Bath. Stat.
GIFT OF
Charles L. Johnson
Oi
CX
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON
RIGID DYNAMICS
mm
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE
ON
RIGID
DYNAMICS
BY
W.
J.
LOUDON,
B.A.
" ixrjSh/
dyav
"
Ncto ffork
Copyright, 1895,
Bv
MACMILLAN AND
CO.
Set
1896.
1896.
Reprinted July,
Math. Stat*
GIFT
NortooolJ Prrss
J. S.
Cuahing \ Co.
Bern
ick
.v
Smith
MATH..
STAT.
PREFACE.
This elementary
treatise
few years,
It is
to
advanced classes
in the
University.
Calculus
Particle
the methods of
motion of a
solid
body.
to the exhaustive
Although indebted
Price for
many
arrangement of the work, method of treatment, and more particularly the illustrations, are entirely
new and
original
and
fundamen
but will also point out to them the road along which
in
complex motions of a material system which have their culminating point in the region of Physical Astronomy.
My
J.
C.
proofsheets
and supplied
me
W.
with a large
LOUDON.
19, 1895.
870
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Moments
of Inertia
I.
PAGE
I
Illustrative
Examples
II
CHAPTER
II.
Vlll
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Axis.
Centre of Percussion
Illustrative
Initial
V.
PAGE
Impulsive Forces
70
72
Examples
74 78
78
S5
Motions.
Changes of Constraint
Illustrative
Examples
The
Ballistic
Pendulum
CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Point.
Angular Velocity
General Equations of Motion
VI.
88 88
Finite Forces
Motion
.... ....
in
.
98
100
101
105
Space
Examples
......
CHAPTER
VII.
109
1
11
Top spinning on a Rough Horizontal Plane Top spinning with Great Velocity on a Rough Horizontal Plane The Gyroscope moving in a Horizontal Plane about a Fixed Point
12
120 128
Impulsive Forces
134
137
Examples
CHAPTER
Motion about a Fixed Point.
VIII.
No
Forces acting
140
CHAPTER
Motion of a Free Body
Illustrative
.
IX.
145
Examples
148
Impulsive Actions
Illustrative
156
158
Examples
CONTENTS.
ix
CHAPTER
The Gyroscope
X.
PAGE
162
its
To
Axis
166
168 169
171
172
177
RIGID DYNAMICS.
oO^JOO
CHAPTER
MOMENTS OF
i.
I.
INERTIA.
Body
it
manner
similar to that
particle,
will
be found that
certain
new
quantities
appear,
which
which
it
may be moving
some
These
quantities
are
called
Moments of
Inertia
and
Products of Inertia.
line is
denned
to be the
moment of inertia of a body about any sum of the products of all the material
disIt
line.
is
may be denoted
in general
by the
and when /
MK
2
,
where
is
When
the body
is
moments
A=Sm(y + s
B = tm(a2 +x
2
),
C=Sm(x2 +y2
(x,
),
y, z),
and the
product of inertia
is
at right angles to
RIGID DYNAMICS.
the body.
Products
of inertia exist in
and
D=%myz, E=%mzx,
3.
F=*!)uxy.
of
It is
evident that
is
m
;
is
examples
will serve to
may
will
may be
usually
much
simplified.
Illustrations of finding
Moments of
Inertia by Integration,
dicular to
at
one end.
a,
Here,
if
p,
X2a px2dx=M
(b)
a ~3~
through
its
midpoint perpendicular to
plane.
In Fig.
1,
let
OA = r, OCA=0, OCB=u;
then the
moment
perpenis
BOD
A.
2pds
/~
where ds
an
at
MOMENTS OF
*
INERTIA.
a (i
^V
(c)
An
Fie. 2.
In Fig.
2,
we have
I about
OY=4y
/about
fa
Similarly,
b OX=M
And / about
evidently be 3
a line through
2
Ma + 4
For a
(d)
circular plate a
= b.
a, 2 b.
By
it
will
be seen that
/about
and
Also,
plate
is
side
2a = zl m
./
4b 2\
\
M4
b2
,
/about
side 2 b
= ^(wf) = M^.
/ about
2
M^(a + b 2
4
{c)
RIGID DYNAMICS.
triangular plate.
ABC, and
choosing
as origin of coordi
CA,
CB
be the axes.
AC, an elemental mass at (x, y) is equal to pdxdy sin C, p being the density. The distances of this element from AC, BC, and the point C are x sin C, y sin C, and
strips parallel to
px2
sin 3
Cdxdy,
n
and / about a
line
(ax)
a
2 3 py sin Cdxdy,
through
(oas)
C perpendicular
to the triangle
= 11
These integrals can
inertia expressed in
easily
(/)
Fig. 3.
MOMENTS OF
dx, as in Fig.
3,
INERTIA.
we have
=2^.p irfdx
I about a diameter
= pir
1/2
(a 2
x2 2 dx=M~l a 2
)
(g)
A right
Fig. 4.
strips,
perpendicular to
its
we
have,
if
a be
its
height,
I=^ipiry2
dx
a
and
bx
it
..
I=7TP
2 a* J
i = 3f^ f X dx _^3i? 10
5.
but
known
6.
moments
and products of
process becomes
will
tedious for
many
bodies
be found use
determination,
position of the
centre of inertia.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Proposition
I.
of a rigid body about any axes with moments and products of inertia about parallel axes through the centre of inertia.
Fig. 5.
of Fig. 5 represent
parallel
perthis
axes, of
plane in the point O, and the other passing through the centre
of inertia cuts
it
in G.
Then
7' 2
for
any point
in this plane,
we
have
r2 =p 2 +
+ 2pGM.
Hence
for the
=tm/P+tmr' 2 +2p
tmGM
tmGMO.
= Mp 2 + Smr'
Or, as
it
2
,
since
may be
written
I=Iu + Mp\
where /
is
the
moment
of inertia about
any
axis,
and TQ and
is is
that
inertia,
the
MOMENTS OF
INERTIA.
we
O =I G +3fa2
f
and
= lG + I\Ib
)
y
2
,
I=I'+M(a 1 b 2
where
If
OG = a,
happens
Also,
if
0'G = b.
00'
,
to be in the line
this relation
is
much
sim
plified.
O'G
is
at right angles to
00', then
i=r+M(oo')
which relation
bodies.
It is
is
2
.
sometimes useful
in
all
straight
of
lines
moment
inertia
inertia.
Fig. 6.
similar
results
may
be
Thus,
if
we
8
to
RIGID DYNAMICS.
any two coordinate planes
of a body, let parallel planes
inertia.
be
Then,
if
P
(x,
two
sets are
we must have
for
vixy = 
'.
S mxy = Imx'y' +
II.
pq.
Proposition
inertia about
moment of
equal
to
plane
is
the
For
Proposition
about any
line,
moment of inertia of a body knowing the moment and products of inertia rectangular axes drawn through some point on
the
To find
In Fig. 7
let
let
and
ON any line
drawn
from O, inclined
7 to the axes.
perpendicular to
j<
Then /about
and
2 2
ON=1mPN PN being
2
,
OX,
PX = OP  0X =
2
(.v
cos
{3
+ c cos y) a
o.
(.r
+ y2 + s2
(cos 2
+ z cos y) 2
= 0' 2 +  2 )cos 2 a+
.".
f=m\(y 2 >rs 2
cos 2 H
MOMENTS OF
INERTIA.
Fig. 7.
D cos /3cos7
/3,
B,
D, E,
planes.
In this expression,
it
will
be seen that
if
F vanish,
then
/= A
Axes
for
cos 2 a +
B cos 2 ft + C cos 2 7.
and A, B,
which
Principal
inspection.
Moments
Thus,
if
In
a
many
any point
is
a body be
And
it
may be
stated as a
IO
7.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
In
of
moment
;
of inertia is
body
but
it is
apparent
all
cases where
moments
the
first
Thus
in
that passing through the centre of inertia need not cut the
body
in
moment
of inertia about
it
any
will
lines
drawn
at the point
;
of the
lamina produced
of inertia about
any
line outside of a
line,
body
be known when
we know,
at
any
point on this
the
of inertia with
8.
Townsend's Theorem.
closed central curve, of any magnitude and form, beingin
its
plane not
circumference;
the
moment
of
inertia
with
its
area
is
/=J/(^ + 3 /,2 ))
where
and
M
the
is
arm length
of the
moment
its
centre.
dA be
I=2irp^L[(a + xfdA],
p being the density, and
.
x
[
a variable coordinate.
1=2 irpi
(<7*
MOMENTS OF
But, by the
centre,
INERTIA.
H
its
symmetry
of the
Illustrative
i.
Examples on Moments of
Inertia.
applying Proposition
III.,
we have
2
I=A
moments.
..
cos 2 6 +
Bsm
6,
principal
I=M 2
a 2 b2
Sa 2 + b 2
Apply
2.
Proposition
3.
of inertia of a rectangular
;
parallelo
also about a
The moment
is
cone about a
b
slant side
20
a 2 + b2
the radius
of the base.
5.
If
is
cylinder, the
r
moment
,.
...
M(a
is
Ytr\.
6.
The moment
of inertia of a
p, in
a,
about
its
axis
is
irp
(2
ax x2
2
)
Ix.
12
RIGID DYNAMICS.
7.
of inertia of
its
axis.
8.
The moments
of inertia of
,
an ellipsoid about
its
three axes
are
M5
M'
5
M5
To
up into
elliptic
plates, or
9.
(1)
To
moment
BC.
}Zt%Mzm%M^^^@mm>r j
jc
JR
a.
Fig. 8.
In Fig.
8,
y = B'C.
Then / about
(2)
BC= Zpydx
.r
=/)
f^
LrV.r = J/^.
About
Tj)= M ts
p*
f
f
BC.
(3)
About
a line through
parallel to
I=M r
MOMENTS OF
(4)
INERTIA.
13
About
median
line.
In Fig.
9,
BC, as
sin
y = B'C
Then
is
pydx
1
D,
and
its
moment
of inertia about
AD
is
pydx
sin
D
s
V sin 2 D.
12
Hence /
of triangle about
AD = ^2
r
dx,
and y =
ax
AD'
.:
Z=Ma
sin 2
24
(5)
About
triangle.
Use
moment
of inertia will
be found to be
b2
+ c2
About
a, b, c
4 V
(6)
3/
a line through the centre of inertia, perpendicular
/=^(, 2 4^2 + ^2
?
).
36
10.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
A A A
tangent at
its
vertex.
its
base.
diameter of
its
base.
14
ii.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
The moment
of inertia of
is
+c
For
a spherical shell
about a
I=M^a
2
.
ellipsoid
as
of
tricity
composed
of inertia
is
of
similar strata
its
moment
where a
about
polar axis
7rVi
2
J
A p\ dx,
x from
is
the centre.
known.
13.
The moment
its
of
inertia
is
of
,
a paraboloid
of
revolution
about
base.
14.
axis of figure
where
is
The moment
by
J/f x2 about
the tan
and
M about
v
is
the ordi
nate corresponding to
15.
x.
The
about
its
axis
is
Vtt f
4
(2)
about
is
Vtt + ;
4
(3)
about a tangent
the node
15
a 1 V7T. 4
16.
To
lamina bounded by a
it
through
its
cen
(Euler.)
= '^^
MOMENTS OF
17.
INERTIA.
15
To
sphere about
a diameter.
(Euler.)
o
2
5
a h b'
rt
#
radii.
To
cone about
its axis.
(Euler.)
10
a, b,
az b3
being the
19.
The moment
of
;/
of inertia of a lamina
bounded by a regular
its
polygon
sides,
centre perpendicular to
plane
is
_^i + 3 cotAnd
any
from this
it
moment
of inertia about
1+3
12 V
20.
cot 2
//
quantity of matter
a,
is
sphere of radius
sum
moments there
?
equal to 2
(a
).
What
CHAPTER
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
9.
II.
Ellipsoids of Inertia.
At any
point
in
rectangular axes
Describe with
c,
Fig.
10.
16
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
where A, B,
C,
AND PRINCIPAL
AXES.
\y
Then,
in
is
if
OJ be any
y
line
drawn from
moment
of
body about
OP
A
where
But
a, /3,
cos 2 + i5cos 2
/3
+ 6'cos 2 7
=/,
coordi
OP
nate axes.
if
r,
x, y, z,
if
OP =
And
we must
on the ellipsoid,
=c.
It*=Ax*+Bf+C
since this relation
is
OP, we see
that the
moment
of inertia about
any
line
drawn from
will
be
Any
such ellipsoid
is
called a
Momental
10.
If
Ellipsoid.
we
its
D, E,
might be found
figure,
And
it
may be
From
it
follows
moment
and
also
one of
least
a spheroid, the
moment if the ellipsoid degenerates into moments of inertia about all diameters perpensame
;
if
it
becomes
all
the
moments
of inertia about
lines
^
equal, a proposition
RIGID DYNAMICS.
which can be applied with advantage
to
moments
of inertia
about
all
lines
For a lamina,
at
cor
called the
Momental
Ellipse of
Illustrative Examples.
1.
To
a cube.
Taking the edges as axes, A=B=C, DE=F, and the equation for the momental ellipsoid becomes
A (x
+j>2 + z2 )
form
is
the corner in question, and any two lines at right angles to one
will
To
find the
momental
ellipsoid at a point
on the edge of
evident by
axis.
in
Fig. 11,
it
is
D=F=o,
OY
is
one principal
Then,
if
AB=a, OB = b;
2
1
,
BG = \a,
4
and
A=J/( 5+\
\20
IO
of
the
4
is
momental
ellipsoid at
(3 b*
+ 2 a 2 )x2 + (23 b + 2 a 2 )f + 26
2
lr.z
The momental
the axis
.//>, is
a spheroid.
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
AND PRINCIPAL
AXES.
19
Fig.
11.
3.
The momental
is
ellipsoid at a point
sphere
4.
The momental
an
elliptic plate is
5.
The momental
(b
2
+ c2 )x2 + (c2 + a
f+
(a 2
+b
)s 2
c'.
14.
If at
the
moment
of the
inertia
equal to
Mp 2
where
is
the
it
mass
called
body and p the length of the perpendicular, an ellipsoid of gyration. And, since, referred to its
definition
is
axis,
we have by
must be
A=Ma
C=Mc
A B
x,
B = Mb 2
equation
z, its
M
of
its
This ellipsoid
may
;
also
is
20
apparent that
it
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
coaxial,
momental
15.
it
ellipsoid.
When
is
customary to speak
them
as central ellipsoids.
16.
Equimomental Systems.
systems are equimomental when their moments of inertia
lines in space are equal each to each.
Two
about
all
And
from this
definition,
already proved,
1= A
it
cos 2 a +
B cos
/3
+ C cos 2 7,
when they have
2.
3.
In
The same mass and centre of inertia. The same principal axes at the centre of inertia. The same principal moments at the centre of inertia. some particular cases we may, instead of considering
its
a
in
motion
systems are equimomental, or of finding a simple system which will be equimomental with a complicated one, is greater than
that of solving the problem directly.
The
following examples,
is
however,
will serve to
carried out.
Illustrative Examples.
1.
Show
M placed
.
at
the
Af, are
triangle.
all
the problems in
moments
lines,
and median
are very
much
simplified;
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
this
21
assumption
is
which,
M be
o
M.
Show
of
M
3
placed at
The
is
shown
in Fig. 12,
which repre
sents the
momental ellipse at the centre of inertia of the area. may be anywhere on the boundary of the ellipse B and C
;
BD = DC and OD = DE.
Fig.
12.
4.
triangular area.
22
5.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
The momental
ellipse at
Principal Axes.
find the principal axes at
To
any point
%mxy=o,
is
generally unneces
sary.
can be found, as has been already mentioned, and then the other
be any point
in
lines,
OX, O Y,
Fig.
13.
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
axes
in this plane,
23
and
let
OX'
(x,
OV
axes at O.
Then
if
be any point
body extends
OX',
OV
shall
d+y sin
6,
and y'
= x sin
+y cos
6.
$ cos
2 mx'
= B FA
2
] vi) '
then, A, B,
F
is
be found
in respect of
axes
OX, OY,
OX',
OV.
18.
The
shall
be a principal axis at
some point
satisfied.
1,mxz=o 'myz=o
i
shall
be
if
a line be a principal
at
1 1,
axis at
one point of
length,
it
will
be a principal axis
in Fig.
any
the
For example,
OX
is
B on
metry
Similarly, in a hemisphere,
any diameter
in
of the
base
is
a prin
on the
rim.
There
is
which a
line is a principal
axis
throughout
length,
and as
this is of
some importance,
19.
inertia,
it
24
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Let a portion of the body be represented
in
Fig. 14,
being
the centre of
inertia,
inertia,
00' the
OX,
O, perpendicular to
0'.
Fig.
14.
Then we
tmx'z* at
0'=tmxz
0'=tmyz
at
0+M(kx),
0+M(hy).
t
and But
..
tmy'z' at
at
hypothesis.
at O'
is
(9',
it
any point
in
its
length.
Conversely,
all
may be shown
its
that
points in
length,
it
must
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
20.
25
To determine
if
body degenerates
which
it
to a spheroid,
and the
points,
such
exist, at
becomes a sphere.
principal axes at the centre
its
its
and
:
let
A, B, and
its
mass
three
at
be
principal
moments, and
C,
(1)
If all
moments be
unequal, say
A >B>
ellipse
there
will
body
be a sphere, but
any point
I'
on the
x2
A=C
or on the hyperbola,
2 .r x*
z* c2
AB BC
it
J_r> Jlf
J = 9,
will
at
P.
The momental
If
ellipsoid
at
all
less
than the
third, say
A >B=C,
be a sphere,
)
viz.,
the points
inertia.
on the axis of
x, distant v/(
At every other
will
all
momental
ellipsoid
as axis of revolution.
At
If
two
the third,
will
moments be equal, and each greater than say A = B>C, the momental ellipsoid for that body
of the
2,
or on the
circle,
* 9 +J
1
9,
C
an
"
At
all
other points
it
will
26
(4)
RIGID DYNAMICS.
If
A=B=C,
the above
is
at
From
it
it
is
bodies there
axes
drawn through
Illustrath u
1.
Examples.
an
To
angular point.
One
principal axis
is
point perpendicular to
in the following way.
drawn through the angular the lamina, and the other two are found In Fig. 15, let OA, OB be two rectanthe line
of
will
gular axes,
lamina.
OX, OY the principal axes in the plane Then the angle which OX makes with OA
jfi>
2
the
be
where
Fig.
15.
A = moment
of inertia
about
OA
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
27
B = moment
I
of inertia about
OB
co)'
p sin
Co
(x
+y cos
dxdy,
and
x and y
lying
b sin
cr
eo
to
(a
i
+ ab cos &) + b
;
2 b cos
2
00)
'
to
cos 2
As
a simple case,
2 #
let
=
is
right angled,
and tan
= ^
above formula.
2.
To
find
the
principal
lamina.
In Fig.
16, let
(a, /3)
at
Fig.
16.
28
RIGID DYNAMICS.
principal axes.
Then
is
given by
tan 2 6 =
n
2
BA
OX+ M&
where
A=I about
0'X'= I about
=m(^+&\
\4
<9F+J/,r
=^g+4
and
.F= ^ w/.r>' = tmx v + J/k,3 = Mu3.
tan 2 # =
(
Ma/3
m(^ + AJ/(+{3"
=
The
third principal axis
is,
O'.
To
find at
what point
a side of a triangle
is
a principal
axis.
Fig. 17
proof.
is
BC
is
the side
in
question, and
bisected at E.
bisected at O.
BC, and
system
DE at
AD
inertiaproduct
lar to
the side
F may BC must
axis
perpendicu
sides
AB
OY
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
29
30
9.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Determine the condition that the edge
of
any tetrahe
dron
may be
a principal axis at
some point
of its length,
and
Two
points
P
Q
and
axis at
Then
if
two planes
be drawn
and
where
Q.
it is
P and
(Townsend.)
21.
2 F B
.
,
1
if
F=o
and
at the
same time
B = A,
axes
if
;
is
B=A
B
and Fia
is
finite,
2 6
=2
2
F=o, and
or.
CHAPTER
III.
D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
22.
;//,
mass
X,
Y,
be the
d\v
1)1
=
dfi
32
RIGID DYNAMICS.
of
all
sum
Thus, for
all
the particles,
we must have
X(m^)=t(mX) +%{/,),
= SU^V ^( w F) + S(/
dt 1 )
( f
2 ),
111
Jf~
S(mZ)+2(fs),
2(/J=2(/2)=2(/3)=o.
23.
The
*(s)
D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
m\ y
33
z
dt'
1
dt*
m\ z
dhdf
X
dh
di
= M,
(B)
ns
d 2y
dfl
~
y df>
d^x
forces.
may be
Law
of Motion.
we have
1m = 1m X.
dr
But, by definition of the centre of inertia,
1mx=Mx.
and
2 v d x= Z7)l 
n^d^x M
dfi dfi
r
MrdKx
dl
ImX,
the action of
any forces
is
the
same as if
all the
mass were
col
and all
And
inertia of a system,
of a single particle.
however complex,
is
34
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Moreover, taking one of the equations
(B),
since
it
we may choose
is
centre of inertia
velocity
and acceleration.
relation of the
same form
we had
In other
same as
if the centre of
27.
The two
known
as the principles
and
flotation,
and show us that we may consider the two motions independently of one another.
28.
momentum
it
induces in a body,
in
we must
effective forces,
of
which
will
we then
D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
for finite forces will
35
become
2/#
ISHI) !
of each particle of
J
mass
of an
is
\dt
by the action
impulse X.
And
it
may be
equations of
finite forces
by substituting
in
the latter
it
must be borne
be
mind that
;
neglected
will,
subsequent motion
of course,
finite forces
has operated.
Illustrative Examples.
1.
man
of
end to the
of
we
applied
its
proper direction.
downwards,
it
must therefore be
at rest
Jll+m
and the
M+m
36
Analytically,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
we have
for the
motion
in a horizontal direction,
equation
v d x = 0. n m
2
r
dfi
*%>
and
.".
=0
dt
or constant.
If
the
start
from
rest, as
we have supposed,
then
dx
dt
.:
5r= constant,
remains
Two
persons,
A
B
tal
to B,
slide
which reaches
t,
show
,
where
is
his
own
mass and
3.
person
get off
?
is
How
may he
4.
Explain
how
is
able to
move
the chair along the ground by a series of jerks without touching the ground with his feet.
5.
How
is
D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
6.
37
Explain
a pole;
Two
coins, a large
Which
will
come
8.
to rest
first,
and why
is
circular board
and a
clog
to its edge.
30.
the motion
of
what
it
is
known
explained, as
is
and
in
many
cases
furnishes
solutions which
are
those obtained
single particle of
x,
in the
same
direction,
we
have,
d 2x
rr
And
dx
and
*/0
integrating,
we
get
m
where
,2_j/2 )= C'pdx,
V is
the
initial
value of v or
civ
dt
The expression on
change
the force from o to x.
is
the
in kinetic energy,
which
is
38
RIGID DYNAMICS.
What
and
of
is
of a single
mass
is
also true of a
forces acting
becomes
tmC{Xdx+Ydy+Zdz),
which must be equal to
j
2mv*%tmV2
translation
total kinetic
For
if
x, y,
and velocity v
time
,
?;,
/,
and
centre of inertia,
energy
is
equal to
?//:
h^hshsh
of
inertia
31.
of
of coor
dinates
and
origin,
this
expression
energy
will
assume
is
termed the
vis viva.
D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
32.
39
;
To
find
let
be the
;;/
measure
of
changes
its
velocity suddenly to v
changed from \
mV
to
mv
2
.
Work done by
the impulse
= % mv2  m V 2 =

