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# Proceedings of UGC sponsored National seminar on Recent trends in Fuzzy set theory, Rough set theory and Soft

set theory at Uluberia College on 23rd and 24th September, 2011. ISBN 978-81922305-5-9, pp. 9 - 12.

## An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta

The aim of this paper is to construct a topology on a soft set. Also the concepts of soft base, soft subbase are introduced and some important theorems are established.

Abstract.

Keywords: soft set, soft topology, soft base, soft subbase. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classication: 11B05, 06D72.

1. Introduction and Preliminaries D. A. Molodtsov[3] introduced the notion of soft set in 1999 as a mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. He also dened some important operation on soft set such as null soft set, soft subset, soft equality, soft union, soft intersection etc. Later on these denitions have been modied in the paper [2] to dene a topology on a soft set and depending upon these modied denition, in this paper we have established a few theorems relative to base and subbase. Throughout the work, U refers to an initial universe, E is the set of parameters, P (U ) is the power set of U and A E. Denition 1.1. [2] A soft set FA on the universe U is dened by the set of ordered pairs FA = {(x, FA (x)) : x E, FA (x) P (U )} where FA : E P (U ) such that FA (x) = if x is not an element of A. The set of all soft sets over U is denoted by S(U ). Denition 1.2. [2] Let FA S(U ). If FA (x) = , for all x E, then FA is called a empty soft set, denoted by . FA (x) = means that there is no element in U related to the parameter x E. Denition 1.3. [2] Let FA , GB S(U ). We say that FA is a soft subsets of GB and we write FA GB if and only if (i) A B (ii) FA (x) GB (x) for all x E. Denition 1.4. [2] Let FA , GB S(U ). Then FA and GB are said to be soft equal, denoted by FA = GB if FA (x) = GB (x) for all x E. Denition 1.5. [2] Let FA , GB S(U ). Then the soft union of FA and GB is also a soft set FA GB = HAB S(U ), dened by HAB (x) = (FA GB )(x) = FA (x) GB (x) for all x E. Denition 1.6. [2] Let FA , GB S(U ). Then the soft intersection of FA and GB is also a soft set FA GB = HAB S(U ), dened by HAB (x) = (FA GB )(x) = FA (x) GB (x) for all x E. In 2011, N. Cagman has dened a topology on soft set as follows:

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces Denition 1.7. [1] Let FA S(U ). A soft topology on FA , denoted by soft subsets of FA having the following properties: (i) , FA (ii) {FAi FA : i I N} iI FAi (iii) {FAi FA : 1 i n, n N} n FAi i=1

, is a collection of

In the denition 1.7, N. Cagman has considered that is closed under countable union. But in the denition of a topology , it is usually considered that is closed under arbitrary union, which has not been considered in the denition 1.7. In fact, the symbol, used in the denition 1.7 to represent the members of , does not bear the meaning properly. It is claried in the following example: Let E = {e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 }, A = {e1 , e2 , e3 } and U = {u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 , u5 } Let FA S(U ) such that FA (x) = U for all x A. Then the collection = { , FA , { (e1 , {u1 }), (e2 , {u2 }) }, { (e1 , {u1 , u3 }), (e2 , {u2 , u3 }) }, { (e1 , {u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 }), (e2 , {u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 }), (e3 , U ), (e4 , U ) } } of soft subsets of FA is a soft topology on FA . Now if we like to denote the members of according to the above denition, then it is not possible to represent the third and fourth members of simultaneously. To avoid this diculties, we rst redene the soft topology in section 2 and thereafter we establish the soft base, soft subbase and a few important theorems related to these concepts.

2. Soft topological space In this section we introduce some basic denitions and theorems of soft topological spaces. Denition 2.1. A soft topology on soft set FA is a family of soft subsets of FA satisfying the following properties (i) , FA (ii) If GB , HC , then GB HC (iii) If FA for all , an index set, then FA If is a soft topology on a soft set FA , the pair (FA , ) is called the soft topological space. Denition 2.2. If sets in (FA , ).

