, as

is

exceedingly useful, and often gives a partial

solution of a problem without any reference to the equations


of motion,

and

in

many

cases

furnishes

solutions which

are

both simple and elegant

when compared with


mass

those obtained

by the use of Cartesian coordinates.


If a single particle of

be moving along the axis of

x,

under the action of a force


as the equation of motion,

in the

same

direction,

we

have,

And

multiplying both sides by

and at
dx
dt

integrating,

we

get

where

V is

the

initial

value of v or

is

The expression on
change
the force from o to x.

the left-hand side of the equation

the

in kinetic energy,

which

is

equal to the work done by

50
If,

RIGID DYNAMICS.
then,

we wish

to find the length of a simple

pendulum

which
take

will oscillate in

the same time as an extended body,

we

1=
which
is

h2 +

h
called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum.

Experimentally,
near the body a

may be found approximately by suspending simple pendulum made of a small heavy body
/

and a

fine string

of oscillation of

whose length can be adjusted the two are the same.

until the

times

37.

Centres of Suspension

and of

Oscillation.
of gravity

Let a body be oscillating under the action


axis through

about an

perpendicular to the plane of the paper, Fig. 2},

Fig. 23.

and

let

be the centre of

inertia,

and

SO = l=
5
is

+
IP-

k'

1
,

the

length of the equivalent simple pendulum.


centre of suspension,

called the

and

the centre of oscillation.

Now,

if

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


the body be inverted so that
it

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

51

can oscillate about a new axis


/'

through O, then the new length

of the simple equivalent pen-

dulum

will

be equal to
7,2x2

P
h

Hence, the centres of suspension and of


changeable.

oscillation are inter-

38.

If

the position of the axis of oscillation in a body


it

is

changed, the time of oscillation also changes, and

will

be

maximum when the axis passes through the centre of inertia, and a minimum when h = k, and k itself is a minimum. This may be seen either by differfound that this time
is

entiating the expression for / or by throwing

it

into the

form

Illustrative Examples.

1.

cube, edge horizontal and fixed,

makes small

oscilla-

tions about this edge.

If

2a be the

edge,

l^

-a.

2.

Find the time of a small

oscillation of a

hemisphere about

a horizontal diameter as fixed axis, under gravity.

3.

wire, bent into

a circle, oscillates under gravity


(2)

(1)

about a horizontal tangent,


this

about a line perpendicular to

tangent at the point of contact.

Compare the times

of

oscillation.

32

RIGID DYNAMICS.
of all the forces acting

sum

on the individual
all

particles

which

compose the body.

Thus, for

the particles,

we must have

S^)=%F)+S(/

a),

t(m^) = t(mZ) + X{/^


and D'Alembert's principle states that

a.

23.

The

equations of motion of a rigid body, then, are

(A)

Each

force of the type

m -

is

termed an

effective force

and

the above relations are equivalent to saying that the effective


forces,
if

reversed, would be in equilibrium with the external or


;

impressed forces
of

they

may be

looked upon either as equations

motion or as conditions for equilibrium.


24.
It is

evident, also, from this

same

principle, that

if

we take
if

the

sum

of all the

versed, will
forces.

moments balance the sum

of the effective forces, these,

re-

of all the

moments

of the external

Consequently, for any set of rectangular axes, we must

also have

D'ALEM BERT'S PRINCIPLE.


d*z
}

33

dh
dt~

dP
dh-

vi

df
m\ x

df1

(B)

dy
df-

y-d\x J
df
1
.

=A

r
,

where L, M, TV are the couples produced by the external


25.
It

forces.

may

be stated here that D'Alembert's principle holds

also in the case of a

system

of bodies

moving under

their mutual
It

actions and reactions, and applies to the motion of liquids.


is

a direct consequence of Newton's Third


26.

Law

of Motion.

Deductions from D" Alembcrfs Principle.


of the equations (A),
2 mrd x = ^mX.

Taking any one

we have

df-

But, by definition of the centre of inertia,

^mx Mx,
and

it

Jt

71

/r

it

Ji-

dt 2

dt 1

Therefore the above relation becomes

M d x = ^mX, df
2 1

and similarly for the other two.


(1)

Hence, the motion of the centre of gravity of a system under

the action of

any forces

is the

lected at the centre of inertia

same as if all the mass were coland all the forces were applied there

parallel to their former direction.

And

so the problem of finding the motion of the centre of

inertia of a system,

however complex,

is

reduced to finding that

of a single particle.

54
plete oscillation given

RIGID DYNAMICS.
by the relation t=2ir\-, where
rr

/ is

the
XL

length of the equivalent simple pendulum and equal to


If,

,;>._l Ip-

now,

be observed by means of a clock, and h and


the value of

/-

be

found,

we have

g
on

given.

This method

is

one of

the most accurate

known

for finding the intensity of the earth's


its

attraction at different points

surface.

Various forms have


in

been given to these pendulums, from time to time,


ensure accuracy of measurement
;

order to
of

and the most important

those which have been used for the scientific determination of


gravity are described below.

(a)

Borders Pendulum.
his

Borda (1792) constructed


nearly as
possible

pendulum

so as to realize as
It

the simple pendulum.

was made
it

of a
it

sphere of

known

radius, equal to a.

To

render

very heavy

was composed

of platinum

and was suspended by a very

fine

wire about twelve feet in length.

The

knife edge which carried

the wire and sphere was so arranged by

means

of a

movable

screw as to oscillate

in

the same time as the complete pendulum.

The time was determined by

the method of coincidences, and

g was

found from the relation

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

55

inch and a half wide and an eighth of an inch in thickness.

This bar was pierced in two places, and triangular knife edges
of hard steel

were inserted so that the distance between them

was nearly 39 inches. A large mass in the form of a cylinder was placed near one of the knife edges, being slid on by means of a rectangular opening cut in it. A smaller mass was also attached to the pendulum in such a way as to admit of small motions either way. The pendulum was then swung about the two axes and adjustment of the masses made until the times of
small oscillations were the same.

This time being noted, and


small difference being gen-

the distance between the knife edges being accurately measured,


erally

was readily calculated.


in

A
it

found

the two times,

can be shown that the length

of the seconds

pendulum

will

be found from the expression


2 )(// 1

(7^

//

-// 2 )

where h v h 2 are the distances of the centre of inertia from the two knife edges, and tv 2 the corresponding times of oscillation.
t.

(c)

Repsold's Pendulum.

It

was noticed
air

in

experimenting with pendulums made like


is

Kater's that the vibration

differently affected
is

by the

sur-

rounding

according as the large mass


in

above or below.

This led to the form known as Repsold's,


hollow at one end.
is

which the two ends


is

are exactly similar externally, but the pendulum (which


drical) is

cylin-

The

centre of inertia of the figure

equidistant from the


is

knife edges, but the true centre of inertia of the whole mass
at a different point.
40.

Many

observers have, during the present century, con-

ducted observations at different points on the earth's surface


in order to

determine not only the length of the seconds penduthe


earth considered
as a

lum, but also the excentricity of


spheroid.

56

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Helmert
in his

work on Geodesy has collated the results of nearly all the more important expeditions, and the following table gives some of the principal stations with the corresponding lengths of the seconds pendulums there, and the name of the
observer.

To

find

from

this table for

any

place, the relation

\ogg=2\og-rr + \ogl
Place.

Latitude.

Observer.
Freycinet

Rawak
St.

i' S.

99.0966

Thomas

Galapagos
Para
.

24 N. 32 N.
27 S.
55
S.

99-"34
99.1019

Sabine
Hall
Foster

99.0948
99.1217

Ascension
Sierra

Leone
.

8 10
12

29 N.

99.1104
99.1091

Sabine
Basevi and Heaviside

Trinidad

Aden

Madras St. Helena


Jamaica
Calcutta
.

13
15

38 N. 46 N. 4 N. 56
S.

99.1227 99.1 168


99.1581

Basevi and Heaviside

17

56 N.

99.1497 99.1712
99.1712

Sabine
Basevi and Heaviside

22 22

^
55

N.
S.

Rio Janeiro
Valparaiso

33 34 38

2 S.

99.2500
99.2641

Liitke

Montevideo
Lipari
.

54 28 N. 44 X. 41 X.
7 N. 5 N. 2 4 N.

S.

Foster
Biot

99-3097
99.3191

Hoboken, N.
Tiflis
.
.

40
41

99.3190 99.3402 99-347 99.3623

Toulon Bordeaux

43 44
45

Duperrey
Biot

Padua
Paris

Biot

48
5
5'
5
1

50 N.
37 N.

99.3858
99.4042
99.4169
99-4 43

Shanklin Farm (Isle of

Wight)

Kater

Kew
London
Berlin

28 N.
28 N.
31 X. 30 X.

Greenwich

5'
.

99.4140

52

994235
99.4501
99-45 6 5

Staten Island

54
55
55

46
51

s.
s.

Foster
Foster

Cape Horn
Leith
Sitka
. .

57

55 X. 3 N.

99-455
99.4621
99-4 s ?4
Liitke

Pulkowa
Petersburg

59
59 60

46 X. 56 N.
45 N.

Sawitsch

99.4876
99-4959

Unst

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


may be
in

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

57

used,

where

/ is

the length of the seconds pendulum

centimetres.

See also Geodesy, by Colonel A. R. Clarke,

Chap. XIV.

The
tudes,

places are arranged geographically in order of their

lati-

and show thereby the gradual increase

in

the length of

the seconds pendulum as

we go from

the equator to the pole.

Those

places, in the preceding table, for

which the lengths

of the seconds

pendulum have been calculated from a number

of observations

made by

different observers, are indicated

by a

dash.

During the past few years several observers have made observations on the value of g at different points in North
41.

America.
during the

Professor Mendenhall, of the U. S. Coast Survey,

summer

of 1891, visited a

number

of places

on the

Pacific coast

between San Francisco and the coast

of Alaska,

and

in his report of

the expedition gives a table of the values

determined, with the places and corresponding latitudes.

He
spec-

pendulum enclosed in an chamber which could be exhausted with an air pump. ial method was used for noting the coincidences (see U.

made use

of a half-seconds

air-tight

S. Coast

and
of

Geodetic Survey.

Report for 1891, Part


crossed from
of

2).

Defforges, one of the greatest living authorities

on methods

gravity

determination,

Francisco during the

summer

Washington to San 1893 and made a number of

observations which are given in the following table.


of

The

value

alone

is

given.
980.169
980.747
980.375

Washington
Montreal

Chicago

Denver
Salt

980.983

Lake City

980.050

Mt. Hamilton

979.916
980.037
level.

San Francisco

These are

all

reduced to sea

58
42.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Experimental Determination of a Moment of
Inertia.
it

In

many

cases of small oscillations under gravity, where

is difficult

to calculate the

moment
is

of inertia of a

body from

its

elements, the time of oscillation


of inertia being increased
figure, the

observed

and, the

moment

by the addition of a mass of definite


is

time of oscillation

again noted.

The

required

moment
is

of inertia

may then be

calculated.

This method

particularly useful in the case of

magnetic

oscillations about a vertical axis.

43.
rical.
If

Pressure on the Fixed Axis.

Forces

and Body Symmet-

a body be

moving about an

axis,

and

it is

symmetrical with

respect to a plane passing through the centre of inertia and

perpendicular to the axis, and at the same time the forces acting

on the body are also symmetrical with respect to this plane,


then we

may suppose

that the pressures on the axis are reduciwill lie in

ble to a single one


will

which

the plane of symmetry and

cut the axis of rotation.

To

determine, in such case, the

direction
in

and magnitude

of the resultant pressure,

we proceed
let
it

the following way.

Let the body, Fig.

25,

surround the point

and

be

symmetrical with respect to the plane of the paper which contains C, the centre of inertia
:

the axis of rotation being perpen-

dicular to the plane of the paper, and passing through O.

Let

the forces acting on the body also be symmetrical with reference


to this plane.

And

let

the body, moving about the axis through


/

O, be situated at any time

as represented, B being the angle

which the

line

OC
be

fixed in the

body and moving with

it

makes

with the line

OA

fixed in space.
in

Then the

resultant pressure
its

on the axis
will

will

the plane of the paper, and

direction

pass through

Let

its

components measured along two

rectangular axes

OX, O Y

in

the body, be

P and

Q.

Let

CO=h.

Then,

A',

Y,

being the accelerations on unit mass in the

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


directions
relations
if-x
.i)i

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

59

OX, OY, we

have, by D'Alembert's

principle, the

= tmX+P,

dt-

%m^=tmY+Q.

Fig. 25.

Fig. 26.

Now,
will

if

to

be the angular velocity, any particle such as


is

m
in

be acted on by the forces ma>2r, nmr, as

indicated in the
as

figure; and these forces resolved along


Fig. 26,

OX, OY,

shown

would give

m d\x 2
dt
2

i>iw

x vmy,

m d y_
dfi

mary+mcox.
also be obtained

The

values of

r y
( f2

( f2

dt

dt 2

may J
j'

by J

direct differ-

entiation from ,r=/'cos#,

= rsin#.

Thus,

dx

= r sin
.

Q 6

d0

dt

= yw, dt

dy
---

=r

cos 6

dt

=xco. dt
d0

60

RIGID DYNAMICS.

d 2x

d 2y

Hence, our relations

for

determining the pressures become


(co

P + 1m X + 1m
(2

x + coy) = o,
j'

+ 1m F+ 2 w (w dur) = o.
2

P = S; A' 2t
(2

(<u

r -f- wy),

= w Y 1

;// (<u

2 j'

cox).

But, by definition of the centre of inertia,

Imarx = co 2 1/;/x'= Mlico 2


'

Imcoy = col my = o,

1mco 2y = co 2 1my = o, 1mcox= w1mx=Mhco.


.-.

P=-1wX-M/iafi,

which equations determine the pressures P, Q, and therefore the direction and magnitude of the resultant pressure when

we know

co.

which

is

found from the relation already given,


.

C0

=d e=
2
-

x
Imr2
'

dfl

where
axis.

is

tion axis,

moment of the external forces about and -w; 2 is the moment of inertia about
the
integration,

the rota-

the same
its

This, on

gives

co,

and on substituting
are found.

value in the preceding expression,

P and Q

44.

//(di'v

Symmetrical Body.

Pressure on the Axis.


is

In the particular case of a heavy bod)- which

symmetrical

about a plane through


rotation axis, which
is

its

centre of inertia perpendicular to the

horizontal, the external forces are only

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED AXIS. FINITE FORCES.


those of gravity, and the relations

6l

we

have, Fig. 27, the pressures given by

P=- Mg cos 0-MkaP,


Q =Mg sin d+M/ia,
and
if

we suppose

estimated

in
is

the opposite direction, the

complete solution of the motion

obtained from

Fi?. 27.

da>

6_

gJi sin

~dt~~df-~~ '/P + JP'

P =Mg cos 0+M/ud2


Q=Mgs>\n6+Mkw,

being measured always upwards from the vertical and k being the radius of gyration about the centre of inertia.

62

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Illustrative
I.

Examples.
falls

A
in

rod,

movable about one end,

in a vertical

plane,

starting from a horizontal position.

Find the pressure on the


the rod makes an angle

end

any position.
;

Figure 28 shows the motion


6 with the vertical line OA,
d(o

when

we have
Fa
sin 6
"

d2 9
dt
2

"**.*
4a

dt

4a
dco
</7

.'.

2co-=

,d0 xg sin 0
.

2 a

dt

a
( f 2G>d(o=- J\ Ju

sm0d0.
2 a

Fig. 28.

W 2 = ljl
2

cos
2

and

P = Mg cos ^ + JvW = Jfc cos 6, Q = Mg sin 0+^rt<a = Mg sin 0.


I
I

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

63

When

the rod

is

in the lowest position, 6

= 0,

and

P=^Mg,
of

Q = o.
2.

Rod, movable about one end, falling from the position


in the

unstable equilibrium.

As

preceding problem, we have (Fig. 29)

dw
at
2 codo)

3
4.

sr

a
-

=
J

Jn 2 a

sin 9dQ,

a>

9 2

=J|(i+cos0),
cos
0),

^>

and

P = Mg cos + Mac* 2 = l Mg(s + 5 Q = Mg sin 6 + Maa = \ Mg sin 0.

Fig. 29.

In the lowest position, 6

= 0, Q = 0, P=^Mg,

which shows

that

if

the rod can just

make complete

revolutions, the pressure

64
on the axis

RIGID DYNAMICS.
in the lowest position is in the direction of the rod,

and equal

to four times its weight.

Maximum and Minim /tm

Values of

and

Q.

P is a maximum 4 Mg and Mg\


maximum when
6

when 6 = o or ir, and it is a minimum when


and and
its its

its

values then are


=--.

cos
\

is

,
2
ir,

value then

is

Mg;

it is

a mini-

mum

when 6 = o

or

value then

is o.

Resultant Pressure at

Any
and

Time.

This

may be found by

taking

R =P
2

-\-Q 2

and substituting

the general values of

in

terms of

6.

The maximum
obtained by

and minimum values of the


ant pressure
,
.

total pressure

may be

differentiating in the usual way.

The
will

angle which the result-

makes with the rod


,

be determined from the

relation

Q tany = =

sin 6

P 6+ io

cos 6

3.

Cube, edge horizontal, performing complete revolutions

under gravity.

a.

Fig. 30.

Figs. 30 and 31

show the motion.


on the

Since the body and forces

are symmetrical about the central plane perpendicular to the


axis of rotation, the pressures
axis, as

the cube swings

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

65

around, are reducible to a single pressure lying in this central


plane and cutting the
axis.

Taking, then, the auxiliary figure,

we need only

consider the motion of OC, which in any position

makes an angle

with the vertical line OA.


velocity at any instant
dco
is

The angular

given by

= dt

(f-6 =

3 ^ ^=

Q sin 0,

dt-

4.^20,
a.

the edge of the cube being of length 2

Supposing the cube

to

start

initially

with

OC

vertically

upwards, and to swing completely around,

Jo

Jk

V2a

.'.

a>

= -^-(i+cos<9),
2 V2<7
l

and

P = Mg cos 6 + Ma^2(

f-

i+cosfl),

Q=Mg sin d+Mtn/2[


\

4V2rt

^f

sin

Mg
=

<2

Mg
sin0.

The maximum and minimum

values of

P and Q

can easily be

found, as in the previous case of the rod.

To

find the total pressure,

we have

.ff2 = p2 + 02 = (_jl)

(Me\2
(3

0)2 _+_(__* 5 cos

fMe\2
J

sin 2^

and the maximum and minimum values


F

of

can be found by
0.

the process of differentiation with respect to

It

will

be

66
found that
are

RIGID DYNAMICS.

is

maximum when

6 = o or mr, and

its

values then

<\Mg and
is

Mg.
cos

R
4.

minimum when

6= Mi aa

and

its

value

is -

Mg \ [y

411

hemisphere revolves about an axis which coincides with


its

diameter of

base, and which


it

is

inclined at an angle to
total pressure

the vertical.

If

swings completely around, the

on

its axis,

when

in the lowest position, is

64
5.

(109 sin

4-(64 cos

2
$

5
.

right circular cone

whose height

is

equal to the radius


its

of
If

its

base swings about a horizontal axis through

vertex.

the axis of the cone starts from a horizontal position, find the
in

angular velocity and the pressure on the rotation axis when


lowest position.

the

6.

uniform heavy rod oscillates about one end

in

a vertical

plane, under gravity,


If
y}r

coming

to rest in a

horizontal position.

be the angle between the rod and the line of the resultant

pressure, and 6 the angle of inclination of the rod to the horizon


at the

same

time, then tan

yfr

tan 0=yfr.

7.

homogeneous
is

solid

spheroid,

the equation of whose

bounding surface *&

r2

i>

+~2
bl

a2
is

suspended from an axis passing through one of the


lies

foci.

Prove that the centre of oscillation


\

on the surface
?>-)

ah 2 +

//-'(.r

4-j' 2

+S2

2
) \

= 25 a

(* +r + - 2 ) 2

8.

uniform wire

is

bent into the form of an isosceles

tri-

angle, and revolves about an axis through its vertex perpendicu-

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


lar to its plane.

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.
will

67
be at

Prove that the centre of oscillation

the least possible distance


9.

when the

triangle

is

right angled.
in

uniform heavy rod revolves uniformly about one end

such a manner as to describe a cone of revolution.


pressure on the fixed point, and show that
if 6, yjr

Find the
press-

be the angles

which the
ure,

vertical
-v^

makes with the rod and the resultant


0.

4 tan

=3

tan

10.

rough uniform board


of
its

is

placed on a horizontal table

with two-thirds

length

projecting

over the table, the

board being

initially in

contact with the table, and perpendicuthat


it

lar to the ed;e.

Show

will besrin to slide off


1

when

it

has turned through an angle tan

\x

being the coefficient of

45.
If

General Case.
the forces and body are not symmetrical, then
;

we

take the

general equations already found


to be equivalent to

and supposing the pressures


axis

two

at

two points on the


',

whose com-

ponents are P, Q,

R;

P',

R'

we

get, for the

determination

of these pressures, the relations

2m ^=SwX+P + P', 1
(

dt'

ifl

Z m 4=?,mZ+R+R', 2
dt

dh>
df-

d2 v
J
dfl

Nz,m'r

dt

68 This
tion, of

RIGID DYNAMICS.
last relation gives at
co.

once the value of

co

and, by integra-

L,

M, Ar
,

are the couples produced by the external


C.2 ',

forces
sures,

and

Cv C2

C{,

the couples produced by the presin

which can be expressed

terms

of these pressures,

and

the distances from the origin at which they are supposed to act.

The
(i) (2)

process of solving any particular problem will be to

Find

co

and

co.

Express the quantities ?,

72 r

etc.,

in

terms of

co,

co,

and

known expressions. (3) Thence find the pressures. The effective forces can be expressed
entiation,

in

terms of the

radial
differ-

and transversal forces either by resolution or by direct and


it

will

be found that

d 2x = co-vr coy J
df-

dy
df1

coy +
will

co.i\

Thus, the previous relations

become

v m x + P + P' = Sw( - afix-wy) sm

=-

co

J/.r- cbJ/F,

Y+Q + Q' = !///(- coy + iox) = - t&My + aMx,


are the coordinates of the centre of inertia.
/2,~

2mZ + R + R'=o,
where
x,

Also, since

-tt=o,
dt-

we have

L + C, + Ca = 2m [y-^z 1 = co-^vi yz - almxz, 1


1

df

dt )

dt-

d/-J
d-.x-\

AT

d-v
dfl
J

.,

d-e
dt 1

dfiJ

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


46.
fied
if

AXIS.

FINITE FORCES.

69

It will

be seen that the

last

expressions are

much

simpli-

we make
is

a proper choice of axes.

The

first thing- to

be

done, then,
it is

to choose the origin

on the rotation axis so that

a principal axis at that point.


if

Then "2mxz = o, 1myc = o.


a triangle to be rotating
is

Thus, for example,

we suppose

under gravity about one side which


tions of motion will be

horizontal, the equaif

much

simplified
it

we choose
;

as origin

that point in the side at which


p. 28.

is

a principal axis

see Ex.

3,

Then, supposing the pressures

to be equivalent to
is

two

acting at the ends of the side, the solution the angular velocity at any time
is

very simple, as

found from the relation

P
3

= ~g ~dt
where/
site

dco

sin 6

g sin
~p

a
'

is
;

the perpendicular on the rotation axis from the oppo-

angle
in

and the pressures can then be immediately written


go,

down

terms of
o,

a>

and the coordinate x of the centre


is

of

inertia,

y being

since the body

a lamina.

CHAPTER
MOTION ABOUT A FIXED
47.

V.

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

General Case.
impulse being denned, as already explained, to be a force
of velocity,

An

which produces a sudden change


acts for an indefinitely short time,

and which only

we can

obtain the general

impulsive equations of motion of any body capable of motion

about a fixed axis by considering the relations found in Art. 45. In those relations, by the substitution of changes of velocity
for accelerations,

we

get

ZZ + R + R' = o,
where X,
Y,

are the impulsive actions on individual parti;

cles clue to external impulsive forces

P, Q, R, P',

Q',

A" are

impulsive pressures on the fixed axis


of
J

and where the velocity


place,
is

any particle before the impulsive action takes


to
(

changed suddenly

70

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


And, since
changed
to
&)',

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

71

=o, dt

and the angular velocity w


for the impulsive couples,

is

suddenly

we have

^' +c-H(fHf)l'
Now we
have

dt

at

any time equal

to

coy, and

-2-

= wx\
we

dt

and, substituting these values in the preceding equations,

have the complete solution of the problem given by

ZX+P + P' = -^m(a>' -<o)y= ~(co' -co)Mj,


2 V+ Q +Q'=1m(Q)' -<o).y= (co'-(o)J/x,

2Z+R+R'=o,
L + C + C = --w:(a' o>)x= (<o' a>)1,mxs,
1 2

M+ C
48.
If

'

+ C2 = ^mz{co' a))j'=
'

(ft)'

ft))Swj'^,

the body starts from rest, then

co

= o,

and the sudden

angular velocity generated by an impulse which tends to turn a

body about

a fixed rotation axis

is

obtained from the relation

,'-

where TV
S;//;2

is

is

the

moment of the impulse about the axis, and moment of inertia. As before, the problem is simthe
at a point

plified
is

by choosing the origin

where the rotation

axis

a principal axis.

72
49.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Centre of Percussion.

In the general equations just found, let us suppose that the

impulsive actions are those caused by a blow

represented by

components X,

Y,

Z; and that the blow

is

struck at some point


axis,

on the surface of a body, capable of motion about a fixed

which either passes through


nected.

it

or to which

it

is

rigidly con-

What
body

is

the condition that there shall be no impulsive


?

pressure on the axis


strike the

Or, in other words,

is

it

possible to

at a certain point in

such a way as to produce

Fig. 32.

no strain upon the axis about which


the body (Fig. 32) surround 0\
tion,
let

it

is

free to rotate

Let

ZZ' be
is

the axis of rota-

and

let

the plane of zx which


t

the plane of the paper,

contain G, the centre of inertia of the body.

Suppose that the


,
77,

blow

is

applied at the point whose coordinates are


ij

(the

coordinate

not being shown, being drawn


If

upwards perpen-

dicular to the plane of the paper).

there be no resulting

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


pressure

AXIS.
struck,

IMPULSIVE FORCES. 73
the

when

the

body

is

general

relations

become

X=o,
Y=(co'-co)JlLT;

Z=o,
L = r)Z Y= (<w'
ft>)

^mxz,
f

M= X- Z= where k
is

(*>'

- a>)^myz

N=%Y-r,X= (co'-cd)1w> 2 =(co'-co)M62


the radius of gyration about the axis.
it

From these also ^myz o.

will

be seen that, since


also,

X=o, Z=o, we

have

And

Y= (w' wfLmxz,
Y={co'-<o)Mx.
c,_ 2 mxz

_ 2 mxz
'Zmx

Mx
And
I
is

given by the last relation,


e
*

(ft)'

-a>)Jl/P

= (a>'-G>)MJP = t*
((o'-co)Mx

The above
any point

conditions holding, and there being no pressure on


is

the axis, the line of the blow


in this line is

called a

Line of Percussion, and

termed a Centre of Percussion.

50.
1.

By an

inspection of the foregoing relations,

we

have,

X=o, Z=o; and

therefore one condition, that there

may

be no strain upon the


centre of inertia.

axis, is that

the line of the blow must be

perpendicular to the plane containing the rotation axis and the

74
2.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
1ntj c
r

= o,

and '2mxz = %- -mx.


be chosen anywhere on the
axis, let
it

Now,

since

O may
"=0.

be

so chosen that

Then

for

that origin

so chosen -///r.~

would be

zero,

and TLmxz

also zero.
first

Therefore, an essential condition, to be


line of percussion, cipal axis at
is

satisfied for a

that the axis of rotation


of its length.

must be a

prin-

some point

3.

=
x

>

which shows that when a centre of percussion does


from the axis
is

exist, its distance

the

same

as that of the centre

of oscillation.
If

=0 and ^ = 0,

then the line of percussion passes through

the centre of oscillation, which

may be

stated in the following

way
If the fixed axis be parallel
inertia, the line
to

a principal axis at the centre of

of action of the bloiv will pass through the centre

of oscillation.

Ill n strath 'e


'

Examples.
in

1.

uniform rod, fixed at one end and capable of motion


is

a vertical plane,

hanging freely under the action


to
its

of gravity,

and being struck perpendicular


position of unstable equilibrium,

length, rises

into the

Find the magnitude of the


at

blow that there may be no strain


In order that there

the fixed point.


it

may be no

strain on the axis,

must be
be
at

struck at the centre of percussion, which point will

a
a.

distance

- from
3

the fixed end,

if

the length of the rod be 2

Then,

if co

be the angular velocity produced by the impulse, we

have from the equation of moments,

n Aa
3

B=Ma

a>,

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


Also,

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

75

^=_3jr sin
at

4a
it

is

the equation of motion of the rod as

rises

upwards, being
(o.

acted upon by gravity, and starting with an angular velocity

t/cu

( 2

mda>=

-M a
2

''gin Qffl

*/o

r (0

,2_3<r a

From

this

it

may be

seen that generally when a body

is

struck at the centre of percussion, the value of the impulse

is

measured by the product


centre of inertia.
2.

of the

mass and the velocity

of the

circular plate free to


its

move about

a horizontal tangent

is

stuck at

centre of percussion and rises into a horizontal

position.

Find the blow.

As
and
,

before,

B JLroo,
4 = -^ dt a
dco
5
<r

a being the radius,


a

sin 6

gives S>'

<y.

B = M^5
3.

sector of a circle,

whose radius
its

is

a and

angle
is

, is

capable of turning about an axis in


dicular to one of
its

plane which

perpenof

bounding

radii.

Find the coordinates

the centre of percussion.


Fig.

33 shows the position of the centre of percussion C,

whose coordinates are


z^.mxz

nix
2.mx*
2.111

76

RIGID DYNAMICS.

On

transforming to polar coordinates

it

will

be found that

=f a sin a,
f = t
</.

sm

+ COS

Fig. 33.

the centre of percussion of a triangular plate capable of rotation about a side.