(m v m V) (v + V)
is
of
momentum and
body where
is
therefore equal to
mv m V.
v and
Illustrative
1.
Examples on Energy.
from a horizon
rod
OA,
tal
when
in
(See Fig.
18.)
a,
Fig.
18.
28
RIGID DYNAMICS.
principal axes.
Then
is
given by
tan 2
n
BA
OX+M&
where
A=I about
0'X'=I about
=jn(^+^y
B=I about
0'
about
O Y+ Ma?
*(M
.4
and
J/a@
=
The
third principal axis
is,
8/3
(tf2_2 )+4(a2_ /32)

O'.
To
find at
what point a
side of a triangle
is
a principal
axis.
Fig. 17
proof.
is
BC
is
the side
in
question,
and
is is
bisected at E.
bisected at O.
AD
drawn perpendicular
to
BC, and
system
DE at
3
inertiaproduct
lar to
the side
F may BC must
axis
perpendicu
sides
AB
OY
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
29
M/
JS
42
RIGID DYNAMICS.
at the
inertia.
motion of translation upwards represented by aw, and same time the stick keeps on rotating about the centre of
Owing
alters in direction,
and
an upright position.
The time
is
move from
its
second position to
final
position
when the
becomes
a=aa>'t+%gP.
The
condition for pitching upright
is
(b)
evidently to be found
(2)
must
there
to't=(2n+i).
2
(a), (b),
(c)
and
(c)
where
3.
p=(2n+i)
2
in
a horizontal
position
will
rise
through a distance
to
6 C3
where
2 a
is
is
fired
with such a charge that the relative velocity of the ball and
cannon
If
moment when
show
is
\x
V.
M be the mass
(
of the cannon,
the
coefficient of friction,
tance
\M+m)
on the plane
2 u< r
D'ALEMBERT'S PRINCIPLE.
5.
43
fine string
is
wound around
in
plate,
freely.
allowed to
fall
any time.
ordi
6.
nary table.
Form
its
coin descends to
7.
fixed in a vertical
and a heavy
If
flexi
it,
hangs
at rest.
the string be
cut at one of the ends of the tube, to find the velocity which
when
it is
tion, then,
is
it
is
Explain
why
the grooving in a
rifle
force of recoil.
9.
in the
about
its
which
is
fixed
and horizontal.
it
fine string is
wound around
comis
allowed to
fall
freely
axis.
is
Find
when the
string
completely
unwound
weight. *"
10.
also,
Two
on a perfectly smooth
horizontal
surface.
the
slightest
24
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Let a portion of the body be represented
in
Fig. 14,
being
the centre of
inertia,
inertia,
00' the
OX, O
O, perpendicular to
OY'
through 0\
Then we
Imx's' at O^tfnxz at
+ M(/ix),
0+M(Ay).
by hypothesis.
and
tmy'z' at
0'=tmyz
at
But
.'.
at O'
any point
in
its
length.
Conversely,
all
it
may be shown
its
that
points in
length,
it
must
ELLIPSOIDS OF INERTIA
20.
25
To determine
if
body degenerates
which
it
to a spheroid,
and the
points,
such
exist, at
becomes a sphere.
principal axes at the centre
its
its
and
:
let
A, B, and
be
principal
moments, and
C,
its
mass
three
(1)
If all
moments be
at
unequal, say
A >B>
ellipsoid
there
that
will
be no point
will
for
body
P on
_
'
the ellipse
x%
or on the hyperbola,
.r
AC^BC~M'
2
r2
AB BC
it
M'
y = o,
will
at
P.
The momental
If
ellipsoid
at
all
two
of the
moments be
equal,
and each
less
than the
third, say
A>B = C,
be a sphere,
)
viz.,
the points
of inertia.
ellipsoid
on the axis of
x, distant v/(
At every other
will
all
momental
as axis of revolution.
At
If
two
the third,
will
moments be equal, and each greater than say A=B>C, the momental ellipsoid for that body
of the
z,
or on the
circle,
Ivl
At
all
other points
it
will
46
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Then by D'Alembert's
:vi
principle,
we have
%mX+P
cos a 1
+ P 2 cos
<c
2,
tm^Z = $m Y+ P
2;
ji
cos
(3 X
+ P 2 cos /32
=  m Z+ P\ cos 7 + ^2 cos 72
2
X,
V,
*'
Fig. 21.
We
must have,
also,
2
the relations
^
2..V/
/ tflz
i/
#d y
 .rr

w( ^^
^2
';/
iJ
where Z,
forces.
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
47
is
pressures
d 2y
dfl
d2x\
' df
and
^mr2
and
d2 9
df
=N,
^_ moment
~dfi~~
of external forces about the fixed axis of inertia about the fixed axis
moment
in
any given
35.
Angular
Velocity of
zontal Axis.
If
upon by gravity
rj_
Fig. 22.
36
Analytically,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
we have
for the
motion
in a horizontal direction,
equation
Zm
= 0.
dt 1
^f=and
.".
=0
dt
or constant.
If
the
start
from
rest, as
we have supposed,
then
dx =
dt
o.
.".
x= constant,
Two
persons,
tal
to B,
slide
which reaches B
/,
show
where
is
his
own
mass and
3.
person
get off b
?
is
How
move
may he
4.
Explain
how
is
able to
feet.
5.
How
is
D'ALEMBERTS PRINCIPLE.
6.
37
method
of
a pole;
and a small one, are spun together on an ordinary table about an axis nearly vertical. Which will
7.
Two
coins, a large
come
8.
to rest
first,
and why
is
circular board
and a dog runs with uniform speed around on the board close
to its edge.
30.
the motion
of
what
it
is
known
explained, as
is
and
in
many
cases
furnishes
solutions which
are
those obtained
x,
in the
same
direction,
we
have,
And
and at
dx
dt
integrating,
we
get
where
V is
the
initial
value of v or
is
The expression on
change
the force from o to x.
the
in kinetic energy,
which
is
50
If,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
then,
we wish
pendulum
which
take
will oscillate in
we
1=
which
is
h2 +
h
called the length of the equivalent simple pendulum.
Experimentally,
near the body a
may be found approximately by suspending simple pendulum made of a small heavy body
/
and a
fine string
of oscillation of
until the
times
37.
Centres of Suspension
and of
Oscillation.
of gravity
about an
Fig. 23.
and
let
be the centre of
inertia,
and
SO = l=
5
is
+
IP
k'
1
,
the
called the
and
Now,
if
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
51
dulum
will
be equal to
7,2x2
P
h
38.
If
is
will
be
maximum when the axis passes through the centre of inertia, and a minimum when h = k, and k itself is a minimum. This may be seen either by differfound that this time
is
it
into the
form
Illustrative Examples.
1.
makes small
oscilla
If
2a be the
edge,
l^
a.
2.
oscillation of a
hemisphere about
3.
(1)
of
oscillation.
32
RIGID DYNAMICS.
of all the forces acting
sum
on the individual
all
particles
which
Thus, for
the particles,
we must have
S^)=%F)+S(/
a),
a.
23.
The
(A)
Each
m 
is
termed an
effective force
and
impressed forces
of
they
may be
same
principle, that
if
we take
if
the
sum
of all the
versed, will
forces.
re
of all the
moments
of the external
also have
33
dh
dt~
dP
dh
vi
df
m\ x
df1
(B)
dy
df
yd\x J
df
1
.
=A
r
,
forces.
may
system
of bodies
moving under
their mutual
It
Law
of Motion.
we have
df
^mx Mx,
and
it
Jt
71
/r
it
Ji
dt 2
dt 1
M d x = ^mX, df
2 1
the action of
any forces
is the
same as if all the mass were coland all the forces were applied there
And
inertia of a system,
however complex,
is
of a single particle.
54
plete oscillation given
RIGID DYNAMICS.
by the relation t=2ir\, where
rr
/ is
the
XL
,;>._l Ip
now,
/
be
found,
we have
g
on
given.
This method
is
one of
known
surface.
order to
of
(a)
Borders Pendulum.
his
pendulum
so as to realize as
It
was made
it
of a
it
sphere of
known
radius, equal to a.
To
render
very heavy
was composed
of platinum
fine
The
means
of a
movable
screw as to oscillate
in
g was
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
55
This bar was pierced in two places, and triangular knife edges
of hard steel
was nearly 39 inches. A large mass in the form of a cylinder was placed near one of the knife edges, being slid on by means of a rectangular opening cut in it. A smaller mass was also attached to the pendulum in such a way as to admit of small motions either way. The pendulum was then swung about the two axes and adjustment of the masses made until the times of
small oscillations were the same.
A
it
found
of the seconds
pendulum
will
(7^
//
// 2 )
where h v h 2 are the distances of the centre of inertia from the two knife edges, and tv 2 the corresponding times of oscillation.
t.
(c)
Repsold's Pendulum.
It
was noticed
air
in
differently affected
is
by the
sur
rounding
above or below.
cylin
The
knife edges, but the true centre of inertia of the whole mass
at a different point.
40.
Many
56
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Helmert
in his
work on Geodesy has collated the results of nearly all the more important expeditions, and the following table gives some of the principal stations with the corresponding lengths of the seconds pendulums there, and the name of the
observer.
To
find
from
any
\ogg=2\ogrr + \ogl
Place.
Latitude.
Observer.
Freycinet
Rawak
St.
i' S.
99.0966
Thomas
Galapagos
Para
.
24 N. 32 N.
27 S.
55
S.
99"34
99.1019
Sabine
Hall
Foster
99.0948
99.1217
Ascension
Sierra
Leone
.
8 10
12
29 N.
99.1104
99.1091
Sabine
Basevi and Heaviside
Trinidad
Aden
13
15
38 N. 46 N. 4 N. 56
S.
17
56 N.
99.1497 99.1712
99.1712
Sabine
Basevi and Heaviside
22 22
^
55
N.
S.
Rio Janeiro
Valparaiso
33 34 38
2 S.
99.2500
99.2641
Liitke
Montevideo
Lipari
.
54 28 N. 44 X. 41 X.
7 N. 5 N. 2 4 N.
S.
Foster
Biot
993097
99.3191
Hoboken, N.
Tiflis
.
.
40
41
Toulon Bordeaux
43 44
45
Duperrey
Biot
Padua
Paris
Biot
48
5
5'
5
1
50 N.
37 N.
99.3858
99.4042
99.4169
994 43
Wight)
Kater
Kew
London
Berlin
28 N.
28 N.
31 X. 30 X.
Greenwich
5'
.
99.4140
52
994235
99.4501
9945 6 5
Staten Island
54
55
55
46
51
s.
s.
Foster
Foster
Cape Horn
Leith
Sitka
. .
57
55 X. 3 N.
99455
99.4621
994 s ?4
Liitke
Pulkowa
Petersburg
59
59 60
46 X. 56 N.
45 N.
Sawitsch
99.4876
994959
Unst
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
57
used,
where
/ is
centimetres.
Chap. XIV.
The
tudes,
lati
in
the length of
we go from
Those
of the seconds
of observations
made by
by a
dash.
During the past few years several observers have made observations on the value of g at different points in North
41.
America.
during the
summer
of 1891, visited a
number
of places
on the
Pacific coast
of Alaska,
and
in his report of
He
spec
pendulum enclosed in an chamber which could be exhausted with an air pump. ial method was used for noting the coincidences (see U.
made use
of a halfseconds
airtight
S. Coast
and
of
Geodetic Survey.
2).
on methods
gravity
determination,
summer
The
value
alone
is
given.
980.169
980.747
980.375
Washington
Montreal
Chicago
Denver
Salt
980.983
Lake City
980.050
Mt. Hamilton
979.916
980.037
level.
San Francisco
These are
all
reduced to sea
58
42.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Experimental Determination of a Moment of
Inertia.
it
In
many
is difficult
to calculate the
moment
is
of inertia of a
body from
its
observed
and, the
moment
time of oscillation
again noted.
The
required
moment
is
of inertia
may then be
calculated.
This method
magnetic
43.
rical.
If
Forces
a body be
moving about an
axis,
and
it is
symmetrical with
perpendicular to the axis, and at the same time the forces acting
may suppose
which
To
direction
in
and magnitude
we proceed
let
it
25,
and
be
symmetrical with respect to the plane of the paper which contains C, the centre of inertia
:
Let
And
let
which the
line
OC
be
fixed in the
it
makes
OA
fixed in space.
in
Then the
resultant pressure
its
on the axis
will
will
direction
pass through
Let
its
rectangular axes
OX, O Y
in
the body, be
P and
Q.
Let
CO=h.
Then,
A',
Y,
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
59
OX, OY, we
have, by D'Alembert's
principle, the
= tmX+P,
dt
%m^=tmY+Q.
Fig. 25.
Fig. 26.
Now,
will
if
to
m
in
indicated in the
as
OX, OY,
shown
would give
m d\x 2
dt
2
i>iw
x vmy,
m d y_
dfi
mary+mcox.
also be obtained
The
values of
r y
( f2
( f2
dt
dt 2
may J
j'
by J
direct differ
= rsin#.
Thus,
dx
= r sin
.
Q 6
d0
dt
= yw, dt
dy

=r
cos 6
dt
=xco. dt
d0
60
RIGID DYNAMICS.
d 2x
d 2y
for
P + 1m X + 1m
(2
x + coy) = o,
j'
+ 1m F+ 2 w (w dur) = o.
2
P = S; A' 2t
(2
(<u
r f wy),
= w Y 1
;// (<u
2 j'
cox).
Imcoy = col my = o,
P=1wXM/iafi,
which equations determine the pressures P, Q, and therefore the direction and magnitude of the resultant pressure when
we know
co.
which
is
C0
=d e=
2

x
Imr2
'
dfl
where
axis.
is
tion axis,
moment of the external forces about and w; 2 is the moment of inertia about
the
integration,
the rota
the same
its
This, on
gives
co,
and on substituting
are found.
P and Q
44.
//(di'v
Symmetrical Body.
symmetrical
its
6l
we
we suppose
estimated
in
is
obtained from
Fi?. 27.
da>
6_
gJi sin
being measured always upwards from the vertical and k being the radius of gyration about the centre of inertia.
62
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Illustrative
I.
Examples.
falls
A
in
rod,
in a vertical
plane,
end
any position.
;
when
we have
Fa
sin 6
"
d2 9
dt
2
"**.*
4a
dt
4a
dco
</7
.'.
2co=
,d0 xg sin 0
.
2 a
dt
a
( f 2G>d(o= J\ Ju
sm0d0.
2 a
Fig. 28.
W 2 = ljl
2
cos
2
and
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
63
When
the rod
is
= 0,
and
P=^Mg,
of
Q = o.
2.
unstable equilibrium.
As
dw
at
2 codo)
3
4.
sr
a