## is called soft open

Denition 2.3. A collection of some soft subsets of FA is called a soft open base or simply a base for some soft topology on FA if the following conditions hold: (i) . (ii) = FA i.e., for each e A and x FA (e), there exists GB such that x GB (e), where B A. (iii) If GB , HC then for each e B C and x (GB HC )(e) = GB (e) HC (e) there exists ID such that ID GB HC and x ID (e), where D B C. Theorem 2.4. Let be a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Suppose consists of those soft subset GB of FA for which corresponding to each e B and x GB (e), there exists HC such that HC GB and x HC (e), where C B. Then is a soft topology on FA . Proof: We have by default. Again by denition of soft base, we have for each e A and x FA (e), there exists GB 10

Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces such that x GB (e), B A. So FA . Now let GB , HC . Then for each e B C and x GB (e) HC (e), there exists GB , HC , where B B and C C such that GB GB , HC HC and also x GB (e), x HC (e). Let ID = GB HC , where D = B C . Then obviously x ID (e). Thus for e B C and x (GB HC )(e), there exists ID such that ID GB HC and x ID (e). So GB HC . Again let FA , for all , an index set. Let GB = FA , e B and x GB (e), where B = A . Then there exists such that x FA (e). Since FA and x FA (e), there exists HC such that HC FA and x HC (e) i.e., HC GB and x HC (e). Therefore GB i.e., FA Hence is a soft topology on FA . Denition 2.5. Suppose is a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Then , described in above theorem, is called the soft topology generated by and is called the soft base for . Theorem 2.6. Let be a soft base for a soft topology on FA . Then GB if and only if GB = G , where G for each , an index set. B B Proof: Since every member of is also a member of , we have any union of members of is a member of . Conversely, let GB . If GB = , the proof of the theorem is obvious. x e If GB is not equal to , for each e B and x GB (e), there exists XBe with Be B x e e GB and x XBe (e) [ here we shall choose X corresponding to x]. Such that XBe x x x x Since each Be B, eB {xGB (e) Be } B. x x x Again for each e B, there exists Be such that e Be . So B eB {xGB (e) Be }. x Therefore B = eB {xGB (e) Be }. e Let HB = eB { xGB (e) XBe } x Now it is enough to show that HB = GB . e Obviously, HB GB as each XBe GB . x a a a GB and y YBa (a). Let a B and y GB (a). Then we have YBa such that YBa y y y a Again since YBa HB . Therefore y HB (a) y Thus GB (a) HB (a) for all a B. So, GB HB Hence HB = GB . This completes the proof. Theorem 2.7. Let (FA , ) be a soft topological space and be a sub collection of such that every member of is a union of some members of . Then is a soft base for the soft topology on FA . Proof: Since , . Again since FA and every member of is a soft subset of FA , FA = . Let GA1 , HA2 . Then GA1 , HA2 GA1 HA2 . Then there exist BC , such that GA1 HA2 = {BC : } obviously each BC GA1 HA2 . Now let e A1 A2 and x (GA1 HA2 )(e). Then x {BC (e) : }. So there exists such that x BC (e). Therefore for each e A1 A2 and x (GA1 HA2 )(e), there exists BC such that 11

## Sanjay Roy, T. K. Samanta/An Introduction of a Soft Topological Spaces

BC GA1 HA2 and x BC (e). Hence is a soft base for the soft topology

on FA .

Denition 2.8. A collection of members of a soft topology is said to be subbase for if and only if the collection of all nite intersections of members of is a base for . Theorem 2.9. A collection of soft subsets of FA is a subbase for a suitable soft topology on FA if and only if (i) or is the intersection of a nite number of members of . (ii) FA = .

Proof: First let is a subbase for and be a base generated by . Since , either or is expressible as an intersection of nitely many members of . Let e A and x FA (e). Since = FA , there exists GB such that x GB (e). Again i since GB , there exists SBi , i = 1, 2, , n n i such that GB = i=1 SBi i i Therefore x n SBi (e) x SBi (e), for each i = 1, 2, , n i=1 Hence FA = . Conversely let be a collection of some soft subsets of FA satisfying the conditions (i) and (ii). Let be the collection of all nite intersections of members of . Now it is enough to show that forms base for a suitable soft topology. Since is the collection of all nite intersections of members of , by assumption (i) we get and by (ii) we get = FA . Again let GB , HC Since GB , there exist Gi i , for i = 1, 2, , n such that GB = n Gi i , where i=1 B B B = n Bi i=1 j Again since HC , there exists HCj , for j = 1, 2, , m such that HC =
j m j=1 HCj ,

where C = m Cj j=1

## j Therefore GB HC = ( n Gi i ) ( m HCj ) . i=1 B j=1 i.e., GB HC . This completes the proof.

References
[1] N. Cagman, S. Karatas, S. Enginoglu, Soft topology, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 62(2011) 351-358. [2] N. Cagman, S. Enginoglu, Soft set theory and uniint decision making, European Journal of Operational Research 207 (2010) 848-855. [3] D.Molodtsov, Soft set theory-First results, Computers and Mathematics with Applications 37(4-5) (1999) 19-31.

Sanjay Roy (sanjaypuremath@gmail.com) Department of Mathematics, South Bantra Ramkrishna Institution, West Bengal, India

T.K. Samanta (mumpu tapas5@yahoo.co.in) Department of Mathematics, Uluberia College, West Bengal, India

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