4-

To

find

JJOF d

Fi. 34.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED


Fig. 34
is

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

77

shows the position

of the centre of percussion.

AB

the rotation axis,

PD

perpendicular to

point of

AB,

the middle point of

DE.

AB, E the middle Then AB is a prin-

cipal axis at the point F,

and

being the centre of inertia of

the plate, and

PD=p, C
is

the centre of oscillation, the centre of percussion,

C
and

is

r
h

p
3

When
5.

the triangle

is

isosceles,

C and

C coincide.
AB being parallel to point P is a centre of per-

ABCD
Show

is

a quadrilateral (Fig. 35),


if

CD.

that,

AB2 =$CD

2
,

the

cussion for the rotation axis

AB.

(Wolstenholme.)

Fig. 35.

6.

uniform beam capable of motion about one end

is

in

equilibrium.

Find

at

what point a blow must be applied


in

per-

pendicular to the
fixed

beam

order that the impulsive action on the

end may be one-third of the blow.

78
51.
If a

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Initial Motions.

Changes of Constraint.

body, moving about a fixed axis with

velocity, is

suddenly freed from


or
if

its
is

constraint

known angular and a new axis


is

fixed in

it,

a body at rest
of

disturbed so that there

sudden impulsive change

pressure,

we can determine

the

new

angular velocities and changes of pressure by reference to

the impulsive equations of motion already found.

Sometimes,
obtained

however, solutions which are more instructive

may be

by considering elementary principles


ples

and the following examto be

are

given

to

illustrate the

methods

employed

in

various cases.
Illustrative Examples.

1.

uniform board

is

placed on two props


in

if

one be sud-

denly removed, find the sudden change


Fig. 36 illustrates the problem.

pressure at the other.


is

The board

of length

2 a,

and

rests

on the props

and B, which are

fixed in position in

n
A
cv

H
A

m
A

cc

Jl

M$

ff

Fig. 36.

the

first

figure, so that

R \Mg.

If

be

now removed, the

board begins to turn about the upper end of


of gravity,
is

under the action


to each element

and

to each
;

element of the board an acceleration wr


if

given suddenly

so that
in

we communicated

an acceleration ar

the opposite direction (upwards),

we


MOTION ABOUT A FIXED
AXIS.
of

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

79

would have, by the application


1(;;/co;-),

D'Alembert's principle, R',

and

Mg

in equilibrium

with one another, as indicated

in

the second figure.


.-.

R' + \M(ma>r)Mg=o.
O, just

Also, taking

moments about

when the prop

is

removed,

we have
1(//icor)

r=Mg- a.
CO

4a

.-.

R' = Mg-Maa> = \Mg.

2.

The

extremities of a heavy rod are attached by cords of

equal length to a horizontal beam, the cords making an angle of

30 with the beam.


initial

If

one of the cords be


is

cut,

show that the

tension of the other

two-sevenths of the weight of the

rod.

3.

uniform rod

is

suspended

in a horizontal

position by

means
If

of

two strings which are attached


other
string;. *>

to the ends of the rod.

one of these strings be suddenly

cut, find the

sudden change

in tension of the

4.

Two
in

strings of equal length have each an extremity tied

to a weight C,

and their other extremities tied to two points


line.

A,

the same horizontal


is

If

one be

cut, the tension of


1
:

the other

instantaneously altered in the ratio

2 cos 2

ACB
.

5.

particle

is

suspended by three equal strings of length a


in a

from three points forming an equilateral triangle of side 2 b


horizontal plane.
If

one string be

cut, the tension of


_

each of
a

the others

is

instantaneously changed in the ratio

7j2

So
6.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

rod of length 2 a

falls

from a vertical position, being

capable of motion about one end in a vertical plane, and


in a horizontal position, strikes a fixed obstacle at

when
and

a given dis-

tance from the end.

Find the magnitude

of the impulse,

the pressure on the fixed end.

Fig. 37.

Let the rod (Fig. 37) drop from the vertical position and strike an obstacle when in the position OB with a blow Q.
Let

be the impulse on the fixed end O, and then

we

have,

taking

moments about

O,

Qd=2.(mrro)

-r=JR 2 -co.
4 a*

<2=-

and since the rod


velocity

falls

from the vertical position,


is

its

angular

when

in

the horizontal position

found

in the usual

way

to be given

by

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.

R = Ma^\^-il * 2 a d
[

These two values


will

of

and

will

change as
.A?

rt

changes

be a

maximum when

a=,

and

will

be positive, zero,

or negative, according as

4 >=<
or as

3 d*

a
the obstacle
is

<=>
of percussion, the

Hence,

if

is

beyond the centre


If at

impulsive strain at
cussion there
is

downwards.

the centre of peraxis,

no impulsive action on the

and when

<
3

the impulse at

is

upwards.

These

results can easily be verified

by experiment.
it

An

iron
if

bar movable about an axis in which

is

very loosely held,

dropped so that
will

it

strikes an obstacle in a horizontal position,

throw
is

its

fixed

end downwards or upwards according as the


of percussion
;

obstacle
if

beyond or nearer than the centre


falls so

and

the bar

that

it

strikes the obstacle just at the centre


is

of percussion, then there

no

jar

on the fixed end, no matter

how loosely it may be held. The experiment may be modified in many ways, and a familiar illustration of there being a centre
of percussion
ball club
is

afforded by the use of the cricket bat or baseis

with which a ball

struck.

If

the ball be struck by a

portion of the bat out near the end, the fingers tingle from the

impulsive reaction outwards

if

it

be struck nearer than the


is

centre of percussion, the impulsive reaction

inwards against
is

the palm of the hand

when the

ball is

struck properly, there


is

no impulsive reaction on the hand, and the energy

all

com-

municated

to the ball.

82
7.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

A rod
fixed
;

is

moving with uniform angular


is

velocity about one

end

suddenly this end

freed and the other end fixed.

Find the new angular

velocity.

O'

or

('

O'

Fig.

38

Fig.

38 indicates

the

solution.

In the

first

figure

each

particle has a linear velocity tor in the direction indicated,

on

account of the angular velocity

to.

In the second figure both


In the third

ends are
figure O'

free,
is

and the velocities remain as before.

instantaneously fixed, which does not affect the

velocities of the other elements of the rod,

by the definition
velocity about

of

an impulse.
will

will

0\ be as shown in the figure in direction, and its magnitude be found by using the formula for moment of momentum.
to',

And

hence

the

new angular

Thus

2 (vitor)x = 1 {mto'x)x.

And

if

x-\-r=a, and p

is

the density,

p(a x)xdx =
11

to',

'.

to'

= \ro.

8.

rod of length a

form angular velocity,


point distant
/

moving about one end fixed with uniwhen suddenly this end is freed, and a
is

from

it

is

fixed.

What

in general will

be the

direction and magnitude of the

new angular
preceding

velocity

This

is

an extension of

the

problem, and the

method

of solution will

be similar.

Let

O
to,

(Fig. 39) be the first

point fixed, and the angular velocity be


this point

as indicated.

Then

being freed,

let

the second point O' be fixed.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES

83

The new angular velocity will be obtained by equating the moments of momentum before and after the fixing of the point Thus O'.
P

C (ox(l-x)
is fixed,

dx-p J

Q>x{l+x)

dx =

MP (about O') x
P
is

to'.

For, the linear velocity of an element at

(/ x)<a before
will there-

O'

and

its

moment

of

momentum

about O'

/
I

JC

q
fore be

o'

i>
\
Fig. 39.

m(l x)a> x

while the

moment
in
If

of

momentum

of

an

element

at

will

be m(l+x)<o

an opposite direction to the


.

former with reference to the point O'


determines the sign and value of
It will

p be the density and

a the length of the rod, we then get the above relation which
03'.

be found on integrating the above expressions that w'


co,

will

have the same sign as

the opposite sign, or will be zero,

according as

which shows that


axis be freed
sion,
it

if

a rod be

moving about an

axis,

and

this

and a new axis fixed through the centre


rest.

of percus-

will

be reduced to

9.

An

elliptic

lamina

is

rotating

with

uniform

angular
is

velocity about

one latus rectum, when suddenly the axis


;

freed and the other latus rectum fixed


velocity.
1

find the

new angular

2 L = - 4 -e^<w2
I
-

i+4e

84
10.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

circular plate rotates about an axis through


its

its

centre
If

perpendicular to
this axis

plane with uniform angular velocity.


in

be freed, and a point

the circumference of the plate

be

fixed, find the

new angular

velocity.

40 gives the solution. For an element at P the linear velocity is w x OP, and its moment of momentum about O' is iiiwxOPxO'P. If OPr and the radius of the plate be a,
Fig.

then

will

\moar{ra cos 0)=J//c 2 co'.


pco

,-.

C f'

r2 (r- a cos 6)drde

= M^(o' =
i<i).

0)'

Fig

40.

11.

A
A

circular plate

is

turning

in

its

own

plane about a
is

point

on

its

circumference.

Suddenly

freed,

and a

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED

AXIS.

IMPULSIVE FORCES.
is

point B, also on the circumference,


plate
will

fixed.

Show

that the
cir-

be reduced to rest

if

AB

be one-third of the

cumference.
12.

triangular plate
If

ABC,

right-angled at C,

is

rotating

about AC.

AC

be loosed suddenly, and

BC

fixed, find

the

new angular

velocity.
,

go

= BC

2AC

CO.

13.

square lamina

is

rotating with angular velocity

co

about

a diagonal,

when suddenly

the diagonal

is

freed and one of the


;

angular points not in the diagonal becomes fixed

prove that
co.

the angular velocity about this angular point will be A


14.

cube

is

rotating with

angular velocity
is

co

about

diagonal,

when suddenly the diagonal

freed and one of the


;

edges which does not meet that diagonal becomes fixed


that the angular velocity about this edge will be
15.

prove

co

V3.
If

A
is

uniform string hangs

at rest over a
off,

smooth peg.

half the string

on one side be cut

show

that the pressure on

the peg

instantaneously reduced by one-third.

52.

T/te Ballistic
is

Pendulum.

This
a
rifle

a device for measuring the velocity of discharge of

and was invented by Robins about 1743, and afterwards used by Dr, Hutton and although of recent years
bullet,
;

superseded by the more accurate electric chronograph,


to be noticed here as

it

is

illustrating the
is
;

nature of an impulse.

In

its

simplest form

it

a heavy pendulum capable of


a bullet discharged into
it

moving

about a horizontal axis

produces a

certain angular velocity, and the

angle which can be easily


to
it,

pendulum rises through an measured or else a rifle is attached


;

and the discharge


latter

of the bullet produces a recoil.

The

method

is

shown by

Fig. 41, in which


rifle,

OA

repre-

sents the pendulum, holding the

and

in

its

position of

86
equilibrium

RIGID DYNAMICS.
under the action of gravity.
found as follows
of bullet,

The

bullet
,

being

driven out produces a recoil


velocity of discharge
is

through the angle


:

and the

Let

7;/

= mass

z/=its initial velocity,

= distance of gun from O, il/ = mass of pendulum and gun, k = radius of gyration about O,
/

h = distance of centre of inertia from O.


.-.

mvt = M(k2 +/?)<*,

where

co is

the angular velocity generated.

The pendulum then moves back through


is

the angle

a,

which

observed, and

its

equation of motion on the way up

is

gh
~dt'
'// 2

sinfl

+ /-'

.MOTION

ABOUT A FIXED
2<oda>=
J"
^ ,B=

AXIS.
2
..,

IMPULSIVE FORCES.
fa
I

87

<r/l
...

sin 6d6.

stJl

''

/7^

<I

~ C0S "

)'

and

this,

combined with the previous

relation,

determines
;

v.

In the other method a similar relation will be found


difference being that at each shot the

the only

pendulum

is

increased in

mass by the addition of the bullet fired into it. A rough pendulum made of a wooden box
on a horizontal smooth
equations.

filled

with sand,

and attached to an iron bar which carries knife edges resting


plate, will readily illustrate the

above

The preceding solution assumes that the recoil of the pendulum, when the gun is fired without a ball, is so small that it may be neglected. Experiments have shown that this assumption may safely be made for small charges of powder but
not for large charges.

In the case of the latter, Hutton as-

sumed
is is

that the effect of

the charge of powder on the recoil


is

the same
fired

when

the gun
ball.

fired

with a ball as
if

it is

when

it

without a
ft

Consequently
is
it

the recoil

is

through
ball,
ball,

an angle

when the gun through an angle when


velocity of the ball will be

discharged without a
is

and
the

discharged with a

2M^/\gh{k*+k*)\(
-

ml
It

sin
\

a
2

sin

has

been found that the actual velocity of the


velocities given

ball

lies

between the

by the two solutions.

CHAPTER

VI.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


Finite Forces.
53.
of
If a

body, fixed at one point only, moves under the action

any

finite forces,

then at every instant there

is

a line of
is

particles

at

rest,

so that the

body

is

moving about what

called

an instantaneous axis passing through the fixed point.


particle will

Each
axis,

have a certain angular velocity about this

and the equations of motion with reference to any three


accordance with the principles already explained.
In

rectangular axes passing through the fixed point can be written

down

in

these equations the expressions for the effective forces will

have to be evaluated

in

terms of the angular velocity about

the instantaneous axis, and in order to explain

how

this

may

be done, the following propositions on the composition and resolution of angular velocities will be found useful.

54.

Angular
:

velocity

is

measured

in

the same manner as


in

linear velocity

by the angle described

a unit

of

time

if

the motion be uniform, or by y


It

dt

if

the motion be not uniform.


in

may be

represented by a straight line drawn

the proper

direction,
will

and perpendicular

to the plane of rotation.

And

it

be seen that angular velocities can be compounded or

resolved in the

same way as
i.

forces acting at a point.


velocities about the

Proposition

For angular

same

rota-

Hon

axis, the resultant is the algebraic

sum.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


This
is

89

evident, since the successive displacements in a small

time are superimposed.

Proposition
velocities about

2.

If a body have at any instant two angular

two axes drawn from a point, and if lengths OA, OB be taken upon the axes to represent in direction and in magnitude the angular velocities, then the resultant angular velocity
will be the diagonal
are adjacent sides.

OC

of the parallelogram of which OA,

OB

Let a body, fixed at O, have two angular velocities represented in direction and in magnitude by OA,
positive direction of rotation be with

OB

and

let

the

the hands of a watch.

Take any point


struct Fig. 42.

in the
let

plane containing
,

OA, OB, and con-

And

OA=eo a OB = co

Fig. 42.

Then, owing to
wards
or
co a

co a ,

the point

P
a) b

would be displaced downdt,


its

in

an infinitely small time

a distance wa

PM

'

dt

sin

AOB

dt.

Due

to

displacement would be

upwards (above the plane


or
oo b

of the paper)

and equal

to

w PNdt

sin

AOB

dt.

Therefore the

total

displacement of
sin

is

AOB(ya) a x(o

)dt,

RIGID DYNAMICS.
this is zero

and

when

x v = ^CO a CO

or

OA

x = ^ v

OB

which
all
is

is

the equation of the straight line OC.

And
that
is,

thus for
the body

points along

OC
OC

there

is

no displacement

turning about OC, due to rotations about

OA

and OB.

That the

line

represents the magnitude of the resultant

angular velocity

may be shown by
Let
co c

considering the displace-

ment

of the point A.

be the resultant angular velocity

about OC.

The displacement The displacement The displacement


and therefore

of A,
of A, of A,

due to due to

co a , is
co b , co c ,

zero.

is

due to

is

OA sin AOB OA sin AOC


A OB
,

co h df. co c dt,

OA sin A OC
..
co c

co c

dt=

OA

sin

co b dt

nR sin AOB nr =OB-- =OC. sin AOC


to
it

Proposition
velocities
o) x
,

3.

If a body fixed at a point have angular


about three rectangular

&jy,

w z communicated

axes passing through the fixed point, the resultant angular velocity is

given by
(o

2
&>x'

4- o) v

CO

2
.

Also,

if

a body have an angular velocity


it

to

about an instantag>
&>,

neous axis
co z

may

be said to have three angular velocities


;

about three rectangular axes

and

if a,

/3,

7 be the angles

which the instantaneous axis makes with the coordinate axes,


then
(O x

and
give the equations of the instantaneous axis

when

toxi

a^

to,

are

known

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


55.

91

That a point may have at the same instant three angular velocities can be seen by means of the apparatus shown in
Fig. 43-

Fig. 4:

To an
of

upright stand

is

attached by means of pivots a system

two rings and a sphere.

The

outer ring can rotate about

an axis passing through the points A,

the second ring

may

be made to rotate about

CD

and the inner sphere about EF.


a horizontal position, and

Now, the
sphere

axis

AB

is

initially in

coincident with the axis of


;

and

if

CD

x drawn from O, the centre of the be made coincident with the axis of y by
plane of xy, then

placing the plane of the outer ring in the


it

is

evident that by turning the inner ring the axis


initially

EF

may

be made

coincident with the axis of

z.

This having been done, rotations


sphere, then to the inner ring, and

may be

given

first

to the

lastly to the outer ring;

and thus any point on the sphere

will

have simultaneously the

02

RIGID DYNAMICS.
the

three angular velocities given to the system, and


will

sphere

rotate about a resultant

axis

in

space, which would

be

fixed

were there no

friction at the

pivots

and no resistance

of the air.

The arrangement

also

shows how a heavy body may be


at the

fixed

at its centre of gravity

and

same time be given rotations

about axes fixed in space.

56.

Linear Velocity and Angular

Velocity.

In the case of a body moving with one point fixed


replace

we may
axis

the angular velocity


(o
v
,

w about the instantaneous

by w x
fixed

w 2 about three rectangular axes drawn through point. The next thing to be done is to connect
for

the the

expressions

the

effective

forces

with

these

component

angular velocities and the coordinates of any element of the


body, and
in

order to do this
,
,

we must
of

obtain an expression
at the point

for the linear velocities


(x,

dt
dt dt
z,

any element
,

y, z) in terms of x, y,

and w z w y
,

co z

on differentiating

these expressions,

we

shall

then obtain the linear accelerations.

We may
1.

proceed either geometrically or by direct analysis.

By

Geometrical Displaccmoit.

Fig. 44 shows

how

the linear displacements arise from the

rotations about the coordinate axes.

In the

first
is

figure the

body

is

supposed to be fixed

at

0,
is

and

Of

the

instantaneous axis about which the body


velocity
co.

moving with angular


axes instead of

The body may be supposed


axis.

to have three rotations w,,

w y w, about the three coordinate


,

w about the instantaneous


as

Then, conof

sidering positive rotations

those

in

the

direction

the

motion
second

of the

hands

of a watch,

and taking the displacements

of the point
figure,

P{x, y, z) due to a rotation a\,

we
in

have, in the

moving along a small

arc

PQ

time

dt,

due

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


to
co,.

93

This small displacement

PQ

is

equivalent to two
have,

PR,

RQ

in the directions indicated.

Hence we

PQ =
,-.

co z

O'P

dt,

J PR=-PQ--Dy = -yto dt rp
2

>

and

QR = PQ--^=xco dt.
z

And, by considering the other planes, we should get the


placements of

dis-

P due

to

co x

and to

co yt

thus

Along Ox

Oy
xco z dt
zco x dt

Oz

Displacements due to Displacements due to

co z

y(a z dt

<o x

yx wdt
xcoy dt

Displacements due to

to

zw y dt
;

These are written down symmetrically

and from them we

see that the linear displacement along Ox, which

we

call

dx,

is

94
equal to
velocity
{za>
y

RIGID DYNAMICS.
y(o z )dt, and, therefore, in the limit the linear

dx

dy

-dr
and

X(

*- zw
x
y
.

dz =y<o -x(D

2.

By

Direct Analysis.
at the point O,

Let the body (Fig. 45) be fixed

and

let

01
<u

be be

the instantaneous axis as before, and the angular velocity

Fig. 45.

equivalent to

a>z ,

a> , v

co,,

as

shown.

Then an element

at

is

tending to move at any instant

in a circle

about 01, and

its

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


absolute velocity
is cof>

95

ds = where/
,

is

the perpendicular from

at

on the instantaneous

axis.

And,

if

a,

ft,

7 be the angles which

01 makes

with the

coordinate axes, then


2 p =(z cos (3y

cos y) 2 H

also

ds

-f-,

are the direction cosines of the tangent at P,

ds ds
'-,-,- are the direction cosines of r r r

OP,

cos

a,

cos

(3,

cos 7 are the direction cosines of 01.

And, since

OP

is

perpendicular to the tangent at P, and

01

also perpendicular to this tangent,

we have
y
r
.

dx x
ds
.

dy
ds
.

dz
ds

z r

dx dy cos cos a ds ds
a-\
f-

dz
ds

p-\

cos 7 = 0.

dx
ds z cos 13y cos 7

dy
ds

dz
ds
cos
1

x cos y z

cos

x cos /3 p
multiplying

And,

therefore,

since

=
ds
dt

a>f>,

we

have,

each

quantity by

>

-={z cos /3y


dt

cos y)a)=ZQ)y y(o2>

dy _

dt~

96
57.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

The former of the two investigations in the preceding article may be presented in purely analytical form thus (1) From the point P (Fig. 45) let fall perpendiculars on the coordinate axes OX, OY, OZ, and let 6, ty be the angles which these perpendiculars make with the coordinate planes XY, YZ, ZX. The angular velocity of P about the axis OX
:

<>,

will

be

dt

and the resolved parts of

this parallel to the coor-

dinate axes will be

(|)|, (|)<f
y = V(
'

and

(|)|
6,

respectively.

Now

-v2 ) cos

z = ^j(r 2 -x2 )sm6,


j and

Bx - =o.
e

'

j^= - V( -'r2
;<2

sin e

= ~z

>

and

And by

definition,

'

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.

97

(seh
fdv\d<b

=0
'

\W*

=_ ^'
= ~x ^

\fe)Jt
fd.r\dcf>

=ya
* "

\jk)dt

= '

Um

fd.o\d<b

Um =

The

total velocity parallel to

OX

is

the algebraic

sum

of the

partial velocities, that is

dx = (dx\d6
dt

fdx\d
\d<f>J

fdx\d
\d^J dt

\dd) dt

dt

dx

dt

deb

d\lr

dt
d^lr

y dt
d6
dt
x*- =j dt
dd>

^^

'

Similarly, y

c-

-i

dy -^dt

=x- z
dt

=xco.
f

.zw x ,

and

da

=y dd
dt dt

a> x

xa>y

(2)

The second

investigation

in

Art.
:

56

may

also be pre-

sented in a purely analytical form thus

x cos+j
2 p =(s

cos/3 + ^rcos 7 = r cose,


/3

(e

= angle

IOP),
.

cos

y cos 7) 2 +(a'COS 7 z cos ) 2 +(j cos ,rcos7) 2


&),
Co.,

Also

<,

&>.

cos

cos

/3

cos 7

and

+^' +
.

=0)

=W
e,

'.

A'&) x +jj'ft)j,

z<*> z

= no cos

(2)

and
2

(fT (f)
H

2=

** ~ yW ^ +

^~

x? + ,(Wl " 'r

)2
'

(3 }

98

RIGID DYNAMICS.
rigid
<o,

The body being


constants
;

and
co
y,

a fixed point in
co z

it,

r and

e
z,

are

also

co x ,

are independent of x, y,

the

coordinates of
differentiation,

P, therefore

from

(i)

and

(2)

we

obtain,

by

dx dy x+y-r+z=o,
,
.

dz

dt

dt

dt

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


And,
also,

99

2;|
dfi

~%m\

IOO
it is

RIGID DYNAMICS.
evident that these equations can be expressed in terms of
, ,

known quantities, and a> x <o y Hence the equations (4),


cumstances,
will serve to

a> z

(5),

(6),

taken with the


oo x , co
y,

initial

circo

determine

co z ,

and therefore

and the position of the instantaneous axis; equations (3) will then give, on substitution, the value of P.

(1), (2),

59.

Eq nations

of Motion referred

to

Axes fixed

in Space.
it

Taking the equation (6), we shall proceed terms of co x co y a> z by taking the values
,

to evaluate

in

dx
dt

=zco-ya>

dv

t)

-j-=x(D 2 -z(o x at

=y(o -xa> at
dz
x

y,

and differentiating.
^, Thus we should get
,
,

d\\'

-^ = z

doo,.

dy da ^^--y -^-, and on


dco z
,

substituting in this the values of

-,'-,

,
,

we get

^=s^-y^-x(a>
dt
1

+ co 2 + a>
z
,

2
z

tit

dt

)+co x (xco x +ycoy + Za> z).

d 2x

dw - d(a dt^^it y ~dt


v

o / L -^-x+coLuo^j^+^u
1

and, similarly,

we should
do) z

get,
da) x

by symmetry,

/
,

d 2y

Therefore relation
,,

(6)
2

becomes

v ( N=* m \x d M

y -dfi)
)

d 2x\

= ^m (* +y 2 J

^ - ^mxz ^ - 2myz ^
dt dt

dt

+ 2m {xco

+yco u + aw,) (xo) y yo) x),

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


and by analogy

IO i

M and L can be written down.


But
this calculation,
it

Since L, HI, IV
co x , o)
y,

are given, these results would give the values of


integration, after calculation of the
inertia required.

co 2

on
of

moments and products


as can be seen,

would

be tedious, and we can avoid most of


although
still

by choosing axes which


of motion.

fixed in space are in coincidence with the princi-

pal axes of the

body when we form the equations


in the

This device enables us at once to disregard the products of


inertia,

and makes a great simplification

problem.

It is

due to Enter, and the equations thus obtained are known as Eider 's equations of motion.
6^.

Eider s Equations of Motion.

Instead of choosing any three rectangular axes fixed in space


at the instant

under consideration,

let

axes be so chosen that

they coincide with the principal axes of the moving body; and
let
eo

co

2,

&>

be the angular velocities about these principal


then be the same as
shall
o) x , u>
y,

axes,

which

will

co z

in the

preceding

equations.

We

then have

and

it

can be shown (see Art. 61), that

-^ = ^3.
dt dt

dt

Thus the equations

for determining

co

a>

2,

&>

become

A-^-(B-C)(0 2 a) 3 = L,

B^-iC-A^v^M,
C^-(A-B)(o
l( 2

= JV.


RIGID DYNAMICS.
integration,

102

These equations, on

being

three

in

number,

should serve theoretically to


(o
,
,

determine the angular velocities

The v <w 2 (o 3 and the position of the instantaneous axis. actual situation of the body with reference to known directions in space can also

be found from these, combined with

certain other relations which will be given further on.

61.

It

might seem that &

=
5

follows at once from the

dt

dt

relation

o) z

= &) 3

but

it

does not necessarily so follow; that the

Fig. 47.

former relation holds as well as the latter

may however be
in

shown

in the

following manner:

Let OX,

O Y, OZ

be the three axes fixed

space (Fig. 47)

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


then a body moving with the point

103

fixed will

produce about

OP

an angular velocity
co x

cos + o) y cos

B + co z cos 7,
makes with the
axes.
/,

if a,

B,

7 are the angles which

OP

Differentiating this expression with respect to

we

get for

the angular acceleration about


x cos a -* w x sin dt dt
.

OP
u Y

da>

du

r>dco + cos B w
,

dt

sin

n B

dB
dt

+
,

cos 7 '

da>.

dt

-,sm7-f.
Suppose now that (9P approaches
cides with
it,

dy

OX
dy
dt

and ultimately

coin-

then the angular acceleration becomes

da.
dt

dB
dt

because = o,
is

B=y =
2

when

OP

coincides with
in
co 9 .

OX:
is

and

it

also evident
o),

from the figure that

such case

dt

dB

the same

as

or

two, 3

and that

d =&> v
dt

or

.'.

=
!

at the

same time that

o 1

dt

dt

=o>,.

The
erations

relations

between

^
1,

?,

?.

the

angular

accel-

<#

<#

around axes fixed

in

the body, and

dt dt dt
-, ?,

?,

the angular accelerations around axes fixed in space,

may be
body,

determined
as follows
:

for

any
/2

given

position

of

the

moving

Let

lx

mv

nx

2,

n2

/3

z,

n3

be the direction cosines

104
of axes fixed in the

RIGID DYNAMICS.
body referred
to coordinate axes fixed in

space.

Then

will
(o

=
=

ll a I -\-m l w, J
/ (0 x
2
co

1l

(0.

a>

+ i 2 +
!/

n. (o
2

(I)

w.

;=

/3 a> x

+ / 3 a>,+

3 6>,

<w

;;/
1

&)
1

4-w 2 (W 2 + w 3 &) 3
;/. &).

(2)

w z = u^u)^

w 3 &) 3

/2
/

;//

2 2

;/

2 2 2 3

= I, =
1
,

/2 /3

+w

7 3
j

;/

;/

= 0,
.

(3)

+ w 32 +

//

1<J\

+ w w + 3j = O.
3

Differentiating the
dco,
,

first

equation in group
doo,
l

(1),

do)x
1

dco,.
1

dL
x

dm-,
y

dn,
'

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

But the sum

of the last three

terms on the right hand side of

this equation is zero, for

dL

dm,

dn,

= {l

dL W l + /2 C0 2 + '3<3)-jj
,

+ W
.

+ W 2W2 + W 3W

^dm,
3)

ft

.dn,

,dL

dm*

dn,\

(,d?\

dm

dn

.dL

dm,

d/l,\

=c

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


as appears at once on differentiating the equations in
dco,

105

group

(3).

dco x

-3*='>7*

+ '"^+"^

dco u

dco z

<4)

From
like

the second and third equations in group

(1)

we may

in

manner obtain
dco
.

dcox

dco,.

dco,

and

dcor.

x _^/_^? + w 3 3

dco

dco v

r+3

dco,
*

dt

dt

dt

dt

Hence the

acceleration around any axis

may be
all

projected on

coordinate axes just as angular velocities and as segments of


the rotation axis

may be

projected, and

theorems on the

projection of segments of a line

may be

interpreted as theorems
line.
co x ,

on the projection of angular accelerations about the


If

the axis of
will

co

1
x

coincide at any

moment
x,

with the axis of


(4)

then

^=1,

m = o,

n 1 = o,
dco x

co

and by

above

dco x

~dt~~di'
62.