=
J
Jn 2 a
sin 9dQ,
a>
9 2
=J(i+cos0),
cos
0),
^>
and
Fig. 29.
= 0, Q = 0, P=^Mg,
which shows
that
if
make complete
64
on the axis
RIGID DYNAMICS.
in the lowest position is in the direction of the rod,
and equal
Values of
and
Q.
its
cos
\
is
,
2
ir,
value then
is
Mg;
it is
a mini
mum
when 6 = o
or
value then
is o.
Resultant Pressure at
Any
and
Time.
This
may be found by
taking
R =P
2
\Q 2
and substituting
in
terms of
6.
The maximum
obtained by
total pressure
may be
The
will
relation
Q tany = =
sin 6
P 6+ io
cos 6
3.
under gravity.
a.
Fig. 30.
Figs. 30 and 31
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
65
we need only
makes an angle
The angular
given by
= dt
(f6 =
3 ^ ^=
Q sin 0,
dt
4.^20,
a.
to
start
initially
with
OC
vertically
Jo
Jk
V2a
.'.
a>
= ^(i+cos<9),
2 V2<7
l
and
P = Mg cos 6 + Ma^2(
f
i+cosfl),
4V2rt
^f
sin
Mg
=
<2
Mg
sin0.
values of
P and Q
can easily be
To
we have
.ff2 = p2 + 02 = (_jl)
(Me\2
(3
fMe\2
J
sin 2^
of
can be found by
0.
It
will
be
66
found that
are
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
maximum when
6 = o or mr, and
its
values then
<\Mg and
is
Mg.
cos
R
4.
minimum when
6= Mi aa
and
its
value
is 
Mg \ [y
411
diameter of
is
inclined at an angle to
total pressure
the vertical.
If
on
its axis,
when
64
5.
(109 sin
4(64 cos
2
$
5
.
whose height
is
of
If
its
vertex.
the axis of the cone starts from a horizontal position, find the
in
the
6.
in
a vertical
coming
to rest in a
horizontal position.
be the angle between the rod and the line of the resultant
same
yfr
tan 0=yfr.
7.
homogeneous
is
solid
spheroid,
r2
i>
+~2
bl
a2
is
foci.
on the surface
?>)
ah 2 +
//'(.r
4j' 2
+S2
2
) \
= 25 a
(* +r +  2 ) 2
8.
uniform wire
is
tri
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
will
67
be at
when the
triangle
is
right angled.
in
Find the
press
be the angles
which the
ure,
vertical
v^
4 tan
=3
tan
10.
is
with twothirds
length
projecting
board being
initially in
Show
when
it
\x
45.
If
General Case.
the forces and body are not symmetrical, then
;
we
take the
two
at
whose com
ponents are P, Q,
R;
P',
R'
we
determination
2m ^=SwX+P + P', 1
(
dt'
ifl
Z m 4=?,mZ+R+R', 2
dt
dh>
df
d2 v
J
dfl
Nz,m'r
dt
68 This
tion, of
RIGID DYNAMICS.
last relation gives at
co.
co
and, by integra
L,
M, Ar
,
forces
sures,
and
Cv C2
C{,
terms
of these pressures,
and
the distances from the origin at which they are supposed to act.
The
(i) (2)
Find
co
and
co.
72 r
etc.,
in
terms of
co,
co,
and
known expressions. (3) Thence find the pressures. The effective forces can be expressed
entiation,
in
terms of the
radial
differ
will
be found that
d 2x = covr coy J
df
dy
df1
coy +
will
co.i\
become
=
co
J/.r cbJ/F,
2mZ + R + R'=o,
where
x,
Also, since
tt=o,
dt
we have
df
dt )
dt
d/J
d.x\
AT
dv
dfl
J
.,
de
dt 1
dfiJ
AXIS.
FINITE FORCES.
69
It will
last
expressions are
much
simpli
we make
is
The
first thing to
be
done, then,
it is
we suppose
much
simplified
it
we choose
;
as origin
is
a principal axis
see Ex.
3,
to be equivalent to
is
two
acting at the ends of the side, the solution the angular velocity at any time
is
very simple, as
P
3
= ~g ~dt
where/
site
dco
sin 6
g sin
~p
a
'
is
;
angle
in
down
terms of
o,
a>
of
inertia,
y being
a lamina.
CHAPTER
MOTION ABOUT A FIXED
47.
V.
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
General Case.
impulse being denned, as already explained, to be a force
of velocity,
An
we can
about a fixed axis by considering the relations found in Art. 45. In those relations, by the substitution of changes of velocity
for accelerations,
we
get
ZZ + R + R' = o,
where X,
Y,
P, Q, R, P',
Q',
A" are
changed suddenly
70
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
71
=o, dt
is
suddenly
we have
^' +cH(fHf)l'
Now we
have
dt
at
to
coy, and
2
= wx\
we
dt
2Z+R+R'=o,
L + C + C = w:(a' o>)x= (<o' a>)1,mxs,
1 2
M+ C
48.
If
'
+ C2 = ^mz{co' a))j'=
'
(ft)'
ft))Swj'^,
co
= o,
body about
is
,'
where TV
S;//;2
is
is
the
moment of the impulse about the axis, and moment of inertia. As before, the problem is simthe
at a point
plified
is
axis
a principal axis.
72
49.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Centre of Percussion.
represented by
components X,
Y,
is
it
or to which
it
is
rigidly con
What
body
is
is
it
possible to
at a certain point in
Fig. 32.
it
is
free to rotate
Let
ZZ' be
is
and
let
blow
is
(the
coordinate
upwards perpen
there be no resulting
AXIS.
struck,
IMPULSIVE FORCES. 73
the
when
the
body
is
general
relations
become
X=o,
Y=(co'co)JlLT;
Z=o,
L = r)Z Y= (<w'
ft>)
^mxz,
f
M= X Z= where k
is
(*>'
 a>)^myz
will
X=o, Z=o, we
have
And
Y= (w' wfLmxz,
Y={co'<o)Mx.
c,_ 2 mxz
_ 2 mxz
'Zmx
Mx
And
I
is
(ft)'
a>)Jl/P
= (a>'G>)MJP = t*
((o'co)Mx
The above
any point
called a
50.
1.
By an
we
have,
may
axis, is that
74
2.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
1ntj c
r
= o,
Now,
since
O may
"=0.
be
so chosen that
Then
for
that origin
so chosen ///r.~
would be
zero,
and TLmxz
also zero.
first
satisfied for a
must be a
prin
some point
3.
=
x
>
the
same
of oscillation.
If
=0 and ^ = 0,
may be
way
If the fixed axis be parallel
inertia, the line
to
of oscillation.
Examples.
in
1.
a vertical plane,
of gravity,
length, rises
into the
may be no
must be
be
at
a
a.
distance
 from
3
if
Then,
if co
n Aa
3
B=Ma
a>,
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
75
^=_3jr sin
at
4a
it
is
rises
upwards, being
(o.
t/cu
( 2
mda>=
M a
2
''gin Qffl
*/o
r (0
,2_3<r a
From
this
it
may be
is
is
of the
of the
move about
a horizontal tangent
is
stuck at
position.
As
and
,
before,
B JLroo,
4 = ^ dt a
dco
5
<r
sin 6
gives S>'
<y.
B = M^5
3.
sector of a circle,
whose radius
its
is
a and
angle
is
, is
plane which
perpenof
bounding
radii.
nix
2.mx*
2.111
76
RIGID DYNAMICS.
On
it
will
be found that
=f a sin a,
f = t
</.
sm
+ COS
Fig. 33.
To
find
JJOF d
Fi. 34.
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
77
AB
PD
perpendicular to
point of
AB,
DE.
and
PD=p, C
is
C
and
is
r
h
p
3
When
5.
the triangle
is
isosceles,
C and
C coincide.
AB being parallel to point P is a centre of per
ABCD
Show
is
CD.
that,
AB2 =$CD
2
,
the
AB.
(Wolstenholme.)
Fig. 35.
6.
is
in
equilibrium.
Find
at
per
pendicular to the
fixed
beam
78
51.
If a
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Initial Motions.
Changes of Constraint.
velocity, is
its
is
constraint
fixed in
it,
a body at rest
of
pressure,
we can determine
the
new
Sometimes,
obtained
may be
are
given
to
illustrate the
methods
employed
in
various cases.
Illustrative Examples.
1.
uniform board
is
if
one be sud
The board
of length
2 a,
and
rests
on the props
fixed in position in
n
A
cv
H
A
m
A
cc
Jl
M$
ff
Fig. 36.
the
first
figure, so that
R \Mg.
If
be
and
to each
;
given suddenly
so that
in
we communicated
an acceleration ar
we
MOTION ABOUT A FIXED
AXIS.
of
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
79
and
Mg
in equilibrium
in
R' + \M(ma>r)Mg=o.
O, just
Also, taking
moments about
is
removed,
we have
1(//icor)
r=Mg a.
CO
4a
..
2.
The
If
cut,
rod.
3.
uniform rod
is
suspended
in a horizontal
position by
means
If
of
sudden change
in tension of the
4.
Two
in
to a weight C,
A,
If
one be
the other
2 cos 2
ACB
.
5.
particle
is
one string be
each of
a
the others
is
7j2
So
6.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
rod of length 2 a
falls
when
and
a given dis
of the impulse,
Fig. 37.
Let the rod (Fig. 37) drop from the vertical position and strike an obstacle when in the position OB with a blow Q.
Let
we
have,
taking
moments about
O,
Qd=2.(mrro)
r=JR 2 co.
4 a*
<2=
falls
its
angular
when
in
found
in the usual
way
to be given
by
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
R = Ma^\^il * 2 a d
[
of
and
will
change as
.A?
rt
changes
be a
maximum when
a=,
and
will
be positive, zero,
or negative, according as
4 >=<
or as
3 d*
a
the obstacle
is
<=>
of percussion, the
Hence,
if
is
impulsive strain at
cussion there
is
downwards.
and when
<
3
the impulse at
is
upwards.
These
by experiment.
it
An
iron
if
is
dropped so that
will
it
throw
is
its
fixed
obstacle
if
and
the bar
that
it
no
jar
how loosely it may be held. The experiment may be modified in many ways, and a familiar illustration of there being a centre
of percussion
ball club
is
struck.
If
portion of the bat out near the end, the fingers tingle from the
if
it
inwards against
is
when the
ball is
all
com
municated
to the ball.
82
7.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
A rod
fixed
;
is
end
velocity.
O'
or
('
O'
Fig.
38
Fig.
38 indicates
the
solution.
In the
first
figure
each
on
to.
ends are
figure O'
free,
is
by the definition
velocity about
of
an impulse.
will
will
0\ be as shown in the figure in direction, and its magnitude be found by using the formula for moment of momentum.
to',
And
hence
the
new angular
Thus
2 (vitor)x = 1 {mto'x)x.
And
if
x\r=a, and p
is
the density,
p(a x)xdx =
11
to',
'.
to'
= \ro.
8.
rod of length a
moving about one end fixed with uniwhen suddenly this end is freed, and a
is
from
it
is
fixed.
What
in general will
be the
new angular
preceding
velocity
This
is
an extension of
the
method
of solution will
be similar.
Let
O
to,
as indicated.
Then
being freed,
let
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES
83
The new angular velocity will be obtained by equating the moments of momentum before and after the fixing of the point Thus O'.
P
C (ox(lx)
is fixed,
dxp J
Q>x{l+x)
dx =
MP (about O') x
P
is
to'.
(/ x)<a before
will there
O'
and
its
moment
of
momentum
about O'
/
I
JC
q
fore be
o'
i>
\
Fig. 39.
m(l x)a> x
while the
moment
in
If
of
momentum
of
an
element
at
will
be m(l+x)<o
a the length of the rod, we then get the above relation which
03'.
will
according as
if
a rod be
moving about an
axis,
and
this
of percus
will
be reduced to
9.
An
elliptic
lamina
is
rotating
with
uniform
angular
is
velocity about
find the
new angular
2 L =  4 e^<w2
I

i+4e
84
10.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
its
centre
If
perpendicular to
this axis
be
new angular
velocity.
40 gives the solution. For an element at P the linear velocity is w x OP, and its moment of momentum about O' is iiiwxOPxO'P. If OPr and the radius of the plate be a,
Fig.
then
will
,.
C f'
= M^(o' =
i<i).
0)'
Fig
40.
11.
A
A
circular plate
is
turning
in
its
own
plane about a
is
point
on
its
circumference.
Suddenly
freed,
and a
AXIS.
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
is
fixed.
Show
that the
cir
be reduced to rest
if
AB
be onethird of the
cumference.
12.
triangular plate
If
ABC,
rightangled at C,
is
rotating
about AC.
AC
BC
fixed, find
the
new angular
velocity.
,
go
= BC
2AC
CO.
13.
square lamina
is
co
about
a diagonal,
when suddenly
the diagonal
is
prove that
co.
cube
is
rotating with
angular velocity
is
co
about
diagonal,
prove
co
V3.
If
A
is
at rest over a
off,
smooth peg.
show
the peg
52.
T/te Ballistic
is
Pendulum.
This
a
rifle
and was invented by Robins about 1743, and afterwards used by Dr, Hutton and although of recent years
bullet,
;
it
is
illustrating the
is
;
nature of an impulse.
In
its
simplest form
it
moving
produces a
The
method
is
shown by
OA
repre
and
in
its
position of
86
equilibrium
RIGID DYNAMICS.
under the action of gravity.
found as follows
of bullet,
The
bullet
,
being
and the
Let
7;/
= mass
= distance of gun from O, il/ = mass of pendulum and gun, k = radius of gyration about O,
/
where
co is
the angle
a,
which
observed, and
its
is
gh
~dt'
'// 2
sinfl
+ /'
.MOTION
ABOUT A FIXED
2<oda>=
J"
^ ,B=
AXIS.
2
..,
IMPULSIVE FORCES.
fa
I
87
<r/l
...
sin 6d6.
stJl
''
/7^
<I
~ C0S "
)'
and
this,
relation,
determines
;
v.
the only
pendulum
is
increased in
mass by the addition of the bullet fired into it. A rough pendulum made of a wooden box
on a horizontal smooth
equations.
filled
with sand,
above
The preceding solution assumes that the recoil of the pendulum, when the gun is fired without a ball, is so small that it may be neglected. Experiments have shown that this assumption may safely be made for small charges of powder but
not for large charges.
sumed
is is
the same
fired
when
the gun
ball.
fired
with a ball as
if
it is
when
it
without a
ft
Consequently
is
it
the recoil
is
through
ball,
ball,
an angle
discharged without a
is
and
the
discharged with a
2M^/\gh{k*+k*)\(

ml
It
sin
\
a
2
sin
has
ball
lies
between the
CHAPTER
VI.
any
finite forces,
is
a line of
is
particles
at
rest,
so that the
body
is
called
Each
axis,
down
in
have to be evaluated
in
how
this
may
be done, the following propositions on the composition and resolution of angular velocities will be found useful.
54.
Angular
:
velocity
is
measured
in
linear velocity
a unit
of
time
if
dt
if
may be
the proper
direction,
will
and perpendicular
And
it
resolved in the
same way as
i.
Proposition
For angular
same
rota
Hon
sum.
89
Proposition
velocities about
2.
two axes drawn from a point, and if lengths OA, OB be taken upon the axes to represent in direction and in magnitude the angular velocities, then the resultant angular velocity
will be the diagonal
are adjacent sides.
OC
OB
Let a body, fixed at O, have two angular velocities represented in direction and in magnitude by OA,
positive direction of rotation be with
OB
and
let
the
in the
let
plane containing
,
And
OA=eo a OB = co
Fig. 42.
Then, owing to
wards
or
co a
co a ,
the point
P
a) b
in
a distance wa
PM
'
dt
sin
AOB
dt.
Due
to
displacement would be
of the paper)
and equal
to
w PNdt
sin
AOB
dt.
Therefore the
total
displacement of
sin
is
AOB(ya) a x(o
)dt,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
this is zero
and
when
x v = ^CO a CO
or
OA
x = ^ v
OB
which
all
is
is
And
that
is,
thus for
the body
points along
OC
OC
there
is
no displacement
OA
and OB.
That the
line
angular velocity
may be shown by
Let
co c
ment
of the point A.
about OC.
of A,
of A, of A,
due to due to
co a , is
co b , co c ,
zero.
is
due to
is
co h df. co c dt,
OA sin A OC
..
co c
co c
dt=
OA
sin
co b dt
Proposition
velocities
o) x
,
3.
&jy,
w z communicated
axes passing through the fixed point, the resultant angular velocity is
given by
(o
2
&>x'
4 o) v
CO
2
.
Also,
if
to
about an instantag>
&>,
neous axis
co z
may
and
if a,
/3,
7 be the angles
and
give the equations of the instantaneous axis
when
toxi
a^
to,
are
known
91
That a point may have at the same instant three angular velocities can be seen by means of the apparatus shown in
Fig. 43
Fig. 4:
To an
of
upright stand
is
The
may
CD
Now, the
sphere
axis
AB
is
initially in
and
if
CD
x drawn from O, the centre of the be made coincident with the axis of y by
plane of xy, then
is
EF
may
be made
z.
may be
given
first
to the
will
02
RIGID DYNAMICS.
the
sphere
axis
in
be
fixed
were there no
friction at the
pivots
and no resistance
of the air.
The arrangement
also
fixed
and
56.
Velocity.
we may
axis
by w x
fixed
w 2 about three rectangular axes drawn through point. The next thing to be done is to connect
for
the the
expressions
the
effective
forces
with
these
component
order to do this
,
,
we must
of
obtain an expression
at the point
dt
dt dt
z,
any element
,
y, z) in terms of x, y,
and w z w y
,
co z
on differentiating
these expressions,
we
shall
We may
1.
By
Geometrical Displaccmoit.
Fig. 44 shows
how
In the
first
is
figure the
body
is
supposed to be fixed
at
0,
is
and
Of
the
Then, conof
those
in
the
direction
the
motion
second
of the
hands
of a watch,
of the point
figure,
we
in
have, in the
arc
PQ
time
dt,
due
93
PQ
is
equivalent to two
have,
PR,
RQ
Hence we
PQ =
,.
co z
O'P
dt,
J PR=PQDy = yto dt rp
2
>
and
QR = PQ^=xco dt.
z
dis
P due
to
co x
and to
co yt
thus
Along Ox
Oy
xco z dt
zco x dt
Oz
co z
y(a z dt
<o x
yx wdt
xcoy dt
Displacements due to
to
zw y dt
;
we
call
dx,
is
94
equal to
velocity
{za>
y
RIGID DYNAMICS.
y(o z )dt, and, therefore, in the limit the linear
dx
dy
dr
and
X(
* zw
x
y
.
dz =y<o x(D
2.
By
Direct Analysis.
at the point O,
and
let
01
<u
be be
Fig. 45.
equivalent to
a>z ,
a> , v
co,,
as
shown.
Then an element
at
is
in a circle
its
95
ds = where/
,
is
at
on the instantaneous
axis.
And,
if
a,
ft,
01 makes
with the
cos y) 2 H
also
ds
f,
ds ds
',, are the direction cosines of r r r
OP,
cos
a,
cos
(3,
And, since
OP
is
01
we have
y
r
.
dx x
ds
.
dy
ds
.
dz
ds
z r
dx dy cos cos a ds ds
a\
f
dz
ds
p\
cos 7 = 0.
dx
ds z cos 13y cos 7
dy
ds
dz
ds
cos
1
x cos y z
cos
x cos /3 p
multiplying
And,
therefore,
since
=
ds
dt
a>f>,
we
have,
each
quantity by
>
dy _
dt~
96
57.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
The former of the two investigations in the preceding article may be presented in purely analytical form thus (1) From the point P (Fig. 45) let fall perpendiculars on the coordinate axes OX, OY, OZ, and let 6, ty be the angles which these perpendiculars make with the coordinate planes XY, YZ, ZX. The angular velocity of P about the axis OX
:
<>,
will
be
dt
(), ()<f
y = V(
'
and
()
6,
respectively.
Now
v2 ) cos
Bx  =o.
e
'
j^=  V( 'r2
;<2
sin e
= ~z
>
and
And by
definition,
'
97
(seh
fdv\d<b
=0
'
\W*
=_ ^'
= ~x ^
\fe)Jt
fd.r\dcf>
=ya
* "
\jk)dt
= '
Um
fd.o\d<b
Um =
The
OX
is
the algebraic
sum
of the
dx = (dx\d6
dt
fdx\d
\d<f>J
fdx\d
\d^J dt
\dd) dt
dt
dx
dt
deb
d\lr
dt
d^lr
y dt
d6
dt
x* =j dt
dd>
^^
'
Similarly, y
c
i
dy ^dt
=x z
dt
=xco.
f
.zw x ,
and
da
=y dd
dt dt
a> x
xa>y
(2)
The second
investigation
in
Art.
:
56
may
also be pre
x cos+j
2 p =(s
(e
= angle
IOP),
.
cos
Also
<,
&>.
cos
cos
/3
cos 7
and
+^' +
.
=0)
=W
e,
'.
A'&) x +jj'ft)j,
z<*> z
= no cos
(2)
and
2
(fT (f)
H
2=
** ~ yW ^ +
^~
)2
'
(3 }
98
RIGID DYNAMICS.
rigid
<o,
and
co
y,
a fixed point in
co z
it,
r and
e
z,
are
also
co x ,
are independent of x, y,
the
coordinates of
differentiation,
P, therefore
from
(i)
and
(2)
we
obtain,
by
dx dy x+yr+z=o,
,
.
dz
dt
dt
dt
99
2;
dfi
~%m\
IOO
it is
RIGID DYNAMICS.
evident that these equations can be expressed in terms of
, ,
a> z
(5),
(6),
initial
circo
determine
co z ,
and therefore
and the position of the instantaneous axis; equations (3) will then give, on substitution, the value of P.
(1), (2),
59.
Eq nations
of Motion referred
to
Axes fixed
in Space.
it
Taking the equation (6), we shall proceed terms of co x co y a> z by taking the values
,
to evaluate
in
dx
dt
=zcoya>
dv
t)
j=x(D 2 z(o x at
=y(o xa> at
dz
x
y,
and differentiating.
^, Thus we should get
,
,
d\\'
^ = z
doo,.
,',
,
,
we get
^=s^y^x(a>
dt
1
+ co 2 + a>
z
,
2
z
tit
dt
d 2x
o / L ^x+coLuo^j^+^u
1
and, similarly,
we should
do) z
get,
da) x
by symmetry,
/
,
d 2y
Therefore relation
,,
(6)
2
becomes
v ( N=* m \x d M
y dfi)
)
d 2x\
= ^m (* +y 2 J
^  ^mxz ^  2myz ^
dt dt
dt
+ 2m {xco
IO i
Since L, HI, IV
co x , o)
y,
co 2
on
of
would
problem.
It is
due to Enter, and the equations thus obtained are known as Eider 's equations of motion.
6^.
under consideration,
let
they coincide with the principal axes of the moving body; and
let
eo
co
2,
&>
axes,
which
will
co z
in the
preceding
equations.
We
then have
and
it
^ = ^3.
dt dt
dt
for determining
co
a>
2,
&>
become
A^(BC)(0 2 a) 3 = L,
B^iCA^v^M,
C^(AB)(o
l( 2
= JV.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
integration,
102
These equations, on
being
three
in
number,
The v <w 2 (o 3 and the position of the instantaneous axis. actual situation of the body with reference to known directions in space can also
61.
It
=
5
dt
dt
relation
o) z
= &) 3
but
it
Fig. 47.
may however be
in
shown
in the
following manner:
Let OX,
O Y, OZ
103
fixed will
produce about
OP
an angular velocity
co x
cos + o) y cos
B + co z cos 7,
makes with the
axes.
/,
if a,
B,
OP
we
get for
OP
u Y
da>
du
r>dco + cos B w
,
dt
sin
n B
dB
dt
+
,
cos 7 '
da>.
dt
,sm7f.
Suppose now that (9P approaches
cides with
it,
dy
OX
dy
dt
and ultimately
coin
da.
dt
dB
dt
because = o,
is
B=y =
2
when
OP
coincides with
in
co 9 .
OX:
is
and
it
also evident
o),
such case
dt
dB
the same
as
or
two, 3
and that
d =&> v
dt
or
.'.
=
!
at the
o 1
dt
dt
=o>,.
The
erations
relations
between
^
1,
?,
?.
the
angular
accel
<#
<#
in
dt dt dt
, ?,
?,
may be
body,
determined
as follows
:
for
any
/2
given
position
of
the
moving
Let
lx
mv
nx
2,
n2
/3
z,
n3
104
of axes fixed in the
RIGID DYNAMICS.
body referred
to coordinate axes fixed in
space.
Then
will
(o
=
=
ll a I \m l w, J
/ (0 x
2
co
1l
(0.
a>
+ i 2 +
!/
n. (o
2
(I)
w.
;=
/3 a> x
+ / 3 a>,+
3 6>,
<w
;;/
1
&)
1
4w 2 (W 2 + w 3 &) 3
;/. &).
(2)
w z = u^u)^
w 3 &) 3
/2
/
;//
2 2
;/
2 2 2 3
= I, =
1
,
/2 /3
+w
7 3
j
;/
;/
= 0,
.
(3)
+ w 32 +
//
1<J\
+ w w + 3j = O.
3
Differentiating the
dco,
,
first
equation in group
doo,
l
(1),
do)x
1
dco,.
1
dL
x
dm,
y
dn,
'
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dL
dm,
dn,
= {l
dL W l + /2 C0 2 + '3<3)jj
,
+ W
.
+ W 2W2 + W 3W
^dm,
3)
ft
.dn,
,dL
dm*
dn,\
(,d?\
dm
dn
.dL
dm,
d/l,\
=c
105
group
(3).
dco x
3*='>7*
+ '"^+"^
dco u
dco z
<4)
From
like
(1)
we may
in
manner obtain
dco
.
dcox
dco,.
dco,
and
dcor.
x _^/_^? + w 3 3
dco
dco v
r+3
dco,
*
dt
dt
dt
dt
Hence the
may be
all
projected on
may be
projected, and
theorems on the
may be
interpreted as theorems
line.
co x ,
the axis of
will
co
1
x
coincide at any
moment
x,
then
^=1,
m = o,
n 1 = o,
dco x
co
and by
above
dco x
~dt~~di'
62.
The equations
co
,
,
v co 2 a> 3 the angular velocities of the body with reference to the principal axis drawn through the fixed point about which
the body
in
is
moving.
As
move with
of
any known
situation
6,
<f),
directions in space.
In order, then, to
body
at
definite
position,
three angles
yjr
io6
RIGID DYNAMICS.
co2 8in,f
$fsin0
CC/COSp
CC2
'ccz
cos
X'
Fig. 48.
107
known
and therefore
of the
body
itself,
initial fixed
of the body.
0,
i/r,
<f>,
and
we can yjr, and the motion of the body is fully known. The find 0, subjoined figures (Fig. 48 and Fig. 49) show how the position of the principal axes at any instant may be determined by displacements 0, ^ they also indicate how the relations
co
a>
&>
so that
velocities
</>,
cf>,
existing
velocities
at
the
(Fig. 48),
about which
moving.
Initially, let
the body,
OA, OB, OC, be in such a position that OA, OB, OC coincide with OX, OY, OZ respectively. Then, by supposing the body to turn through the angles i/r, 0, in order, so
principal axes
cf>
that
the point
it is
travels in
by the
arrows,
known
ijr.
At any
instant the
;
cated by arrows
The
may be
v
&j 2,
co
3,
to velocities
dt dt
,
^;
dt
of
and by expressing
in the
two systems
of
results,
we
between
eo
&>
2,
co
3,
and
dd d$
dt'
d
dt'
dt'
IOS
RIGID DYNAMICS.
auxiliary figure
The
of the point
due to
The
in the
ZCZ'
is
C will
velocities
av
co
directions indicated
by the arrows
it
and
motion
^f
perpendicular to this
former.
This
dt
velocity ' sin $ arises from the fact that C, owing to the \}r dt motion, has a velocity along a tangent to a small circle with
CC as radius, and its velocity CC ^= OC sin 6 _rl = _Y_ s dt dt dt the radius OC unity.
(
perpendicular to
[
ZCZ' must
be
n q smce
we have agreed
to call
figure,
remembering
that
velocity of
dd C along ZC  = co
dt
sin
^ + o).7
cos 0,
( I
velocity of
C perpendicular
to
ZC^dt
sin 9
=
And by
velocity of
co
cos
(f)
+ &> 2 sin
0.
(2)
we have
the
at
E equal
to
d 
dt
(3) v/
The
relations
(2),
49
is
given merely to
body are concerned. show how the principal axes which body
itself
any time
were
initially coin
cident with the fixed axes in space, and have turned through
angles
6,
<f>,
yfr.
The
complications
in
omitted.
109
Fig. 49.
63.
Pressure
011
the
Fixed Point.
The
2w ~='ZjuX+P cos X,
fj,,
d Zm =z,mZ+P cos
2~
v,
dt
where
S;
dt"
is
now
nates of the centre of inertia, the mass of the body, and the
HO
angular velocities.
of
co z , co
y
,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Thus,
if
we
evaluate as formerly
dt'
in
terms
o) z ,
we
get
x (xay x
+yco y + ca) z )
,
) \
and
if
x, y,
z be the coordinates of
we
Mass
.\s^y^to^ + mt (x<o
(
dt
dt
+y(o t + a<o.)\
)
= Pcos\ + ZwX,
P cos
/a,
Pecs
v.
These equations are with reference to axes fixed in space but if we refer them to the principal axes moving with the body,
we may use
y
,
!
,
dt
their values in terms of A, B, C, L,
dt
.
dt
M, N,
(o
co
2,
<w
The
equations
when
finally
reduced
in this
way become
Mass
^(B+CA^+^i^ + co^jj
= P cos + 1?uX Mass
A.
~z
y
fi,
P cos
P cos
v.
In
the
M, TV the couples due to the external principal moments at the fixed point.
it
forces, A, B,
And
is
evident that
if
x=y=z=o,
in
1m Y, SwZ;
at its
as, for
Illustrative
Examples.
i.
If
(o z ,
o)
to z
may be
whose
magnitude
of
velocity
is
aw x
2.
The
locus of points in a
body (which
is
same magnitude,
3.
is
a circular cylinder.
body
fixed at
its
angular
a cos
nt, in
which
Show
that the
uniform velocity.
4.
a,
its
upper
end, which
at
and revolves so as
vertical.
to be constantly inclined
an angle a to the
Any heavy
centre of inertia
a sphere,
centre of inertia,
it
was
origi
6.
A
is
whose
altitude
is
eter of
which
is fixed,
and
originally put
its
at
an
angle a to
will
axis of figure.
Show
 a sin
a,
being the
altitude.
This
is
momental
;
inertia of the
cone
is
a sphere
above), and
its
axis
II2
will
RIGID DYNAMICS.
describe another cone, and
..
its
apex
radius  a sin
7.
If
an angular velocity
it
about
plane,
show
that a normal
in
make
2
17
a revolution in space
time
eoVi
8.
+3
sin 2
line passing
/,
;;/,
;/.
Show
(lfS
71100,
nco
(wy ?i/3)oo,
(nafy)a>,
)nu)oo
in
9.
Show
line.
equiva
two
64.
When
is
common
top,
its
axis,
its
axis
satisfies
;
approximate! v
and we may
apex
fixed,
in
Let a
top, Fig.
50
(1),
its axis,
and placed
Then
lines
reference
figure
to
its
fixed
space will
be as indicated
in
the
by
principal axes
fixed point.
is
OG=h.
"3
Fig. 50.
114
RIGID DYNAMICS.
the line the line of nodes. ify called the Nutation, and _L the Preis
NON'
velocity J
dd
dt
is
dt
The top is acted upon only by the external force of gravity, since we suppose an ideal case first and neglect the couple of
friction acting at the fixed point, as well as the resistance of
the
air.
The
external couple
(3),
is
equal to
Mgh
sin
0,
as
is
seen
from Fig. 50
nodes.
which tends
This couple
may
sin 6 cos
Mgh
0sin
</>,
tending to turn
it
about
of
OA,
as
may be
(2).
motion are
(1)
dt
dt
cos
<f>,
(2)
C 3 (A B)co,co., = o,
(

(3)
dt
&>
dt
sin
(f)
+ o> 2 cos
sin
<f),
(4)
LV sin 6 =
dt
L.
&).,
6 r co,1 cos n
<f>,
(5)
dt
+ IX COS 6 = fW 3
dt
that
&>
3
q,
(6)
and
its
it
is
;
known
and that
A=B,
has an
is
symmetrical about
it
axis
value n given to
in spin
which inclination
to the
we
115
becomes
dt
.'.
&>
= constant = n,
(2) give,
its initial
value.
Equations
tively,
(1)
and
when
multiplied by
co
co
2,
respec
A(
co
^\q) 2
sin
<f>
+ co 2 cos $),
which, by aid of
(4),
sin 61^.
di
<
A\
.
'2 (a d<o
x
\
~2
w 2 d(o 2 = 2Mgh\
sin Odd.
But, taking
(4)
and
(5),
...
A^J + A
sin*
0^J =
Mg/<(cos0 o cos
6),
(a)
is
of
between
d0
r,
dfr
,
dt
dt
we may proceed
Multiply
get
(1)
by cos
and
(2)
by
sin
<f>
sin^^cosc^ = ^;.,
1
,doi. y
.dco,
CA
dd
from
(4).
RI
ZS.
But by Sh
dt
d:
a dd dt
a d*+

d
a \
and since
'
^cos0
n d&
.
5in
1r7r=r
..
.
r>d
d9
dt
~n
and
bit
anc
nultipl)
.
ha
y,
the
of the
:he relat
66.
The
relation
hich
r.
depends u

e sup
can
r.
^cos
0.
ace
as the c
lent to
5
;ed
re
be top acquir
above or be
ch
it
ex ah
moves.
precession and
.
n can easily be
by a top
.
of special construct
TIOX ABOUT
..
7
in
51.
117
of
is
:he top is
shown
It c:
an
IB, pointed at
and B, to which
:th flange
attached
veight
axis.
Without the
slider C, the
and thus
C up and down,
is
it
can be made to
ier ah
or
The
anc
in
top
spun by holding
it
in the position
shown
in
between an arm
which the point
ADE
A
I
nd the arm
ADE
being
by the theor
Il8
It
RIGID DYNAMICS.
may be
a
if
at the point
come
permanent
and no motion
of precession will be
given to
it.
67.
The motion
from the
it
initial
:
(a)
and
just obtained
a( Y + Asln
0^J = 2Mo/t
2
(cos
 cos 6),
0).
A sin d^t=Cn{cos
dt
cos
These give
^,
As we have
seen, ^
on
;/
and the
posi
also
eliminating
,
dt
we
get
m
,4 sin
Qj
t
and
(o)
dt
dd
will also
change &
in value,
and
will
have
minimum
values
when O =
2
{)
and
=
sin 2
A Mgh
it
C>r (cos
cos 0)
o.
The
to
is
first
placed on the
increasing
its
plane, tend
dt
/0
will
go on
it
until,
having
value
passed
some maximum
value,
reaches
minimum
II 9
Meanwhile ^ has
dt
also
peri
The
at the
maximum when
and 6 V and
same time
is
dt
To an
point
jection of
plane, that
52,
Fig.
//
lying
between two
whose
radii are
//
sin d
and
sin 6 V
Fig. 52.
The curve
will
also,
described
will
not
necessarily be closed
of 2
77.
that
It
is
evident
values exist at
I2 o
RIGID DYNAMICS.
the cusps and the outer points, that the curve described touches
one
I
circle
at right angles.
he
maximum
value of j
may
be round by putting
=o
in
sin 2
d(^Pj=2Mgk{cos
cos
0),
sin2
0^=O*(cos0o cos0).
d^r
dt
_2Mgk_ 2 Wh
Cn
of the top.
Cn
n,
it
dt
and
^
dt
vanish
identically.
68.
Plane.
In most cases the top
is
velocity,
and
By taking the
value of
JQ
already
A
it
Sin
&t
~dt
= Vcos d
o~ cose ^ 2 MghA
if
sin 2
0 CV(cos
O
cos
0),
will
be seen that
cos
must
become very small in order that the expression under the radical may remain positive, hence the axis of the top, instead of performing large
position,
will
from
O,
its initial
and
^
dt
will
therefore
become
in
may
be found
the following
of a small
oscillation
121
0.,
it,
u being small.
cos
n
cos
sin
becomes
A =\ *
,d0
dt
^
cos
?_^
sin
.*
^ ^= V2 MghA
A
Cu
dO
dt
 CV2*2
where
But
<z
* = J/<>/^Jsin0 n 2
"
d0 = du
dt dt
A
cu
,
du
j. at.
V2
<?//
1 2
;/
^ t= vers Cn
11
(u \a
=a =
vers
Cn A
1
/,
and
This
time
+ a( cos
Aevery
is
t is
increased by
A
and therefore the time
of a
is
2itA Cn
I2 2
RIGID DYNAMICS.
dyjr
Also,
_ Cn dt" A
COS
fl
CQS0 _ Cn ~^ sin*
2
i
?/
#
sin0
fl
A
rtty_
a[
cos
sin #
4
Cn
Mjr/iAs'm6,f
Cn \
dt
sin #
'
cos^/
Mgh
Cn
Mgh
C'ir
Cn
A
of the time.
and consist
of
n be extremely large,
we
,
have, approximately,
Mgh
+ =^n'>
and the precession
is
Wh
Cn
//'being the weight of the top.
69.
If,
then,
a top be spun
and at the n same time will revolve about a vertical axis with an angular 1 V  In the ordinary case, the velocity very nearly equal to
it
will
make
A
? IT
C
oscillations will
be so rapid
at first as to
and
until finally,
123
quantities,
"dying" n becomes comparable with the other the oscillations become wider, and the formulas of
Art. 67 apply.
70.
Let a top
in
any manner on
Fig. 53.
It is
acted upon
of the plane
;
and
,
its
weight
Mg
acting
and
if
V>
K be the coordinates
of
tm~=M ^k = dt
l
o,
dt 2
%m*k=M^ dt
dt 2
2
o,
124
RIGID DYNAMICS.
d2 ~
2;;/
d2 Y
From
these
it
is
seen
that
dP * =
dt
;
constant
initial
value
dt
constant
initial
value
and
if
motion be imparted
initially to
will
CG
being equal to
k,
the axis of
becomes
M dHhcos6) =RM< dt
%
g
R= v
'
d2 {h
cos 6)
df
The equations
of
(i)
A ^1 + (CA)(o
dt
(o
2)
A'^ + (A C)a>
dt
co
<,
(3)
&>3
(4)
 = &>!
(it
sin
04 (o 2 cos
<f>,
(5)
<it
^ sin 6
e
io
sin
(f)
a)
cos
<p,
(6)
p +
dt
dt
Y cos 6 = w =
q 3
;/.
125
will
be seen
the
Mg
in
those relations
we have
in these.
The
and
65.
solution
is
We
have
R = Mg+M dHhc ^ 6)
dt 1
=M s srhsmv  2
{
/z
cos
dt
\dt)
}
S
And
multiplying
(1)
by
co
and
(2)
by
co
2,
we have
<6
A(> x
dt
"
dt
+ <u
cos $\
= R/i sin 6
dt
..
K+
2
2
a)., )
=2
Cr/i sin
6^dt
dt
cos flfY)
=2
.
f\ Msrh
^
O
J/// 2 sin
6>
</0.
A (co 2 + o) 22 = 2 Mg/i(cos
)
(~J
ai2+
<=(f) + (f)%in^.
be as before
#
A
These two
sin 2 6
^ = 6";/ (cos
cos 0).
126
RIGID DYNAMICS.
it is
And
its
motion of translation
move up
in the case of a
1
and
being as before
make
a minimum. dt
is
and
describe
71.
the
by having a number
of tops
made
similar
to that
shown
in Fig. 54.
Fig.
54.
diameter, has
steel
axis
The
may be
and
spins,
of sharpness.
A =
B.
127
most readily
set spinning
by using a twopronged
may
pass
it,
a cord
wound about
is
pulled
little
and the top drops with a high speed from the handle. practice enables one to spin the top and let it drop on a
smooth or rough surface at any required inclination. The following problem may also be examined by using several
of these tops of various sizes, of sharpness
:
of varying
degrees
A common
position.
top,
horizontal
Explain
is
This
which
is
usually
made
of a
a rather
rough surface,
It will
it
sleeps.'
be found, after a
oji
which the
top spins.
2.
If
is
not
able to form a small conical bed for itself and thereby be acted
and
'
sleep.'
The
The
by
friction.
rises to the
is
vertical,
a portion
128
of a spherical surface
RIGID DYNAMICS.
and that
friction
is
in
is
given
in
Theory of Friction, Chap. VIII, where the top is supposed to be a symmetrical pearshaped cone with a spherical
Jellett's
it
spins.
Fig. 55.
72.
in
Fixed Point.
If
at the
same time, an
initial
angular velocity
129
(in
will revolve
about
pre
is
point of support
is
at quite a distance
from
supposed to be
set rotating
and
downwards
in
the direc
by the arrow.
It is
O, and,
if
moving uniformly
its
in this horizontal
Its position at
any time
these are
is
prin
cipal axes at
It
is
evident that 6
C moves
along
cf>.
XNN'
XON'
BON =
At each
NON'
couple
nigh,
OG =
//.
mgh
cos
sin
into two,
we
get
mgh
and
(f>
mgh
Euler's equations
(/>
Then
become
ai
(f>,
Aj^ (C A)(o dt
(o.
1
= mgJi cos
</>,
^dCOr.
from which
it is
seen that
co
= constant =n.
130
Also,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
we have
'
dd
dt
d^jr
= o = <o
sin
4>
(o
cos
(f>,
co
dt
d$_
sin
<f>
c>i
cos
(p,
n,
dt
since
= ~,
2
From
we have
&)j
sin
cf>
+ co 2 cos = 0,
co
sin
<j)
a)
cos
.*.
/fX
dt j
But since
A j + (CA)
x
dw
(w. &)
= mgh
sin 0,
cf).
<o
co
sin
q>
+ a> 2 cos$)=o.
,.
A (ojj 2 +
..
(t>
= constant.
= its
initial value,
&)
1
'
&).
= 2
say.
ddr
(/d>
Then
131
= nt,
y}r
= af,
/ is
since both
may be taken
.
zero
a)
when
zero.
".
= a cos nt,
= a sin nt,
co
a>
= n.
in
the
relation
for
the
first
we
get
sin nt) 4
A(an
(CA)n(u
sin nt
sin
nt)=mgh sin
sin nt.
nt.
Cna
= 7/isrh
.'.
Cmt = wgh,
_dyjr _mgh _
Wh
Cn
initial
dt
Cn
velocity
Hence the
axis
OC Wh
Cn
;/
moves around
in a horizontal of revolution
or
that
is,
to
an observer
will revolve
looking
down
in the direction
ZO,
the gyroscope
OZ is
that
it
receives
an
initial
<u
2
1
finite quantity.
If
be not given to
to drop
it,
it
will act in
the
it
down and
oscillate
as
132
RIGID DYNAMICS.
;/
Usually
sional
is
is
is
small,
motion
the
Gyroscope.
As an may find
revolves.
we
In this case
vS
we
mass
of the
gyroscope
to avoid confusion,
cl 5 lco
B+CA.
yco 2
^o 3
(0) 22
+ G)3
,,
V
I
=P cowX+^mX S[ z y
s\(o