Angular Coordinates of'the Body.


of

The equations
co
,
,

motion known as Euler's enable us to find

v co 2 a> 3 the angular velocities of the body with reference to the principal axis drawn through the fixed point about which
the body
in
is

moving.

As

these principal axes, however, are


it,

the body, and

move with

we must have some means


of
tell

of

determining the position of the body with reference to axes


fixed in space, because the values
the angular velocities
us nothing whatever
to

found by solving Euler's equations


as yet of the situation of the

body with regard


fix

any known
situation
6,
<f),

directions in space.

In order, then, to

the position of the


idea of
its

body

at

any time and give us a


initial

definite

with reference to some

position,

three angles

yjr

io6

RIGID DYNAMICS.

co2 8in,f

$fsin0

CC/COSp

CC2
'ccz

cos

X'
Fig. 48.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


are chosen,

107

known

as the angular coordinates

they define the

situation of the principal axes,

and therefore

of the

body

itself,

being measured from some


at the

initial fixed

axes of reference which,

beginning of the motion, coincide with the principal axes


Relations can be easily found between
3,

of the body.

0,

i/r,
<f>,

and

we can yjr, and the motion of the body is fully known. The find 0, subjoined figures (Fig. 48 and Fig. 49) show how the position of the principal axes at any instant may be determined by displacements 0, ^ they also indicate how the relations
co

a>

&>

so that

knowing the angular

velocities

</>,

cf>,

existing

between these displacements and the angular

velocities

about the principal axes are to be found.

Let a spherical surface of radius unity be constructed


fixed point

at

the

(Fig. 48),

about which

moving.

Initially, let

the body,

we suppose a body to be which we may represent by its

OA, OB, OC, be in such a position that OA, OB, OC coincide with OX, OY, OZ respectively. Then, by supposing the body to turn through the angles i/r, 0, in order, so
principal axes
cf>

that

the point
it is

travels in

the directions indicated

by the

arrows,

evident that any position of the body will be fully

known

in respect of the fixed axes


0,
cf>,

OX, OY, OZ, when we know


velocities
co

three such angles as

ijr.

At any

instant the
;

cated by arrows

v a> 2 to 3 indiand in order to connect these with the angular


,

body has angular

coordinates, consider the motion of a particular point such as C.

The

velocity of the point

at the instant in question,


co

may be
v
&j 2,
co

considered as the resultant of the angular velocities


or as due to changes in
0, <, ty, i.e.,

3,

to velocities

dt dt
,

^;
dt
of

and by expressing

in the

two systems

of

change the velocity

resolved in three determinate directions, and equating the

results,

we

shall arrive at the relations

between

eo

&>

2,

co

3,

and

dd d$
dt'

d
dt'

dt'

IOS

RIGID DYNAMICS.
auxiliary figure

The

shows the motion


line

of the point

due to

the two systems.


of the great circle,

The
in the

ZCZ'

is

the tangent to the line


evidently have angular

and the point

C will

velocities

av

co

directions indicated

by the arrows

it

has also a motion

along the tangent


at
sin 6

to the great circle at C,

and

motion

-^f-

perpendicular to this

former.

This

dt

velocity '- sin $ arises from the fact that C, owing to the \}r dt motion, has a velocity along a tangent to a small circle with

CC as radius, and its velocity CC ^= OC sin 6 _rl = _Y_ s dt dt dt the radius OC unity.
(

perpendicular to
[

ZCZ' must

be

n q smce

we have agreed

to call

Hence, we have from the auxiliary


the radius
is

figure,

remembering

that

unity, the relations,

velocity of

dd C along ZC - = co
dt

sin

^ + o).7

cos 0,

( I

velocity of

C perpendicular

to

ZC-^dt

sin 9

=
And by
velocity of

co

cos

(f)

+ &> 2 sin

0.

(2)

considering the motion of the point E,

we have

the

E along the tangent


+ OE cos
(1),

at

E equal

to

d -
dt

<l = <I + <? C os 6 = a> 3 dt dt dt


(3),

(3) v/

The

relations

(2),

along with Euler's equations of

motion, Art. 60, give a complete solution of the problem as far


as the actual motion and position of the
Fig.
at

49

is

given merely to

body are concerned. show how the principal axes which body
itself

any time

really represent the

were

initially coin-

cident with the fixed axes in space, and have turned through

angles

6,

<f>,

yfr.

The

complications

in

the former figure are

omitted.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.

109

Fig. 49.

63.

Pressure

011

the

Fixed Point.

The

pressures on the fixed point, measured along three fixed

rectangular axes, will be given by the equations,

2w ~='ZjuX+P cos X,

Zm^ = ZmY+P cos


cit"

fj,,

d Zm -=z,mZ+P cos
2~

v,

dt-

where

S;
dt"

is

now

to be expressed in terms of the coordi-

nates of the centre of inertia, the mass of the body, and the

HO
angular velocities.
of
co z , co
y
,

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Thus,

if

we

evaluate as formerly

dt'-

in

terms

o) z ,

we

get

2 o v d x ^ y-^-y dw z 2,m=Zm dco,. ^-(o-x + oi


f
,

x (xay x

+yco y + ca) z )
,

) \

and

if

x, y,

z be the coordinates of

the centre of inertia,

we

have, on reduction, to determine the three pressures,

Mass

.\-s^-y^-to^ + mt (x<o
(

dt

dt

+y(o t + a<o.)\
)

= Pcos\ + ZwX,

and two similar relations for

P cos

/a,

Pecs

v.

These equations are with reference to axes fixed in space but if we refer them to the principal axes moving with the body,

we may use

Euler's equations, and substitute for

y
,

!
,

dt
their values in terms of A, B, C, L,

dt
.

dt

M, N,

(o

co

2,

<w

The

equations

when

finally

reduced

in this

way become

Mass

^(B+C-A^+^-i^ + co^jj
= P cos + 1?uX Mass
A.

~z

y
fi,

with the two analogous expressions for

P cos

P cos

v.

In

these expressions x, y, z are the coordinates of the centre of


inertia, L,

the

M, TV the couples due to the external principal moments at the fixed point.
it

forces, A, B,

And

is

evident that

if

x=y=z=o,
in

the pressure on the

fixed point will

be the resultant of the external forces ILmX,


example,
the case of a heavy body fixed

1m Y, SwZ;
at its

as, for

centre of gravity, where the pressure must be simply the

weight of the body.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.

Illustrative

Examples.

i.

If

(o z ,

o)

to z

be the angular velocities about the coordinate

axes by which the motion of a body about the origin


exhibited, find the locus of the points the

may be
whose

magnitude

of

velocity

is

aw x

2.

The

locus of points in a

body (which

is

moving with one

point fixed) that have at any proposed instant velocities of the

same magnitude,
3.

is

a circular cylinder.

body

fixed at

one point moves so that a


sin nt,

its

angular

velocities about its principal axes are


t

a cos

nt, in

which

represents the time, and n and a are constants.

Show

that the

instantaneous axis describes a circular cone in the body with

uniform velocity.
4.

uniform rod, length 2


is fixed,

a,

turns freely about

its

upper

end, which
at

and revolves so as
vertical.

to be constantly inclined

an angle a to the

Find the direction and magni-

tude of the pressure on the fixed end.


5.

Any heavy

body, for which the momental ellipsoid at the


is

centre of inertia

a sphere,

will, if fixed at its

centre of inertia,
it

continue to revolve about any axis around which


nally put in motion.

was

origi-

6.

A
is

right circular cone,


its

whose

altitude

is

equal to the diam-

eter of

base, turns about its centre of inertia,


in

which

is fixed,

and

originally put
its

motion about an axis inclined

at

an

angle a to
will

axis of figure.

Show

that the vertex of the cone


is

describe a circle whose radius

| a sin

a,

being the

altitude.

This

is

evident, since the

momental
;

ellipsoid at the centre of

inertia of the

cone

is

a sphere

therefore the cone will revolve


5

about the original axis permanently (Ex.

above), and

its

axis

II2
will

RIGID DYNAMICS.
describe another cone, and
..

its

apex

will trace out a circle of

radius | a sin
7.

circular plate revolves about its centre of gravity fixed.


co

If

an angular velocity

were originally impressed upon


its

it

about

an axis making an angle a with


to the plane of the plate will

plane,

show

that a normal
in

make
2
17

a revolution in space

time

eoVi
8.

+3

sin 2
line passing
/,

body has an angular velocity w about a


, /3, 7, is

through the point

and having direction cosines


equivalent to rotations
/co,

;;/,

;/.

Show
(lfS

that the motion

71100,

nco

about the coordinate axes and translations

(wy- ?i/3)oo,

(nafy)a>,

)nu)oo

in

the directions of these axes.


velocities about

9.

body has equal angular

two axes which


is

neither meet nor are parallel.

Show
line.

that the motion

equiva-

lent to a translation along a line equally inclined to the

two

axes and a rotation about this

64.

Top spinning on a Rough Horizontal Plane.


a

When
is

common

top,

symmetrical with respect to

its

axis,

spun and placed on a rough horizontal plane, with


it

its

axis

inclined at an angle to the vertical,

satisfies
;

approximate! v

the conditions for motion about a fixed point


first

and we may

consider the ideal case of a top, spinning on a perfectly


its

rough horizontal plane, with


all

apex

fixed,

and free to move

in

directions about this apex considered as a fixed point.

Let a

top, Fig.

50

(1),

be set spinning about


its

its axis,

and placed

on a rough horizontal plane, with


at a given angle.

axis inclined to the vertical

Then
lines

after a certain time its position with


in

reference
figure

to
its

fixed

space will

be as indicated

in

the

by

principal axes

OA, OB, OC, drawn through the

fixed point.

is

the centre of gravity of the top, and

OG=h.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.

"3

Fig. 50.

114

RIGID DYNAMICS.
the line the line of nodes. ify called the Nutation, and _L the Preis

The angle Z0C=6, and The angular 5


cession.

NON'

velocity J

dd
dt

is

dt

The top is acted upon only by the external force of gravity, since we suppose an ideal case first and neglect the couple of
friction acting at the fixed point, as well as the resistance of

the

air.

The

external couple
(3),

is

equal to

Mgh

sin

0,

as

is

seen

from Fig. 50
nodes.

which tends

to turn the top about the line of

This couple

may

evidently be resolved into two others,


c/>,

one equal to Mgli

sin 6 cos

tending to turn the top about OB,


sin

and the other, equal to

Mgh

0sin

</>,

tending to turn

it

about
of

OA,

as

may be

seen from Fig. 50

(2).

Hence the equations

motion are

A ^i-(B- C)a>2a>3 = Mgh sin 6 sin 0,


l

(1)

dt

B^-(C-A)a)s =Mgh sin


(o

dt

cos

<f>,

(2)

C 3 (A B)co,co., = o,
(
-

(3)

dt

and we have also the relations


d&_

&>

dt

sin

(f)

+ o> 2 cos
sin

<f),

(4)

LV sin 6 =
dt
L.

&).,

6 r co,1 cos n

<f>,

(5)

dt

+ IX COS 6 = fW 3
dt
that
&>
3

q,

(6)

and
its

it

is
;

known
and that

A=B,
has an

since the top


initial

is

symmetrical about
it

axis

value n given to

in spin-

ning, while 6 has an initial value 8Q) at


vertical

which inclination

to the

we

place the top at the beginning of the motion.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


Equation
(3)

115

becomes

dt
.'.

&>

= constant = n,
(2) give,

its initial

value.

Equations
tively,

(1)

and

when

multiplied by

co

co

2,

respec-

and added together,

A(

co

^-\-q) 2

-~ \ = Mgh sin 6(a>


becomes

sin

<f>

+ co 2 cos $),

which, by aid of

(4),

A[co,i + co 2 -2) = Mgh * l


\
dt dt J
This, on integration, gives

sin 61^.

di
<

A\
.

'2 (a d<o
x

-\-

~2

w 2 d(o 2 = 2Mgh\

sin Odd.

A (co* + w 22 = 2 Mgk{cos d - cos 0)


)

But, taking

(4)

and

(5),

and squaring and adding, we get

...

A^J + A

sin*

0^J =

Mg/<(cos0 o -cos

6),

(a)

which, as will be seen hereafter,


energy.
OK. J

is

one form of the equation

of

In order to obtain another relation


as follows.
(f>

between

d0
-r-,

d-fr

-,
dt

dt

we may proceed
Multiply
get
(1)

by cos

and

(2)

by

sin

<f>

and subtract, and we

sin^^-cosc^ = --^-;.-,
1

,doi. y

.dco,

CA

dd

from

(4).

RI

ZS.

But by Sh
dt

d:

a dd dt

a d*+
-

d-

-a \

and since

'

-^-cos0

n d&
-.

5in

1r7r=r
..
.

r>d-

d9
dt

~n
and
bit

anc

nultipl)
.

ha

y,

the

of the

:he relat

66.

The

relation

hich

r.

depends u
-

e sup-

he least angle the


the
re belc

can

r.

^cos

0.

ace

as the c
lent to
5

;ed
re-

be top acquir

above or be
ch
it

ex ah

moves.
precession and
.

n can easily be

by a top
.

of special construct

arranged that one

:er at will the

TIOX ABOUT

.-.

7
in
51.

117
of
is

:he top is

shown

It c:

an

IB, pointed at

and B, to which
:th flange

attached
veight

ick conical shell S, of br

can be moved along the

axis.

Without the

slider C, the

gravity of the top is nearly at the point B,

and thus

C up and down,
is

it

can be made to

ier ah

or

:he point B, or to coincide with

The
anc
in

top

spun by holding

it

in the position

shown

in

between an arm
which the point

ADE

(movable about a hinge at

mall cup, roughened on the inside,

A
I

und about the


he top
the
is

nd the arm

ADE

being

arm being then remov


id

spun by pulling the -.ring; remains spinning about

exhibits the motions of precession indicated

by the theor

Il8
It

RIGID DYNAMICS.

may be
a

noticed here that

if

the centre of gravity be exactly


its

at the point

B, and the top be accurately made,


axis,

axis will be-

come

permanent

and no motion

of precession will be

seen, the top while spinning preserving the position initially

given to

it.

67.

The motion
from the

of the top after

it

has been set spinning


ex-

and placed on the plane, may be completely determined


plicitly
(b)

initial
:

conditions and the two relations

(a)

and

just obtained

a( Y + Asln

0^J = 2Mo-/t
2

(cos

- cos 6),
0).

A sin d^t=Cn{cos
dt

-cos

These give

^,

and then the position and the motion of the


known.
depends
it

dt dt top at every instant are

As we have

seen, -^-

for its sign

on

;/

and the

posi-

tion of the centre of gravity;

also

changes with 6; and, on

eliminating

-,
dt

we

get

m
,4 sin

Q-j
t

= Vcos0 o -cos0V2JUo-/fAsm 2 6-C2 n' (cos6 o -cos6);


1

and
(o)

dt
dd

will also

change &

in value,

and

will

have

minimum

values

when O =
2

{)

and

=
sin 2

being a root of the quadratic

A Mgh

it

C->r (cos

cos 0)

o.

The
to

top will then, as

is

first

placed on the
increasing
its

plane, tend

drop down, and

dt
/0

will

go on
it

until,

having
value

passed

some maximum

value,

reaches

minimum

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


when
d = 6v

II 9

Meanwhile ^- has
dt

also

been going through

peri-

odic changes, being a

The
at the

6 = 6V top then oscillates between the positions 6

maximum when

and 6 V and

same time

is

carried about a vertical axis with a pre-

cessional motion (not constant)

dt

To an
point

observer placed above the top and watching the proits

jection of

centre of gravity on the horizontal


in

plane, that
52,

would describe the curve indicated


circles

Fig.
//

lying

between two

whose

radii are

//

sin d

and

sin 6 V

Fig. 52.

The curve
will
also,

described

will

not

necessarily be closed
of 2
77-.

that

depend on a being an integral part


from the
fact that

It

is

evident

maximum and minimum

values exist at

I2 o

RIGID DYNAMICS.

the cusps and the outer points, that the curve described touches

one
I

circle

and cuts the other

at right angles.

he

maximum

value of j-

may

be round by putting

=o

in

the equations on page 118, which will give

sin 2

d(^Pj=2Mgk{cos

-cos

0),

sin2

0^=O*(cos0o -cos0).

d^r
dt

_2Mgk_ 2 Wh
Cn
of the top.

Cn

W being the weight


When
.

n,

it

can be seen that both

dt

and

^
dt

vanish

identically.

68.

Top spinning with Great Velocity on a Rough Horizontal

Plane.
In most cases the top
is

spun with a very great

velocity,

and

then placed on the plane.


found,

By taking the

value of

JQ

already

A
it

Sin

&t
~dt

= Vcos d

o~ cose ^ 2 MghA
if

sin 2

0- CV(cos
O

-cos

0),

will

be seen that

n become very great, cos

cos

must

become very small in order that the expression under the radical may remain positive, hence the axis of the top, instead of performing large
position,
will

oscillations, will depart but little


-

from

O,

its initial

and

^
dt

will

approach a constant value, and the motion


steady.

therefore

become
in

may

be found

the following

The time way


:

of a small

oscillation

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


Let

121

0.,

it,

u being small.
cos
n

cos

sin

approximately, and the foregoing relation for

becomes

A =\ *
,d0
dt
^

cos

?_^
sin

cos 0^1 MghA \2 tst a *


j

cos# a r<> 9cos# 5__ sin O-C-n 1 sin


sin

.*

^ ^= V2 MghA
A
Cu
dO
dt

- CV2*2

where
But

<z

* = J/<>-/^-Jsin0 n 2

"

d0 = du
dt dt

A
c-u
,

du

j. at.

V2

<?//

-1 2

;/

^ t= vers Cn
11

(u \a

=a =

vers

Cn A
1

/,

and
This
time

+ a( cos

Aevery

is

a periodic function which repeats values of


2 7T

t is

increased by

A
and therefore the time
of a

complete small oscillation

is

2itA Cn

I2 2

RIGID DYNAMICS.
dyjr

Also,

_ Cn dt" A

COS

fl

CQS0 _ Cn ~^ sin*
2
i

?/
#

sin0

fl

A
rtty_

a[

cos

sin #

-4

Cn

Mjr/iAs'm6,f

Cn \

dt

sin #

'

cos^/

Mgh
Cn

Mgh
C-'ir

Cn

A
of the time.

and consist

of

two terms, one increasing uniformly with the


and a periodic function

time, the other very small,


If

n be extremely large,

we
,

have, approximately,

Mgh

+ =^n'>
and the precession
is

then nearly constant and equal to

Wh
Cn
//'being the weight of the top.

69.

If,

then,

a top be spun

with very great velocity and

placed on a rough horizontal plane, inclined at an angle to the


vertical,

and at the n same time will revolve about a vertical axis with an angular 1 V - In the ordinary case, the velocity very nearly equal to
it

will

make

small oscillations in time

A
? IT
C

oscillations will

be so rapid

at first as to

be barely visible to the


air

eye; as the speed diminishes, owing to resistance of


friction at the apex,

and

they become more noticeable

until finally,

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


when
the top
is

123

quantities,

"dying" n becomes comparable with the other the oscillations become wider, and the formulas of

Art. 67 apply.

70.

Top spinning on a Smooth Horizontal Plane.


(Fig.
53)

Let a top

be spun and placed


let
its

in

any manner on

a smooth horizontal plane, and

position after any time

Fig. 53.

has elapsed be that shown in the figure.

It is

acted upon

only by the reaction


at

of the plane
;

and
,

its

weight

Mg

acting

G, the centre of gravity

and

if

V>

K be the coordinates

of

G, the equations of motion of translation are

tm~=M -^k = dt
l

o,

dt 2

%m*k=M^ dt
dt 2
2

o,

124

RIGID DYNAMICS.

d2 ~
2;;/

d2 Y

From

these

it

is

seen

that

dP * =
dt
;

constant

initial

value

dt

constant

initial

value

and

if

therefore any horizontal J


it

motion be imparted

initially to

the centre of gravity,

will

preserve that velocity at every instant thereafter.

And, since =/^cos#,


inclination
relation
of

CG

being equal to

k,

and 6 being the

the axis of

the top to the vertical, the third

becomes

M dHhcos6) =R-M< dt
%

g-

R= v
'

d2 {h

cos 6)

df-

The equations

of

motion of the top about the centre of

gravity considered as a fixed point are

(i)

A -^1 + (CA)(o
dt

(o

= /?/i sin 6 sin 0,

2)

A'^ + (A -C)a>
dt

co

=Rh sin 6 cos


n
;

<,

(3)

&>3

and we have also the relations

(4)

- = &>!
(it

sin

04- (o 2 cos

<f>,

(5)

<it

^ sin 6
e

io

sin

(f)

a)

cos

<p,

(6)

-p +
dt

dt

Y cos 6 = w =
q 3

;/.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


Thus
it

125

will

be seen

that, considering the centre of gravity

as a fixed point, these equations are similar to those previously

obtained in the case of a top spinning on a rough plane


only difference being that for

the

Mg

in

those relations

we have

in these.

The
and
65.

solution

is

therefore similar to that given in Arts. 64

We

have

R = Mg+M dHhc ^ 6)
dt 1

=M s srhsmv - 2
{

/z

cos

dt

\dt)

}
S

And

multiplying

(1)

by

co

and

(2)

by

co

2,

we have
<6

A(> x

j + Aq) -2 =R/i sin tf^sin


-

dt

"

dt

+ <u

cos $\

= R/i sin 6
dt
.-.

K+
2

2
a)., )

=2

Cr/i sin

6^-dt
dt
cos flfY)

=2
.

f\ Msrh

sin 6>- J///2 sin 2 6

^
O

-J/// 2 sin

6>

</0.

A (co 2 + o) 22 = 2 Mg/i(cos
)

- cos 0) - J/// 2 sin 2 6

(~J-

ai2+

<=(f) + (f)%in^.

= 2 Mg/i (cos 6 cos 0),


and the other relation
will

be as before
#

A
These two

sin 2 6

^ = 6";/ (cos

cos 0).

relations give the solution of the problem.

126

RIGID DYNAMICS.
it is

And

evident that, independent of

its

motion of translation

in a horizontal direction, the centre of gravity can only

move up

and down with an oscillatory motion while the apex describes


on the plane the fluted curve already obtained
rough plane
those which
If
<w it
3

in the case of a
1

(Fig. 52), the values of #

and

being as before

make

a minimum. dt
is

u be very great, the discussion

the same as before,


will

and

can easily be seen that the apex of the top

describe

a simple circle (approximately) on the plane, and the motion


will

be steady, the time of a small oscillation and the period of

precession being obtained as formerly.

71.

All the previous results obtained theoretically in

the

case of motion of a top on a smooth or rough plane can be


verified experimentally

by having a number

of tops

made

similar

to that

shown

in Fig. 54.

Fig.

54.

circular plate of brass, a quarter of an inch in thickness,


to five inches in

and from three

diameter, has

steel

axis

through the centre.

The

centre of gravity of the top


it

may be
and

from one to two inches from the apex on which


the point

spins,

may have varying degrees

of sharpness.

Everything should be symmetrical and made true, so that

A =

B.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


The
top
is

127

most readily

set spinning

by using a two-pronged

handle with openings through which the axis


put through a hole in the axis and
rapidly,

may

pass
it,

a cord

wound about

is

pulled

little

and the top drops with a high speed from the handle. practice enables one to spin the top and let it drop on a

smooth or rough surface at any required inclination. The following problem may also be examined by using several
of these tops of various sizes, of sharpness
:

and with points

of varying

degrees

A common
position.

top,

when spun and placed on a rough


this.

horizontal

plane, at an angle to the vertical, gradually assumes an upright

Explain
is

This

the case of the ordinary peg top of the schoolboy,

which

is

usually

made

of a

cone of wood through which passes


;

a steel axis ending in a sharp point

when spun upon


'

a rather

rough surface,
It will

it

gradually becomes upright and


little

sleeps.'

be found, after a

experimenting, that this appar-

ently paradoxical rising of the top to a vertical position against

the force of gravity depends on two things


1.

The degree of sharpness of the apex


The position of the centre of gravity.

oji

which the

top spins.

2.

If

the point be very sharp so that the top in spinning

is

not

able to form a small conical bed for itself and thereby be acted

on by a couple arising from from the point,


it

friction at a considerable distance

cannot possibly become erect.


point
is

When, however, the


of the friction
tion),

rather blunt, and the centre of

gravity not too high, the top will slowly rise

up under the action

(which tends to diminish the angle of inclina-

and

'

sleep.'

The
The

equations of motion are similar to those obtained in Art.

64, with the additional relations introduced

by

friction.

solution of the equations

shows that the top

rises to the
is

vertical,

on the supposition that the point of the top

a portion

128
of a spherical surface

RIGID DYNAMICS.
and that
friction
is

thus enabled to act

in

the proper manner.

complete analytical solution of the problem

is

given

in

Theory of Friction, Chap. VIII, where the top is supposed to be a symmetrical pear-shaped cone with a spherical
Jellett's

surface as the apex upon which

it

spins.

Fig. 55.

72.

The Gyroscope moving

in

Horizontal Plane about a

Fixed Point.
If

a gyroscope be put in rapid motion and placed so that the

prolongation of the axis of rotation can rest on a fixed point of


support, and
if,

at the

same time, an

initial

angular velocity

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


about the point of support be given bodily to the gyroscope
the proper direction) in a horizontal plane,
it

129
(in

will revolve

about
pre-

a vertical axis, and the apparently paradoxical motion

is

sented of a body whose centre of gravity moves in a horizontal


plane although
its

point of support

is

at quite a distance

from

the vertical through the centre of gravity. In Fig. 55 the gyroscope


is

supposed to be

set rotating

and

started in a horizontal plane with its centre of gravity at the

point G, the weight acting vertically


tion indicated

downwards

in

the direc-

by the arrow.

It is

supported only at the point

O, and,

if

rotating rapidly enough, will keep on

moving uniformly
its

in this horizontal
Its position at

plane in a direction hereafter determined.

any time
these are

is

given by the position of

prin-

cipal axes at
It
is

OA, OB, OC.


and that

evident that 6

C moves

along
cf>.

XNN'

XON'

being the line of nodes, and the angle

BON =

At each

instant the gyroscope tends bodily to turn about


this turning

NON'
couple

under the action of gravity, and the value of


is

nigh,

being the mass of the gyroscope and

OG =

//.

Resolving this couple

mgh
cos
sin

into two,

we

get

mgh
and

(f>

about OB, about OA.


:

mgh
Euler's equations

(/>

Then

become

A-^+ (C' A)w. = ingh sin ~dt


2

ai

(f>,

Aj^ (C A)(o dt

(o.
1

= mgJi cos

</>,

^dCOr.

from which

it is

seen that
co

= constant =n.

130
Also,

RIGID DYNAMICS.

we have
'

dd
dt
d^jr

= o = <o

sin

4>

(o

cos

(f>,

co

dt
d$_

sin

<f>

c>i

cos

(p,

n,

dt
since

= ~,
2

and therefore cos# = o.

From

the preceding relations

we have

&)j

sin

cf>

+ co 2 cos = 0,

co

sin

<j)

a)

cos

.*.

squaring and adding


'
i

/fX
dt j

But since

A -j- + (CA)
x

dw

(w. &)

= mgh

sin 0,

^4t^ (C' A)co l o)^ = nigh cos

cf).

Therefore, multiplying the former by

<o

v and the latter by

co

and adding, we get


(/co. da* ,, Aw ~ +Ac0 2 -jr = }/ig/i((o
.

sin

q>

+ a> 2 cos$)=o.

,.

A (ojj 2 +
.-.

(t>

= constant.
= its
initial value,

&)
1

'-

&).

= 2

say.

d-dr

(/d>

Then

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


.*.
<f>

131

= nt,

y}r

= af,
/ is

since both

may be taken
.

zero
a)

when

zero.

".

= a cos nt,
= a sin nt,

co

a>

= n.
in

And, substituting these values


couple,

the

relation

for

the

first

we

get
sin nt) 4-

A(an

(CA)n(u
sin nt

sin

nt)=mgh sin
sin nt.

nt.

Cna

= 7/isrh

.'.

Cmt = wgh,

_dyjr _mgh _

Wh
Cn
initial

dt

Cn

\V being the weight of the top, and n being the


of rotation.

velocity

Hence the

axis

plane with uniform velocity


is

OC Wh
Cn
;/

moves around

in a horizontal of revolution

and the direction


<w

indicated by the sign of

or

that

is,

to

an observer
will revolve

looking

down

in the direction

ZO,

the gyroscope

same direction as the gyroscope axis when viewed by an observer at C.


bodily in the
It
is

rotates about its

important to observe that the necessary condition for

the motion of the gyroscope bodily about

OZ is

that

it

receives

an

initial

angular velocity, so that


fdy!r\ + &) 22 = J-\ =some
(

<u

2
1

finite quantity.

If

this initial velocity

be not given to
to drop

it,

it

will act in

the
it

same way as a top, tending moves around the vertical.

down and

oscillate

as

132

RIGID DYNAMICS.
;/

Usually
sional

is
is

very great, so that a


slow.
of the

is

small,

and the preces-

motion

For a complete discussion

experiments which can be

performed with the Gyroscope see Chap. X.


73.

To find the Pressure on the Fixed Point in the Case of

the

Gyroscope.

As an may find
revolves.

illustration of the use of the equations of Art. 6$,

we

the pressure on the point about which the gyroscope

In this case
vS

we

shall have, calling the

mass

of the

gyroscope

to avoid confusion,

cl 5 lco

B+CA.

yco 2

^o 3

-(0) 22

+ G)3
,,

V
I

=P cowX+^mX S[ z y
s\(o
-

C+A-B

f.ZCOo

-I'd)

o.

= P cos n + -///
S
J

/ v Sl^x L

VC

o,

A+B-C^ +) - KH
cos

<o*)z
J

= P
which become, since

v+-utZ ^i-^y - -x\


and
(x,

A = B,

y, z) are

(o, O, h),

s|o, 2 S\

CM=P

cos

/4

+5^sih^+5{^IL*.^|
1/,

- (a,! 2 + to)h\=P cos

the last of which can be obtained from elementary considerations.