C+AB
f.ZCOo
I'd)
o.
= P cos n + ///
S
J
/ v Sl^x L
VC
o,
A+BC^ +)  KH
cos
<o*)z
J
= P
which become, since
A = B,
y, z) are
(o, O, h),
so, 2 S\
CM=P
cos
/4
+5^sih^+5{^IL*.^
1/,
'
133
(///<?"
<4 *
,.,
It
/^ cos
ft
P cos
A v = m\ (a)} 2 + a) 2 2 )/;
(
/;/
w;r sin<f) 2^
:
/r
/9
?sin(f> +
eo
C^\,
These
co
(f)
co.
cos cos
cf)
= 0, = W%
u)
sin 4>
co
Oz
d$
dt
give,
= u,
P in
terms of known
quantities.
Similar equations
may be
CHAPTER
VII.
we had two
2;;/
sets of relations of
 = S m = ^wX+ P cos \,
dfi
dt
dt
and
^n \y^ z V
dt*
m
di\
of
dt
'&J,*,*] =L V dt dt\
of
and,
remembering the
t,
definition
from o to
of the time.
That
change
is,
we have an abrupt
taking place
of velocity
moment
r.
of
momentum
V,
Z,
^{(fj(i)}=^iw,'^')(^^.)s
= (a)/ (o^lwz (toj coM)1my
= Ms
(coj
= ZA'+Pcos\,
with two similar relations for
and Z.
impulse
/'.
134
135
v
But
dz
dt
dy)
dt
da
dt
dy)
dt
= L.
2/(j>
dt
.'.
we
A (coj  co  F(coJ   E(coJ  co = L, B(coJ  co D(a>J  toz  F(toJ  co = M, C (coJ  toz  E(coJ  co  D(coJ  co = N,
x) co ) y
z) y)
x)
x)
y)
(o z , co y
co z
in
space
at
time
t,
actions to
75.
for
the
impulsive
axes,
couples,
we can simplify them by choosing which make D, E, F vanish if, at the same
;
principal
time, the
body
starts
from
rest, co
co
y,
co s
become
= L,
Bto>=M,
.
Cto',=N.
The
x
to
y
(o'
z
y
to'*
or
x __ y _z
ABC
Ax_By L ~M
Cz
or
I3 6
RIGID DYNAMICS.
plane of the impulsive couple
is
The
Lx+My+Nz=o,
and therefore the instantaneous axis
which the body
impulse)
is
(that
is,
will
Lx+My+Nz=o
with regard to the ellipsoid
Ax* + By 2 +Cz2 = c.
The
x_ y
__
Hence
it
will
if
rela
tions, that
will
not begin
by the
plane.
blow, unless
A = B=C,
For the two sets cannot reduce to a single set unless A = B=C, or unless two of the quantities, x, y, z, vanish, (which means
that the axis of the couple
It
is
will
a
of
rigid
body be
problem
change
in
its
impulsive couple.
lowing considerations.
resolved into an
137
impulsive couple.
The impulse
couple
to
need be considered.
the coordinate
Resolving the
latter
with
respect
axes
we
obtain
the equations on
page
135.
Illustrative
1.
Examples.
cube
is
an edge.
In this simple case
it
is
momental
ellipsoid
is
a sphere,
A=B=C,
Thus,
impulsive couple.
in Fig. 56, the
is
AOB.
138
RIGID DYNAMICS.
its
axis moves.
Deter
axis
falls
minor
fixed point,
and
which
its
plane
is
horizontal
deter
is
vertical, in order to
reduce
to rest.
at
itself,
show
that the lamina will begin to revolve about the major axis.
4.
triangular plate
(right
angled) fixed at
its
centre
of
inertia
and struck
at the right
Fig. 57.
In Fig. 57 let
struck
at right
139
Then
if
we
The
;
impulsive
CG
is
in its
plane
but since
AB
is
A'GB'
jugate to CG.
The
triangle
is
therefore
commences
to
rotate
drawn
A
/>,
/,
normally at a
point
If
m,
n,
whose magnitude
Q, and
2
if
r v +2 + =1
a1
tr
c*
Ax = By = Cs N* L
Q{qn nu)
or
(P + c*)* qn mi
is
{c*+a*)y
rl pit
(a2
+ #*)z pm ql
'
normal
I
r,
CHAPTER
VIII.
its
Centre of Gravity.
The
in
presents
fixed
centre of
Here we have
dco 1
dt
(BC)(d 2 w 3 = o,
(CA)a> s co l = o,
B day
dt
<d(0n C^iABju^^o.
dt
oo
a)
2,
<d
respec
d(o x
n

dw
dt
r
6
d(o~
dt
dt
= /.
Similarly, multiplying the three equations
respectively, adding, and integrating,
(i)
by Aco v
Bco.,.
Cco y
we
get
A*a*+B*a>*+C*<o=
a constant
= h\
140
4I
energy
this
is
constant, as might be
^=H(Hi)
)
2+
(i)
1
= hw\(zco 2 y(o 3 2 +
2
J
(2)
another way of
of
expressing
the
constancy of
the
moment
For
momentum. (moment
of
momentum) 2
2
=h 2+
/l
+h
where
142
78.
If
RIGID DYNAMICS.
we now
OA, OB,
OC
Fig. 58.
and
POP
t,
the equation
be
x
Wj
_v __ c
O).,
_r
CO
&J
Now,
.i",
r,
it
represent
the point
then at
P we
have
143
y
&>
z
COg
r
CO
s/Ax2 +Bf+Cz*
_c
a>
k =
and
I4 4
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
always
of
completely represented by the rolling of the momcntal ellipsoid on a plane fixed in spaec and parallel to
it
equal to
00'
79.
The
ellipsoid in rolling
own
surface.
is
The
called
equation
is
tangent plane at
x, y,
is
it
itself.
is,
The equation
of the
Polhode
therefore,
2
.
I
,
The curve
and
its
is
equation
O'P* = p2 =
and
will
vary with
r,
and with/.
and the motion
in
It is
of the
body exhibited
in a similar
motion of
all
dependent on properties
of the
in
Dynamics.
CHAPTER
IX.
We
D Alcmbcrt
Prin
body are
2;
X
Y
o,
'
dfi
2;
dPy
'
0,
dfi
d*z df\
= 0,
o,
and
"2vi\j'(
Z _d^
dfi
~dfi)\
Hm
%~ X[Z
dtl
'dfi)\'
sy y
If
**}z'
of inertia at time
and
x',
y\
the place of
relatively to a
and
parallel
motion become
Md x dt
2
r
^mX,
M^=2mY, dt~
d M li=ZmZ,
(
2^
dfl
H5
46
2z
RIGID DYNAMICS.
2~> Z dh \y dfi
[
and
jfy
d*S\)
'
d 2x' dp
A z
y\X
dh'
'
= 0,
df
d 2x'
'
dt*
J*=o,
which
latter
These equations
problem.
that in which
o
Fig. 59.
move
in parallel planes.
Here
it
is
evi
dent that
I''
we need only
me
of particles,
147
in
of inertia
moves be
repre
sented by the plane of the paper, the same section of the body
in Fig. 59.
let
ACB
be any
C,
line in the
of inertia
and
be parallel to OY, as
its
shown.
position,
t,
second
and
it
is
by translation
through an
ACB
in its
O Y,
For translation
bert's principle,
we
have, by
D'Alem
d2r
dt 2
d 2ldt 2
'
dt 2
dt 2
inertia considered as a
And
fixed point,
we
get
v zm
d' v x^r y d J 2
2
x\ = ^ od :N. Zniv
2
dt
dt
AT
dt 2
be fully
The
initial conditions, so
that 6
is
known.
2.
The
some axes
3.
this gives
^.
Mk
about
the axis
of
rotation
of
inertia.
4.
x, y,
14S
RIGID DYNAMICS.
roll
or slide on others,
unknown
reac
by taking moments.
Illustrative Examples.
plane.
by the aid
of friction
inertia
and the
rotation.
Let OX,
OY (Fig.
Then
at
any time
/,
149
we have
(2)
M~ + F Mg = M^ + Mg aR =
sin
o,
d/r
cos
o.
(3)
The
rotation about
C is
given by
Mk^ =
dt"
Fa.
(4)
These four
for
we have
dj_
and, therefore, from
(2)
d*0
sin a,
(5)
from which
it is
seen that
d 2 v _5
and
also,
x=^gsin
a
fiy
R = Mg cos a,
F=%Mgsma.
These
sevenths
inertia.
/,
and show
used
in
The
tance
relation (5)
may
by forming the
through a
is
eqiiation
of energy.
a,
dis
x sin
^o
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Mgx sin
or
MgaQ sin
to the kinetic
energy
at
time
a.
t,
and there
M(v*+Pa?)=Mga6
)
sin
M{a 2 + 2
Y = Mgad
sin ,
which
gives,
on differentiation,
M(a2 +/P)^=Mga
ill
sin
as before.
2.
If
down
a perfectly rough
very thin
spherical
shell
surrounds a sphere,
both
rolls
down
it
we
slid
it
down
the
plane, because,
is
no
friction
between
and the
shell, as
the shell
is
slips
M=Mg sin
a,
M being
mass
If,
the mass of
is
so large that
the
negligible in comparison.
would
of
motion would be
And
7.
151
value,
and the
V2 V3
:
4.
To determine whether
it
a sphere
is
hollow or solid by
roll
ing
down
a rough plane.
moments
of inertia
of
(1)
(2)
on the supposition of
5.
rolls
down
within a rough
spherical bowl
it
is
Fig. 61.
152
RIGID DYNAMICS.
b,
and
of the
AP coincident
shown
with
BQ.
Then,
at
time
/,
in the figure.
Let
153
),
a)ly\
= Y1 ^(cos $ cos
1
'
).
<
From
by
5
differentiation,
we get
<**<!>
dt
/;
sin a
<,
and
if <
becomes
small
oscillation
For
^/2
7
ba
is
2 7T
$g
may also be noticed when cos 4> = \j cos .
It If
BOB' were completed and the sphere supposed to rotate about C with angular velocity sufficient to keep the smaller
sphere at the top, the pressure against the outer sphere and the
conditions of equilibrium can at once be found from the relations already obtained,
6.
is
garden
and the
roller is
V.
then drawn
that the
Show
if
V2
be
>
V"
of the roller.
154
7.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
uniform straight
rod slips
down
in
vertical
plane
vertical
Let OX,
position
OY
let
=o
assume the
AB at
time
/,
as in Fig. 62.
*<Mc,
Fig. 62.
Mg acting
if
at
C.
So that
x,
be the coordinates of
C,
of
AB
<f2x
to the horizontal,
we
get
[r (f
r>
dt
df
dy
lr (f
/,
lr
&
I55
xa cos
ya
0,
j
sin 0,
where
2 a
is
Also, taking
centre of gravity,
we would
have
O+Mk*
^=R
sin 0,
is initially
equal to
a.
These four
It will
sin

',
until
finally
drops and
lies in
the
also be solved
by
through
centre perpendicular to
D,.
plane
is
set in
is
motion
gently
sphere will describe a circle on the disc, and that the disc
revolve with angular velocity
7 '
Mk
O, where
centre,
Mk
is
is
the
moment
its
the
mass
9.
of the sphere,
and r
is
homogeneous sphere
plane, the coefficient
placed
at
rest
fi
on a rough
;
inclined
of friction being
determine
homogeneous sphere
being
/*,
coefficient of friction
mass
56
RIGID DYNAMICS.
diameter.
Show
begin to
roll
or slide
according as ytt>or<
What
will
happen
if fi
10V37
81.
10V37'
Ball.
Impulsive Actions.
Motion of a Billiard
of a
is
struck by a
to
short
of marvellous.
In the general case the course which the billiard ball takes
depends on the
way in which it is struck by the cue and the motion is made up of both sliding and rolling, so that the centre of the ball moves in a portion of a parabola until the sliding motion ceases, when
initial
circumstances, that
;
is
to say, on the
it rolls
on
in a straight line.
If
is
in the
same
vertical
is
motion
purely rectilinear
which
is
the cue
is
may
also
happen that
if.
path,
after sliding
and
it
will roll
backwards.
know
initial
angular velocity.
rolling" friction
value of the
friction, so that at
may be
in
of the ball
moves be the
of the point
friction,
so that
t.
y,
of contact at time
Let
and
(3
the angle
it
157
is
pressure on
the
table
equal to the
weight of the
ball, so that
The
M d*x =
dt 2
M^=
dt"
F sin 0,
M^=o=RMg. dt"
For rotation about the centre
of gravity
we have
!= aFs'm H
dt
dt
8,
A^2= aF cos 8,
/.da)* A 3 =o.
dt
A(co 1
..
n
)=
aM(&v
A(<o 2
a )=aMf^zA
2
&) a
= fi.
where
?/
and
nv
X2 2
2 3 are
the
initial
angular
The above
lasts
83.
At
is
15 tf
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Let
also, let
the angle
which
it
axis of
x
in
by u Q
Vq, l v Xl 2 ,
3>
we have
Q
ft,
'
Qh sin a aFs'm
Qk
/3,
+ aF cos ft
cos
,
Al 3 =
Qh
where
//
is
the per
pendicular on the line of blow from the point where h meets the
vertical plane
containing that
to
line.
And
See,
table
must be equal
du jeu de
sin
Thcoric mathimatique
1835.
des
effets
billard,
par
G. Coriolis, Paris,
84.
1.
Impulsive Actions.
Free Body.
Illustrative Examples.
uniform rod
is
is
length.
What
if
it
Two
uniform
rods
of
equal
length
are
freely
hinged
The system
its
is
in a direction
initially
perpendicular to
length.
and
subsequently
159
two rods
separately.
Let
m
co'
the
centres of gravity,
v'
and
and
a,
Then
if
CO=v
CO' =x', we
get
cox
(o'x'
= v,
=v'
(a
and
(a
x)(o =
+ x')oo'
And
if
mv=Q + R,
ma^ =Q _
mv'=R,'
maw'
3
j = R,
T
i
Rf
from which
it
will
be found that
03
= 2 (O
and the
initial
velocity of
the end
struck
is
3.
CD are
arranged
B and
C; the
end
to
is
AB
by a blow Q.
the
initial velocity of
is
6o
This
is
RIGID DYNAMICS.
solved in the
same way
Thus,
if
be the reaction
we have
mv=Q+R,'
3
and
Also,
if
ax=v.
R' be the reaction
at C,
and
same
And
for
CD,
mv'=R\
DlcKO __
3
4.
If in
is
EC
mass
negligible,
show
will
be
This
5.
is
evident, for
R = R'.
AB, BC,
at
Two
placed
right
angles to one
another, and
applied
A
C
perpendicular to
are a? 8 to
1.
AB
velocities of A,
/><f,
CD, DE,
freely jointed
at B, C,
laid
and a blow
applied at
at right
angles to
AB
is
79 times
that of E.
7.
Three equal
inelastic
rods
of
length
a,
freely
hinged
6i
(co)
show that after impact the triangle formed by the three move on with a velocity ^a<o.
8.
will
Four equal rods freely jointed together so as to form a square are moving with given velocity in the direction of a
diagonal of the square, on a smooth horizontal plane.
If
one
end of
this diagonal
impinge directly on an
will
inelastic obstacle,
line.
be in one straight
9.
at
in order, in
and are
motion
and prove
sequent motion.
10.
A lamina in
is
is
rotating in
its
own
this
about a focus.
Suddenly
second focus.
CHAPTER
X.
THE GYROSCOPE.
85.
made
ring
essentially of a wheel
:
which
is
put
in
other
is
kept in motion.
A
63,
type of gyroscope,
known
as Foucaults, is
shown
in
Fig.
detail in Figs. 65
and
66.
Fig. 63.
It
is
made
the
air,
its
centre of gravity.
done by means of the wheelwork motor (driven by hand) shown in Fig. 64, which is geared up at the top to the
This
is
THE GYROSCOPE.
The
and
axis of rotation
is
163
in
of course
movable
be exactly
Fig. 64.
ring,
two perpendicular
must be exact
the centre of gravity from this line destroys the value of the
results obtained in the
pendulum experiment.
is
The
readiest
way
to let
it
oscillate,
under the action of gravity, about the knife edges, the centre
of gravity being arranged at first to
fall
below the
line of the
masses)
and then, by
made
in
from eight
to ten seconds
the line
is
164
86.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
The Gyroscope moving in a Horizontal Plane about a
indicated by
Fixed Point.
The gyroscope being adjusted, the experiment the theory of Art. 72 may easily be performed.
It is
disc in rapid rotation, taking care that the bearings are care
and
oiled.
it
Then, placing
as
shown
pointed
hook which
is
Fig. 65.
Fig. 66.
the instrument
is
about a vertical axis passing through the point at which the hook rests, and it slowly moves about the vertical with an angular velocity
as
shown
in Fig.
66
Thus there
is
is
perfect accord
THE GYROSCOPE.
I6 5
Fig. 67.
66
It
RIGID DYNAMICS.
may be observed
as a top,
also that
let
if
initial
drop,
will
act in the
it
same
in
manner
and
oscillate
keeps
vertical.
its
Axis.
is
arranged as shown
in Fig. 6y.
There
a ring suspended
by means
of a fibre
without torsion
vertical,
the gyroscope
is
put
them
quite free
rotation
fixed in space.
it
the stand
some time
and
if
in prolonga
have an
carried
pole,
is
be 360
in
twentyfour hours.
;
At
exist,
the whole instrument bodily about the rotation axis of the earth.
Action in
Any Latitude
68,
X.
in
any
latitude,
And
plane,
let
tin,'
gyroscope be suspended
let
A,
in
the tangent
in
and preferably
THE GYROSCOPE.
Then
the angular velocity of the earth about
o)
167
PCF
is
360
in
twentyfour hours.
And
this,
if
CA
equal to
at
is
and
this is the
component which
affects the
gyroscope
Since w
A.
against the hands of a watch, looking towards
<y
C
69
from P, therefore
will
sin X, looking
or C,
Fig.
to east as indi
the
It is
sin X,
this
known
to be
360
in
twentyfour hours,
we
experiment.
i6S
89.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Electrical Gyrosc
The
being that
it
does not
in
keep up
the
pendulum experiment, an
by Mr. Hopkins, who gives a description of his instrument in the Scientific American of July 6, 1878, and also in his recent textbook on Physics.
His instrument
is
shown
in Fig. 70.
Fig.
70
is
supported
steel point,
arm
The wheel
it
spindle turns on
carefully
made
steel points,
and upon
one
at
THE GYROSCOPE.
The
tical
109
horizontal sides of the frame are of brass, and the verare iron.
sides
To
the vertical
There are two helices and two the wheel, and the wheel has attached to
side,
at
are oppositelyastatic.
An
of the
An
stud into a mercury cup in the centre of the base piece, and
in electrical
The
nected with the terminals of the magnet wires, and the magnets
are in electrical communication with the wheelsupporting frame.
One
ard.
is
drop of mercury
is
The
nets
current breaker
is
contrived to
the
the mag
four or six
Bunsen
will
The wheel
maintain
when
it
is
will
appear to
it
move
FesseV s Gyroscope.
is
known
as Fessel's, which
is
is
jo
RIGID DYNAMICS.
CC,
as
without
friction,
carrying at
its
frame BB'
In
BB'
which
is
which
is
affixed a
AA' and
,
a weight
IV,
which
is
rod
and so that
it
may
An
axis
AA
works on
;
same straight line with GG' to A A' a disc, or sphere, or cone, or any other body, can be attached, and thus can rotate about AA' as its axis to the body thus attached to A A' a rapid rotation can be given, either by means
;
wound round A A' or by a machine contrived for purpose when A A' and its attached body are applied to it.
of a string
is
the
It
W can be so
/>/>'
;
centre of gravity of the rod, the ring, the attached body, and
in
the axis
or at any point on
may be positive, or be equal to o, or may be negative. Also by fixing BB' in the arm of CC which carries it, the inclination of the rod GG' to the vertical may be made constant; that is, 6 may be equal to # throughout the
that
is, Ji
rt
motion.
When
is
the counterpoise
is
GG' and
its
appendages
o."
in
CC' then h
,
= O,
what
It is
equivalent,
mhg =
various
THE GYROSCOPE.
adjustments,
all
171
in the case
91.
Another form
by him
in
is
that
first
Magnus
of
Berlin,
and de
Poggendorff's Annalen
der Physik
consists of
und
two
The instrument
as the rod
at
rings and discs such as AA', Fig. 71, connected by a rod sup
ported in
scope.
much
the same
is
way
GG'
B, to
in Fessel's gyro
There
a bindingscrew
arrest,
,
when
so
BB' and
axis
also a short
CC
the discs can be put in rapid rotation with nearly equal veloci
same or
in
opposite directions.
The
follow
ing
phenomena
and
if
If
discs,
made
velocities in the
at
same
direction,
If
slowly rotate
CC.
If
loaded end of
GG'
will
rise,
if
the
If
commence again
If
is
loosened.
GG'
will sink.
If
ported at a point nearer to one disc than to the other, and the
discs be
made
tions, the
instrument
TOP.
we have found
the equation
(/r
ffi ) (
2 gh (cos 6
cos
),
or, as it
may be
/[
=2^(cos 6
cos a)
(i)
it
to
body about a fixed horizontal axis, the case of a pendulum making extremely
shall
We
when
Let
=(i
cos ) cos
(f>
and
Differentiating,
<.
(ii)
sm
0 =2
dt
sin
6 ^
dt
.:
(1
+cos
6)
^J = 4(cosdcosa),^J.
172
Substituting in
(i),
173
=sin 2 ^a,
and
lv l =i.
9
dtj
vt f
'
^/(i
2 sin 2 0)'
r .v
an
elliptic integral of
the
/.
first
kind.
<jE>
= am(W),
(iv)
and
(ii)
becomes
cos # = cn 2 (i^) + cos sn 2 (i>/).
Equation
(ii)
may be
\ 6 = sin

a sin
<>
consequently
(iv)
may be
sin 1
= sin  a sn
i>/.
in a
If
given position.
the period of the pendulum,
i.e.
T be
make
vT= A^
Integrating and writing
J* C a/(i/c
y/(i
/c
e
I
for y2
and
sin  for k,
Z= 2tt^
i
[
^y
/,
,\2
(sin
\ of
+ Q^J(sin i of +...}.
(v)
I74
2.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
In Art. 67,
p.
118,
we have found
O
the equation
(A
sin
0 Y= (cos  cos 0)
lT
2
//
2 ,4
Mgh sin 2
o
(cos
cos
0)
I ,
(a)
we have determined the approximate period of The period of oscillations of any magnitude small oscillations. at any given instant may be determined as and the value of
and
in Art.
68
follows
Let
A = M (/r +
2
X )
= MM,
O
and
cos 0)
7 cos
0),
0j) (cosh
+ cosh 7 =
AMsrh
2
and
Substituting in
/(sin
A Mgh
1.
that equation
becomes
0Y = 2(cos
cos
..
cos
0)(cos
0cos
X)
)(cosh 7 cos
0).
(0
Let
cos = (cos
cos
cos 2 t.
)sin 2 T,
sin 2 T.
and
(2)
Differentiating,
sin
...
=2
dt
sin t
cost (cos
cos0,)^1
aft
fs in0Y=4(cos0o cos0)(cos0cos0V^J.
in
(
I ),
Substituting
l[
th
\ =
r A {cosh 7
cos
(cos
cs 0!
sin*r
TOP.
175
=i 1
''(cosh
7 cost/,)1
/)\
{
9 2
cosh 7 cos 2 I
cos2 ^o 1^9 2
_ cos2 \ 0i
J A4sin 9 T
0j
Let
.2
=
<
cos2
6>
2
2
7}
cosh
/y2
'//t\ 2
o cos2 ^i 7 cosH^'
7}
and
= o(cosh 2  7 cos 2
=1/(1
0^).
'.
2 sinT).
dr
(
1
dtj
vt
fT
rv
first
.*.
2 sinV)
an
elliptic integral of
the
kind.
T=
am(w),
cos #j
(4)
any given
instant.
The
7^_4
dr
vjo
y(i
sin 2T)
l
=27r
91 , (cosh .} 7 <f
,
x I
{
+ (^2 + (T*
\2
4/
nr^HComparing equations
same character
pendulum,
is
<*>
(4)
and
and
(v), it will
be
an ordinary pendulum.
measured from an
in
downwards, while
176
is
RIGID DYNAMICS.
vertical axis as initial, so that 6,
tt 6,
a,
and
(/>
in the
7T
it a,
and
t,
bring
it
into
strict
discussion of
the
movements
is
ir,
On making
these
changes,
it
will
in
is
which
=7r a,
#=o,
and, therefore, 7 =
and
i>
constant.
Equation (4) enables us to find the value of 6 at any given Instant /, but to completely determine the position of the top, it
is
yfr.
To do
may be
elliptic integrals of
the third
sin 2 6
^ = Cn (cos
at sin2 %
fl
 cos
0).
(/>)
1 cos 0y
cos 2
1
n
\i
+cos
0j cos'T
+ cos
1
sin'V
sin 2
cos 9
cos't
cos 0q
smrj
)sn 2 (v/')
6^
sin 2
1
.]
cos 6 (cos
1
cos^
Y
)sn'(iV)/ 1
Thus
yfr
is
elliptic integrals
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
oO^&^OO
i.
ellipse at the
centre.
2.
If a rigid
body be referred
such
that
A =B
and 2 (mxy)
o,
principal
moment
3.
of inertia
= A.
O in a triangular lamina, AOB, BOC, COA, about an
may
be equal.
4.
formed by the
the
initial
line,
= a{l
+cos#) about
initial line.
uniform wire
is
Find
its
moments
6.
of inertia about
and
its directrix.
power
of
by the
axis
If the
moments
of inertia of a rigid
axes,
178
elliptic
RIGID DYNAMICS.
cone whose axis
is
moment
or less
according as the
than the
9.
mean moment of inertia is greater arithmetic mean between the other two.
that the
its
Show
is
about one of
and
of a regular octahedron
is
10.
centre of inertia
is
M a 20
n.
If
/3,
and
Cona
;
principal
that
A
7
2
of the triangle
}
ABC, show
2
2
(
_ b 2_ f 2 )(/3 2 _
that
if
2 /3 2
+ ^2 +
_^
^
of inertia
Show
moments
round two
lines in
it,
to
one another.
Show
always
satisits
the rigid
straight line be in
plane, unless the straight line pass through the centre of inertia.
15.
If a straight line
in
its
at
every point
length,
of
inertia of body.
16.
Assuming
gon
in
of u sides about
its
its
own
plane,
1
is
2V
*+=)/('=)}
;
where
c is
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
of a circular disc about a line through
179
in its circumit is
any point
its
plane,
equal
about a tangent.
The
sum
of the
is
moments
constant,
a sphere
18.
whose centre
is
If
A, B,
principal axes,
A
will
cos 2 a
+ B cos 2 /3 + C cos 2 7
any other
/S
be the
moment
of inertia about
axis
its
passing
direction
cos 7 for
body be the
origin,
and
/\l**
A+X
If the density at
B+\
C+\
be equal.
circular cone be
inertia will
proportional to the distance from the exterior surface, show that a2 radius of gyration about the axis of figure is where a is the
.
x.
Find
22.
also the
moment
The
inertia, is a circle.
6 and
principal axes in
its
own
plane,
So
its
RIGID DYNAMICS.
centre of inertia, to these sides respectively, show a 1 sin 2 6
through
tnat
24.
= b 2 sin
<.
inertia of a
about
25.
plane.
Show
moments
of inertia with
moment.
body the locus
is
Prove that
in
any
rigid
of
the point
in a
given direction
a rectangular
the given
cipal axes
27.
inertia.
common
the
vertex
and a common
axis,
in
PN
is
drawn
to the axis.
Show
that
moment
APN about
an
ellipse.
an
axis
through
APN,
the locus of
is
Show
that
if
the
momental
be
will
be a sphere.
inertia of
segment
of
a circle
about
30.
chord.
of inertia of an equilateral triangular
lamina about an axis through the centre of inertia and perpendicular to the lamina
if
31.
If
A, B,
7 be the moments of
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(I)
8i
U
If
(a
+ j3ry) = A+BC,
+
/3
the locus of
will
be one
will
be a sphere
(Va
x
(
be constant, the
larly situated
+ V/3 + Vy)(V/3 + V7"  Va) Vy + Va  V/3)( V^ + VJS  V7) locus of P will be an ellipsoid similar
and
simi
ellipsoid at the
centre of inertia.
(IV)
If /3
y<a
and
lie
on a lemniscate of revolution
ellipsoid
is
having for
sphere,
= A B,
a and
axes through
32.
an
pole perpendicular to
plane.
33.
inertia of the
segment
of a parabolic
its axis,
about any
moments may be
Prove that
its
if
the height of a
cylinder be to
diameter as
all
V3
be equal.
35.
bounded
by the
joining
its
vertex to the
extremity of
36.
latus rectum.
ellipsoid, the
moments
to the
moment
of
mean
axis.
is
One
extremity of a string
string passes
and over
lS2
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
on
at
;
slides
in
connected by an
elastic
where the
axis
Deter
ball
cushion.
Show
is
diminished
e is the co
in the ratio
ior+
14 tan 2 6: 10
+ 49 tan 2 6,
in
where
of reflection.
its
40.
plane about
centre of inertia,
Show
stuck
in.
free rod
it
is
at rest
and a
ball is fired at
it
it
to
break
if it
it.
Show
it
that
will
to
break
strike
;
and that
will
its
strike
it
at
onethird of
And
to
snap
is
wire are
is
connected together so as
Find the
and magnitude
following
of
Prove the
strains:
III)
construction
to
for
the
direction
of the
If
AB,
AC
be produced
D,
respectively,
will
and
and
CE
be each
made equal
to
EC, then
DE
be paral
lel to
at
A.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Also show that the direction of the strain at
the side
^3
A makes
with
BC
an angle
= tani{
1 1
sin
~ sin
/3
+cos
+ cose
C I
J
43.
The ends
of a uniform
smooth,
to fall
from
rest.
axis,
starting
from
rest
when
in
Show
that
when
the effective force upon the centre of inertia makes with 45 the vertical an angle = tan 1 3.
45.
box
is
fixed
placed in a vertical
its
lid
is
lid at
its
the
plane.
Determine the
initial
finite
pressure
on them during the motion, and the impulsive pressure on them when the lid impinges on the opposite edge and closes the box.
46.
AB,
the rod
BC are two equal heavy rods hinged together at B AB is capable of moving in a vertical plane about A,
and
passing through A.
AC
ABC
may be
string with
wrapped round
a cylinder
which
is
The lower
beam
of length
a,
slides
whose
slides
IS 4 of equilibrium of the
RIGID DYNAMICS.
beam
is
vertical
is
of a
where
^(a 1
49.
b) is
pulls
by means
which can
is
centre,
which
fixed.
hoop
of
mass
rolls
down
of
mass
particle with
plain vertical
a horizontal velocity
own
plane.
Show
the tube.
52.
Four equal
by four equal
strings,
which form a square, and the particles repel each other with a
force varying directly as the distance.
cut, find the velocity of
If
each particle
at the instant
when they
are
all in
a straight line.
half of the inner surface of a fixed hemispherical
half
53.
One
is
bowl
rough
a solid
sphere slides
down
rolls
comes
in
of the surface.
viva of the sphere at the bottom of the bowl, and show that
6 be the angle which the line joining the centres of the sphere
vertical
when
.
the
sphere begins to
cone of mass
its
;;/
ami
vertical
angle
can
move
its
freely about
axis
and has
a tine
surface so as to
make
a constant angle
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
lines of the cone.
185
heavy
particle of
mass
moves along
Show
the groove under the action of gravity, the system being initially
at rest with the particle at a distance c
that
if
when
the particle
at
rf+ ^sia
55.
is
w 2 + Pr2 s'm 2 a =2
its axis.
heavy ring
just fitting
When
show
an angular velocity
is
given
it
about
its
centre,
Find
also
turns.
on
its
to
a point on a
If the
Two
AB,
AC are
freely
movable
in
and
are connected
by an
elastic
whose natural length is equal to AB. The beams are held in a vertical position and suffered to descend. Determine
the motion, the coefficient of elasticity of the string being equal
to four times the
58.
circular wire
its
centre
fixed.
If it
to
..
break ,
at
proportional
to
sur2
59.
disc
which has a
particle of equal
mass attached
disc,
to its
Determine the
supposing
it
^6
to start
rigid dynamics.
from the position
in
which the
particle
is
in
contact
spherical shell
is
whose centre
is
fixed contains a
rough
which
ball,
again
.
...
is
3\M
the rsin 0) f
circular ring
suspended with
the
its
plane horizontal, by
tances to
its
circumference.
in
If
ring be twisted
left to
till
the
strings just
meet
a point,
and be then
angular velocity
62.
when
AB,
connected* by a hinge at B are in motion on a smooth horizontal plane, the end A being fixed.
Two
rods
BC
If initially
that
when
AB BC
BC being of AB will
;
co,
show
be
\>
be cos 1 ]
2d
and 2b being the lengths of the rods which are supposed equal
in
mass.
63.
2 c is
supported
in a
horizontal position by
of length
b,
means
of
ends of the
in
when
which
64.
the system
it
is
is
A lamina
bounded by
a
a cycloid
oi
its
and
its
It
base has
is
its
centre
its
axis.
placed with
base vertical on
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
to roll
87
down.
its
Show
,
that at the
moment
2 ^^( 7r
9
its
l
plane
radius
angular velocity
))
is
where a
is
the
of gyration
,2
<?
cos2
0,
and
laid
table
fly
Show
: ,
the
/'
masses
and
fly
be in the
ratio a 2
k 2 where
is
fly
IT
of radius a,
movable about a
fixed
point in
circumference,
lies
An
starting
and equal
to v.
v1 V3
'
tan 1 (
 tan VV3 Wx 2 a)
is
uniform string
Enough
of the
of the plane to
at rest.
Two
particles of equal
to the extremi
directions about
middle point.
The
sub
sequent motion.
69. at
A rod of length
a movable about
its
lower end
a>
is
inclined
an angle to the
vertical,
and
is
given a rotation
about the
lS8
vertical.
If 6
RIGID DYNAMICS.
be
its
= o.
same
is
70.
The time
of descent,
material as
itself is t x
down
heavy chain,
flexible,
inextensible,
homogeneous, and
vertex of two
principle to deter
common
Apply d'Alembert's
of the chain.
placed with
axis
is
to the system.
Show
if
the
momentum
of the
tan a, where a
12
is
a side of
oscillations in
space of a uniform
fixed
point by an
Prove
x be one
fastened
=A
sin( 1 /+ a)
+ Bsin(n2t +
/5),
where n lt
)i.
aM  (40 +
and A,
/>, a, /8
ll)g& +
3.r
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
74.
89
The bore
of a gunbarrel
is in
is
of
an
ellipse
whose centre
pendicular to that axis, the centre moving along the axis and
the ellipse revolving in
its
velocity
If
v be the velocity with which the ball would have emerged from the barrel had there been no twist, prove that the velocity of rotation with which it actually emerges in the case supposed is
2 1711V
V(/
the
+ 4ttW2
)'
number
whole length
;/,
of
gyration of the ball about the axis coinciding with the axis of
in
moment
of impact.
maximum
velocity,
2.
Two
letter
by equal
is
strings.
Show
that which
ever string be cut the tension of the other will be the same
function of the rods, and initially
inclination of the rods.
f^sin, where a
is
the
yj.
An
equilateral
triangle
to
is
one of the
attached to
its
angular points.
If
show
that the
:
43.
I9
78.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Apply
small oscillation of a uniform rod placed in a smooth, fixed, hemispherical bowl, the motion taking place in a vertical plane.
79.
A frame formed of
laid
is
the rod which receives the blow be equidistant from the line of
action of the blow and the perpendicular dropped
oneeighth of what
would have
been had
80.
it
rods.
Three equal uniform rods AB, BC, CD, freely jointed at B and C, are lying in one straight line on a smooth horizontal table, and an impulse is applied at the midpoint of BC, perpenFind the stresses on the hinges at B and C dicular to that rod.
in
of the rods,
AB,
CD
are perpendicular to
BC,
moving
in
directions
81.
(^) with
BC.
formed
of
If
the rods
at right
angles to
it,
and
in
a direction passing
its
lines
drawn through
initial
extremi
determine the
motion of the
parallelogram.
82.
circular disc
is
about a
if
Prove that
sin
= z^..
5<'
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
83.
I9I
A
its
uniform rod
is
about
when
V^.
The motion
when
it
plane
84.
is
^{1(1
+L)}
body which is initially at rest, and which has a point in it fixed, is struck by a given impulsive couple, show that the vis viva generated is greater than that which would have
If a rigid
if
strained to turn about an axis through the fixed point and not
and
same horizontal
line;
AB,
is
suspended by
length to
cut,
BD, and
AD
AC, AD, BC, BD, where AC is equal in If two of the strings AC, BD be to BC.
cutting,
its
and
when
it
reaches
lowest position.
86.
A
is
beam
AB
is
fixed at A.
is
At
is
fastened an elastic
the other end of the
string string
equal to
AB;
fastened to a point
vertically
above A,
AC
being
equal to
AB.
If
The beam
it
is
displaced.
come
to rest
when hanging
vertically
down
wards, find the greatest pressure on the axis during the motion.
87.
Two
fixed
equal rods
AB,
BC
is
and
C is
in
to
show
when
their inclination 6
3 3 (sin 6
+ sin 6) = 2 sin a.
Q2
88.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
rod
AB is
movable freely
in a vertical
plane about
to
B is
to a point
C in
is
that
when
If the
the rod
rod be
of the string
89.
now allowed to fall, find the modulus of elasticity that the rod may just reach a vertical position.
is
prolate spheroid
fall
fixed at
one of
its
poles,
and
is
allowed to
from
its
any subsequent
90.
position.
Every
particle of
2 a, attracts
tion
in a
move
inertia
If
angular velocities
&>, to'
be comt
municated
show
the
(MS*
)(T
e e cos  + sin
.
91.
Two
is
M are attached
material,
same
whose
length
If
the
4a and section y1^ of a principal section of the sphere. rod can move freely about its midpoint and one sphere be
struck by a blow
normal
to
it
and the
which
is
of this one
44
77(7
Jl
attached to a
position.
is
92.
end of which
is
smooth hinge,
allowed to
fall
from a horizontal
in
maximum when
and
the
rod
is
equally
inclined
this direction
is
to the vertical,
and the
then
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
YJFcosrt,
93
of the rod
and
is
the
incli
man
standing in a swing
is
set in motion.
Supposing
is
given,
how much
the arc of
so as to
form an isosceles
is
triangle
ABC, A being
co
the vertex.
The whole
rotating with
angular velocity
when
it
is
suddenly brought to
bisects the angle
95.
rest.
Show
A
by
BAC, and
triangular lamina
suspended
at rest horizontally
If the
strings at
and
C be
to
A,
if
AD
AB
or
AC.
AD = CD cos
ADC,
D being the
96.
midpoint of BC.
is filled
which gradually
solidification
that the
time.
If
mass
proportional to the
any subse
solidification is complete.
is
G
in
is
revolving
it
and meeting
in
C
is
Supposing
of
it
to
which
CG
the
1
f
pressure on
^
J,
make with
cot
11^ tan
where
CG
194
RIGID DYNAMICS.
vertical,
is
CG.
rough uniform
rod, length 2 a,
is
c(>a)
will
when
it
angle tan 1
If
a*
+ 9 (cdf
and the body be started from
it
99.
may
of describing
100.
If
any angle.
only, about
position,
seven
10 1.
If
plane vertical,
lie
on
show
must be
a right angle.
mass
is
freely
movable about a
Given the
vertical axis
is
through
its
it
centre.
heavy
projected along
with a
given velocity.
coefficient of friction
between the
is
attained.
is
coiled
movable about
axis of figure