'

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


P zos\=m\&cos
,

133

(///<?"

<4 *-

,.,

It

^Jin\ ^-cos^ + WjC >,


,
,

/^ cos

ft

P cos

A v = m\ (a)} 2 + a) 2 2 )/;
(

/;/

w;r sin<f) 2^
:

/r

/9

?sin(f> +

eo

C-^-\,

the mass being denoted by m.

These

relations taken in conjunction with


sin

co

(f)

co.

cos cos

cf)

= 0, = W%

u)

sin 4>

co

Oz

d$
dt
give,

= u,

on squaring and adding, the value of

P in

terms of known

quantities.

Similar equations

may be

obtained in the case of the top

spinning on a smooth horizontal plane.

CHAPTER

VII.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


Impulsive Forces.
74.
forces,

In forming the general equations of motion for finite

we had two
2;;/

sets of relations of

which the types are

- = S m = ^wX+ P cos \,
dfi

dt

dt

and

^n \y^- z V
dt*

m
di-\
of

dt

'&J,*-,*] =L V dt dt\
of

and,

remembering the
t,

definition

an impulse, we get our


/,

impulsive equations from these by integrating with respect to

from o to

some small value


and

of the time.

That
change

is,

instead of a continuous change

we have an abrupt
taking place

of velocity

moment
r.

of

momentum

during an exceedingly small time

Hence, for impulses X,

V,

Z,

we get the equations

^{(fj-(i)}=^iw,'-^')-(^-^.)s
= (a)/ (o^lwz (toj coM)1my

= Ms

(coj

- a>u - JfjioJ - &),)


)

= ZA'+Pcos\,
with two similar relations for

and Z.

These determine the

impulse

/'.

134

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


For the couples we have

135

v
But

dz
dt

dy)
dt

da
dt

dy)
dt

= L.

2/(j>

d--,4A- 2 >" bijWzXVy) - Z X - ~<*) = { <Z


dt

dt

= a^LmjP 4- z'z to^Lmxy to^Lmxz

= Aco Fco Eco


x

.'.

we

get, for the three couples,

A (coj - co - F(coJ - - E(coJ - co = L, B(coJ - co -D(a>J - toz - F(toJ - co = M, C (coJ - toz - E(coJ - co - D(coJ - co = N,
x) co ) y
z) y)

x)

x)

y)

(o z , co y

co z

being the angular velocities about axes fixed

in

space

at

time

t,

and these being suddenly changed by the impulsive


toJ, toj, coj.

actions to
75.

Taking the foregoing expressions

for

the

impulsive
axes,

couples,

we can simplify them by choosing which make D, E, F vanish if, at the same
;

principal

time, the

body

starts

from

rest, co

co

y,

co s

are zero, and the equations


Aco' x

become

= L,

Bto>=M,
.

Cto',=N.

The

equations of the instantaneous axis are

x
to

y
(o'

z
y

to'*

or

x __ y _z

ABC
Ax_By L ~M
Cz

or

I3 6

RIGID DYNAMICS.
plane of the impulsive couple
is

The

Lx+My+Nz=o,
and therefore the instantaneous axis
which the body
impulse)
is

(that

is,

the line about

will

begin to rotate under the action of the

the line conjugate to the plane

Lx+My+Nz=o
with regard to the ellipsoid

Ax* + By 2 +Cz2 = c.

The

equations of the instantaneous axis are

Ax _By _Cz ~~ L M~~ N'


and the equations of the
axis of the impulsive couple are

x_ y

__

Hence

it

will
if

be seen, by comparing these two sets of


it

rela-

tions, that

a body fixed at a point be struck,

will

not begin

to rotate about the axis of the impulsive couple induced

by the
plane.

blow, unless

A = B=C,

or unless the plane of the impulsive

couple be a principal plane or parallel to a principal

For the two sets cannot reduce to a single set unless A = B=C, or unless two of the quantities, x, y, z, vanish, (which means
that the axis of the couple
It
is

one of the principal axes).


that,
if

will

be seen from the preceding investigation


free to turn about a fixed point, the
in the

a
of

rigid

body be

problem

determining the change produced


the action of a given impulse,
is

motion of the body by


acted on by a given
fol-

equivalent to determining the


is

change

in

its

motion when the body

impulsive couple.

This equivalence also appears from the

lowing considerations.

The impulse may be

resolved into an

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


equal and
parallel

137

impulse acting at the fixed point and an

impulsive couple.

The impulse

acting at the fixed point will

have no influence on the motion of the body, and therefore only


the

couple
to

need be considered.
the coordinate

Resolving the

latter

with

respect

axes

we

obtain

the equations on

page

135.

Illustrative
1.

Examples.

cube

is

fixed at its centre of inertia,

and struck along

an edge.
In this simple case
it

is

evident, without forming the equa-

tions of motion, that, since the

momental

ellipsoid

is

a sphere,

A=B=C,
Thus,

and the cube begins


cube

to rotate about the axis of the

impulsive couple.
in Fig. 56, the
is

fixed at O, its centre of inertia,


to rotate about the

and on being struck by a blow Q, begins


axis of the impulsive couple

AOB.

138

RIGID DYNAMICS.
its

tion perpendicular to the plane in which

axis moves.

Deter-

mine the subsequent motion.


3.

lamina in the form of a semi-ellipse bounded by the


is

axis
falls

minor

movable about the centre as a


in

fixed point,

and

from the position

which

its

plane

is

horizontal

deter-

mine the impulse which must be applied

at the centre of inertia,


it

when the lamina


If this

is

vertical, in order to

reduce

to rest.
at

impulse be applied perpendicularly to the lamina,

the extremity of an ordinate, through the centre of inertia,


instead of

being applied at the centre of inertia

itself,

show

that the lamina will begin to revolve about the major axis.
4.

triangular plate

(right

angled) fixed at

its

centre

of

inertia

and struck

at the right

angle perpendicularly to the plate.

Fig. 57.

In Fig. 57 let

be the centre of inertia of the triangle, and


is

(Tthe point where the blow

struck

at right

angles to the plane

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


of the paper.
it

139

Then

if

we

construct the momental ellipse at G,

touches the three sides at their middle points.

The
;

impulsive

couple in this case contains the line

CG
is

in its

plane

but since

AB

is

a tangent to the ellipse,

A'GB'

the diametral line con-

jugate to CG.

The

triangle
is

therefore

commences

to

rotate

about A'GB', which


5.

drawn

parallel to the hypothenuse.

A
/>,
/,

solid ellipsoid fixed at its centre is struck


q, r.

normally at a

point
If

m,

n,

be the direction cosines of the line of the blow


is

whose magnitude

Q, and
2

if

the equation of the ellipsoid be


2

r v +-2- + =1

a1

tr

c*

then the equations of the instantaneous axis will be

Ax = By = Cs N* L

Q{qn nu)
or

(P + c*)* qn mi
is

{c*+a*)y
rl pit

(a2

+ #*)z pm ql

'

and since the blow

normal
I

to the ellipsoid at/, q,

r,

CHAPTER

VIII.

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT. NO FORCES ACTING.


76.

Heavy Body fixed at


itself is that of a
it

its

Centre of Gravity.

The
in

simplest case of motion under no forces which ordinarily

presents

body acted on by gravity and


can only rotate about
its

fixed

such a manner that

centre of

gravity considered as a fixed point.

Here we have

dco 1

dt

(BC)(d 2 w 3 = o,
(CA)a> s co l = o,

B day

dt

<d(0n C^-iA-Bju^^o.

dt

And, multiplying these three equations by


tively,

oo

a)

2,

<d

respec-

and adding, we get


A
1

d(o x

n
-

dw
dt

r
6

d(o~

dt

dt

Ao) 1 2 + Bci} 22 + Cq) s2 = a constant

= /-.
Similarly, multiplying the three equations
respectively, adding, and integrating,

(i)

by Aco v

Bco.,.

Cco y

we

get

A*a*+B*a>*+C*<o=

a constant

= h\
140

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


(1)

4I

states that the kinetic


;

energy
this

is

constant, as might be

expected, since no forces act

can be seen by taking

^=H(Hi)
)

2+

(i)
1

= h-w\(zco 2 -y(o 3 2 +

2
J

since the products of inertia vanish.


is

(2)

another way of
of

expressing

the

constancy of

the

moment
For

momentum. (moment

of

momentum) 2
2

=h 2+

/l

+h

where

142
78.
If

RIGID DYNAMICS.

we now

construct the momental ellipsoid at the fixed

point 0, as in Fig. 58,

OA, OB,

OC

being the principal axes,

Fig. 58.

and

POP

the instantaneous axis at any time

t,

the equation

of the ellipsoid will

be

and those of the instantaneous axis

x
Wj

_v __ c
O).,

_r
CO

&J

Now,

.i",

r,

g being any point on this line, let

it

represent

the point

then at

P we

have

MOTION ABOUT A FIXED POINT.


x
(O-,

143

y
&>

z
COg

r
CO

s/Ax2 +Bf+Cz*

_c

a>

k =-

and

I4 4

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

point where the instantaneous axis cuts the ellipsoid


parallel to this invariable plane.

always

Hence, the motion


action of no forces,
is

of

the body fixed at O, and under the

completely represented by the rolling of the momcntal ellipsoid on a plane fixed in spaec and parallel to
it

the invariable plane, and at a distance from

equal to

00'

79.

The

ellipsoid in rolling

on the fixed plane traces out a


its

curve on that plane, and also one on

own

surface.
is

The

curve traced out on the surface of the ellipsoid


its

called

the Polhode, and

equation

is

found by taking the condition


with the

that the perpendicular from the centre of the ellipsoid on a

tangent plane at

x, y,

is

constant, and combining

it

equation of the ellipsoid

itself.
is,

The equation

of the

Polhode

therefore,

Ax?+By2 +Cz2 =c*,


]

A\r + B y + (?z = e'


2
2

2
.

I
,

The curve
and
its

traced out on the plane


is

is

called the HerpoUiode,

equation

found from the relation

O'P* = p2 =
and
will

OP2 -00' 2 = r2 -p2


00

vary with

r,

and therefore with

and with/.
and the motion
in

It is

apparent that any one of the central ellipsoids might be


ellipsoid,

chosen instead of the moniental

of the

body exhibited

in a similar

manner by the changes

motion of

the ellipsoid chosen.

Innumerable problems may be constructed from the preceding


representation
ellipsoid,
;

but they are

all

dependent on properties

of the

ami are not problems

in

Dynamics.

CHAPTER

IX.

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


80.
ciple,

We

have already seen, in discussing

D Alcmbcrt

Prin-

that the general equations of motion of any

body are

2;

X
Y

o,
'

dfi

2;

dPy
'

0,

dfi

d*z df\

= 0,
o,

and

"2vi\j'(

Z _d^
dfi

~dfi)\

Hm

-%~ X[Z
dtl

'dfi)\-'

sy y
If

-**-}z'

M be the whole mass,


t,

x, y, s the coordinates of the centre

of inertia at time

and

x',

y\

the place of

relatively to a

system of axes originating

at the centre of inertia

and

parallel

to the original set of axes, then the equations of

motion become

Md x dt
2
r

^mX,

M^=2mY, dt~
d M l-i=ZmZ,
(

2^

dfl

H5

46
2z

RIGID DYNAMICS.
2~> Z dh \y dfi
[

and

jfy

d*S\)

'

d 2x' dp

-A z
-y\X

dh'
'

= 0,

df-

d 2x'
'

dt*

J*=o,

which

latter

can be transformed in the ordinary way so as to


velocities.

determine the angular

These equations
problem.

theoretically give a complete solution of the

But the most important case of free motion of a body, and


the only one which admits, of simple solution,
is

that in which

o
Fig. 59.

the /'articles of the body

move

in parallel planes.

Here

it

is

evi-

dent that
I''

we need only

consider the motion of one particular


of inertia
is

me

of particles,

and that containing the centre

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.

147

chosen, and the position of the body at any time determined in


the following way.

Let the plane

in

which the centre

of inertia

moves be

repre-

sented by the plane of the paper, the same section of the body

being represented at any two times as

in Fig. 59.
let

Let the body be referred to fixed axes OX, OY, and

ACB

be any
C,

line in the

body passing through the centre


the body has reached

of inertia

and

in its initial position let this line

be parallel to OY, as
its

shown.
position,

Then, after any time

t,

second

and

it

is

evident from elementary geometry that the


its first

body can get from


angle

position to the second

by translation

of the centre of inertia C,


0,

and by rotation about

through an

equal to that which

ACB

in its

second position makes

with the axis

O Y,

or with a parallel line fixed in space.


of the centre of inertia,

For translation
bert's principle,

we

have, by

D'Alem-

d2r
dt 2

d 2ldt 2
'

dt 2

dt 2
inertia considered as a

And

for rotation about the centre of

fixed point,

we

get

v zm

d' v x^r y d J 2
2

x\ = ^ od -:N. Zniv
2

dt

dt

AT

dt 2

Therefore, at any time, the motion of the body will

be fully

known when we know


1.

The

initial conditions, so

that 6

is

known.

2.

The

coordinates of the centre of inertia with reference to


fixed in space
;

some axes
3.

this gives

-^-.

Mk

about

the axis

of

rotation

through the centre

of

inertia.

4.

Geometrical relations between

x, y,

14S

RIGID DYNAMICS.
roll

In cases of constraint where bodies

or slide on others,

geometrical relations are easily found, and the


tions eliminated

unknown

reac-

by taking moments.
Illustrative Examples.

heavy sphere rolling down a perfectly rough inclined

plane.

In this problem gravity,

by the aid

of friction

and the reac-

tion of the plane, produces both the translation of the centre of

inertia

and the

rotation.

Let OX,

OY (Fig.

60) be the axes of the coordinates fixed in

space, the sphere starting to roll from O.

Then

at

any time

/,

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


For the translation
of the centre of inertia,

149

we have
(2)

M~ + F- Mg = M^ + Mg a-R =
sin

o,

d/r

cos

o.

(3)

The

rotation about

C is

given by

Mk^ =
dt"

Fa.

(4)

These four
for

relations give a complete solution of the problem,

we have

dj_
and, therefore, from
(2)

djx_ ePd a''<&' dt*~' dfi~


and
(4),

M(k2 + d2 )-^ = Mga


dt*

d*0

sin a,

(5)

from which

it is

seen that

d 2 v _5
and
also,

x=-^gsin

a-

fiy

R = Mg cos a,
F=%Mgsma.

These
sevenths
inertia.

results give the space passed over in time


is

/,

and show

that five-sevenths of gravity


is

used

in

translation, while two-

used in turning the sphere about the centre of

The
tance

relation (5)

may

also be obtained at once


fallen

by forming the
through a
is

eqiiation

of energy.
a,

For the sphere has

dis-

x sin

and therefore the work done by gravity

^o

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Mgx sin
or

MgaQ sin
to the kinetic

which must be equal


fore
]

energy

at

time
a.

t,

and there-

M(v*+Pa?)=Mga6
)

sin

M{a 2 + 2

Y = Mgad

sin ,

which

gives,

on differentiation,

M(a2 +/P)^=Mga
ill

sin

as before.
2.

If

a heavy circular cylinder rolls


is

down

a perfectly rough

inclined plane, one-third of gravity


thirds in translation.
3.

used in turning and two-

very thin

spherical

shell

surrounds a sphere,

both

being perfectly smooth and consequently no friction between

them, and the system


In this case,
if

rolls

down
it

rough inclined plane.

we

neglect the mass of the outer shell, the


if

inner sphere acts just as


since there
rolls
it

slid
it

down

the

plane, because,

is

no

friction

between

and the

shell, as

the shell
is

slips

around, and therefore the equation of motion

M-=Mg sin

a,

M being
mass
If,

the mass of

the sphere, which


is

is

so large that

the

of the outer shell

negligible in comparison.

however, the shell and sphere were united, the system


roll clown,

would

and then the equation

of

motion would be

And

the times occupied in rolling a given distance in the two


:

cases would be to one another as v'5

7.

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.

151

In the case of a cylinder surrounded by a cylindrical shell,


gravity would be diminished to two-thirds of
its

value,

and the

times occupied in rolling a given distance would be as

V2 V3
:

under similar circumstances.

4.

To determine whether
it

a sphere

is

hollow or solid by

roll-

ing

down

a rough plane.

This could be done by observing


motion

the space passed over in a given time, and by calculating the

moments

of inertia

and forming the equations


;

of

(1)

on the supposition of a solid body


a shell of radii a,
b.

(2)

on the supposition of

5.

homogeneous heavy sphere


;

rolls

down

within a rough

spherical bowl

it

is

required to determine the motion.

Fig. 61.

152

RIGID DYNAMICS.
b,

Let the radius of the spherical bowl (Fig. 61) be


sphere, a; and let the sphere start with

and

of the

AP coincident
shown

with

BQ.

Then,

at

time

/,

the circumstances are as

in the figure.

Let

co angular velocity about P,

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


It will

153

be found on reduction, that

R= (17 cos (/> 10 cos


and
{b

),

a)l-y\

=- Y1 ^(cos $ cos
1
'

).

<

From

this latter expression,

by
5

differentiation,

we get

<**<!>-

dt

/;

sin a

<,

and

if <

becomes

small, this gives the time of a

small

oscillation

of a sphere within a spherical bowl.

For

^/2

7-

ba
is

represents a motion of oscillation of which the periodic time

2 7T

$g
may also be noticed when cos 4> = \j cos .
It If

that the pressure on the bowl vanishes

BOB' were completed and the sphere supposed to rotate about C with angular velocity sufficient to keep the smaller
sphere at the top, the pressure against the outer sphere and the
conditions of equilibrium can at once be found from the relations already obtained,

which also furnish a solution to the


:

following instructive problem

6.

perfectly rough ball

is

placed within a hollow cylindrical

garden

roller at the lowest point,

and the

roller is
V.

then drawn
that the

along a level walk with a uniform velocity


ball will
roll

Show
if

quite round the interior of the roller

V2

be

>

V"

g{b a)> a being the

radius of the ball, and

of the roller.

154
7.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

uniform straight

rod slips

down

in

vertical

plane

between two smooth planes, one horizontal, the other


find the motion.

vertical

Let OX,
position

OY

be the horizontal and vertical planes, and


its

let

the rod starting from

upper position when

=o

assume the

AB at

time

/,

as in Fig. 62.

*<Mc,
Fig. 62.

Then we have two


weight

reactions at the points

and B, and the

Mg acting
if

at

the centre of gravity,

C.

So that

x,

be the coordinates of

C,

and 6 the angle

of

inclination of the rod

AB
<f2x

to the horizontal,

we

get

[r (f

r>

dt-

df-

d-y

lr (f

/,

lr

&

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


and

I55

xa cos
ya

0,
j

sin 0,

where

2 a

is

the length of the rod.

Also, taking

moments about the


a cos

centre of gravity,

we would

have

O+Mk*

^=R

sin 0,

and we may suppose that

is initially

equal to

a.

These four
It will

relations give a complete solution of the problem.

be found that the rod leaves the vertical plane when


since,

sin

|-

and then the motion becomes changed, the rod


velocity along the horizontal
it

moving with a constant horizontal


plane equal to
plane.

',

until

finally

drops and

lies in

the

The problem may


energy.
8.

also be solved

by

aid of the principle of

circular disc capable of


its

motion about a vertical axis


its

through

centre perpendicular to
D,.

plane

is

set in
is

motion
gently

with angular velocity

rough uniform sphere


;

placed on any point of the disc, not the centre

prove that the


will
2

sphere will describe a circle on the disc, and that the disc
revolve with angular velocity
7 '-

Mk

O, where
centre,

Mk
is

is

the

moment

of inertia of the disc about

its

the

mass
9.

of the sphere,

and r

is

the radius of the circle traced out.


is

homogeneous sphere
plane, the coefficient

placed

at

rest
fi

on a rough
;

inclined

of friction being

determine

whether the sphere


10.

will slide or roll.


is

homogeneous sphere
being
/*,

placed on a rough table, the


of the

coefficient of friction

and a particle one-tenth

mass

of the sphere is attached to the extremity of a horizontal

56

RIGID DYNAMICS.

diameter.

Show

that the sphere will

begin to

roll

or slide

according as ytt>or<

What

will

happen

if fi

10V37
81.

10V37'
Ball.

Impulsive Actions.

Motion of a Billiard
of a

The complex motions


billiards,

homogeneous sphere moving on


in

rough horizontal plane are well illustrated

where an ivory sphere

is

struck by a

game of cue and made


the
little

to

perform evolutions that seem to the unscientific

short

of marvellous.

In the general case the course which the billiard ball takes

depends on the

way in which it is struck by the cue and the motion is made up of both sliding and rolling, so that the centre of the ball moves in a portion of a parabola until the sliding motion ceases, when
initial

circumstances, that
;

is

to say, on the

it rolls

on

in a straight line.

If

struck so that the cue

is

in the

same

vertical
is

plane with the centre of


;

the sphere, then the


if

motion

purely rectilinear

which

is

also the case

the cue

is

held in a horizontal position.


It

may

also

happen that

if.

the ball be struck by the cue at a


its

certain oblique inclination to the table,

path,

after sliding

ceases, will be opposite to the horizontal direction of the stroke,

and

it

will roll

backwards.

For a complete solution of the problem, then, we should

know

the direction, intensity, and point of application of the

blow struck by the cue, so that the velocity of translation of


the centre of gravity
82.
will
is

known, and the


initial

initial

angular velocity.
rolling" friction

In ordinary blows, the

value of the

be very small compared with the sliding

friction, so that at

the beginning the former

may be

neglected, and the equations

of motion for sliding found in the following way.

Let the plane


plane of
.iy,

in

which the centre


(x,

of the ball

moves be the
of the point
friction,

so that
t.

y,

a) are the coordinates

of contact at time

Let

be the value of the sliding


axis of x.

and

(3

the angle

it

makes with the

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


Then
evidently the

157
is

pressure on

the

table

equal to the

weight of the

ball, so that

R=Mg and F=^R.


F cos 8,

The

equations of motion of the centre of gravity are

M d*x =
dt 2

M^=
dt"

-F sin 0,

M^=o=R-Mg. dt"
For rotation about the centre
of gravity

we have

!= aFs'm H
dt
dt

8,

A^2= aF cos 8,
/.da)* A 3 =o.

dt
A(co 1

.-.

-n

)=

aM(&-v

A(<o 2

-a )=-aMf^-zA
2
&) a

= fi.

where

?/

are the axial components of the initial velocities

of the centre of gravity,


velocities about axes

and

nv

X2 2

2 3 are

the

initial

angular

through the centre of gravity.

The above
lasts

give a complete solution of the motion during

sliding which, however, in the case of an ordinary billiard ball,

but for a small fraction of a second.

83.

At

the instant the ball

is

struck by the cue the impulsive

equations will evidently be formed as follows.

15 tf

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Let

be the value of the blow struck by the cue, and a the


;

angle the cue makes with the table

also, let

.Fbe the impulsive


/3

value of friction at the instant of striking, and

the angle

which

it

makes with the


line

axis of

x
in

Then, the axes being chosen as


and the

the preceding problem,

and angular velocities being denoted as formerly

by u Q

Vq, l v Xl 2 ,

3>

we have
Q
ft,

Mu = Q cos a Fcos Fsin/3, Mv =


Al x =
Afl 2 =
.

'

Qh sin a aFs'm
Qk

/3,

+ aF cos ft
cos
,

Al 3 =

Qh

where

//

is

the horizontal distance from the centre of the ball to


is

the vertical plane containing the line of blow, and k

the per-

pendicular on the line of blow from the point where h meets the
vertical plane

containing that
to

line.

And
See,

the impulse on the

table

must be equal
du jeu de

sin

Thcoric mathimatique
1835.

des

effets

billard,

par

G. Coriolis, Paris,

84.
1.

Impulsive Actions.

Free Body.

Illustrative Examples.

uniform rod

is

lying on a smooth horizontal table and


its

is

struck at one end in a direction perpendicular to

length.

Determine the motion.

What

if

it

be struck at the centre, or at the centre of per?

cussion for a rotation-axis through one end of the rod


2.

Two

uniform

rods

of

equal

length

are

freely

hinged

together and placed in a straight line on a smooth horizontal


plane.

The system
its

is

then struck at one end

in a direction
initially

perpendicular to

length.

Examine the motion

and

subsequently

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


Here, the circumstances are a
in
little
it

159

the preceding problem, so that

more complicated than is well to form the equaC,

tions of motion of the

two rods

separately.

Let

m
co'

be the mass of each rod, 2 a the length,


v,

the

centres of gravity,

v'

the velocities of translation of C,

and
and

a,

the angular velocities.


O,

Then

if

O' be the instantaneous centres so that

CO=-v

CO' =x', we

get
cox
(o'x'

= v,
=v'
(a

and

(a

x)(o =

+ x')oo'

And

if

be the blow, and

the reaction at the free hinge,

the equations of motion of the two rods are

mv=Q + R,
ma^ =Q _
mv'=R,'
maw'
3
j = R,
T
i

Rf

from which

it

will

be found that
03

= 2 (O

and the

initial

velocity of

the end

struck

is

four times that

of the other end.

3.

Three uniform and equal rods AB, BC,

CD are

arranged

as three sides of a square having free hinges at

B and

C; the

end
to

is

struck in the plane of the rods and at right angles

AB

by a blow Q.

Determine the motion, and show that

the

initial velocity of

is

nineteen times that of D.

6o
This
is

RIGID DYNAMICS.
solved in the

same way

as the former problem by

considering each portion separately.


of B,

Thus,

if

be the reaction

we have

mv=Q+R,'
3

and
Also,
if

ax=v.
R' be the reaction
at C,

R R' = m(ax)(o = m(a+x') '"co',


since the displacements of
direction.

and

are equal and in the

same

And

for

CD,

mv'=R\
DlcKO __
3

4.

If in
is

the preceding problem

EC

be a thin string whose

mass

negligible,

show

that the initial velocity of

will

be

seven times that of D.

This
5.

is

evident, for

R = R'.
AB, BC,
at

Two

equal uniform rods

freely jointed at B, are


at

placed

on a smooth horizontal table


a blow
initial
is

right

angles to one

another, and

applied

A
C

perpendicular to
are a? 8 to
1.

AB

prove that the


6.

velocities of A,

Four equal uniform rods AB,


D, are
is

/><f,

CD, DE,

freely jointed

at B, C,

laid

on a horizontal table in the form of a square,

and a blow

applied at

at right

angles to

AB

from the inside

of the square; prove that the initial velocity of

is

79 times

that of E.

7.

Three equal

inelastic

rods

of

length

a,

freely

hinged

together, are placed in a straight line on a smooth horizontal


plane, and the two outer ends are set in motion about the ends

MOTION OF A FREE BODY.


of the middle rod with equal but opposite angular velocities

6i

(co)

show that after impact the triangle formed by the three move on with a velocity ^a<o.
8.

will

Four equal rods freely jointed together so as to form a square are moving with given velocity in the direction of a
diagonal of the square, on a smooth horizontal plane.
If

one

end of

this diagonal

impinge directly on an
will

inelastic obstacle,
line.

find the time in

which the rods

be in one straight

9.

Four equal uniform rods each connected by a hinge


form a square with produced
sides,

at

one extremity with the middle point of the rod next


initially

in order, in

and are

motion

with a given velocity in direction parallel to one of the rods.


If

an impulse be given at the free extremity of this rod, and


rest,

the centre of inertia of the system be thereby reduced to


find the initial angular velocities of the four rods,

and prove

that these angular velocities remain

unchanged during the sub-

sequent motion.
10.

A lamina in
is

the form of an ellipse


co

is

rotating in

its

own
this

plane with angular velocity


focus

about a focus.

Suddenly

freed and the other fixed.

Find the velocity about the

second focus.

CHAPTER

X.

THE GYROSCOPE.
85.

This instrument, to which reference has already been


in

made
ring

connection with motion about a fixed point, consists

essentially of a wheel
:

which

is

put

in

rotation within an outer

the latter being provided with knife edges and

other

arrangements whereby the whole mass may be experimented

upon while the wheel

is

kept in motion.

A
63,

type of gyroscope,

known

as Foucaults, is

shown

in

Fig.

and also more in

detail in Figs. 65

and

66.

Fig. 63.

It

is

made

of a disc, turned to offer the least resistance to

the

air,

which can be made to rotate with great speed (from


fifty to five

two hundred and


an axis through

hundred times per second) about

its

centre of gravity.

done by means of the wheelwork motor (driven by hand) shown in Fig. 64, which is geared up at the top to the
This
is

small toothed cog-wheel seen in Fig. 63, at the left-hand side


of the disc, on the axis of the gyroscope,
ring.
162

and within the outer

THE GYROSCOPE.
The
and
axis of rotation
is

163
in

of course

movable

the outer ring,

this latter is provided with


in the

two knife edges which should

be exactly

prolongation of a line passing through the

centre of gravity and perpendicular to the rotation axis.

Fig. 64.

Four movable masses, two within the

ring,

and two outside,

Fig. 65, are used to adjust the instrument in

two perpendicular

planes, so that the centre of gravity of the system will be in the


line of the knife edges.
It is

quite a difficult matter to perform this adjustment, which


;

must be exact

since the slightest deviation of the position of

the centre of gravity from this line destroys the value of the
results obtained in the

pendulum experiment.
is

The

readiest

way

to adjust the gyroscope

to let

it

oscillate,

under the action of gravity, about the knife edges, the centre
of gravity being arranged at first to
fall

below the

line of the

knife edges (by properly altering the positions of the movable

masses)

and then, by

slight variations of these positions, to

bring the centre, of gravity up until the oscillations about the


knife-edge axis are
of the knife edges

made

in

from eight

to ten seconds

the line

is

in that case infinitely close to the centre of

gravity and the equilibrium nearly neutral.

164
86.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
The Gyroscope moving in a Horizontal Plane about a
indicated by

Fixed Point.