which
horizontal,
and the
remainder hangs
vertically.
Two
a tine
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Given the
coefficient
195
of
friction
slide.
105.
Two
at
their
ends by
fine strings of
allelogram.
One
it
rod
is
supported at
about which
vertical.
Show
same way
as a simple
of the rods
pendulum
is
of length
<?,
independent of
106.
this oscillation.
is
loaded cannon
suspended from a
fixed horizontal
to the
axis,
and
and perpendicular
v be the
initial
whose mass
is
and
//
when
the cannon
diately
107.
changed
in the ratio
+ irgJi
n(n
)gh
Two
equal triangles
ABC, A'B'C,
line.
rightangled at
CA and A'C
as fixed
The distance CC is less than the sum of the sides CA, A'C. The triangles, being at first placed horizontally, impinge on one another when
axes in the same horizontal straight
vertical.
Determine the
initial
A A'
is less
than onefifth
all
CC
lie
a rigid
may be
flat
axis
and
foci coincident,
and
I9 6
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
each other,
the vertices.
of percussion.
its
HO.
point
elastic
is
A
in
middle
a perfectly
ball,
whose mass
is
onefourth that
is
of
the
beam,
is
\)ir
x length of beam.
in.
in
its
Two
circumference, to a horizontal
one of them
it,
in the
is
and each
on the
axis,
makes the
90
Show
that
V6
V5.
body capable of rotation about a fixed axis is struck by a blow so that the axis sustains no impulse. Prove that the axis must be a principal axis of the body at the point
rigid
where
it
is
let
fall
on
it
from the
113.
its
uniform rod
AB
is
of
mass
a
is
freely
movable about
extremity A, which
fixed;
at C, a point
such that
fixed over
AC
is
AB,
smooth peg
supported
fall
is
which
also
body
below
also
of
If
mass
M which
is
in
a position
AC, and
become
tight
will
be
suddenly diminished by
114.
threefifths.
piece of wire
is
triangle
vertex perpen
dicular to
that
it
plane.
oscillation
is
and show
when
the triangle
equilateral.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
115.
197
circumference,
its
plane.
of oscillation.
is
A uniform beam
;
of a
rough
hori
length
is in
contact with
the table
that
it
and
it is
Show
it
will
has
table.
is
in
equilibrium.
at
A may
118.
rectangle
plane.
will
begin to revolve,
an ellipse inscribed
119.
Find
when
horizontal, (2)
when
inclined
About what
zontal axis
stresses
122.
centre
in
its
plane.
Determine the
on
If
and
T2
T be
pendulum
.
of
length a 1
123.
+ a2
then will (a l
cn
)T'
a x T^
a 2 T2
its
98
/,
RIGID DYNAMICS.
two
particles,
length
the
beam
is in
each of mass p, which hang freely. When equilibrium, inclined at an angle to the vertical,
is
cut
.
initial
tension of the
w+
3/sin 2
9
path of the l particle r
is
Ip sin* vi
a
.
cos u
its
124.
inclined at an angle a to
let fall
is
upon
it
from a
angular
beam.
velocity generated
125.
may
be a maximum.
uniform
elliptic
one focus.
Prove that
if
circular ring
hangs
in a vertical
that,
P v P2
2
x
:
2 2
: :
+ ^ tan 2 a,
of
where
is
drawn from the centre the peg makes with the vertical.
uniform beam
that a ball of
so
placed
the beam,
horizontal.
is
blow,
and the
128.
on the
axis.
smooth
joint;
a fixed
move about
smooth horizontal
axis
is
passing through the fixed point, and about which the system
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
revolving under the action of gravity.
199
differential equa
Find a
time.
129.
An
elliptic
its
is
^Vio
If
is
sup
ported with
one of
A
is
angle
its
centre, perpendicular to
oscillation,
will
plane.
of a small
3 =4sin
the radius as
ends
fixed.
Show
on a straight
eightninths of
fixed axis
AB as a fixed axis. CD be parallel to AB and AB =3 CD the centre Show that of percussion will be at the intersection of AC and BD.
132.
lamina
if
ABCD
is
movable aoout
133.
axis,
show that
may
exist
length.
134.
in
<'
such
with
manner
the vertical.
make always nearly the same angle Show that the time of its small oscillations
/{
is
2 a COS a
V l3^i+3cos 2 )J'
a being the length of the
rod.
2oo
RIGID DYNAMICS.
of a
slides freely
on a
fine
in the
form of an
ellipse of excentricity
2,
and
minor equal
The system
is
set rotating
about the
latter wire,
if
which
is
fixed in
a vertical position.
Prove that
t,
6 be the
initial
a the
value of
0,
and w the
initial
sin a).
lamina
in
with
its
capable of moving in
its
a vertical
base.
its
Prove that
will
if
it
be struck at
vertex a blow greater than 2 iky\(f^=\ in a direction perpendicular to that side which does not pass through the hinge,
;;/
its
radius
one of
its
pendicular to
137.
its
plane.
forces are
if
meets
ular on
it
If
and
if
the centre
of gravity start
fixed axis,
[38.
An
to the
tangent plane
at the vertex, is
line of action of
on the
fixed diameter.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
139. to
If a rigid
201
a given axis,
in
body have a centre of percussion with respect show that there is one with respect to any
a plane containing
parallel axis,
the
given axis
and the
centre of inertia.
140.
unwinding, assuming (1) the tension of the string to be constant and the axis to be cylindrical, (2)
initial
drawn
off
and the
axis to
be conical.
141.
The
by a plane
in a direc
If
it
its axis,
If
will
is
be a
maximum
or a
minimum when
is
it
fixed,
will
inclination to the
horizon be
> tan"
(^ tan B),
where
rod.
is
by the
is
in
motion under
the
action
of
finite
forces.
bear to the
moment
if
and
to the forces
same
relation as
if
prove that
moments
point be not
body
is
145.
A triangular
lamina
ABC has
C fixed,
and
is
it.
blow
is
struck at B,
202
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Show
AB.
146.
Two
common
by an
extremity which
their
elastic string.
They
between them.
3^(/'/) 2hl VI
j/
where h
147.
is
at
is
inertia
is
the vertex.
is
con
couple
is
of constant
mag
nitude,
axis of unequal
is
moment.
its
An
ellipsoid
rotating with
of
its
point
k, I).
If
the
initial axis
its
blow
lie
in the principal
2 c (a'
2
plane of yz,
equation
/>
+ r2 )(rt 2 
b2 )kv
+ b\# +
is
)(<r
 c*)Is = o.
149.
fixed
attached to one point, the other end of the string being fastened
to a fixed point.
To
the sphere
is
about an
axis.
motion,
contact
in
If the natural
length of the
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
string be equal to a, the radius of the sphere,
203
it
and
be fixed at
a point
at a distance
= a( V2
1)
from
it
its
centre,
and
if
the
is
to
may be
at
the diameter
=V()(f
where
where
1
,
n= modulus
. .
of elasticity
,
= \ \( aM\f 7r H 2V2\
.
weight of sphere
of elasticity.
\ V5
//
/V
\x
= modulus
If the
50.
/,
proportional respectively to
cot {n
cot(;w
n)t,
V)t,
cot
(lm)t.
axis.
uniform rod
In
of length 2
extremity.
its initial is
position
it
makes an angle
it
of
90 with
vertical
Show
cos
3g sin
6.
rigid
fixed
action of no
forces.
= G sin 6 sin
2
(f>
<b
cos
<b
r f cos ~kl~ \ a
(fy _
sin 3
(A
b r
C
;
W+
dt
cos
e*t= Gcos0
dt
G
s\
momentum
of the body,
204
153.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
One
is
fixed
is
set in
left to itself
of
no
moments of inertia at the fixed point, G its angular momentum, X its component angular velocity about the invariable line, w its whole angular velocity, the component angular velocity of the instantaneous
Prove that
if
A, B,
C be
its
principal
 \2
rod
is
fixed at
it
in a horizontal
When
be the
at
velocity
velocity
communicated
the rod
to
its
other end.
What
will
and direction
of the
falls
the
moment when
155.
at L,
AD,
such
BC are two equal rigid rods movable about a pin that AL = DL = BC CL, and their ends are conIf the
beams
its
made
about
itself,
through a
determine
subsequent motion.
1
56.
AB, BC,
CD
at
and
and lying
the
same
right line.
given im
pulse be communicated to
BC
pendicular to
157.
its
uniform rod
its
extremity
in a
Show
if is
that
if
the rod be
it
let
fall
from an inclination
to the vertical
of 30
will just
descend
position
$g, where
2
co is
2a
of the
motion
according as
less
$g
or greater than
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
158.
205
its
middle
is
communicated
about a vertical axis through the middle point of the rod, the
left to itself.
Show
about
its
horizontal position.
of the principal axes of a
159.
in
One
a fixed plane,
the mo
ments
is
free
to rotate about
is
fixed relatively to
Prove that
if
the body be
made
if
to rotate
its
moment, that
axis
move both
in altitude
the motion
in altitude
be in a position of equilibrium,
is
from west
to east,
in
If the axis
be originally directed
its
any
other azimuth,
it
will oscillate
about
same way
pendulum
whose length = Bg/{Alco cosX), where A and B are the principal moments, fl the angular velocity of the earth about its axis, co that of the disc, and X the latitude of the place of experiment.
161.
fixed point of
it is
acted on by
Show
20 6
162.
If
RIGID DYNAMICS.
forces
act
on
homogeneous
,
spheroid
in the
tending
plane of the
always
163.
is
in its surface,
which
in equilibrium
of gravity.
its
to
axis, find
would be
;
w cos^/]i+(^+^) tan^J
7
o)
/x
its
radius and that of the sphere, and 6 the latitude of the place.
164.
body under the action of given forces is in Defining the momental plane at motion about a fixed point. any instant as that which would be the invariable plane if the
rigid
body were
show that if the body be constantly acted upon by a couple whose plane passes through the instantaneous axis and is normal to the momental plane, the distance of the momental If the body plane from a fixed point will remain unchanged. be acted upon at any instant by an impulsive couple in the plane referred to, show that the tangent of the angle through which the momental plane is suddenly turned varies as the
moment
165.
of the couple.
moving about a fixed point at a distance P from the invariable plane. Assuming that the central ellipsoid rolls upon the invariable plane, show that the equation to the surface generated by the instantaneous axis in the body is
body
is
By + C
2
),
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
166.
If
207
it
wz
all
the
whose
axis
is
===
(O x
wy
2.
will
wz
in.)
p.
An
is
revolving in
its
own
plane about
centre of inertia.
fixed,
If
becomes suddenly
it
show
A
co
rigid
body
is
free to
move about
= a sin 9 sin
(f>,
o)
= a sin
at
6 cos
cf>,
a>
= a cos 6,
body
Show from
when no impressed
axis can be a
170.
permanent
a body
is
When
a fixed point,
show
conical surface.
171.
is
fixed at
its
focus; a
blow
is
given
at the
Find the
to rotate.
is
body
free to rotate in
velocities
point.
about
three axes mutually at right angles and fixed in space, find the
any point
in the
whole
system.
173.
and subject
no forces
if
the
moment C be
a har
2o8
RIGID DYNAMICS.
instan<
will
f?
,
be
and tan 6
tan
where
174.
rigid
body about a
which no forces
act
and two
If a
of the principal
moments
are equal.
175.
body be
in
action
of
no external
forces,
show that the angular velocity the momental ellipsoid, about which
constant.
plane
lamina of
uniform
density
and thickness,
moves about
constant, and
177.
its
Show
that
the lamina
will
angular velocity
be
lamina
form of a quadrant of a
circle is fixed
at
its
one extremity of
arc
and
is
Find the
If
velocities generated
fixed point.
6 be the inclination of
show
that
a tan 6
.
^7T 1577 10
IO
178.
The
point
of a rigid
body
is
body
is
are
body
at O.
Show
OC
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
semivertical angle a uniformly about the fixed line
shall maintain a constant inclination to
2 OQ
OZ and CO A
in the
[
ZOC, must be
x(C  B')cos (3 cos a + j{C A') sin /3 cos a + z(A sin (3 sin a = o, referred to OA, OB, OC as axes.
plane
179.
If the
B')
component angular
in
velocities of a rigid
co x ,
,
body about
a
wy
,
ro 2 ,
v co 2 co 3 and if these coincide respectively with the former at the time t, prove that
to
system fixed
the body be
d 2 w,
dt
2
d 2 w> x
dt
2
dw,
tit
dw,,
z
'
dt
Examine
180.
fixed,
is
this
for
~ in
terms of w x w y
,
co z
body acted on by no
if
forces,
such that
A, B,
moments
of
B.
Show
that
if
6 be the
a harmonic
the invariable
line,
and
the plane of
CA
axis
invariable line
and the
</>
be constant.
A rigid
which
is fixed,
it
If the
lamina be set
in
motion about a
line in
own
:
plane, the
its
moment
of inertia about
its
which
is
O,
show
is
greatest to
least
angular velocity
A+ Q B+
where
and
moments
spiral
bounded by an equiangular
point be the pole,
of
the
the fixed
4
Q:
B+Q
::
cos
27
sin 2 (y
/3)
is
inclined
one principal
initial position of
the instantaneous
2io
182.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
moves around the circumference of a disc of radius r\a and of four times the mass of the ball the disc is supported at its centre and provided with a rim (whose weight may be neglected) sufficient to keep the ball
smooth
ball
of radius a
from falling
that the disc
horizontal,
is
off.
Show
may
giraf
VI:
183.
>~
= a 2 cos2 6,
nodal
the nodal
point
being
its
fixed.
Prove that
its
greatest
least
rigid body,
movable about a
at
fixed point,
point.
If
is
struck a
a given
the angular
possible,
prove that
(
t\B*
where A, B,
J^iA^L
CV m\C
the
AV
c
\
^ o
&J
'
n\A*
C are
moments
of inertia of the
a, b, c
and
/,
;;/,
;/
of the blow.
185.
A square
What must
rotates
may remain
rigid
body
is
its
centre
of inertia,
fixed,
when
the
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
new instantaneous
point must
lie in
2 II
axes of coordinates,
a, b, c
and
/,
m, n the directioncosines of
referred to them.
187.
An
elliptic
is
struck in a direcaxis
tion
perpendicular to
if
plane.
y + x(l^ (l+4
2 )
_ ,2 )2
the angular velocity will be the same, the focus being origin,
latus
and
188.
is initially
o)
show
d$_ =
dt
2
ft)
cot2 e
and
if
this
be when 6 = >
is
show
then equal to
189.
at rest
and
is
struck
a blow perpendicular to
k being the
radii of gyration
about the
2I2
that
if
RIGID DYNAMICS.
ab
lie
on a certain straight
line,
A uniform
<
at a distance c
from the
point, c being
the rod
is
then
let go.
Find the
initial pres
show
is
<K2
4a 3c
191.
f l+ cp
\
am
lamina
in the
is
curve r=a(u7r 2 6 2 )
vertical,
axis
fall in its
is
own
its
plane.
its
centre of inertia
at the pole
and
radius of gyration
= 2 a,
which
An
elliptical
plane.
equilibrium
may
be stable,
oscillation.
vertical, rotates
Show
is
given
by two
the origin being the point where the vertical line, about which
the plain revolves, meets the plane
straight line in the plane
194.
;
the axis of
y being
the
which
is
always horizontal.
The
are con
rest
on a smooth hori
beam
at right
An
impulse
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
is
213
AB
on any hinge.
195.
2
rectangle
is
of lengths
at their ends.
The
rectangle
is
its
centre on a
u>,
when
2 a,
suddenly becomes
fixed.
Show
ately
becomes
r
7<w.
at the point
which
becomes
196.
fixed.
is initially
moves
in a
length.
rod has revolved at the end of any time from the beginning of
the motion.
197.
One
its
mid
perpendicularly to
length,
and
in
hexagon.
initial
lies
on a rough horizontal
plane and perpendicuits
plane,
and a force
applied to
it
in that
from
Show
2
)p from
the
AB is a rod whose end A is fixed and which has an equal rod BC attached at B. Initially the rods AB, BC are in the same straight line, AB being at rest and BC on a smooth
2I4
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Show
that the
is
greatest
cos
1
and
^
respectively.
in a direction parallel to
one
side,
comes
in contact
Determine
at
what point the impact should take place in order that the angular velocity generated may be a minimum.
201.
ties,
Four equal uniform rods, freely jointed at their extremiare lying in the form of a square on a smooth horizontal
table,
when
a blow
is
Find the
initial state of
and prove that during the subsequent motion the angular velocity will
be uniform.
202.
moment on an
imperfectly
rough horizontal table with a velocity v, and at the same time has an angular velocity w round a horizontal diameter, the angle
between the direction
of v
and the
axis of
co
being
a.
if
Prove
ak2 a> 2
203.
+ (a 2
O
k 2 )v(o sin
<(
av2
Two
rods,
OA
fixed in the
same
at
vertical
the
same
be
The ends
if
of a rod
AB
it
of length 2 a
on them.
Show
that
AB
k,
its
be
the time
is
tan 2
ft
2
/fr

\
\
204.
ag cot
rests
One end
of a
heavy rod
against the foot of a vertical wall; the other end rests against a
parallel vertical wall,
it
all
Show
it
that,
through which
will
turn
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
round the common normal
the equation pr(i
is
215
be given by
C,
2 3 cos
"'
,
2N
sm 4> =
where
2 a
the length of the rod and 2 the distance between the walls.
205.
Two
one
rest in
line
on a smooth horizontal
table,
when one
of
them
ini
Determine the
when next
the
206.
One end
of a
can
slide
by a
smooth ring on a
horizontal plane.
The rod descends from a position inclined at an angle /3 to the horizon. Show that the rod will not leave the horizontal plane during the descent, but that its maximum
pressure against
is
it
is
^wcos 2 /3 and
that
its
ultimate pressure
\ w.
207.
in
its
own
plane,
which point
is
fixed in space,
moment
motion.
208.
sphere of radius a
is
Show
axis of
<o.
is
tan 1
being the
209.
the
initial
is
horizontal.
sphere
is
placed on
it
in a position of unstable
2i6
RIGID DYNAMICS.
it
its axis, is
is
of the others
211.
Three
rod of length
length on a
lar to its
velocity v perpendicu
plane, impinges on an
centre.
is
from
its
Show
^.
that
its
angular velocity
213.
when
one edge on
its
allowed to
fall
from
position
tetra
A
/;
a,
centre at a
It
height
is
and an angular
In the case in
a time
velocity
a about a
which 2a 2 D.
>
5 bv,
roll after
2ab(v
l*g(2 a*
+ btt)
+ $&>)'
What
will at that instant
where
/jl
is
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
215.
217
its
slips
down with
extremities in
and
(f)
floor.
Prove that
makes
(& + ^)sin<
and
(
2
2(cos
(it
cos
+ ^)cosflsin<j//2(sh;^
dt
9 ^ ^ = k" sin /i^ (cos sin d>) ag cos A sin $, 2
,
. .
it
dt*
its
radius of gyration
inertia.
A body
the motion
may be
when
the condition
is satisfied.
smooth peg.
Show
motion are
2
.
dh
dt*
fd0\ \dt)
and
where
r
dt
] {
(r2
k2 )
dt
\
)
= gr cos, 0,
and
and
given weight
upon a smooth horizontal table an insect gently laid on the wire and crawls along
elliptic
of
it.
wire and
on the
table.
219.
The
effect of
to
be a sud
2i8
fixed to
RIGID DYNAMICS.
the surface of
the earth, explain
in the half of a
the nature of
the
uniform cylindrical
cut off
and which
same
every point.
body
initially at rest
is
whose
resultant
a single impulse,
show
down
plane.
If the initial
and
final positions of
the
disc rolls
is
an involute of a
cycloid.
222.
circular ring
it
is
free to
move on
smooth horizontal
its
plane on which
lies,
extremities
ring.
set in
and
ring.
223.
allowed to
roll
down an
If
//
inclined
incli
plane which
is
be the
the distance of
/
the
centre
plane,
show
7,
is
that
when
to
the wheel
normal
the
plane, 7
.]
+ hf +
/,
 a + af
J
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
224.
219
is
placed in con
tact with a
is
made
to revolve with a
in itself. If
and
increases
indefinitely,
1
:
the
ratio
of
the
to
the
pressure approximates to
225.
V35.
A free
to its plane.
Show
applied be a straight
(ii)
the locus be a
spontaneous axis
will
be a tangent to an
ellipse
in the
226.
down under
which
If 2 a
the planes which are equally inclined to the horizon, and with
their line of intersection
makes an angle
is
j3,
show
that the
to
sin /3 v 5 sin
cr.
'
227.
in contact,
each
is
then placed
so as to be supported
by the other
show
of the
and each
other three
is
Also deter
sphere
is
in contact,
and these
in the
position of equilibrium.
Show
the spheres be
left to
them
220
selves, the
RIGID DYNAMICS.
pressure on the upper sphere
its
is
instantaneouslv
diminished to sixsevenths of
229.
former amount.
table.
If
one
point of
line
be constrained
table,
to
a straight
on the
show
diameter and
upon a rough,
inelastic
board which
is
moving
in
Find the
231.
initial
and
its
path afterwards.
If the velocities of
of a rigid
body be
may be
represented
of axes,
infinite
number
and
233.
A A
free ellipsoid
is
its
surface.
Show
234.
no axis of spontaneous
rotation.
free rigid
body
is
at a certain
its
moment
in a state of
centre of inertia,
when another
axis
three
directions
of
the
original
instantaneous
it,
and that
235.
little
is
the
plane
vertical
and
is
rolling along
perfectly rough
horizontal plane.
The
squirrel
makes
stant altitude above the horizontal plane and selects his place
on the hoop so as
to travel
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
being the weight of the squirrel and
inclination of the squirrel's distance
to the vertical
is
221
tri
hoop
equal to cos 1 n
\m + 2m')
236.
tal
A
;
rests
on a rough horizon
plane
beam
sliding through
two smooth
order
rings in the
same
upon
it
relatively to the
to the
communicated
may be
Two
extremity of
may
begin to
move
is
as
if it
were
rigid.
heavy beam
inclined plane
and
is left
beam be perpendicular to the inclined motion of the beam and the pressure on the
plane
239.
when
disc rolls
upon a
its flat
Show
64 fi
where v
is
the
initial velocity of
/z
the coefficient
of friction
240.
in
body
at rest
must be struck
order that
241.
may
A uniform
bar
constrained to
move with
its
extremities
at right angles to
is
under the
a small oscillation
position of rest.
when
the bar
is
slightly displaced
from the
222
242.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
of
whose generating
circle
4 with
is
is
mounted
its
moves
zontal.
an angle of 45
over
so
if
to the hori
equal to
that of the
laid
it
as
to
be
in
equilibrium
when
of
the cycloid
supported;
the support be
mencement
it
is
maximum
at a
a =(96
 ^)s 
32
VO  s
2
2
).
243.
inertia
;
body
is
its
centre of
If the
becomes
fixed.
new
show
is
a rectangular hyperbola.
244.
to
it
in
and length
2 a has attached
b.
a particle of
mass/ by
is
a string of length
The
rod and
and the
particle
the string.
2 sin"
12 b
at the instant is
v
a
+b
rough sphere
is
and moves under an acceleration tending to a point in the plane and varying as the distance from that point. Show that the
centre of the sphere will describe an ellipse, and find
its
com
in
freely jointed
together at
and
C, are lying in a
straight line on a
smooth
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
horizontal plane and a given impulse
of
is
223
BC
at right angles to
BC
BC
and
with
when each
makes an angle
with
it,
and
C make
BC angles
247.
0).
Three equal uniform straight lines, AB, BC, CD, freelyjointed together at B and C, are placed in a straight line on a
smooth horizontal plane and one of the outside rods receives a
given impulse in a direction perpendicular to
midpoint.
its
length at
the
its
stresses
on
hinges
homogeneous
right
co
circular
cylinder of
radius
a,
its
about
its axis, is
placed with
its
rotation
tends to
move
up the plane.
If a
period
1
T=
2
<f
and that
equal to
i
*.
its
sin a
is
2rf _^ sin
a
249.
radius.
I.
hoop
is
hung upon
is
is
of a small oscillation
II.
When When
the cylinder
the cylinder
rough.
smooth.
250.
tion of a rigid
inertia at the
=
G
it,
dt
v0a 3
2O0 O etc., 2
,
= 1
A
dt
co
(i)o0 3 2 *
+ (0o0o, 3
l
etc.
v,
:o
moving
V
in space,
2, Z
224
RIGID DYNAMICS.
M,
and
N their
A
its
G the
axis
mass
of the body,
inertia.
251.
to
it
a has attached
length
/;
a particle of
mass
f>
by means
is
a string of
the rod and string are placed in one straight line on a smooth
horizontal plane, and the particle
Prove, then,
when
the rod
6,
cf)
with their
initial positions,
dt
dt
^
3
?;
\dt)
where
252.
ft
= a2
^+
IP
sphere of radius a
roll
is
plane so as partly to
and partly
If
the
initial
about a hori<c
make an angle
latter,
show
when
perfect
tan"
1
i
2 aco cos a
5
i'
2 au> sin a
homogeneous sphere roll on a perfectly rough plane under the action of any forces whatever, of which the resultant
253.
If a
passes through the centre of the sphere, the motion of the centre
of inertia will be the
same
as
if
all
and the
plane
254.
is
;;/
slides
on a uniform rod of
mass M.
rod which
of the ring at
any point
of the
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
If
225
rod, the
when
the ring
its
is
distant c
is
angle at which
path
\
show
that
it
centre.
A
c,
W and length
fine vertical
c
is
supported
of
in a horizontal position
by two
threads, each
length
and each
is
attached at a distance
is
of the rod.
The rod
slightly displaced
is
by the action
horizontal couple
whose moment
move
Show
that the
256.
centre perpendicular to
tion
plane,
is
of the motion
never
to the
first,
radius,
and
to its
angular velocity.
a smooth horizontal plane,
257.
and has the other suspended from a point above the plane by a
weightless, inextensible string; the
beam
is
slightly displaced in
oscil
the plane of
lation.
string.
226
2 5 8.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Find the condition that a free
rigid
body
in
motion
may
is
made
to rotate
sphere
is
P so
in
same
velocity
direction
and magnitude as
at a point Q.
if
freely
on the plane
Show
that
OR
is
parallel
is
such
260.
If a free rigid
that a line of points will also be at rest, and determine the con
may
rest.
261.
inertia
free rigid
body
of
mass
111
is
at rest, its
its
moments
of
centre of inertia
being A, B,
to
through
prove that
velocity
is
LX MY NZ
Am
I? A*
X,
Y,
Bui
J/
Cm
.V x
'
B2
MN
t
the com
it,
placed on a
its
is
then
it
left to itself.
Find
when
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
263.
227
Two
free joint
plane
and placed in one straight line on a smooth horizontal one of them is struck perpendicularly to its length at its
Show
that
is
the
linear
communicated
blow
to its
centre
of inertia
onefourth
it
by a
In
similar
if
the
cos" 1 ^.
AB, BC,
CD
is
straight line on a
and
a blow
Show
that
if co
be the
initial
angular velocity of
AB
or
BC at
dd
dt
time
/,
=
l
co
V( +
sin 2 #)'
'
265.
A
is
it
plane
which
be the
dis
tances from the centre of inertia of the lamina of this point and
of the line of action of the
blow respectively,^'
= k2
where k
is
through
266.
its
centre of inertia.
circular lamina
whose surface
is
rough
is
capable of
its
centre perpendicular
and a
If the
particle
lamina
is
attached to
whose mass is equal to that of the the axis by an inelastic string and rests on
in its
the lamina.
own
plane,
whose wheels are equal and body horizontal is proceeding steadily along a level rough road. Obtain equations for determining the instantaneous impulses on the machine
267.
bicycle
when
angle
is
228
RIGID DYNAMICS.
that the initial
Show
is
propor
268.
The
of weight
W are a
and
is
b,
and
W.
and
a.
The
reit
suspended weight
through
also
balancing power be
to fall,
show that
in time
Show how
to
rotating mass
by observations
its
the instantaneous
direction
cosines of points on
lar
axes,
and
i.e.
dt
etc.
How
many such
270.
sphere composed of an
is
infinite
number
of infinitely
rotating about a
common
axis
under no
Assuming
one
at
tive external
velocity
from the
axis,
obtain the
equation
kr
rco
any
of this
t^w
=/{
where/ is an
arbitrary function.
271.
a
Qgg with its axis horizontal is rolling steadily round rough vertical cone of semivertical angle a. The shape,
An
weight,
moment
find
A vertical, double,
a.
elastic,
wire helix
is
is
rigidlv attached at
0 retain
constrained
same radius
\m additional
c.
When in equilibrium the tangent angle is a. weight Mgd or a torsion couple MgaO, can alter
t
into a
0.
If
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
through an angle, show that the time of a small oscillation
be 2t7\
N
{
229
will
(cos a
+ sin a)
3
>
)
where
m
and
of
Four
are placed in one plane with their centres at the four corners
of a square of
= 2 a.
They
attract
is
one another
A blow
given to one
them
in
and
from
its
centre.
is
The hinge
line.
The rod can move freely about a hinge at P. constrained to move up and down in a vertical
If the
Q moves
in a horizontal line,
determine the velocity when the rod has any given inclination,
the rod being supposed to start from rest in a horizontal position.
=PQs/$
.
of a complete oscillation
is
(2 of
2 7r)f (T^)
circular
equal radii a
are
made
of the
same
is
which
is
perfectly rough.
Their
by a
aV$.
The
semicircular
its
The
and
It is
disturbed from
it
its
position of equilibrium.
plane
its
angular velocity
= "Vl^
)
2/6.
ity,
A uniform rod,
by means
to
of a string of length /
abandoned freely
when
inclined at an angle to
230
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
vertical.
initial
*
path
9/
;;/ 
1.
+2p
cos 3 a
.
sin(2
3 sin2 a)'
is
m and/
277.
To
c,
fastened a hoop of
friction.
radius
which
rough
inside,
/x
spun with
initial
angu
n and
its
centre
is
by
friction.
Show
that after
=
arvanfc*
the hoop.
278.
An
elephant
rolls a
directly
to the horizon,
by balancing himself
from
Show
that, the
he
will
move
g
a
'
ifsin a (E+S)s'ml3
Ecos(a + /3)+E+^S'
commencement
of the
where
motion.
279.
is
circular disc of
mass
M and
radius r can
move about
fine
a fixed point
is
in its circumference,
it
and an endless
;;/,
string
wound round
which
is initially
projected from the disc at the other end of the diameter through
disc,
which
is
then at
rest.
Show
when
unwound
(3
is
tended
at the point
an angle
(/3tan/3+i)cos2 /3+
= m
o,
disc
is
'
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
280.
231
uniform rod
the
which
is fixed,
AB can turn freely about the end A, end B being attached to the point C, distant c
elastic string
vertically
to
above A, by an
its
double
If the rod
be
when
small
v(
b, is
)>
where p
is
string in equilibrium.
281.
A
it
radii are a
and
and
outside,
and has
inside
in
When
table,
prove that
where
M and
cylinder respectively,
the
angle the
hollow cylinder
has
/.
282.
fixed at
one end,
is
tied to a
uniform
inertia.
The
plane
initially at
from the
fixed point
in the
of the lamina
and perpendicular
maximum, the
is
775
mv2c
K775
2c(b+c)
.,
,
MK
moment
283.
t.ble
centre,
which
is fixed,
a circular groove
If a
heavy
particle
be projected along
the groove, supposed rough, with given velocity, find the time
ii
which the
(ii)
particle will
make
a complete revolution
(i)
in
space,
232
284.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
Four equal
rods,
each of mass
and length
/,
are con
rhombus.
is
its
its
show
form
of the
system
285.
2it\\[
J.
m
of
rolls
along a
plane in
lowest point.
Show
\,
same
\(m
as that of a simple
+ P)a2 + mk2
286.
movable about
with
a
axis
fixed vertically,
without
friction.
axis in order
may have no
from
rest
vertical motion.
/ of
sphere
rolls
when
show
sequent velocity
less
than
it
the whole
;//
120,
show
in
is
than
it
A rough
sphere
is
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
the sphere the
is
233
and
in
same
distance.
289.
vertical
AB
is
capable of rotating in a
its
middle
If
point C, and
upon
it
find
how long
again.
290.
beam
its
of the sphere.
vertical plane,
""vf^ )
291.
its
middle points,
elastic strings,
has
its
by
AB.
squirrel
it
about
its axis,
which
At
the instant
when he
is
at
Determine
of a fixed cone,
whose
axis
is
vertical
vertical diameter
is
centre,
axis,
sweeps
Show
(fi/i
5^ sin
cos
2 cy cos
234
RIGID DYNAMICS.
is
where
the semivertical
angle, 7
the
constant angular
is
and h
in a unit of time.
A thin
circular disc
is
set rotating
its
on a smooth horizontal
centre perpendicular to
in a
horizontal velocity
Supposing the
on a
is
area,
ct
any time
is
(1 e~
c
i't
of gravity
moves through
a space
{\c~
c
).
frictional
resistance
295.
ring, its
= cifima.
of length 2 a passes through a small fixed
to
A uniform rod
Show
move
in a horizontal
straight groove.
pendulum
will
be
',
where
is
homogeneous
its
solid
of
rapidity about
axis of figure,
which
constrained to
move
in
the meridian.
and determine
297.
ra{ +cos
1
0),
initial line,
Show
B=
is
measured by
length.
298.
^V^'W^o)2
where
>ti
is
Show
is
ellipsoid
?
of inertia
a sphere.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
299.
235
uniform sphere
is
acted on by a
force the direction of which always meets the axis of the cone
at right angles
of
axis.
the sphere
it lies
same
300.
sphere of radius a
/
is
a string of length
and
is
co.
made
Prove that
position, the
make
small
mean
Xcos
{kt
+ M),
{!k 2
of
of the
equation
301.
g) (k 2 wk
\=
string of
body is attached to a fixed point by a weightless length /, which is connected with the body by a socket
rigid
on
its
its
centre of
or a
maximum
minimum,
velocity
tight,
co
= k,
meets
it.
The body
is
go,
making an angle a with the vertical), and being then let show that it will ultimately revolve with uniform angular
velocity
302.
show
}
rod.
236
303.
RIGID DYNAMICS.
A
its
cir
set spinning
about
axis of figure,
It is
which
is
vertical.
or to rise according as
tan a
>
or
<
,
where b
end.
304.
is
AB
of length a
is
is
;
capable of
which
fixed
the end
is
suspended from a
length
c.
C by
at rest
slightly disturbed.
Find
in
which the
line
AC is
vertical.
b,
Show
a time
its
initial
u/\ cos;//),
r>rvc
=
2 7b
1 2
Show
may
be main\2b1r
heavy particle
is
an Archi
vertical
axis.
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J.
LOUDON
and
J.
C.
Demonstrators
Cloth.
8vo.
pp. 302.
$1.90 net.
number, some difficulty is experienced in providing, during a limited time, ample instruction in the matter of details and methods. During the past few years we ourselves have had such difficulties with large classes; and that is our reason for the appearance of the present work, which is the natural
outcome of our experience. We know that it will be of service to our own students, and hope that it will be appreciated by those engaged in teaching Experimental
Physics elsewhere.
dents
The book contains a series of elementary experiments specially adapted for stuwho have had but little acquaintance with higher mathematical methods: these
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and of such a nature that the most of them can be performed by beginners in the study of Physics; those in Heat, although not requiring more than an ordinary acquaintance with Arithmetic, are more tedious and apt to test the patience of the experimenter; while the course in Electricity and Magnetism has been arranged to illustrate the fundamental laws of the mathematical theory, and involves a good working knowledge of the Calculus.
in Acoustics are simple,
The experiments
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