The gyroscope being adjusted, the experiment the theory of Art. 72 may easily be performed.
It is

only necessary to place the instrument on top of the


to set the

motor so that the wheels are properly geared, and


fully cleaned

disc in rapid rotation, taking care that the bearings are care-

and

oiled.
it

Then, placing

as

shown

in Fig. 65, so that a small

pointed

hook which

is

directly in the prolongation of the axis of rota-

Fig. 65.

Fig. 66.

tion rests on a little agate cup at the top of an upright stand,

the instrument

is

given a slight angular displacement bodily

about a vertical axis passing through the point at which the hook rests, and it slowly moves about the vertical with an angular velocity

equal to that found by the theory of Art. 72.


is

Moreover, the direction of motion


that
is,

as

shown

in Fig.

66

the gyroscope moves bodily about a vertical axis (when


in

viewed from above)

the same direction as the disc rotates


fixed point

when viewed by an observer looking towards the


about which the motion takes plaee.

Thus there
is

is

perfect accord

iment, and the truth of


established.

between theory and experthe fundamental equations of motion

THE GYROSCOPE.

I6 5

Fig. 67.

66
It

RIGID DYNAMICS.

may be observed
as a top,

also that
let

if

the gyroscope be given no


it

initial

impulse, but be merely

drop,

will

act in the
it

same
in

manner

and

oscillate

up and down while

keeps

motion about the


87.

vertical.
its

To prove the Rotation of the Earth upon

Axis.

This experiment depends on the permanency of the rotation


axis in space.

stand with pendulum


is

is

arranged as shown

in Fig. 6y.

There

a ring suspended

by means

of a fibre

without torsion

from a hook above, and the whole being carefully levelled so


that the line of suspension
in rapid
is

vertical,

the gyroscope

is

put

rotation and placed in the ring with the knife edges

resting within beds provided for

them

the ring, being then


is

released by the small screw seen at the right,


in space,

quite free

and owing to the rapid rotation of the disc the axis of


is

rotation

permanent axis and remains

fixed in space.
it

Hence, while the earth moves along, carrying with


and observer, the gyroscope preserves
its

the stand

position in space for


it

some time

and

if

a long index be attached to


it,

in prolonga-

tion of the rotation axis or parallel to

this index will


is

have an
carried

apparent motion from east to west, as the observer


along with the earth from west to east.
If

the pendulum with the gyroscope were placed at the north


it

pole,

is

evident that the apparent motion of the index would

be 360

in

twenty-four hours.
;

At

the equator there would be no apparent motion as although


still

a permanent axis would

exist,

the earth would simply carry

the whole instrument bodily about the rotation axis of the earth.

Action in

Any Latitude
68,

X.

To find the let PCF, Fig.

angular velocity of the gyroscope

in

any

latitude,

be the axis of rotation of the earth.


at

And
plane,

let

tin,'

gyroscope be suspended
let

A,

in

the tangent
in

and preferably

the plane of rotation of the disc be

the geographical meridian plane.

THE GYROSCOPE.
Then
the angular velocity of the earth about
o)

167

PCF

is

360

in

twenty-four hours.

And

this,

if

resolved along CA, will produce a rotation about


sin X,

CA

equal to
at
is

and

this is the

component which

affects the

gyroscope
Since w

A.
against the hands of a watch, looking towards
<y

C
69

from P, therefore
will

sin X, looking

from A' towards


if

or C,

be against the hands of a watch, and therefore

Fig.

represents the tangent plane at A, to an observer at A' above

the gyroscope, the earth will


cated by the arrow, and

move from west

to east as indi-

the

apparent motion of the index

attached to the gyroscope will be as before from east to west.


88.
if

It is

evident also that the angular velocity being

sin X,

this

be observed by noting the time and the angle passed over


co is

in that time, since

known

to be

360

in

twenty-four hours,

we

get a method for finding X, the latitude of the place of

experiment.

i6S
89.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Electrical Gyrosc

The

defect of Foucault's gyroscope


its

being that

it

does not
in

keep up

motion long enough to give marked results


electrical

the

pendulum experiment, an

gyroscope has been devised

by Mr. Hopkins, who gives a description of his instrument in the Scientific American of July 6, 1878, and also in his recent textbook on Physics.

His instrument

is

shown

in Fig. 70.

Fig.

70

The rectangular frame which


by a
that
fine

contains the wheel

is

supported

and very hard

steel point,

which rests upon an agate

step in the bottom of a small iron cup at the end of the


is

arm

supported by the standard.

The wheel
it

spindle turns on

carefully

made

steel points,

and upon

are placed two cams,

one

at

each end, which operate the current-breaking spring

THE GYROSCOPE.
The
tical

109

horizontal sides of the frame are of brass, and the verare iron.

sides

To

the vertical

sides are attached the

cores of the electro-magnets.


cores on each side of
it

There are two helices and two the wheel, and the wheel has attached to
side,

two armatures, one on each

which are arranged

at

right angles to each other.

The two magnets

are oppositelyastatic.

arranged in respect of polarity, to render the instrument

An

insulated stud projects from the middle of the lower end

of the

frame to receive an index that extends nearly to the

periphery of the circular base piece and moves over a graduated


semicircular scale.

An

iron point projects from the insulated


is

stud into a mercury cup in the centre of the base piece, and
in electrical

communication with the platinum pointed screws

of the current breakers.

The

current-breaking springs are con-

nected with the terminals of the magnet wires, and the magnets
are in electrical communication with the wheel-supporting frame.

One
ard.

of the binding posts

is

connected by a wire with the meris

cury in the cup, and the other

connected with the stand-

drop of mercury

is

placed in the cup that contains the

agate step to form an electrical connection between the iron

cup and the pointed screw.

The
nets

current breaker

is

contrived to

make and break


full effect of

the

current at the proper instant, so that the


is realized,

the mag-

and when the binding posts are connected with


cells

four or six

Bunsen
will

the wheel rotates at a high velocity.


its

The wheel

maintain

plane of rotation, and

when

it

is

brought into the plane of the meridian, the index

will

appear to

move slowly over the


from west to
90.
east,

scale in a direction contrary to the earth's

rotation, but in reality the earth

and the scale with

it

move

while the index remains nearly stationary.

FesseV s Gyroscope.
is

Another most useful and instructive form of gyroscope


that
"

known

as Fessel's, which

is

represented in Fig. y\.


is

is

a heavy fixed stand, the vertical shaft of which

-jo

RIGID DYNAMICS.

cylinder bored smoothly, in which works a vertical rod


far as possible

CC,

as

without

friction,

carrying at

its

upper end a small

frame BB'

In

BB'

a horizontal axis works, at right angles to

which

is

a small cylinder D, with a tightening screw H, through


of

which passes a long rod GG', to one end


large ring

which

is

affixed a

AA' and
,

along which slides a small cylinder carrying


capable of being fixed at any point of the

a weight

IV,

which

is

rod

and so that

it

may

act as a counterpoise to the ring, or to


it.

the ring and any weight attached to


pivots in the ring, in the

An

axis

AA

works on
;

same straight line with GG' to A A' a disc, or sphere, or cone, or any other body, can be attached, and thus can rotate about AA' as its axis to the body thus attached to A A' a rapid rotation can be given, either by means
;

wound round A A' or by a machine contrived for purpose when A A' and its attached body are applied to it.
of a string
is

the
It

evident that the counterpoise

W can be so
/>/>'
;

adjusted that the

centre of gravity of the rod, the ring, the attached body, and

the counterpoise, should be


either side of
it
;

in

the axis

or at any point on

may be positive, or be equal to o, or may be negative. Also by fixing BB' in the arm of CC which carries it, the inclination of the rod GG' to the vertical may be made constant; that is, 6 may be equal to # throughout the
that
is, Ji
rt

motion.

When
is

the counterpoise

is

so adjusted that the centre of


is

gravity of the rod


or,

GG' and

its

appendages
o."

in

CC' then h
,

= O,

what
It is

equivalent,

mhg =

(Price, Calculus; vol. iv.)


its

evident that with such an instrument, with

various

THE GYROSCOPE.
adjustments,
all

171

the motions about a fixed point can be fully dis;

played and examined


of the top (Art. 66)

and the results already obtained

in the case

and the gyroscope (Art. 72) thereby shown.


of

91.

Another form
by him
in

gyroscope worthy of notice

is

that

first

constructed by Professor Gustav


scribed

Magnus

of

Berlin,

and de-

Poggendorff's Annalen

der Physik
consists of

und
two

Chcviic, vol. xci., pp. 295-299.

The instrument
as the rod
at

rings and discs such as AA', Fig. 71, connected by a rod sup-

ported in
scope.

much

the same
is

way

GG'
B, to

in Fessel's gyro-

There

a binding-screw

arrest,
,

when

so

desired, motion about the horizontal axis

BB' and
axis

also a short

rod projecting horizontally from the upper part of the vertical


axis

CC

by which the motion about that

erated, retarded, or completely arrested at will.

may be accelBy means of


off,

two cords wound round their axes and simultaneously pulled


ties either in the

the discs can be put in rapid rotation with nearly equal veloci-

same or

in

opposite directions.

The

follow-

ing

phenomena
and
if

are exhibited by this apparatus

If

the connecting rod be supported


the discs be

midway between the

discs,

made

to rotate rapidly with equal

velocities in the
at

same

direction,

and no weight be suspended


remain at
will
rest.

(Fig. 71), the connecting rod will

If

weight be suspended at W, the rod and discs


about the vertical axis

slowly rotate

CC.

If

the motion round the vertical

axis be accelerated, the

loaded end of

GG'

will

rise,

if

the
If

horizontal rotation be retarded, the loaded end will sink.

the binding-screw be tightened so as to arrest this rising or


sinking, the rotation about the vertical axis will also cease, to

commence again
If

as soon as the binding-screw

is

loosened.

the discs rotate with equal velocities in opposite directions,

the loaded end of

GG'

will sink.

If

the connecting-rod be sup-

ported at a point nearer to one disc than to the other, and the
discs be

made

to rotate with equal velocities in opposite direcwill still

tions, the

instrument

be found extremely sensitive.

NOTE ON THE PENDULUM AND THE


i.

TOP.

In Art. 35, pp. 47 to 49,

we have found

the equation

(/r

ffi ) (

2 gh (cos 6

cos

),

or, as it

may be

written (see page 50),

/[

=2^(cos 6

cos a)

(i)

for the oscillations of a rigid

and have applied


small oscillations.

it

to

body about a fixed horizontal axis, the case of a pendulum making extremely
shall

We

here consider the general case,


is

when
Let

the arc of the oscillations cos 6 cos


.'.

not necessarily small.


2
<f>.

=(i

cos ) cos

cos 6 = {\ cos ) sin 2

(f>

and
Differentiating,

cos # = cos 2 ( + cossin 2

<.

(ii)

sm

0 =2
dt

sin

6 ^

cos d>([ cos )

dt

.:

(1

+cos

6)

^J = 4(cosd-cosa),^J.
172

Substituting in

(i),

/(^W(i-sina isinV> Kdt)

NOTE ON THE PENDULUM AND THE TOP.


Let
/e

173

=sin 2 ^a,

and

lv l =i.
9

dtj

=^(i- 2 sin 2 ^)).


*
.

vt- f
'

^/(i

2 sin 2 0)'

r .-v

an

elliptic integral of

the
/.

first

kind.

<jE>

= am(W),
(iv)

and

(ii)

becomes
cos # = cn 2 (i^) + cos sn 2 (i>/).

Equation

(ii)

may be

written in the form


sin

\ 6 = sin

|-

a sin

<>

consequently

(iv)

may be

written in the form

sin 1

= sin | a sn

i>/.

This equation determines the position of the pendulum at any


given instant, and, by inversion, the times at which the pendulum
is

in a
If

given position.
the period of the pendulum,
i.e.

T be

the length of time

required for the pendulum to


arc 2a,

make

a double swing through the

vT= A^
Integrating and writing

J* C a/(i-/c
y/(i
/c

sin 2 <) sii

e
I

for y2

and

sin - for k,

Z= 2tt^

i
[

+(l)2 (sin l)2 +

^y

/,

-,\2

(sin

\ of

+ Q-^-|J(sin i of +...}.

(v)

I74
2.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
In Art. 67,
p.

118,

we have found
O

the equation

(A

sin

0 Y= (cos - cos 0)
lT
2
//

2 ,4

Mgh sin 2
o

(cos

cos

0)

I ,

(a)

for the nutation oscillations of a top spinning about a fixed point,

we have determined the approximate period of The period of oscillations of any magnitude small oscillations. at any given instant may be determined as and the value of
and
in Art.

68

follows

Let

A = M (/r +
2

X- )

= MM,
O

(see page 50)

and

A Mgh sin2 6C 2 n 2 (cos

cos 0)
7 cos
0),

= 2 A Mgh (cos 6 cos


which requires that
cos
0,

0j) (cosh

+ cosh 7 =

AMsrh
2

and
Substituting in
/(sin

cos 0,- cosh 7 =


2
(a),

A Mgh

1.

that equation

becomes

0Y = 2-(cos
cos
.-.

-cos

0)(cos

0-cos
X)

)(cosh 7 -cos

0).

(0

Let

cos = (cos

cos

cos 2 t.

cos0 cos0 1 = (cos0 o cos

)sin 2 T,
sin 2 T.

and

cos0 = cos0 1 cos 2 T + cos0 o

(2)

Differentiating,

sin
...

=2
dt

sin t

cost (cos

cos0,)^-1

aft

fs in0Y=4(cos0o -cos0)(cos0-cos0V^J.
in
(
I ),

Substituting
l[

th

\ =

r A {cosh 7

-cos

-(cos

-cs 0!

sin*r|

NOTE ON THE PENDULUM AND THE

TOP.

175

=i 1

''-(cosh

7 cost/,)1

/)\|
{

cos0, -7r-sin cosh 7 cos 6^


cos#
r^
.

9 2

\S t u2 2 = ^(cosh- 7-cos i\ a x/ |6' ) 1


.1

cosh 7 cos 2 I

cos2 ^o -1^-9 2

_ cos2 \ 0i

J A4sin 9 T

0j

Let

.2

=
<

cos2

6>

2
2
7}

cosh
/y2
'//t\ 2

o- cos2 ^i 7 cosH^'
7}

and

= o-(cosh 2 | 7 cos 2
=1/(1

0^).

'.

2 sin-T).
dr
(
1

dtj
vt-

fT

rv
first
.*.

2 sinV)

an

elliptic integral of

the

kind.

T=

am(w),

and (2) becomes


cos 6

cos #j

en 2 {vt) + cos # sn 2 {vt),

(4)

thus determining the inclination of the axis of the top to the


vertical at

any given

instant.

The

period of a complete oscillation will be


/*5

7^_4

dr

vjo

y(i

sin 2T)
l

=27r

91 , -(cosh- .} 7 <f
,

^tth) cos- k B^)J

x I
{

+ (^2 + (T*
\2

4/

nr^HComparing equations
same character
pendulum,
is

<*>

(4)

and

(5) with (iv)

and

(v), it will

be

seen that the top's oscillations in nutation are of exactly the


as the oscillations of
in

an ordinary pendulum.

Note, however, that

the discussions of the oscillations of the


initial

measured from an
in

axis directed straight

downwards, while

the discussion of the motion of the top, 9

176
is

RIGID DYNAMICS.
vertical axis as initial, so that 6,
tt 6,

measured from the

a,

and

(/>

in the
7T

former discussion should be replaced by


to

it a,

and

t,

bring

it

into

strict

conformity of notation with the


of the top.

discussion of

the

movements
is
ir,

On making

these

changes,

it

will

be found that the pendulum oscillating about a

fixed horizontal axis

merely the special case of the top

in
is

which

=7r a,

#=o,

and, therefore, 7 =

and

i>

constant.

Equation (4) enables us to find the value of 6 at any given Instant /, but to completely determine the position of the top, it
is

necessary to be able also to find

yfr.

To do

this requires the

integration of the equation (b) of Art. 65, p. 116, which

may be

reduced to the integration of two


kind, as follows

elliptic integrals of

the third

sin 2 6

^ = Cn (cos
at sin2 %
fl

- cos

0).

(/>)

dtyCnf cos2 \ O dt~~ A Vi + cos 6


jCnf
"

1 cos 0y
cos 2
1
n

\i

+cos

0j cos'-T

+ cos
1

sin'-V

sin 2

cos 9

cos'-t

cos 0q

sm-rj

cos 2 \ O JCnf " A \i+cos^ + (cos^ -cos^


1

)sn 2 (v/')
6^

sin 2
1

.]

cos 6 (cos
1

cos^

Y
)sn'-(iV)/ 1

Thus

yfr

is

expressed as the difference of two

elliptic integrals

of the third kind.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
-o-O^&^OO-

i.

Find the principal axes of a quadrant of an

ellipse at the

centre.
2.

If a rigid

body be referred

to three rectangular axes

such

that

A =B

and 2 (mxy)

o,

show that the mean

principal

moment
3.

of inertia

= A.
O in a triangular lamina, AOB, BOC, COA, about an
may

Determine the position of a point


through O, perpendicular

such that the moments of inertia of


axis
all

to the plane of the lamina,

be equal.
4.

Find the moment

of inertia of the solid

formed by the
the
initial
line,

revolution of the curve r

= a{l

+cos#) about

about a line through the pole perpendicular to the


5.

initial line.

uniform wire

is

bent into the form of a catenary.


its axis,

Find

its

moments
6.

of inertia about

and

its directrix.

Find the moment of

inertia of a paraboloid of revolution


;

about a tangent line at the vertex

the density in any plane


fifth

perpendicular to the axis varying as the inverse


its

power

of

distance from the vertex.


7.

Find the moment


minor about the

of inertia of a semi-ellipse cut off

by the

axis

line joining the focus

with the extremity of

the axis minor.


8.

If the

moments

of inertia of a rigid

body about three

axes,

passing through a point and mutually at right angles, be equal


to

one another, show that these axes are on the surface of an


n
177

178
elliptic

RIGID DYNAMICS.
cone whose axis
is

that of least or greatest

moment
or less

according as the

than the
9.

mean moment of inertia is greater arithmetic mean between the other two.
that the
its

Show
is

about one of

and

moment of inertia edges is | a 2M, where a

of a regular octahedron
is

the length of an edge

the mass of the octahedron.


tetra,

10.

Prove that the moment of inertia of a solid regular


its

hedron about any axis through


being the length of an edge.

centre of inertia

is

M a 20

n.

If

/3,

7 be the perpendiculars from

and

Cona
;

principal
that

axis at the angular point {a 2


12.

A
7
2

of the triangle
}

ABC, show
2
2
(

_ b 2_ f 2 )(/3 2 _
that
if

2 /3 2

+ ^2 +

_^

^
of inertia

Show

a plane figure have the

moments

round two

lines in

it,

not perpendicular to one another, equal, a

principal axis with respect to the point of intersection bisects

the angle between them.


13.

Determine the points of an oblate spheroid with respect


to

to

which the three principal moments are equal


14.

one another.

Show

that the conditions which


it

given straight line in order that

must be satisfied by a may, at some point of its


is

length, be a principal axis of a given rigid body,


fied
if

always

satisits

the rigid

body be a lamina and the

straight line be in

plane, unless the straight line pass through the centre of inertia.
15.

If a straight line
in
its

be a principal axis of a rigid body


it

at

every point

length,

must pass through the centre

of

inertia of body.
16.

Assuming

that the radius of gyration of a regular poly-

gon
in

of u sides about

any axis through

its

centre of inertia and

its

own

plane,
1

is

2V

*+=)/('=)}
;

where

c is

the length of any side

find the radius of gyration

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
of a circular disc about a line through

179
in its circumit is

any point

ference and perpendicular to

its

plane,

and show that

equal

to the radius of a circular ring


17.

about a tangent.

The

locus of a point such that the

sum

of the
is

moments
constant,

of inertia about the principal axes through the point


is

a sphere
18.

whose centre

is

the centre of inertia of the body.

If

A, B,

be the moments of inertia of a body about

principal axes,

A
will

cos 2 a

+ B cos 2 /3 + C cos 2 7
any other
/S

be the

moment

of inertia about

axis
its

passing
direction-

through the origin and having cos a cos


cosines.
19.

cos 7 for

If the centre of inertia of a rigid

body be the

origin,

and

the principal axes at that point the axes of coordinates, then at

an umbilicus of the ellipsoid


1-*-l

/\l**

A+X
If the density at

B+\

C+\
be equal.
circular cone be

two of the principal moments of


20.

inertia will

any point of a right

proportional to the distance from the exterior surface, show that a2 radius of gyration about the axis of figure is where a is the
.

the radius of the base.


21.

Find the moment of

inertia of the solid

about the axis of

x.

Find
22.

also the

moment

of inertia of the surface of this solid.

The

locus of points at which one of the principal axes

passes through a fixed point in one of the principal planes

through the centre of


23.
If

inertia, is a circle.

a and b be the sides of a homogeneous parallelogram,


the inclinations of
its

6 and

principal axes in

its

own

plane,

So
its

RIGID DYNAMICS.
centre of inertia, to these sides respectively, show a 1 sin 2 6

through
tnat
24.

= b 2 sin

<.

Find the moments of


its

inertia of a

uniform circular lamina


its

about
25.

principal axes through a given point in


that two of the principal

plane.

Show

moments

of inertia with

respect to a point in a rigid body cannot be equal unless two


are equal with respect to the centre of inertia and the point be
situated on the axis of unequal
26.

moment.
body the locus
is

Prove that

in

any

rigid

of

the point

through which one of the principal axes


is

in a

given direction

a rectangular

hyperbola whose plane passes through the


is in

centre of inertia, and one of whose asymptotes


direction
;

the given

unless the given direction be that of one of the prin-

cipal axes
27.

through the centre of

inertia.

series of parabolas are described in

one plane having

common
the

vertex

and a common

axis,

and from a point

in

one of them an ordinate


if

PN

is

drawn

to the axis.

Show

that

moment

of inertia of the curvilinear area

APN about
an
ellipse.

an

axis

through

perpendicular to the plane of the parabolas be

proportional to the area


28.

APN,

the locus of

is

Show

that

if

the

momental

ellipsoid at a point not in


inertia

one of the principal planes through the centre of


a spheroid,
29.
it

be

will

at the centre of inertia

be a sphere.

Find the moment of


its

inertia of

segment

of

a circle

about
30.

chord.
of inertia of an equilateral triangular

Find the moment

lamina about an axis through the centre of inertia and perpendicular to the lamina
if

the density of the lamina at any point

varies directly as the distance of the point from the centre of


inertia.

31.

If

A, B,

be the moments of inertia about principal axes


a,
(3,

through the centre of inertia and


inertia

7 be the moments of

about principal axes through a point P, show that

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(I)

8i

U
If

(a

+ j3-ry) = A+B-C,
+
/3

the locus of

will

be one

of the principal planes through the centre of inertia.


(II)

7 be constant, the locus of

will

be a sphere

with centre at centre of inertia.


(III)
If

(Va
x
(

be constant, the
larly situated

+ V/3 + Vy)(V/3 + V7" - Va) Vy + Va - V/3)( V^ + VJS - V7) locus of P will be an ellipsoid similar

and

simi-

and concentric with the central

ellipsoid at the

centre of inertia.

(IV)

If /3

y<a

and

lie

on a lemniscate of revolution
ellipsoid
is

having for
sphere,

foci the points


ft

where the momental


fi

= A B,

a and

being the moments about the


axis A.

axes through
32.

which pass through the

Find the moment

of inertia of a portion of the arc of


its

an

equiangular spiral about a line through


its

pole perpendicular to

plane.
33.

Find the moment of

inertia of the

segment

of a parabolic

area bounded by a chord perpendicular to


line in its plane

its axis,

about any

through the focus

and determine the position


equal.

of the chord that all such


34.

moments may be

Prove that
its

if

the height of a

cylinder be to

diameter as
all

V3

homogeneous right circular 2, the moments of inertia of

the cylinder about


will

axes passing through the centre of inertia

be equal.

35.

Find the moment of


latus

inertia of a parabolic area


line

bounded

by the

rectum about the


its

joining

its

vertex to the

extremity of
36.

latus rectum.
ellipsoid, the

Find the locus of those diameters of an


of
inertia about

moments

which are equal

to the

moment

of

inertia about the


IJ.

mean

axis.
is

One

extremity of a string

attached to a fixed point; the


of given radius

string passes

round a rough pulley

and over

lS2

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

smooth peg and


pulley.

attached to a weight equal to that of the


of the string

Determine the motion, the positions

on

either side of the pulley being vertical.


38.

heavy uniform rod has

at
;

one extremity a ring which


the other extremity
is
is

slides

on a smooth vertical axis

in

motion on a horizontal plane, and


string with the point

connected by an

elastic

where the

axis

meets the plane.

Deter-

mine the motion supposing the string always stretched.


39.

ball

spinning about a vertical axis moves on a smooth

horizontal table and impinges directly on a perfectly rough vertical

cushion.

Show

that the vis viva of the ball

is

diminished
e is the co-

in the ratio

ior+

14 tan 2 6: 10

+ 49 tan 2 6,
in

where

efficient of restitution of the ball

and 6 the angle


its

of reflection.
its

40.

homogeneous lamina rotating


is
it.

plane about

centre of inertia,

brought suddenly to rest by sticking a two-

pronged fork into


the fork
41.

Show

that the impulses on the prongs are

equal to one another, and are of the same magnitude wherever


is

stuck

in.

free rod
it

is

at rest

and a

ball is fired at
it

it

to

break
if it

it.

Show
it

that

will

be most likely to cause

to

break

strike
;

at the midpoint, or at one-sixth of its length


it

from either end


if
it

and that

will
its

be least likely to break the rod


length from either end.
it

strike

it

at

one-third of

And

that in either case

the most likely point for


42.

to

snap

is

the middle point.


rigid

Three pieces cut from the same uniform


to

wire are
is

connected together so as

form a triangle ABC, which

then set in contact with a smooth horizontal plane.


direction
nections.

Find the

and magnitude
following

of

the strains at the angular con-

Prove the
strains:
III)

construction
to

for

the

direction

of the

If

AB,

AC

be produced

D,

respectively,
will

and

and

CE

be each

made equal

to

EC, then

DE

be paral-

lel to

the direction of the strain

at

A.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Also show that the direction of the strain at
the side

^3

A makes

with

BC

an angle

= tan-i{
1 1

sin

~ sin
/3

+cos

+ cose

C I
J

43.

The ends

of a uniform

smooth,

fixed, vertical ring.

heavy rod move on the same Determine its angular velocity in


it

the lowest position, supposing


starting
44.

to fall

from a given position

from

rest.

body revolves about a horizontal


the centre of inertia
is

axis,

starting

from

rest

when

in

the horizontal plane con-

taining the axis.


,

Show

that

when

the body has revolved through

the effective force upon the centre of inertia makes with 45 the vertical an angle = tan -1 3.
45.

box

is

fixed

placed in a vertical

upon a horizontal plane and position a blow is given to the


;

its

lid

is

lid at
its

the

midpoint of the upper edge and perpendicular to

plane.

Determine the

initial

impulse on the hinges, the

finite

pressure

on them during the motion, and the impulsive pressure on them when the lid impinges on the opposite edge and closes the box.
46.

AB,

the rod

BC are two equal heavy rods hinged together at B AB is capable of moving in a vertical plane about A,

and

can slide by means of a small ring along a vertical axis

passing through A.

Find the angular velocity with which the

whole must revolve about


equilateral.
47.
is

AC

that the triangle

ABC

may be

string with

one end fastened to a smooth vertical wall

wrapped round

a cylinder

which

is

then placed in contact

with the wall.

Find the velocity of the cylinder and the tension

of the string in terms of the inclination of the string to the wall.


48.

The lower

extremity of a heavy uniform

beam

of length
a,

slides

on a weightless inextensible string of length 2

whose

extremities are attached to two fixed points in a horizontal line,

and the upper extremity

slides

on a vertical rod which bisects

the line joining the fixed points.

Prove that the only position

IS 4 of equilibrium of the

RIGID DYNAMICS.

beam

is

vertical
is

and that the time

small oscillation about this position


2

of a

where

^(a 1
49.

b-) is

the distance between the two fixed points.

pulls

by means

of an unextensible string passing


circle,

over a rough pulley in the form of a vertical


turn freely about an axis through
its

which can
is

centre,

which

fixed.

Determine the velocity attained after a given space has been


described.
50.

hoop

of

mass

rolls

down

a rough inclined plane,


at a point of its circum-

and carries a heavy particle


ference.
51.

of

mass

Determine the motion.


hollow tubular ring of radius a contains a heavy
its

particle with

plain vertical

a horizontal velocity

upon a smooth horizontal plane 2^/2ag is communicated to the ring in its

own

plane.

Show

that the particle will just rise to the top of

the tube.
52.

Four equal

particles are connected

by four equal

strings,

which form a square, and the particles repel each other with a
force varying directly as the distance.
cut, find the velocity of
If

one of the strings be

each particle

at the instant

when they

are

all in

a straight line.
half of the inner surface of a fixed hemispherical
half

53.

One
is

bowl

smooth and the other

rough

a solid

sphere slides

down
rolls

the smooth part of the bowl, starting from rest at the

horizontal rim, and at the bottom

comes

in

contact with and

up the rough part

of the surface.

Find the change of vis


if

viva of the sphere at the bottom of the bowl, and show that

6 be the angle which the line joining the centres of the sphere

and bowl makes with the

vertical

when
|.

the

sphere begins to

descend the rough surface, cos^ =


54.

cone of mass
its

;;/

ami

vertical

angle

can

move
its

freely about

axis

and has

a tine

smooth groove cut along

surface so as to

make

a constant angle

with the generating

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
lines of the cone.

185

heavy

particle of

mass

moves along
Show-

the groove under the action of gravity, the system being initially
at rest with the particle at a distance c

from the vertex.

that

if

6 be the angle through which the cone has turned


is

when

the particle

at

any distance r from the vertex, then


a a .^' COtfe
.
,

rf+ ^sia-
55.
is

w 2 + Pr2 s'm 2 a =2

k being the radius of gyration of the cone about

its axis.

heavy ring

just fitting

round a smooth vertical cylinder


to

suspended by u vertical strings of equal lengths, and fixed

the ring at equidistant points.


to the ring
rises
is

When
show

an angular velocity

is

given
it

about

its

centre,

that the height to which


strings.
it

independent of the length of the

Find

also

the greatest value of the angle through which


56.

turns.

sphere has a fine wire fastened normally to a point

on

its

surface, the other

end being fastened

to

a point on a

rough inclined plane.


its

If the

sphere be slightly displaced from

position of equilibrium on the plane, find the time of a small

oscillation, neglecting the


57.

weight of the wire.

Two

equal uniform beams

AB,

AC are

freely

movable

in

a vertical plane about A,


string

and

are connected

by an

elastic

whose natural length is equal to AB. The beams are held in a vertical position and suffered to descend. Determine
the motion, the coefficient of elasticity of the string being equal
to four times the
58.

weight of either beam.


is

circular wire

revolving uniformly about

its

centre

fixed.

If it

be cracked at any point, show that the tendency


is

to
..

break ,

at

an angular distance a from the crack

proportional

to

sur2

59.

disc

which has a

particle of equal

mass attached
disc,

to its

circumference, rolls on a rough inclined plane.

Determine the
supposing
it

motion and the friction in any position of the

^6
to start

rigid dynamics.
from the position
in

which the

particle

is

in

contact

with the plane.


60.
ball

spherical shell
is

whose centre

is

fixed contains a

rough

which

held at one extremity of a horizontal diameter of


If

the shell and then allowed to descend.


shell

the radius of the


ball is next in
in contact,

be three times that of the


t

ball,

and when the


is

instantaneous rest the same point of each


1 1

again
.

angular velocity of the line joining their centres

...

is

3\M

the rsin 0) f

being the inclination of this line to the horizon, and a being


the radius of the
61.
ball.
is

circular ring

suspended with
the

its

plane horizontal, by

three equal vertical inextensible strings attached at equal dis-

tances to

its

circumference.
in

If

ring be twisted
left to

till

the

strings just

meet

a point,

and be then

itself, find its

angular velocity
62.

when
AB,

the strings are vertical again.

connected* by a hinge at B are in motion on a smooth horizontal plane, the end A being fixed.

Two

rods

BC

If initially

that

when

AB BC

has no angular velocity, that of


has no angular velocity, that
will

BC being of AB will
;

co,

show-

be
\>

and the angle between the rods

be cos -1 ]-

2d

and 2b being the lengths of the rods which are supposed equal
in

mass.
63.

uniform heavy beam of length

2 c is

supported

in a

horizontal position by
of length
b,

means

of

two strings without weight, each


to its ends, the other

which are fastened


;

ends of the

strings being fixed

in

equilibrium each of the strings makes an

angle a with the horizontal.

Find the time of a small oscillation


plane
in

when
which
64.

the system
it

is

slightly displaced in the vertical

is

situated, the strings not being slackened.

A lamina

bounded by
a

a cycloid
oi
its

and

its
It

base has
is

its

centre
its

of inertia at the middle point

axis.

placed with

base vertical on

perfectly rough horizontal plane, and allowed

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
to roll

87

down.
its

Show
,

that at the

moment
2 ^^( 7r
9

its
l

vertex reaches the


\
,

plane
radius

angular velocity

))

is

where a

is

the

of the generating circle


inertia.

and k the radius

of gyration

about the centre of


65.

A wire is bent into the form of the lemniscate


upon a smooth horizontal
of the wire

,2

<?

cos2

0,

and

laid

table

fly

walks along the


that
if

top of the wire, starting from one vertex.

Show
: ,

the
/'

masses

and

fly

be in the

ratio a 2

k 2 where

is

the radius of gyration of the lemniscate about a vertical axis

through the node, then when the

fly
IT

has arrived at the node

the wire has turned through an angle & 4


66.

A uniform circular wire


its

of radius a,

movable about a

fixed

point in

circumference,

lies

on a smooth horizontal plane.


it,

An

insect of mass, equal to that of the wire, crawls along

starting

from the extremity


its

of the diameter opposite to the fixed point,

velocity relative to the wire being uniform


t

and equal

to v.

Prove that after a time


angle
2a
67.

the wire will have turned through an &'


)

v1 V3
'

tan -1 (

- tan VV3 Wx 2 a)
is

uniform string

stretched along a smooth inclined

plane which rests on a smooth horizontal table.


string

Enough

of the

hangs over the top


If

of the plane to

keep the whole system

at rest.

the string be gently pulled over the plane, and the


left to itself,

whole system be then


the plane.
68.
ties of
its

investigate the ensuing motion,


to

supposing the length of the string

be equal to the height of

Two

particles of equal

mass are attached


all

to the extremi-

a rigid rod without inertia, movable in

directions about

middle point.

The

rod being set in motion from a given


its

position with given velocity, find equations to determine

sub-

sequent motion.
69. at

A rod of length

a movable about

its

lower end
a>

is

inclined

an angle to the

vertical,

and

is

given a rotation

about the

lS8
vertical.
If 6

RIGID DYNAMICS.
be
its

inclination to the vertical


is

velocity about a horizontal axis


3

when its angular maximum, show that


4

g sin 3 6 tan 6 + 4 aar sin


down

= o.
same
is

70.

The time

of descent,

a rough inclined plane, of a

spherical shell which contains a smooth solid sphere of the

material as

itself is t x

the time of descent

down

the same plane


as the shell

of a solid sphere of the


/2
.

same material and radius


shell.

Determine the thickness of the


71.

heavy chain,

flexible,

inextensible,

homogeneous, and
vertex of two
principle to deter-

smooth, hangs over a small pulley at the

common

smooth inclined planes.

Apply d'Alembert's

mine the motion


72.
is

of the chain.

perfectly rough right prism,


its

placed with

axis

whose section is a square, horizontal upon a board of equal mass

lying on a smooth horizontal table.

vertical plane containing

the centres of inertia of the two


the prism
;

is

perpendicular to the axis of

a horizontal blow in this plane communicates motion

to the system.

Show

that the prism will topple over

if

the

momentum

of the

blow be greater than that acquired by the

system falling through a height


the square section of the prism.
73.

-tan a, where a
12

is

a side of

Determine the small

oscillations in

space of a uniform
fixed

heavy rod of length 2a, suspended from a


inextensible string of length
that
it'

point by an

fastened to one extremity.

Prove

x be one

of the horizontal coordinates of that extremity


is

of the rod to which the string


.v

fastened

=A

sin( 1 /+ a)

+ Bsin(n2t +

/5),

where n lt

)i.

are the two positive roots of the equation

aM - (40 +
and A,
/>, a, /8

ll)g& +

3.r

are arbitrary constants.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
74.

89

The bore

of a gun-barrel
is in

is

formed by the motion

of

an

ellipse

whose centre

the axis of the barrel and plane per-

pendicular to that axis, the centre moving along the axis and
the ellipse revolving in
its

own plane with an angular


is

velocity

always bearing the same

ratio to the linear velocity of its centre.


fired

spheroidal ball fitting the barrel

from the gun.

If

v be the velocity with which the ball would have emerged from the barrel had there been no twist, prove that the velocity of rotation with which it actually emerges in the case supposed is
2 1711V

V(/
the

+ 4ttW2

)'

number

of revolutions of the ellipse corresponding to the


/ of

whole length

the barrel being

;/,

and k being the radius

of

gyration of the ball about the axis coinciding with the axis of

the barrel, and the gun being supposed to be immovable.


75.

plane lamina moving either about a fixed axis or

in-

stantaneously about a principal axis, impinges on a free inelastic


particle in the line

through the centre of inertia of the lamina

perpendicular to the axis of rotation at the


If

moment

of impact.

the velocity of the particle after impact be the

maximum

velocity,

prove that the angular velocity of the lamina will be


1
:

diminished in the ratio of


76.

2.

Two

equal uniform rods are placed in the form of the

letter

on a smooth horizontal plane, the upper and the lower

extremities being connected

by equal
is

strings.

Show

that which-

ever string be cut the tension of the other will be the same
function of the rods, and initially
inclination of the rods.

f^sin, where a

is

the

yj.

An

equilateral

triangle
to

is

suspended from a point by


sides,
cut,

three strings, each equal

one of the

attached to

its

angular points.

If

one of the strings be

show

that the
:

tensions of the other two are diminished in the ratio of 36

43.

I9
78.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Apply

the principle of energy to determine the time of a

small oscillation of a uniform rod placed in a smooth, fixed, hemispherical bowl, the motion taking place in a vertical plane.
79.

A frame formed of

four equal uniform rods loosely jointed


is

together at the angular points, so as to form a rhombus,

laid

on a smooth horizontal plane and a blow


rods in a direction at right angles to
will
it.

is

applied to one of the

Prove that the frame

begin to move as a rigid body provided the middle point of

the rod which receives the blow be equidistant from the line of
action of the blow and the perpendicular dropped

upon the rod

from the centre of


Prove also that

inertia of the frame.


in this case the initial
is

angular velocity of the


it

rod which receives the blow

one-eighth of what

would have

been had
80.

it

been unconnected with the remaining

rods.

Three equal uniform rods AB, BC, CD, freely jointed at B and C, are lying in one straight line on a smooth horizontal table, and an impulse is applied at the midpoint of BC, perpenFind the stresses on the hinges at B and C dicular to that rod.
in

any subsequent positions

of the rods,

and show that when

AB,

CD

are perpendicular to

BC,

their midpoints are


_1

moving

in

directions
81.

which make an angle cos


parallelogram
is

(^) with

BC.

formed

of
If

four rigid uniform rods


the parallelogram be laid

freely jointed at their extremities.

on a smooth horizontal table and a blow be applied to any one


of

the rods

at right

angles to

it,

and

in

a direction passing
its

through the intersection of the


ties parallel to the diagonals,

lines

drawn through
initial

extremi-

determine the

motion of the

parallelogram.
82.

circular disc

is

capable of motion about a horizontal


co

tangent which rotates with uniform angular velocity


fixed vertical axis

about a
if

through the point of contact.

Prove that

the disc be inclined at a constant angle a to the horizontal,


co-

sin

= z^..
5<'

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
83.

I9I

A
its

uniform rod

is

rotating with angular velocity */[_^]


is at

about

centre of inertia, which

rest at the instant

when

the rod, being vertical, comes in contact with an inelastic plane


inclined to the horizontal at an angle sin
_1

V^.

The motion

being in a vertical plane normal to the inclined plane, prove


that the angular velocity of the rod

when

it

leaves the inclined

plane
84.

is

^{1(1

+-L)}-

body which is initially at rest, and which has a point in it fixed, is struck by a given impulsive couple, show that the vis viva generated is greater than that which would have
If a rigid

been generated by the same couple

if

the body had been con-

strained to turn about an axis through the fixed point and not

coincident with the axis of spontaneous rotation.


85.

and

are two fixed points in the


in length to

same horizontal

line;

CD, a heavy uniform rod equal


four inextensible strings

AB,

is

suspended by

length to
cut,

BD, and

AD

AC, AD, BC, BD, where AC is equal in If two of the strings AC, BD be to BC.

determine the tension of the other two immediately after

cutting,
its

and

find the angular velocity of the rod

when

it

reaches

lowest position.
86.

A
is

beam

AB

is

fixed at A.
is

At

is

fastened an elastic
the other end of the

string string

whose natural length

equal to

AB;

fastened to a point

vertically

above A,

AC

being

equal to

AB.
If

The beam
it

is

held vertically upwards and then

displaced.

come

to rest

when hanging

vertically

down-

wards, find the greatest pressure on the axis during the motion.
87.

Two
fixed

equal rods

AB,

BC

are connected by a hinge at B.

is

and

C is

in

contact with a smooth horizontal plane,


If

the system being capable of motion in a vertical plane.

motion commence when the rods are inclined at an angle


the horizon,

to

show

that there will be no pressure at the hinge


is

when

their inclination 6

given by the equation

3 3 (sin 6

+ sin 6) = 2 sin a.

Q2
88.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

rod

AB is

movable freely

in a vertical

plane about

to

B is

fastened an elastic string, the other end being attached

to a point

C in
is

the vertical plane at such a distance from

that

when
If the

the rod

held horizontal the tension on the string vanishes.

rod be

of the string
89.

now allowed to fall, find the modulus of elasticity that the rod may just reach a vertical position.
is

prolate spheroid
fall

fixed at

one of

its

poles,

and

is

allowed to

from

its

position of unstable equilibrium under the

action of gravity only.

Find the pressure

at the fixed point in

any subsequent
90.

position.

Every

particle of

two equal uniform

rods, each of length

2 a, attracts

every other particle according to the law of gravita-

tion
in a

the rods are initially at right angles and are free to

move

plane about their midpoints, which are also their centres of

inertia

and are coincident.

If

angular velocities

&>, to'

be comt

municated

to the rods respectively,


is

show

that at the time

the

angle 6 between them

given by the equation

(MS*

<3- 2 v 2 )(cos- + s -+,j


1

)(T

e e cos - + sin
.

91.

Two
is

equal spheres of radius a and mass

M are attached
material,

to the extremities of a rigid rod of the

same

whose

length
If

the

4a and section y1^ of a principal section of the sphere. rod can move freely about its midpoint and one sphere be

struck by a blow

normal

to

it

and the

rod, the time

which
is

must elapse before the other sphere takes the place

of this one

44

77(7

Jl
attached to a
position.
is

92.

thin uniform rod, one


is

end of which

is

smooth hinge,

allowed to

fall

from a horizontal
in

Trove that the stress on the hinge

any given direction


to

maximum when
and

the

rod

is

equally

inclined

this direction
is

to the vertical,

and the

stress perpendicular to this

then

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
-Y-JFcosrt,

93

where IV is the weight

of the rod

and

is

the

incli-

nation of the given direction to the horizontal.


93.

man

standing in a swing

is

set in motion.

Supposing
is

that the initial inclination of the swing to the vertical

given,

and that the man always crouches when


and stands up when
in the lowest, find

in the highest position,

how much

the arc of

vibration will be increased after u complete oscillations.


94.

Three rods are hinged together

so as to

form an isosceles
is

triangle

ABC, A being
co

the vertex.

The whole

rotating with

angular velocity

round an axis through the middle point of

the base and perpendicular to the plane of the rods,

when

it

is

suddenly brought to
bisects the angle
95.

rest.

Show

that the impulsive action at

A
by

BAC, and

find its magnitude.


is

triangular lamina

suspended

at rest horizontally

vertical strings attached to its angular points A, B, C.

If the

strings at

and

C be
to

simultaneously cut, show that there will


in the string at

be no instantaneous change of tension


be perpendicular
either

A,

if

AD

AB

or

AC.

AD = CD cos

ADC,

D being the
96.

midpoint of BC.
is filled

hollow spherical shell


solidifies

with homogeneous fluid


the

which gradually
solidification

without alteration of density,

proceeding uniformly from the outer surface, so


of the solidified portion
is

that the
time.
If

mass

proportional to the

the shell initially rotate about a given axis with a


co,

given angular velocity

find the angular velocity at

any subse-

quent period before the


97.

solidification is complete.
is

lamina whose centre of gravity


it

G
in

is

revolving
it

about a horizontal axis perpendicular to

and meeting

in

C
is

Supposing
of

it

to

begin to move from a position

which

CG

horizontal, prove that the greatest angle

which the direction


the vertical
is

the
-1
f

pressure on
^
J,

the axis can


is

make with

cot

11-^ tan

where

the corresponding angle which

CG

194

RIGID DYNAMICS.
vertical,

makes with the


through
98.

is

the radius of gyration about an axis


//

perpendicular to the lamina, and

CG.

rough uniform

rod, length 2 a,

is

placed with a length

c(>a)
will

projecting over the edge of the table.

Prove that the rod

begin to slide over the edge

when

it

has turned through an

angle tan -1
If

a*

+ 9 (c-df
and the body be started from
it

99.

gravity be the only force acting on a body capable of

freely turning about a fixed axis


its

position of stable equilibrium with such a velocity that

may

just reach its position of unstable equilibrium, find the time

of describing
100.
If

any angle.

an isosceles triangle move, under the action of gravity


its

only, about
position,

base as a fixed axis starting from a horizontal


axis
is

show that the greatest pressure on the

seven-

thirds the weight.

10 1.

If

the centre of oscillation of a triangle, suspended from


oscillating with
its

an angular point and


at the point
102.

plane vertical,

lie

on

the side opposite the point of suspension,

show

that the angle

must be

a right angle.

horizontal circular tube of small section and given

mass

is

freely

movable about a
Given the

vertical axis
is

through

its
it

centre.

heavy

particle within the tube

projected along

with a

given velocity.

coefficient of friction

between the

tube and the particle, determine the terminal velocity of both,

and the time which must elapse before that motion


103.

is

attained.

Part of a heavy chain


its

is

coiled

round a cylinder freely


is

movable about

axis of figure

which

horizontal,

and the

remainder hangs

vertically.

Determine the motion, supposing

the system to start from rest and neglecting the thickness of


the chain.
104.

Two

weights are connected bv


its

a tine

chain which passes

over a wheel free to rotate about

centre in a vertical plane.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Given the
coefficient

195

of

friction

between the string and the

wheel, find the condition which determines whether the string


will slide

over the wheel or will not


straight equal

slide.

105.

Two

and uniform rods are connected

at

their

ends by

fine strings of

equal length a so as to form a parits

allelogram.

One
it

rod

is

supported at

centre by a fixed axis

about which

can turn freely, this axis being perpendicular to


is

the plane of motion, which

vertical.

Show

that the middle

point of the lower rod will oscillate in the

same way

as a simple
of the rods

pendulum
is

of length

<?,

and that the angular motion

independent of
106.

this oscillation.
is

loaded cannon

suspended from a

fixed horizontal
to the

axis,

and

rests with its axis horizontal

and perpendicular

fixed axis, the supporting ropes


vertical.
If

being equally inclined to the

v be the

initial

velocity of the ball

whose mass

is

of the weight of the cannon,


axis of the

and

//

the distance between the

cannon and the


is

fixed axis of support,

when

the cannon

fired off the tension of


i'

show that each rope is imme1

diately
107.

changed

in the ratio

+ irgJi

n(n

)gh-

Two

equal triangles

ABC, A'B'C,
line.

right-angled at

and C, rotate about

their equal sides

CA and A'C

as fixed

The distance CC is less than the sum of the sides CA, A'C. The triangles, being at first placed horizontally, impinge on one another when
axes in the same horizontal straight
vertical.

Determine the

initial

subsequent motion and discuss

the case in which


108.
in

A A'

is less

than one-fifth
all

CC
lie

Find the envelope of

the axes of suspension that

a principal plane through the centre of inertia of

a rigid

body, and such that the length of the simple pendulum

may be

always twice the radius of gyration of the body about one of


the axes lying in the plane.
109.

flat

board bounded by two equal parabolas with their

axis

and

foci coincident,

and

their concavities turned towards

I9 6

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

each other,
the vertices.

capable of moving about the tangent at one of

Find the centre

of percussion.
its

HO.
point
elastic
is

A
in

uniform beam capable of motion about


equilibrium in a horizontal position
;

middle

a perfectly

ball,

whose mass

is

one-fourth that
is

of

the

beam,

is

dropped upon one extremity and


other extremity of the beam.
the ball

afterwards struck by the

Prove that the height from which

was dropped was ^f (2 n

\)ir

x length of beam.

in.
in
its

Two

equal circular discs are attached, each by a point


axis,

circumference, to a horizontal

one of them
it,

in the
is

plane of the axis and the other perpendicular to

and each

struck by a horizontal blow which, without creating any shock

on the

axis,

makes the

disc revolve through


:

90

Show

that

the two blows are as


112.

V6

V5.

body capable of rotation about a fixed axis is struck by a blow so that the axis sustains no impulse. Prove that the axis must be a principal axis of the body at the point
rigid

where

it

is

met by the perpendicular

let

fall

on

it

from the

point of application of the blow.

113.
its

uniform rod

AB
is

of

mass
a

is

freely

movable about

extremity A, which

fixed;

at C, a point

such that
fixed over

AC

is

horizontal and equal to

AB,

smooth peg
supported
fall

is

which
also

passes an inelastic string fastened to the rod at B, and to a

body
below

also

of
If

mass

M which

is

in

a position

the rod be allowed to

from coincidence with

AC, and

the string be of such a length as not to

become

tight

until the rod is vertical, the

angular velocity of the rod

will

be

suddenly diminished by
114.

three-fifths.

piece of wire

is

bent into the form of an isosceles


its

triangle

and revolves about an axis through


its

vertex perpen-

dicular to
that
it

plane.

Find the centre of


base

oscillation
is

and show

will lie in the

when

the triangle

equilateral.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
115.

197

circular lamina performs small oscillations


its

(1) about a tangent line at a given point of


(2) about a line

circumference,
its

through the same point perpendicular to

plane.

Compare the times


116.

of oscillation.
is

A uniform beam
;

drawn over the edge


its

of a

rough

hori-

zontal table so that only one-third of

length

is in

contact with

the table
that
it

and

it is

then abandoned to the action of gravity.

Show
it

will

begin to slide over the edge of the table when


-,
/j,

has

turned through an angle equal to tan -1


of friction
117.

being the coefficient

between the beam and the

table.
is

uniform beam AB, capable of motion about A,

in

equilibrium.

Find the point


impulse at
is

at

which a blow must be applied


be one-eighth of the blow.
its

in order that the

A may

118.

rectangle

struck by an impulse perpendicular to


it

plane.

Determine the axis about which

will

begin to revolve,

and the position


in the rectangle.

of this axis with reference to

an ellipse inscribed

119.

rectangle rotates about one side as a fixed axis.

Find

the pressure on the axis (1)


to the horizontal.
120.

when

horizontal, (2)

when

inclined

About what

fixed axis will a given ellipsoid oscillate in


?

the shortest possible time


121.

A uniform semicircular lamina rotates


through
this axis.
its

about a fixed hori-

zontal axis
stresses
122.

centre

in

its

plane.

Determine the

on
If

and

T2

are the times of a small oscillation of a

rigid body, acted

on only by gravity, about parallel axes which

are distant a x and a 2 respectively from the centre of inertia, and

T be

the time of a small oscillation for a simple

pendulum
.

of

length a 1
123.

+ a2

then will (a l

cn

)T'

a x T^

a 2 T2

uniform beam of mass m, capable of motion about


its

its

middle point, has attached to

extremities by strings, each of

98
/,

RIGID DYNAMICS.
two
particles,

length
the

beam

is in

each of mass p, which hang freely. When equilibrium, inclined at an angle to the vertical,
is

one of the strings


other string
the
initial
is
-

cut
.

prove that the


,

initial

tension of the

w+

3/sin 2

and that the radius of curvature of


.

9
path of the l particle r
is

Ip sin* vi

a
.

cos u
its

124.

uniform inelastic beam capable of revolving about


is

centre of inertia, in a vertical plane,

inclined at an angle a to
let fall

the horizontal, and a heavy particle

is

upon

it

from a
angular

point in the horizontal plane through the upper extremity of the

beam.

Find the position of

this point in order that the

velocity generated
125.

may

be a maximum.

uniform

elliptic

board swings about a horizontal axis

at right angles to the plane of the

board and passing through


|,

one focus.

Prove that

if

the excentricity of the ellipse be \

the centre of oscillation will be the other focus.


126.
If

circular ring

hangs

in a vertical
that,

plane on two pegs.

one peg be removed, prove

P v P2

being the instanta-

neous pressures on the other peg calculated on the supposition


that the ring
is

(1) smooth, (2) rough,

2
x
:

2 2
: :

+ ^ tan 2 a,
of

where

is

the angle which the line

the ring to the centre of


127.

drawn from the centre the peg makes with the vertical.

uniform beam
that a ball of

can rotate about a horizontal axis weight equal


to that of
it

so

placed

the beam,

resting on one end of the beam, keeps

horizontal.
is

blow,

perpendicular to the length of the beam,


end.

struck at the other

Investigate the action between the ball and the beam,


stress

and the
128.

on the

axis.

There are two equal rods connected by


and that of the second along
a

smooth

joint;
a fixed

the other extremity of one of the rods can


point,

move about

smooth horizontal

axis
is

passing through the fixed point, and about which the system

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
revolving under the action of gravity.

199
differential equa-

Find a

tion to determine the inclination of the rods to the axis at any-

time.
129.

An

elliptic
its

lamina whose excentricity

is

^Vio
If

is

sup-

ported with

plane vertical and transverse axis horizontal by


its foci.

two smooth, weightless pins passing through


other pin will be
130.
initially unaltered.

one of

the pins be suddenly released, show that the pressure on the

A
is

plane lamina in the form of a circular sector whose


a,
is

angle

suspended from a horizontal axis through


its
if

its

centre, perpendicular to
oscillation,
will

plane.

Find the time

of a small

and show that

3 =4sin

the time of oscillation

be the same about a horizontal axis through the extremity

of the radius passing through the centre of inertia of the lamina.


131.
is to

A hollow cylinder open at both


3 to

ends, of which the height


its

the radius as

V2, has a diameter of one of


lie is

ends

fixed.

Show

that the centres of percussion

on a straight
eight-ninths of

line the distance of

which from the

fixed axis

the height of the cylinder.

AB as a fixed axis. CD be parallel to AB and AB =3 CD the centre Show that of percussion will be at the intersection of AC and BD.
132.

lamina
if

ABCD

is

movable aoout

133.
axis,

In the case of a rigid body freely rotating about a fixed


in

show that

order that a centre of percussion

may

exist

the axis must be a principal axis with respect to some point in


its

length.
134.

uniform rod movable about one end, moves


as to

in
<'

such
with

manner

the vertical.

make always nearly the same angle Show that the time of its small oscillations
/{

is

2 a COS a

V l3^i+3cos 2 )J'
a being the length of the
rod.

2oo

RIGID DYNAMICS.

o> One end


smooth wire
axis

of a

heavy uniform rod

slides freely

on a

fine

in the

form of an

ellipse of excentricity

2,

and

minor equal

to the length of the rod

the other end of the

rod slides on a smooth wire coinciding with the axis minor of


the ellipse.

The system

is

set rotating

about the

latter wire,
if

which

is

fixed in

a vertical position.

Prove that
t,

6 be the
initial

inclination of the rod to the vertical at the time

a the

value of

0,

and w the

initial

angular velocity of the system about


(cot

the vertical axis, cos 6 = cos a cos


136.

sin a).

lamina

in

the form of an equilateral triangle rests


is

with

its

base on a horizontal plane, and

capable of moving in
its

a vertical

plane about a hinge at one extremity of


it

base.
its

Prove that

will

turn completely over

if

it

be struck at

vertex a blow greater than 2 iky\(-f^=\ in a direction perpendicular to that side which does not pass through the hinge,
;;/

being the mass, a the length of a side of the lamina,


of gyration about an axis through

its

radius

one of

its

angular points per-

pendicular to
137.

its

plane.

In the case of the motion of a rigid body about a hori-

zontal axis under the action of gravity,

show that the

forces are

reducible to a single force

if

the axis be a principal axis at the


it

point where the perpendicular on

from the centre of gravity

meets
ular on

it

and not otherwise.

If

the horizontal fixed axis be a

principal axis at a point other than that at


it

which the perpendicit,

from the centre of gravity meets


determine the pressures.
elliptic paraboloid, cut off

and

if

the centre

of gravity start
fixed axis,
[38.

from the horizontal plane passing through the

An

by a plane parallel Find the

to the

tangent plane

at the vertex, is

capable of freely rotating about a


axis.

diameter of the base as a fixed

line of action of

an impulse which, acting on the paraboloid, produces no impulse

on the

fixed diameter.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
139. to
If a rigid

201

a given axis,
in

body have a centre of percussion with respect show that there is one with respect to any
a plane containing

parallel axis,

the

given axis

and the

centre of inertia.
140.

Investigate the angular velocity of


is
still

the top (Fig. 51,

unwinding, assuming (1) the tension of the string to be constant and the axis to be cylindrical, (2)

page 117) while the string

the increase of the tension of the string over the

initial

tension to vary as the length of string

drawn

off

and the

axis to

be conical.
141.

The

part of a paraboloid of revolution cut off


is

by a plane
in a direc-

through the focus


circular base.
tion parallel to
142.
is fixed,

fixed at a point in the circumference of its

If

it

be struck by a blow at any point,

its axis,

find the initial instantaneous axis.

If

but one force act on a rigid body, one point of which

the body's angular velocity about the instantaneous axis

will
is

be a

maximum

or a

minimum when

the instantaneous axis

perpendicular to the direction of the force.


143.

uniform rod can turn freely about one end which


If

is
it

fixed,

the other end resting on a smooth inclined plane.


its

be just disturbed from


that
it

position of unstable equilibrium, prove


its

will

never leave the plane unless

inclination to the

horizon be

> tan"

(^ tan B),

where
rod.

is

the semi-vertical angle

of the cone described


144.

by the

rigid body, fixed at

one point only,


If,

is

in

motion under

the

action

of

finite

forces.

throughout the motion, the

angular acceleration of the body about the instantaneous axis

bear to the

moment
if

of inertia about this axis

and

to the forces

acting on the body the

same

relation as

if

the axes were fixed,

prove that

the three principal


all

moments

of inertia at the fixed

point be not

equal the locus of the axis relatively to the

body

is

a cone of the second order.

145.

A triangular

lamina

ABC has

the angular point

C fixed,

and

is

capable of free motion about

it.

blow

is

struck at B,

202

RIGID DYNAMICS.

perpendicular to the plane of the lamina.

Show

that the instan-

taneous axis passes through one of the points of trisection of the


side

AB.

146.

Two

equal uniform rods are capable of motion about a


is fixed,

common
by an

extremity which

their

upper ends being joined


If in the position of

elastic string.

They

are set in vibration about a vertical

axis bisecting the angle

between them.

steady motion the natural length (2 /) of the string be doubled,


the modulus of elasticity being equal to the weight of either
rod, then the angular velocity about the vertical will be

3^(/'-/) 2hl VI
j/

where h
147.

is

the height of the string above the fixed extremity.


rigid body, of

which two of the principal moments

at

the centre of inertia are equal, rotates about a third principal


axis,

but this axis

is

constrained to describe uniformly a fixed

right circular cone of

which the centre of

inertia

is

the vertex.
is

Prove that the resultant angular velocity of the body


stant, that the requisite constraining

con-

couple

is

of constant

mag

nitude,

and that the plane

of the couple turns uniformly in the

body about the


148.

axis of unequal
is

moment.
its

An

ellipsoid

rotating with

centre fixed about one

of

its

principal axes (that of x) and receives a normal blow at a


(//,

point

k, I).

If

the

initial axis
its

of rotation after the


is

blow

lie

in the principal
2 c (a'
2

plane of yz,

equation
/>

+ r2 )(rt 2 -

b2 )k-v

+ b\# +
is

)(<r

- c*)Is = o.

149.

sphere whose centre

fixed

has an elastic string

attached to one point, the other end of the string being fastened
to a fixed point.

To

the sphere

is

given an angular velocity


its
it

about an

axis.

Give the equations for determining

motion,
contact

the string being supposed stretched and no part of

in

with the surface of the sphere.

If the natural

length of the

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
string be equal to a, the radius of the sphere,

203
it

and

be fixed at

a point

at a distance

= a( V2

1)

from
it

its

centre,

and

if

the
is

sphere be turned so that the point on


fastened

to

which the string

may be

at

the opposite extremity of

the diameter

through O, prove that the time of a complete revolution

=V(-)(-f
where
where
1
,

n= modulus
. .

of elasticity
,

= \ \( aM\f 7r H 2V2\
.

weight of sphere
of elasticity.

\ V5

//

/V

\x

= modulus
If the

50.

angular velocities of a rigid body, at any time


x, y, z, are

/,

about the axes

proportional respectively to
cot {n

cot(;w

n)t,

V)t,

cot

(lm)t.

determine the locus of the instantaneous


151.

axis.

uniform rod
In

of length 2

a can turn freely about one

extremity.

its initial is

position

it

makes an angle
it

of

90 with
vertical

the vertical and


locity
is
(o.

projected horizontally with an angular ve-

Show

that the least angle


4<?&>
2

makes with the


2

given by the equation


152.

cos

3g sin

6.

rigid

body rotates about a

fixed

point under the

action of no

forces.

Investigate the following equations, the

invariable line being taken as the axis of z

= G sin 6 sin
2
(f>

<b

cos

<b

r f cos ~kl~ \ a
(fy _

sin 3

(A

b r
C
;

W+
dt

cos

e*t= Gcos0
dt

G
s\

denoting the angular

momentum

of the body,

and the other

mbols having their usual meaning.

204
153.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

One

point of a rigid body

is

fixed

and the body

is

set in

motion in any manner and


force.

left to itself

under the action

of

no

moments of inertia at the fixed point, G its angular momentum, X its component angular velocity about the invariable line, w its whole angular velocity, the component angular velocity of the instantaneous
Prove that
if

A, B,

C be

its

principal

axis about the invariable line will be

(G - A\)(G - B\)(G - C\)


ABC(to 2
154.

- \2

rod

is

fixed at
it

one end to a point

in a horizontal

plane about which


it is

can move easily in any direction.

When
be the
at

inclined to the horizon at a given angle, a given horizontal


is

velocity
velocity

communicated
the rod

to

its

other end.

What

will

and direction

of the
falls

motion of the free end


?

the

moment when
155.
at L,

on the horizontal plane

AD,

such

BC are two equal rigid rods movable about a pin that AL = DL = BC CL, and their ends are conIf the

nected by four elastic strings of equal lengths.


are

beams
its

made

to revolve in opposite directions


left to

about
itself,

through a

given angle, and then the system be

determine

subsequent motion.
1

56.

AB, BC,

CD

are three equal


in

beams connected by pins


If a

at

and

and lying

the

same

right line.

given im-

pulse be communicated to

BC

at its centre in a direction per-

pendicular to
157.

its

length, determine the impulse on the pins.


is

uniform rod

free to rotate about


is

its

extremity

in a

vertical plane, while that plane

constrained to revolve uni-

formly about a vertical axis through the extremity of the rod.

Show
if is

that

if

the rod be
it

let

fall

from an inclination
to the vertical

of 30

above the horizon,


dco 2

will just

descend

position

$g, where
2

co is

the angular velocity of the plane and

2a

the length of the rod.


aa>
is

Also explain the nature


than

of the

motion

according as

less

$g

or greater than

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
158.

205
its

rigid rod of given

mass can revolve about


to

middle

point in a plane inclined at a given angle to the horizon.

given angular velocity

is

communicated

both rod and plane

about a vertical axis through the middle point of the rod, the

system being then


late

left to itself.

Show

that the rod will oscil-

about

its

horizontal position.
of the principal axes of a

159.
in

One

body revolves uniformly


it.

a fixed plane,

while the body rotates uniformly about


if

Determine the constraining couple and show that

the mo-

ments

of inertia about the other

two principal axes are equal,

the couple has a constant moment.


160.

A body, two of whose principal moments are equal,


its

is

free

to rotate about

centre of gravity, which

is

fixed relatively to

the earth's surface.

Prove that

if

the body be

made
if

to rotate

very rapidly about


will

its

principal axis of unequal

moment, that

axis

move both

in altitude

and azimuth, and that


will

the motion

in altitude

be prevented and the axis be originally placed horiit

zontally in the meridian,

be in a position of equilibrium,
is

stable or unstable, according as the rotation

from west

to east,
in

or from east to west.

If the axis

be originally directed
its

any

other azimuth,

it

will oscillate

about

position of stable equi-

librium nearly in the

same way

as the simple circular

pendulum

whose length = Bg/{Alco cosX), where A and B are the principal moments, fl the angular velocity of the earth about its axis, co that of the disc, and X the latitude of the place of experiment.
161.

body turning about a

fixed point of

it is

acted on by

forces which always tend to produce rotation about an axis at


right angles to the instantaneous axis.
velocity cannot be uniform unless

Show

that the angular

C-B ^B-A ^A-C


A, B,

being the principal moments of inertia with respect to

the fixed point.

20 6
162.
If

RIGID DYNAMICS.
forces
act

on

homogeneous
,

spheroid
in the

tending

always to produce rotation about an axis


the body about
polar axis

plane of the

equator, the instantaneous axis will describe a circular cone in


its
;

but the angular velocity about

the instantaneous axis will not be uniform unless the axis a be

always
163.
is

at right angles to the instantaneous axis.

sphere movable about a point


is

in its surface,

which

fixed relatively to the earth,

in equilibrium

under the action

of gravity.
its

Suppose the earth

to

suddenly cease rotating about

axis, find

the instantaneous axis of rotation of the sphere


it

and show that the angular velocity about


2

would be
;

w cos^/]i+(^+^) tan^J
7
o)

being the angular velocity of the earth,

/x

the ratio between

its

radius and that of the sphere, and 6 the latitude of the place.
164.

body under the action of given forces is in Defining the momental plane at motion about a fixed point. any instant as that which would be the invariable plane if the
rigid

forces affecting the

body were

at that instant to cease acting,

show that if the body be constantly acted upon by a couple whose plane passes through the instantaneous axis and is normal to the momental plane, the distance of the momental If the body plane from a fixed point will remain unchanged. be acted upon at any instant by an impulsive couple in the plane referred to, show that the tangent of the angle through which the momental plane is suddenly turned varies as the

moment
165.

of the couple.

moving about a fixed point at a distance P from the invariable plane. Assuming that the central ellipsoid rolls upon the invariable plane, show that the equation to the surface generated by the instantaneous axis in the body is

body

is

Ax- 4- Bf + Cc 2 = r-( a-a- +

By + C-

2
),

the equation to the central ellipsoid being

AxL +Byi +Czt =\.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
166.
If

207
it

the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point in


a> x , co
y
,

be represented by three coexistent angular velocities

wz

about three axes mutually at right angles, show that


particles in a cylindrical surface

all

the

whose

axis

is

--==-=
(O x

wy
2.

will
wz
in.)

have linear velocities of equal magnitude. (See Prob.


167.

p.

An

equilateral triangular lamina


its

is

revolving in

its

own

plane about

centre of inertia.
fixed,

If

one of the angular points

becomes suddenly
it

show

that the lamina will rotate about

with one-fifth of the original angular velocity.


168.

A
co

rigid

body

is

free to

move about

a fixed point, and in

the notation of Art. 62,


1

= a sin 9 sin

(f>,

o)

= a sin
at

6 cos

cf>,

a>

= a cos 6,

find the position of the


169.

body

any given time.

Show from

Euler's Equations of Motion (Art. 60), that


forces act, no axis other than a principal
axis.

when no impressed
axis can be a
170.

permanent
a body
is

When

acted on by no forces and moves about


is

a fixed point,

show

that the locus of the instantaneous axis

conical surface.
171.

prolate spheroid of revolution


it

is

fixed at

its

focus; a

blow

is

given

at the

extremity of the axis minor in a line tan-

gent to the direction perpendicular to the axis major.


axis about
172.

Find the

which the body begins


rigid

to rotate.
is

body

fixed at a given point

free to rotate in
velocities

any way about that


velocity of

point.

Given the angular

about

three axes mutually at right angles and fixed in space, find the

any point

in the

body and the

vis viva of the

whole

system.
173.

In the case of a rigid body moving about a fixed point


to the action of

and subject

no forces

if

the

moment C be

a har-

2o8

RIGID DYNAMICS.

monic mean between the moments


constant,
will increase uniformly,

and B, and the

instan<

taneous axes describe the separating polhode, then


y\r

will
f?
,

be

and tan 6

tan

where

174.

Integrate Euler's equations determining the motion of a


fixed point for the case in

rigid

body about a

which no forces

act

and two
If a

of the principal

moments

are equal.

175.

body be

in

motion about a fixed point under the

action

of

no external

forces,

about the radius vector of


the body
is

show that the angular velocity the momental ellipsoid, about which

turning, varies as that radius vector, and that the

perpendicular on the tangent plane at the extremity of the


radius vector
176.
is

constant.

plane

lamina of

uniform

density

and thickness,

bounded by a curve represented by the equation

r=a + &sm2 20,


if

moves about
constant, and
177.

its

pole as a fixed point.


its

Show

that

the lamina
will

be under the action of no forces,


its

angular velocity

be

axis will describe a right cone in space.


in the
its

lamina

form of a quadrant of a

circle is fixed

at
its

one extremity of

arc

and

is

struck a blow perpendicular to

plane at the other extremity.

Find the
If

velocities generated

and the pressures on the


point,

fixed point.

6 be the inclination of

the instantaneous axis to the radius vector through the fixed

show

that
a tan 6
.

^7T 1577 10
IO

178.

The

point

of a rigid

body

is

fixed in space, but the

body

is

capable of free motion about the point.


/".

are the principal axes and A',


of inertia of the

are

OA, OB, Oi the principal moments


cone with

body

at O.

Show

that the couple necessary to


shall describe a

keep the body moving so that

OC

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
semi-vertical angle a uniformly about the fixed line
shall maintain a constant inclination to

2 OQ

OZ and CO A
in the
[

ZOC, must be

x(C - B')cos (3 cos a + j{C -A') sin /3 cos a + z(A sin (3 sin a = o, referred to OA, OB, OC as axes.
plane
179.
If the

B')

component angular
in

velocities of a rigid
co x ,
,

body about
a

a system of axes fixed in space be

wy
,

ro 2 ,

and those about

v co 2 co 3 and if these coincide respectively with the former at the time t, prove that
to

system fixed

the body be

d 2 w,
dt
2

d 2 w> x
dt
2

dw,
tit

dw,,
z
'

dt

Examine
180.
fixed,
is

this

and get the equation

for

~ in

terms of w x w y
,

co z

body acted on by no
if

forces,

and having one point

such that

A, B,

are the principal

moments

of

inertia at the fixed point,

B.

Show

that

if

6 be the

mean between A and angle which the axis of C makes with


is

a harmonic

the invariable

line,

and

the angle which

the plane of

CA
axis

makes with the plane through the


of C, then will sin 6 cos 2
181.
in
it

invariable line

and the

</>

be constant.

A rigid

lamina, not acted on by any forces, has one point

which

is fixed,

but about which

it

can turn freely.


its

If the

lamina be set

in

motion about a

line in

own
:

plane, the
its

moment

of inertia about
its

which

is

O,

show
is

that the ratio of


Q,

greatest to

least

angular velocity

A+ Q B+

where

and

are the principal


If

moments
spiral

of inertia about axes in the

plane of the lamina.

the lamina in the previous problem be

bounded by an equiangular
point be the pole,

and the intercept


if

of

the

radius vector to the extremity of the curve, and

the fixed

4-

Q:

B+Q

::

cos

27

sin 2 (y

/3)
is

cos 2 7 cos 2 (7 /3),


to

where the extreme radius vector


an angle 7 and to the axis at an angle /3
axis at
p

inclined

one principal

initial position of

the instantaneous

2io
182.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

moves around the circumference of a disc of radius r-\-a and of four times the mass of the ball the disc is supported at its centre and provided with a rim (whose weight may be neglected) sufficient to keep the ball
smooth
ball

of radius a

from falling
that the disc
horizontal,
is

off.

Show

that the velocity of the ball, in order


to the

may

maintain a constant inclination of 45

gir-af
VI:
183.
>~

rigid lamina in the

form of a loop of a lemniscate


is

= a 2 cos2 6,

not acted on by any force,

started with a given


its

angular velocity about one of the tangent lines through


point,

nodal

the nodal

point

being
its

fixed.

Prove that

its

greatest

angular velocity has to

least

angular velocity the ratio


7r).

V(3tt + 4): y(3


184.

rigid body,

movable about a
at

fixed point,
point.
If

is

struck a

blow of given magnitude


velocity thus impressed

a given

the angular
possible,

upon the body be the greatest


l

prove that

-(
t\B*
where A, B,

J-^-i-A^-L

CV m\C
the

AV

c
\

^ o
&J
'

n\A*

C are

moments

of inertia of the
a, b, c

body about the

principal axes at the fixed point,

are the coordinates of

the point struck in relation to the principal axes at the fixed


point,

and

/,

;;/,

;/

are the direction-cosines of the line of action

of the blow.
185.

A square

lamina with one angle attached to a fixed point

rotates about a side.

What must

be the angular velocity of the


it

lamina in order that the side about which


vertical
186.
?

rotates

may remain

rigid

body

is

rotating about an axis through

its

centre

of inertia,
fixed,

when

a certain point of the

body becomes suddenly


Prove that
if

the axis being simultaneously set free.

the

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
new instantaneous
point must
lie in

2 II

axis be parallel to the original fixed axis, the

the line represented by the equations

cPlx+Pmy+frnz^o, (P-c-) + (c2 -a 2 )^- + (a--b 2 )^ = o,


/
}>i

the principal axes through the centre of inertia being taken as

axes of coordinates,

a, b, c

the radii of gyration about these lines, the


originally fixed
axis

and

/,

m, n the direction-cosines of

referred to them.
187.

An

elliptic

lamina, fixed at the focus,


its

is

struck in a direcaxis

tion

perpendicular to
if

plane.

Find the instantaneous

and show that

the blow be applied at any point of the ellipse

y + x(l-^ (l+4
2 )

_ ,2 )2

the angular velocity will be the same, the focus being origin,

and the axis major and


tively,

latus

rectum the axes of x and y respec-

and

being the excentricity.


about one end,

188.

A uniform rod of length a, freely movable


If 6

is initially
o)

projected in a horizontal plane with angular velocity

about the fixed point.


(/>

be the angle which the rod makes

with the vertical and

be the angle which the projection of the


initial position,

rod on the horizontal plane makes with the


that the equations of motion are
sin 2 e

show

d$_ =
dt

cos q _ ('Iff = \dt 1 a


of the rod

2
ft)

cot2 e

Find the lowest position

and

if

this

be when 6 = >
is

show

that the resolved vertical pressure on the fixed point


-|^

then equal to
189.

of the weight of the rod.


is

lamina having one point fixed


its

at rest

and

is

struck

a blow perpendicular to

plane at a point whose coordinates,

referred to the principal axes at the fixed point, are


that the equation to the instantaneous
h,

k being the

radii of gyration

about the

Show axis is a/fix + bkh=o, Show principal axes.


a, b.

2I2
that
if

RIGID DYNAMICS.
ab
lie

on a certain straight

line,

there will be no impulse

on the fixed point.


190.

A uniform
<

rod of length 2 a and mass m, capable of free


is

rotation about one end,


it is

held in a horizontal position, and on

placed a smooth particle of mass


;

at a distance c

from the

point, c being

the rod

is

then

let go.

Find the

initial pres-

sure of the particle on the rod, and

show

that the radius of

curvature of the particle's path

is

<K2

4a 3c
191.

f l+ cp
\

am

lamina

in the
is

form of a symmetrical portion of the


its

curve r=a(u7r 2 6 2 )
vertical,

placed on a smooth plane with

axis

then infinitesimally displaced and allowed to


If

fall in its
is

own
its

plane.

the lamina be loaded so that


its

its

centre of inertia

at the pole

and

radius of gyration

= 2 a,

find the time in

which

axis will fall


192.

from one given angular position to another.


lamina stands on a perfectly rough inclined
its

An

elliptical

plane.

Find the condition that

equilibrium

may

be stable,

and determine the time of a small


193.

oscillation.

perfectly rough plane, inclined at a fixed angle to the

vertical, rotates

about the vertical with uniform angular velocity.

Show

that the path of a sphere placed

upon the plane

is

given

by two

linear differential equations of the form,

the origin being the point where the vertical line, about which
the plain- revolves, meets the plane
straight line in the plane
194.
;

the axis of

y being

the

which

is

always horizontal.

The

equal uniform beams

AB, BC, CD, DE,


at

are con-

nected by smooth hinges and placed


zontal plane, each

rest

on a smooth hori-

beam

at right

angles to the two adjacent.

so as to form a figure resembling a set of steps.

An

impulse

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
is

213

given at the end A, along

AB

determine the impulsive action

on any hinge.
195.
2

rectangle

is

formed of four uniform rods


revolving about

of lengths

a and 2 b respectively, which are connected by smooth hinges

at their ends.

The

rectangle

is

its

centre on a
u>,

smooth horizontal plane with an angular velocity


point, in

when

one of the sides of length

2 a,

suddenly becomes

fixed.

Show
ately

that the angular velocity of the sides of length 2 b immedi^ (i 1 h

becomes

-r

7<w.

Find, also, the change in the angular

velocity of the other sides

and the impulse

at the point

which

becomes
196.

fixed.

uniform revolving rod, the centre of inertia of which


at rest,

is initially

moves

in a

plane under the action of a conits

stant force in the direction of


of the radius of curvature of

length.

Prove that the square


through which the

the path of the rod's centre of

inertia varies as the versed sine of the angle

rod has revolved at the end of any time from the beginning of
the motion.
197.

Six equal uniform rods are freely joined together and

are at rest in the form of a regular hexagon on a smooth horizontal plane.


point,

One

of the rods receives an impulse at


its

its

mid-

perpendicularly to

length,

and

in

the plane of the


is

hexagon.

Prove that the

initial

velocity of the rod struck


it.

ten times that of the rod opposite to


198.

uniform rod of length


is

lies

on a rough horizontal
plane and perpendicuits

plane,

and a force

applied to

it

in that

larly to its length at a distance

from

midpoint, the force

being the smallest that will move the rod.


2

Show
2

that the rod

begins to turn about a point distant y/{a +f> midpoint.


199.

)p from

the

AB is a rod whose end A is fixed and which has an equal rod BC attached at B. Initially the rods AB, BC are in the same straight line, AB being at rest and BC on a smooth

2I4

RIGID DYNAMICS.

horizontal plane having an angular velocity w.

Show

that the
is

greatest

angle between the rods at any subsequent time

cos

-1

and that when they are again

in a straight line, their

angular velocities are


200.

and

^-

respectively.

rectangular board moving uniformly without rotation

in a direction parallel to

one

side,

on a smooth horizontal plane,

comes

in contact

with a smooth fixed obstacle.

Determine

at

what point the impact should take place in order that the angular velocity generated may be a minimum.
201.
ties,

Four equal uniform rods, freely jointed at their extremiare lying in the form of a square on a smooth horizontal

table,

when

a blow

is

applied at one of the angles in a direction

bisecting the angle.

Find the

initial state of

motion of each rod,

and prove that during the subsequent motion the angular velocity will

be uniform.

202.

A sphere is moving at a given

moment on an

imperfectly

rough horizontal table with a velocity v, and at the same time has an angular velocity w round a horizontal diameter, the angle
between the direction
of v

and the

axis of

co

being

a.
if

Prove

that the centre of the sphere will describe a parabola

ak2 a> 2
203.

+ (a 2
O

k 2 )v(o sin

<(

av2

Two

rods,

OA

and OB, are

fixed in the

same
at

vertical

plane, with the point

upwards, the rods being

the

same
be

angle to the vertical.


slide

The ends
if

of a rod

AB
it

of length 2 a

on them.

Show

that

the centre of inertia of

AB
k,

its

middle point, and the radius of gyration about


of a complete small oscillation
/j
rt

be

the time

is

tan 2

ft

2
/fr

|
\

\
204.

ag cot
rests

One end

of a

heavy rod

on a horizontal plane and

against the foot of a vertical wall; the other end rests against a
parallel vertical wall,
it

all

the surfaces being smooth.


<,

Show
it

that,

the rod slip down, the angle

through which

will

turn

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
round the common normal
the equation pr(i
is

215

to the vertical walls, will


</>)

be given by
C,

2 3 cos

"'
,

2N

sm 4> =

where

2 a

the length of the rod and 2 the distance between the walls.
205.

Two
one

equal uniform rods, loosely jointed together, are at

rest in

line

on a smooth horizontal

table,

when one

of

them
ini-

receives a horizontal blow at a given point.


tial

Determine the

circumstance of the motion, and prove that,


line,

when next

the

rods are in a straight


velocities.

they will have interchanged angular

206.

One end

of a

uniform rod of weight

can

slide

by a

smooth ring on a
horizontal plane.

vertical rod, the other

end sliding on a smooth

The rod descends from a position inclined at an angle /3 to the horizon. Show that the rod will not leave the horizontal plane during the descent, but that its maximum
pressure against
is
it

is

^wcos 2 /3 and

that

its

ultimate pressure

\ w.
207.

lamina capable of free rotation about a given point

in

its

own

plane,

which point

is

fixed in space,

moves under the


of the

action of given forces.

If the initial axis of rotation

lamina coincide very nearly with the axis of greatest

moment

of inertia in the plane of the lamina, the angular velocities about

the other principal axes will be in a constant ratio during the

motion.
208.

sphere of radius a

is

partly rolling and partly sliding

on a rough horizontal plane.


01 friction

Show
axis of
<o.

that the angle the direction

makes with the

is

tan -1

being the
209.

initial velocities, a> v

the

initial

-, u and v v aa>.2 angular velocities.


'

perfectly rough circular cylinder

is

fixed with its axis

horizontal.

sphere

is

placed on

it

in a position of unstable

equilibrium, and projected with a given velocity parallel to the


axis of the cylinder.
If the

sphere be slightly disturbed in a

2i6

RIGID DYNAMICS.

horizontal direction perpendicular to the direction of the axis of

the cylinder, determine at what point


210.

it

will leave the cylinder.

parabolic lamina, cut off by a chord perpendicular to

its axis, is

kept at rest in a horizontal position by three vertical

strings fastened to the vertex


if

and two extremities of the chord

the string which


is

is

fastened to the vertex be cut, the tension

of the others
211.

suddenly decreased one-half.


equal, perfectly rough, inelastic spheres are in
is

Three

contact on a horizontal plane; a fourth equal sphere, which


rotating about
its

vertical diameter, drops

from a given height

and impinges on them simultaneously.


quent motion.
212.

Investigate the subse-

rod of length
length on a

lar to its

moving with a smooth horizontal


a,

velocity v perpendicu-

plane, impinges on an
centre.
is

inelastic obstacle at a distance c

from

its

Show
^.

that

its

angular velocity
213.

when

the end quits the obstacle

solid regular tetrahedron is placed with


is

one edge on
its

a smooth horizontal table and


of unstable equilibrium.

allowed to

fall

from

position
tetra-

Find the angular velocity of the


it

hedron just before a face of

reaches the table, and the magni-

tude of the resultant impulsive blow.


214.

A
/;

uniform sphere of radius

a,

when placed upon two


has
its

parallel, imperfectly rough, horizontal bars,

centre at a
It

height
is

above the horizontal plane which contains the bars.

started with a velocity v parallel to the bars,

and an angular
In the case in
a time

velocity

a about a

horizontal axis perpendicular to the bars in


friction.

such a direction as to be diminished by

which 2a 2 D.

>

5 bv,

the sphere will begin to

roll after

2ab(v
l*g(2 a*

+ btt)

+ $&>)'
What
will at that instant

where

/jl

is

the coefficient of friction.

be the velocity and position of the sphere?

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
215.

217
its

heavy uniform rod


being
initially in a
if

slips

down with

extremities in

contact with a smooth horizontal floor and a smooth vertical


wall, not

plane perpendicular to both wall

and
(f)

floor.

Prove that

be the inclination to the horizon and

the angle which the projection of the rod on the floor

makes

with the normal to the wall,

(& + ^)sin<
and
(
2

2(cos

(it

cos

^ = ffcos/^ cos * sin *>


a
CI/

+ ^)cosflsin<j//2(sh;^
dt
9 ^ -^ = k" sin /i^ (cos sin d>) ag cos A sin $, 2
,
. .

it

dt*

a being the length of the rod and k

its

radius of gyration
inertia.

about an axis perpendicular to


216.

through the centre of

A body

possesses given motions of translation and rotait.

tion referred to a given point of

Find under what condition

the motion

may be

exhibited by rotation about a single axis, and

the equations to this axis


217.

when

the condition

is satisfied.

heavy straight rod


its

slides freely over a

smooth peg.

Show

that the equations to

motion are
2
.

dh
dt*

fd0\ \dt)

and
where
r

dt

] {

(r2

k2 )

dt

\
)

= gr cos, 0,

and

are coordinates of the centre of inertia reckoned


line.
is

from the peg and a horizontal


218.
ellipse

smooth wire of given mass


laid
is

bent into the form of an


;

and

given weight

upon a smooth horizontal table an insect gently laid on the wire and crawls along
elliptic

of
it.

Find the path described by the centre of the


trace
it

wire and

on the

table.

219.

The

effect of

an earthquake being assumed


in a

to

be a sud-

den horizontal displacement

given direction of every body

2i8
fixed to

RIGID DYNAMICS.
the surface of
the earth, explain
in the half of a

the nature of

the

motion caused by the shock


stone column which
diagonally,
is

uniform cylindrical

cut off

by a plane bisecting the cylinder


base upon a fixed horizontal
at

and which

rests with its

plane, friction being supposed the


220. pulses,
If a rigid

same

every point.

body

initially at rest
is

be acted on by given im-

whose

resultant

a single impulse,

show

that the axis of

instantaneous rotation will be perpendicular to the direction of


that resultant.
221.

circular disc rolls

down

a rough curve in a vertical

plane.

If the initial

and

final positions of

the centre of the disc


is

be given, show that when the time of motion


sible

the least pos-

the curve on which

the

disc rolls

is

an involute of a

cycloid.

222.

circular ring
it

is

free to

move on

smooth horizontal
its

plane on which

lies,

and an uniform rod has

extremities
ring.

connected with and movable on the smooth arc of the

The system being

set in

motion on the plane, show that the


is

angular velocity of the rod


of the centres of the rod

constant, and describe the paths

and

ring.

223.

wheel whose centre of gravity does not coincide with


is

the centre of the figure

allowed to

roll

down an
If
//

inclined
incli-

plane which

is

so rough as to prevent sliding.

be the

nation of the plane, a the radius of the wheel,


its

the distance of
/

centre of inertia from the centre of the figure, and


its

the

radius of gyration of the wheel about an axis through


of inertia perpendicular to
its

centre

plane,

show
7,
is

that

when
to

the wheel

has rolled from rest through an angle

the resistance exerted

by the plane cither equals zero or


being given by the equation,
[tan a tan

normal

the

plane, 7

.]

+ hf +

/,-

- a- + a-f
J

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
224.

219
is

sphere on a smooth horizontal plane

placed in con-

tact with a

rough vertical plane which

is

made

to revolve with a
in itself. If

uniform angular velocity w about a vertical axis


be the
initial

distance of the point of contact from the axis,


t,

r the distance after a time

and

the radius of the sphere,

prove that 2 r = (a + c^l)e"'^ + (rt-cV|)tT w<v/ *.


as
/

Also show that


friction

increases

indefinitely,
1
:

the

ratio

of

the

to

the

pressure approximates to
225.

V35.

A free

plane lamina receives a single blow perpendicular


that
(i) if

to its plane.

Show

the locus of points where the blow


line,

may have been


will

applied be a straight

the spontaneous axis


if

pass through a determinate point,

(ii)

the locus be a

circle (centre C), the

spontaneous axis

will

be a tangent to an

ellipse

whose axes are

in the direction of the principal axes at

in the

plane of the lamina.


sphere, in contact with two fixed rough planes, rolls

226.

down under
which

the action of gravity.

If 2 a

be the angle between

the planes which are equally inclined to the horizon, and with
their line of intersection

makes an angle
is

j3,

show

that the
to

acceleration of the centre of the sphered


5 sin
2

uniform and equal

sin /3 v 5 sin

cr.
'

227.

Three equal smooth spheres are placed

in contact,

each

with the other two, on a smooth horizontal plane, and connected


at

the points of contact.

fourth equal sphere


three.

is

then placed

so as to be supported

by the other

Supposing the con-

nections between the three spheres suddenly destroyed,


that the pressure between the fourth sphere

show
of the

and each

other three

is

suddenly diminished by one-seventh.

Also deter-

mine the subsequent motion.


228.

sphere

is

placed upon two smooth equal spheres held


rest

in contact,

and these

on a smooth horizontal plane


if

in the

position of equilibrium.

Show

the spheres be

left to

them-

220
selves, the

RIGID DYNAMICS.
pressure on the upper sphere
its
is

instantaneouslv

diminished to six-sevenths of
229.

former amount.
table.
If

A plane lamina lies on a smooth horizontal


it

one

point of
line

be constrained
table,

to

move uniformly along

a straight

on the

show

that the lamina will revolve about the

point with uniform angular velocity, and determine the magni-

tude and direction of the force of constraint at any time.


230.

sphere has an angular velocity about a horizontal


falls

diameter and

upon a rough,

inelastic

board which

is

moving

uniformly in a horizontal plane

in

the direction of this diameter.

Find the
231.

initial

direction of the motion

and

its

path afterwards.

If the velocities of

two given points

of a rigid

body be

given in magnitude and direction, determine the velocity of any


other point in the body.
232.

Prove that any motion of a rigid rod

may be

represented
of axes,

by a single rotation about any one of an

infinite

number

and

find the locus of these axes.

233.

A A

free ellipsoid

is

struck a blow normal to


is

its

surface.

Show
234.

that, in general, there

no axis of spontaneous

rotation.

free rigid

body

is

at a certain
its

moment

in a state of

rotation about an axis through

centre of inertia,

when another
axis

point in the body suddenly becomes fixed.


are

Prove that there


for

three

directions

of

the

original

instantaneous
it,

which the new instantaneous

axis will be parallel to

and that

these directions are along conjugate diameters of the momenta!


ellipsoid at the centre of inertia.

235.

little
is

squirrel clings to a thin

rough hoop, of which


a

the

plane

vertical

and

is

rolling along

perfectly rough

horizontal plane.

The

squirrel

makes

a point of keeping a con-

stant altitude above the horizontal plane and selects his place

on the hoop so as

to travel

from a position of instantaneous rest,


Prove that
;//

the greatest possible distance in a given time.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
being the weight of the squirrel and
inclination of the squirrel's distance
to the vertical
is

221

tri

that of the hoop, the


of the

from the centre


-.

hoop

equal to cos -1 n

\m + 2m')

236.
tal

A
;

rough homogeneous sphere


a heavy inelastic

rests

on a rough horizon-

plane

beam

sliding through

two smooth
order

rings in the

same

vertical line falls

upon

it

from a given height.


beam,
sphere
in

Find the position of the sphere


that the angular velocity

relatively to the
to the

communicated

may be

the greatest possible.


237.

Two

equal uniform rods, freely jointed together at one


each, are at rest on a smooth horizontal plane.
at

extremity of

Find the point


system
238.

which either must be struck

in order that the

may

begin to

move
is

as

if it

were

rigid.

heavy beam

placed with one end on a smooth


If the verti-

inclined plane

and

is left

to the action of gravity.

cal plane constraining the

plane, find the

beam be perpendicular to the inclined motion of the beam and the pressure on the

plane
239.

when

a given angle has been turned through.

disc rolls

upon a

straight line on a horizontal plane,

the disc moving with

its flat

surface in contact with the plane.

Show

that the disc will be brought to rest after a time

64 fi

where v

is

the

initial velocity of

the centre, and


table.

/z

the coefficient

of friction

between the disc and the


rigid

240.
in

Determine how a free


it

body

at rest

must be struck

order that
241.

may

rotate about a fixed axis.


is

A uniform

bar

constrained to

move with

its

extremities

on two fixed rods

at right angles to

each other, and

is

under the

action of an attraction varying as the distance from, and tending


to,

the point of intersection of the rods.

Determine the time of

a small oscillation
position of rest.

when

the bar

is

slightly displaced

from the

222
242.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

heavy cycloid, the radius

of

whose generating

circle

4 with
is

is

mounted

so as to admit of sliding in a vertical plane


it

its

base always horizontal and so that every point of

moves
zontal.

in a straight line, inclined at

an angle of 45
over
so
if

to the hori-

uniform, smooth, heavy chain of length a and mass


cycloid
is
is

equal to

that of the

laid

it

as

to

be

in

equilibrium

when
of

the cycloid

supported;

the support be

suddenly removed, find the tension at any point at the com-

mencement

motion and show that

it

is

maximum

at a

distance from the vertex given by the equation


8
7T

a =(96

- ^-)s -

32

VO - s
2

2
).

243.
inertia
;

body

is

turning about an axis through

its

centre of
If the

a point in the body suddenly

becomes

fixed.

new

instantaneous axis be a principal axis with respect to the point,

show

that the locus of the point

is

a rectangular hyperbola.

244.
to
it

uniform rod of mass

in

and length

2 a has attached
b.

a particle of

mass/ by
is

a string of length

The

rod and

string are placed in a straight line on a

smooth horizontal plane,

and the

particle

projected with velocity v at right angles to

the string.

Prove that the greatest angle which the string makes


is

with the rod

2 sin"

12 b

and that the angular velocity & 3


245.

at the instant is

v
a

+b

rough sphere

is

projected on a rough horizontal plane

and moves under an acceleration tending to a point in the plane and varying as the distance from that point. Show that the
centre of the sphere will describe an ellipse, and find
its

com-

ponent angular velocities


246.

in

terms of the time.


rods,

Three equal uniform

AB, BC, CD,

freely jointed

together at

and

C, are lying in a

straight line on a

smooth

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
horizontal plane and a given impulse
of
is

223

applied at the midpoint

BC

at right angles to

BC

Determine the velocity of

BC
and
with

when each

of the other rods

makes an angle

with

it,

prove that the directions of the stresses at

and

C make

BC angles
247.

equal to tan _1 (| tan

0).

Three equal uniform straight lines, AB, BC, CD, freelyjointed together at B and C, are placed in a straight line on a
smooth horizontal plane and one of the outside rods receives a
given impulse in a direction perpendicular to
midpoint.
its

length at
the

its

Compare the subsequent

stresses

on

hinges

with the impulse given to the rod.


248.

homogeneous

right
co

circular

cylinder of

radius

a,
its

rotating with angular velocity


axis horizontal

about

its axis, is

placed with
its

on a rough inclined plane so that


it

rotation

tends to

move

up the plane.

If a

be the inclination of the

plane to the horizontal and tan a the coefficient of friction, show


that the axis of the cylinder will remain stationary during a

period
1

T=
2
<f

and that
equal to
i
*.

its

angular velocity at any time

sin a
is

j during 4.1. this period

2rf _^ sin
a

249.
radius.
I.

hoop

is

hung upon
is
is

a horizontal cylinder of given

Determine the time

of a small oscillation

II.

When When

the cylinder
the cylinder

rough.

smooth.

250.

Prove the following equations for determining the mo-

tion of a rigid

body whose principal moments of

inertia at the

centre of inertia are equal

=
G
it,

dt

v0a 3

2O0 O etc., 2
,

= -1
A
dt
co

(i)o0 3 2 *

+ (0o0o, 3
l

etc.

v,

:o

being the velocities of the centre of inertia parallel to

the three axes

moving
V

in space,
2, Z

about these axes,

v a> 2 co s the angular velocities the angular velocities of these axes


,

about fixed axes instantaneously coincident with them, X, Y,

224

RIGID DYNAMICS.

the resolved forces, L,

M,
and

N their
A
its

G the
axis

mass

of the body,

moments about the axes, moment of inertia about any


and length
of
2

through the centre of

inertia.

251.
to
it

uniform rod of mass

a has attached
length
/;

a particle of

mass

f>

by means
is

a string of

the rod and string are placed in one straight line on a smooth
horizontal plane, and the particle

projected with a velocity

v at right angles to the string.

Prove, then,

when

the rod

and string make angles

6,

cf)

with their

initial positions,

{& + ab cos(0 -6)X^-+\b* + ab cos(<f> - 0)1^ = {a + b)v,


\dt)
vr
f

dt

dt
^
3
?;

\dt)

where
252.

ft

= a2

^+
IP

sphere of radius a
roll

is

projected on a rough horizontal


to slide.
&>

plane so as partly to

and partly

If

the

initial

velocity of translation be v, the initial rotation

about a hori<c

zontal axis, and the direction of the former

make an angle

with the axis of the

latter,

show

that the angle through which

the direction of motion of the centre has turned,


rolling begins,
is

when

perfect

tan"
1

-i

2 aco cos a
5
i'

2 au> sin a

homogeneous sphere roll on a perfectly rough plane under the action of any forces whatever, of which the resultant
253.
If a

passes through the centre of the sphere, the motion of the centre
of inertia will be the

same

as

if

the plane were smooth and


;

all

the forces were reduced in a certain constant ratio

and the

plane
254.

is

the only surface which possesses this propert}

smooth ring of mass


Determine the velocity
it

;;/

slides

on a uniform rod of

mass M.
rod which

of the ring at

any point

of the

reaches, no impressed forces being supposed to act.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
If

225
rod, the

when

the ring
its

is

distant c
is

from the centre of the

angle at which

path

inclined to the instantaneous position


]

of the rod be greater than cot -1


will

-\

show

that

it

never reach the centre of the rod, k 2 being the radius of


its

gyration of the rod about


255.

centre.

A
c,

uniform rod of weight

W and length
fine vertical
c

is

supported
of

in a horizontal position

by two

threads, each

length

and each

is

attached at a distance
is

from the centre


of a

of the rod.

The rod

slightly displaced
is

by the action

horizontal couple

whose moment

bW, and which does not


line.

move

the centre of the rod out of a vertical

Show

that the

time of a small oscillation of the rod will be

256.

circular lamina, rotating about an axis through the


its

centre perpendicular to
tion

plane,

is

placed in an inclined posi-

on a smooth horizontal plane.

Give a general explanation


principles,
will

of the motion

deduced from dynamical

and show that


fall

under certain circumstances the lamina


ground, but that
its

never

to the

centre will perform vertical oscillations, the

time of an oscillation beins:

being the inclination of the lamina to the horizon at


its

first,

radius,

and

to its

angular velocity.
a smooth horizontal plane,

257.

A beam rests with one end on


beam and

and has the other suspended from a point above the plane by a
weightless, inextensible string; the

beam

is

slightly displaced in
oscil-

the plane of
lation.

string.

Find the time of a small

226
2 5 8.

RIGID DYNAMICS.
Find the condition that a free
rigid

body

in

motion

may

be reduced to rest by a single blow.


259.

perfectly rough horizontal plane

is

made

to rotate

with constant angular velocity about a vertical axis which meets


the plane in O.

sphere

is

projected on the plane at a point

P so
in

that the centre of the sphere has initially the

same

velocity

direction

and magnitude as
at a point Q.

if

the sphere had been placed

freely

on the plane

Show

that the sphere's centre

will describe a circle of radius

that

OR

is

parallel

OQ, and whose centre and equal to OP.

is

such

260.

If a free rigid

body be struck with a given impulse, and


initially at rest after

any point of the body be


dition that this

the blow, show

that a line of points will also be at rest, and determine the con-

may

be the case in a body previously at

rest.

261.
inertia

free rigid

body

of

mass

111

is

at rest, its
its

moments

of

about the principal axes through


C.
its
it

centre of inertia

being A, B,

Supposing the body


will

to

be struck with an impulse

through

centre of inertia, and with an impulsive couple G,


revolve for an instant about an axis whose

prove that
velocity
is

in the direction of its

length and equal to

LX MY NZ
Am
I? A*
X,
Y,

Bui
J/-

Cm
.V- x
'

B2

being the components of R, and L,

MN
t

the com-

ponents of G, in the principal planes.


262.
latter

sphere with a sphere within

it,

the diameter of the


is

being equal to the radius of the former,

placed on a
its

perfectly rough inclined plane, with the centre of inertia at

shortest distance from the plane, and

is

then
it

left to itself.

Find

the angular velocity of the body

when

has rolled round just

once, and determine the pressure then upon the plane.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
263.

227

Two

equal rods of the same material are connected by a

free joint

plane

and placed in one straight line on a smooth horizontal one of them is struck perpendicularly to its length at its

extremity remote from the other rod.


velocity

Show

that
is

the

linear

communicated
blow

to its

centre

of inertia

one-fourth
it

greater than that which would have been communicated to

by a
In

similar

if

the rod had been free.

the

subsequent motion show that the minimum angle


is

which the rods make with one another


264.

cos" 1 ^.

AB, BC,

CD
is

are three equal uniform rods lying in a


at

straight line on a

smooth horizontal plane, and freely jointed


applied at the midpoint of BC.

and

a blow

Show

that

if co

be the

initial

angular velocity of

AB

or

CD, 6 the angle

which they make with

BC at
dd
dt

time

/,

=
l

co

V( +

sin 2 #)'

'

265.

A
is
it

lamina of any form lying on a smooth horizontal

plane

struck a horizontal blow.


will

Determine the point about


if
c, c'

which

begin to turn, and prove that

be the

dis-

tances from the centre of inertia of the lamina of this point and
of the line of action of the

blow respectively,^'

= k2

where k

is

the radius of gyration of the lamina about the vertical line

through
266.

its

centre of inertia.

circular lamina

whose surface

is

rough

is

capable of

revolution about a vertical axis through


to its plane,

its

centre perpendicular

and a
If the

particle

lamina

is

attached to

whose mass is equal to that of the the axis by an inelastic string and rests on
in its

the lamina.

lamina be struck a blow

own

plane,

determine the motion.

whose wheels are equal and body horizontal is proceeding steadily along a level rough road. Obtain equations for determining the instantaneous impulses on the machine
267.

bicycle

when
angle

the front wheel


6.

is

suddenly turned through a horizontal

228

RIGID DYNAMICS.
that the initial

Show

horizontal angular velocity

is

propor-

tional to the original velocity.

268.

The

radii of the portions of a horizontal differential axle

of weight

W are a

and
is

b,

and
W.

their lengths are b


If the

and

a.

The
reit

suspended weight
through

also

balancing power be

moved and the weight be allowed


will fall

to fall,

show that

in time

("-? wP & Z(a-bf + 2ab


269.

Show how

to

determine the angular velocities of a


of

rotating mass

by observations
its

the instantaneous

direction

cosines of points on
lar

surface referred to three fixed rectangu;

axes,

and

their time rates of increase


?

i.e.

dt

etc.

How

many such
270.

observations are necessary

sphere composed of an
is

infinite

number

of infinitely

thin concentric shells


forces.

rotating about a

common

axis

under no

Assuming
one
at

that the friction of any shell on the consecu-

tive external

any point varies as the square of the angular


of the point
2
r, co

velocity

and the distance

from the

axis,

obtain the

equation

kr

rco

for the angular velocity at

any

time of shell of radius


equation
is

and show that the solution


),

of this

t^w

=/{

where/ is an

arbitrary function.

271.
a

Qgg with its axis horizontal is rolling steadily round rough vertical cone of semi-vertical angle a. The shape,

An

weight,

moment

of inertia, etc., of the

egg being known,

find

the friction acting, and the time of completing a circuit.


272.

A vertical, double,
a.

elastic,

wire helix
is

is

rigidlv attached at
0 retain

one end to a horizontal bar, mass J I, and


the

constrained

same radius

\m additional
c.

When in equilibrium the tangent angle is a. weight Mgd or a torsion couple MgaO, can alter
t

into a

0.

If

the bar be depressed, and consequently turned

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
through an angle, show that the time of a small oscillation
be 2t7\
N
{

229
will

(cos a

+ sin a)
3

>
)

where
m

and

na are the lengths

of

the helix and the bar respectively.


275.

Four

equal, smooth, inelastic, circular discs of radius a

are placed in one plane with their centres at the four corners
of a square of

which each side

= 2 a.

They

attract
is

one another

with a force varying as the distance.


of

A blow

given to one

them

in

the line of one of the diagonals of the square.

Investigate the whole of the subsequent motion.


274.

and

are two points in a uniform rod equidistant

from

its

centre.
is

The hinge
line.

The rod can move freely about a hinge at P. constrained to move up and down in a vertical

If the

motion be such that

Q moves

in a horizontal line,

determine the velocity when the rod has any given inclination,
the rod being supposed to start from rest in a horizontal position.

In the case in which the whole length of the rod

=PQs/$
.

show that the time


275.

of a complete oscillation

is

(2 of

-2 7r)f (T^)

circular

and a semicircular lamina


material,

equal radii a

are

made

of the

same
is

which

is

perfectly rough.

Their

centres are joined by a tight inelastic cord; also the centre of


the circular lamina
circular lamina

joined to the highest point of the semistring of length

by a

aV$.

The

semicircular

lamina stands with

its

base on a perfectly rough, inelastic plane.

The
and

circular lamina rests


in

on the top of the semicircular lamina


it.

the same vertical plane with

It is

disturbed from
it

its

position of equilibrium.

Prove that just after

has struck the

plane

its

angular velocity

= "Vl^-

)-

2/6.
ity,

A uniform rod,

capable of free motion about one extremit

has a particle attached to

at the other extremity


is

by means
to

of a string of length /

and the system


the rod
is

abandoned freely

the action of gravity

when

inclined at an angle to

230

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

the horizon and the string

vertical.

Prove that the radius of


is

curvature of the particle's

initial
*

path

9/

;;/ -
1.

+2p

cos 3 -a
.

sin(2

3 sin2 a)'
is

m and/
277.

being the masses of the rod and particle respectively.


a

To
c,

smooth horizontal plane


is

fastened a hoop of
friction.

radius

which

rough

inside,

/x

being the coefficient of


is

In contact with this a disc of radius a


lar velocity

spun with

initial

angu-

n and

its

centre

is

projected with velocity v in such

a direction as to be most retarded a time


fj,

by

friction.

Show

that after

-=

"^ the disc will roll on the inside of

arvanfc*

the hoop.
278.

An

elephant

rolls a

inches and mass


/3

directly

homogeneous sphere of diameter a up a perfectly rough plane inclined


at a point distant

to the horizon,

by balancing himself

from

the sphere's highest point at each instant.

Show

that, the

elephant being conceived as without magnitude but of mass E,

he

will

move

the sphere through a space


f~2
'

g
a
'

ifsin a (E+S)s'ml3

Ecos(a + /3)+E+^S'
commencement
of the

where
motion.
279.

is

the time elapsed since the

circular disc of

mass

M and

radius r can

move about
fine

a fixed point
is

in its circumference,
it

and an endless
;;/,

string

wound round

carrying a particle of mass

which

is initially

projected from the disc at the other end of the diameter through

A, with a velocity v normally to the

disc,

which

is

then at

rest.

Show

that the angular velocity of the string will vanish

when

the length of the string

unwound
(3

is

that which initially sub-

tended

at the point

an angle

given by the equation


3

(/3tan/3+i)cos2 /3+

= m

o,

and that the angular velocity of the

disc

is

then --(2+/3 tan/S)

'-

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
280.

231

uniform rod
the

which

is fixed,

AB can turn freely about the end A, end B being attached to the point C, distant c
elastic string

vertically
to

above A, by an
its

which would be stretched

double

length by a tension equal to the weight of the rod.


in equilibrium

If the rod

be

when

horizontal and be slightly


its

displaced in a vertical plane, prove that the period of


oscillations
is

small

v(
b, is

)>

where p

is

the stretched length of the

string in equilibrium.
281.

A
it

hollow cylinder, of which the exterior and interior

radii are a

and

perfectly rough inside


c.

and

outside,

and has

inside
in

a rough solid cylinder of radius

When
table,

the two are

motion on a perfectly rough horizontal

prove that

where

M and

are the masses of the hollow and the solid

cylinder respectively,

the

angle the

hollow cylinder

has

turned through, and 6 the angle which the plane containing


their axes

makes with the


string of length

vertical after the time


c,

/.

282.

fixed at

one end,

is

tied to a

uniform

lamina at a point distant b from the centre of


centre of inertia
is

inertia.

The
plane

initially at

the greatest possible distance


to
it

from the

fixed point

and has a velocity v given


to the string.
is

in the

of the lamina

and perpendicular

Prove that when


a

the angle between the string and line b

maximum, the

angular velocity of the lamina


string
is

is

and the tension of the


JrC
2

775

mv2c

K-775

2c(b+c)
.,
,

MK

being the greatest

moment

of inertia of the lamina at the centre of inertia.

283.

In a circular lamina which rests on a smooth horizontal


its

t.ble

and which can turn freely about


is cut.

centre,

which

is fixed,

a circular groove

If a

heavy

particle

be projected along

the groove, supposed rough, with given velocity, find the time
ii

which the
(ii)

particle will

make

a complete revolution

(i)

in

space,

relatively in the groove.

232
284.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

Four equal

rods,

each of mass

and length

/,

are con-

nected by smooth joints at their extremities so as to form a

rhombus.

constant force tnf

is

applied to each rod at


length,

its

middle point, and perpendicular to


ing outwards.
If

its

each force tend-

the equilibrium of the system be slightly

disturbed by pressing two opposite corners towards each other,

and the system be then abandoned

to the action of the forces,

show

that the time of a small oscillation in the


is

form

of the

system
285.

2it\\[

-J.

spherical shell of radius a and mass

m
of

rolls

along a

rough horizontal plane, whilst a smooth particle


lates within the shell in the vertical

plane in

mass P oscilwhich the centre


from the
be the
)

of the shell moves, the particle never being very far

lowest point.

Show
\,

that the time of

its oscillation will


2

same
\(m

as that of a simple

+ P)a2 + mk2

pendulum of length = ma {a + k2 -=where k is the radius of gyration of the

shell about a diameter.

286.

solid cylinder with projecting screw-thread is freely


its

movable about
with
a

axis

fixed vertically,

and a hollow cylinder


it

corresponding groove works freely about

without

friction.

Find the moment of the couple which must act on


its

the solid cylinder in a plane perpendicular to


that the hollow cylinder
287.

axis in order

may have no
from
rest

vertical motion.
/ of

sphere

rolls

down a given length

rough inclined plane, and then traverses a smooth part of the


plane of length
;///.

Find the impulse which the sphere sustains

when

perfect rolling again commences, and


is

show

that the subif

sequent velocity

less

than

it

would have been

the whole
;//

plane had been rough.

In the particular case when


less

120,

show
in

that the velocity

is

than

it

would otherwise have been

the ratio of 67 to 77.


288.

A rough

sphere

is

placed upon a rough horizontal plane

which revolves uniformly about a vertical axis; the centre of

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
the sphere the
is

233

attracted to a point in the axis of rotation,

and

in

same

horizontal plane with itself by a force varying as the

distance.

Determine the motion.


heavy uniform beam

289.
vertical

AB

is

capable of rotating in a
its

plane about a fixed axis passing through


is

middle
If

point C, and

inclined to the vertical at an angle of 6o.

a perfectly elastic ball fall

upon

it

from a given height,

find

how long
again.
290.

a time will elapse before the ball strikes the

beam

sphere rests on a rough horizontal plane, half


elastic

its

weight being supported by an


highest point of the sphere
is
;

string attached to the

the natural length of the string

equal to the radius and the stretched length to the diameter


If the

of the sphere.
vertical plane,

sphere be slightly displaced parallel to a


of an oscillation
is

show that the time

""vf-^ )

291.

uniform heavy rod, movable about

its

middle points,
elastic strings,

has

its

extremities connected with a point


is

by

the natural length of each of which

equal to the length

AB.

Find the period


292.

of its small oscillations.


is in
is

squirrel

a cylindrical cage and oscillating with


horizontal.

it

about

its axis,

which

At

the instant

when he

is

at

the highest point of the oscillation, he leaps to the opposite

extremity of the diameter and arrives there at the same instant


as the point which he
293.
left.

Determine

his leap completely.

perfectly rough sphere rolls on the internal surface

of a fixed cone,

whose

axis

is

vertical

and vertex downwards.


its

Prove that the angular velocity about

vertical diameter

is

always the same and that the projection on a horizontal plane


of the radius vector of
its

centre,

measured from the

axis,

sweeps

out areas proportional to the times.

Show

also that the polar

equation to the projection on a horizontal plane of the path of


the centre
is
/

(fi/i

5^ sin

cos

2 cy cos

234

RIGID DYNAMICS.
is

where

the semi-vertical

angle, 7

the

constant angular
is

velocity about the vertical diameter,

and h

half the area

swept out by the radius vector


294.
table,
its

in a unit of time.

A thin

circular disc

is

set rotating
its

on a smooth horizontal

about a vertical axis through


<o

centre perpendicular to

plane, with angular velocity


v.

in a

wind blowing with uniform


frictional resistance
;;/

horizontal velocity

Supposing the

on a

small surface a at rest to be cvma, where


of

is

the mass of a unit


in

area,
ct

show that the angle turned through


),

any time

is

(1 e~
c
-i't

and that the centre


ct

of gravity

moves through

a space

-{\c~
c

).

Determine the same quantities for a

frictional

resistance
295.
ring, its

= cifima.
of length 2 a passes through a small fixed
to

A uniform rod
Show

upper end being constrained


that
if

move

in a horizontal

straight groove.

the rod be slightly displaced from

the position of equilibrium, the length of the isochronous simple

pendulum

will

be

',

where

is

the distance of th e ring

from the groove.


296.

homogeneous
its

solid

of

revolution spins with great


is

rapidity about

axis of figure,

which

constrained to

move

in

the meridian.

Prove that the axis


its

will oscillate isochronouslv,

and determine
297.

positions of stable and unstable equilibrium.

wire in the form of the portion of the curve

ra{ +cos
1

0),

cut off by the


velocity
a>.

initial line,

rotates about the origin with angular

Show

that the tendency to break at a point

B=

is

measured by
length.
298.

^V^'W^o)2

where

>ti

is

the mass of a unit of

Show
is

that in every centrobaric

body the central

ellipsoid
?

of inertia

a sphere.

Is the converse of this proposition true

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
299.

235

uniform sphere

is

placed in contact with the exterior


Its centre is

surface of a perfectly rough cone.

acted on by a

force the direction of which always meets the axis of the cone
at right angles

and the intensity

of

which varies inversely as the


Prove that
its
if

cube of the distance from that

axis.

the sphere

be properly started the path described by

centre will meet


at the

every generating line of the cone on which


1 ansde.

it lies

same

300.

sphere of radius a
/

is

suspended from a fixed point by


to rotate
if

a string of length

and

is
co.

made

about a vertical axis


the string

with an angular velocity


oscillations about its

Prove that
position, the

make

small

mean

motion of the centre of

gravity will be represented by a series of terms of the form

Xcos

{kt

+ M),
{!k 2

where the several values

of

k are the roots

of the

equation
301.

g) (k 2 wk

\=

string of

body is attached to a fixed point by a weightless length /, which is connected with the body by a socket
rigid

(permitting the body to rotate freely without twisting the string)


at a point
inertia,

on

its

surface where an axis through


is

its

centre of
or a

about which the radius of gyration

maximum

minimum,
velocity
tight,
co

= k,

meets

it.

The body

is

set rotating with angular


is

about such axis placed vertically (the string, which

go,

making an angle a with the vertical), and being then let show that it will ultimately revolve with uniform angular

velocity

302.

Three equal uniform rods placed


If

in a straight line are

jointed to one another

by hinges, and move with a velocity v


the middle point of the
that the extremities of
fixed,

perpendicular to their lengths.

middle rod become suddenly

show
}

7r the other two will meet in time ^

a being the length of each

rod.

236
303.

RIGID DYNAMICS.

A
its

top in the form of a surface of revolution, with a


is

cir-

cular plane end,

set spinning

on a smooth horizontal plane


inclined at an angle a to the

about

axis of figure,
It is

which

is

vertical.

required to determine the motion and to show that


fall

the axis will begin to

or to rise according as

tan a

>

or

<

-,

where b
end.
304.

is

the radius of the circular plane end perpendicular to


is

the axis, and a

the distance of the centre of inertia from this

heavy uniform beam


fixed point

AB

of length a
is

is
;

capable of

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which

fixed

the end

is

suspended from a
length
c.

C by

a fine inextensible chain of


is

The system being

at rest

slightly disturbed.

Find

the time of a small oscillation, the weight of the chain being


neglected.

Examine the case


305.

in

which the

line

AC is

vertical.

perfectly rough sphere of radius a

moves on the con-

cave surface of a vertical cylinder of radius a

b,

and the centre


position after

of the sphere initially has a velocity v in a horizontal direction.

Show
a time

that the depth of


/ is
?_/>_ /)2/ t -^-#Yi

its

centre below the


-Vir>T-.^ where
j;~ n-

initial

u/\ cos;//),
r>rvc

=
2 7b

1- 2

Show

also that in order that perfect rolling

may

be main\2b1r

tained the coefficient of friction must not be less than


306.

heavy particle
is

slides clown the tube of

an Archi-

median screw, which


its

vertical

and capable of turning about

axis.

Determine the motion.

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EXPERIMENTAL
BY

PHYSICS.
McLENNAN,

W.

J.

LOUDON

and

J.

C.

Demonstrators

in Physics, University of Toronto.

Cloth.

8vo.

pp. 302.

$1.90 net.

FROM THE AUTHORS' PREFACE.


At the present day, when students are required nomena by performing experiments for themselves
that as his classes increase in
to gain

knowledge of natural phe-

in laboratories, every teacher finds

number, some difficulty is experienced in providing, during a limited time, ample instruction in the matter of details and methods. During the past few years we ourselves have had such difficulties with large classes; and that is our reason for the appearance of the present work, which is the natural

outcome of our experience. We know that it will be of service to our own students, and hope that it will be appreciated by those engaged in teaching Experimental
Physics elsewhere.

dents

The book contains a series of elementary experiments specially adapted for stuwho have had but little acquaintance with higher mathematical methods: these
There
is

are arranged, as far as possible, in order of difficulty.

also

course of experimental work in Acoustics, Heat, and Electricity

an advanced and Magnetism,

which

is

intended

for

those

who have taken

the elementary course.

and of such a nature that the most of them can be performed by beginners in the study of Physics; those in Heat, although not requiring more than an ordinary acquaintance with Arithmetic, are more tedious and apt to test the patience of the experimenter; while the course in Electricity and Magnetism has been arranged to illustrate the fundamental laws of the mathematical theory, and involves a good working knowledge of the Calculus.
in Acoustics are simple,

The experiments

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY,


66 FIFTH

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK.

14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATlCJThis book


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below, or

on the date to which renewed. Renewed books are subject to immediate recalj^ s_

FEB 2 1

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General Library University of California Berkeley

LD

21-50-6,'59

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