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SUNYseriesinKoreanStudies SungBaePark,editor

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TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment
KoreanBuddhism'sGuidetoMeditation (WithCommentarybytheSonMonkKihwa)
TranslatedandwithanIntroductionby A.CharlesMuller
StateUniversityofNewYorkPress

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Publishedby StateUniversityofNewYorkPress,Albany 1999StateUniversityofNewYork Allrightsreserved PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica Nopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoever withoutwrittenpermission.Nopartofthisbookmaybestoredinaretrieval systemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansincludingelectronic, electrostatic,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orother wisewithoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisher. Forinformation,addresstheStateUniversityofNewYorkPress, StateUniversityPlaza,Albany,NY12246 ProductionbyMarilynPSemerad MarketingbyDanaE.Yanulavich LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData Tafangkuangyuanchuehhsiutololiaoiching.English&Chinese TheSutraofperfectenlightenment:KoreanBuddhism'sguideto meditationwiththecommentarybytheSonMonkKihwa/ACharles Muller. p.cm.(SUNYseriesinKoreanstudies) Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex. ISBN0791441016 ISBN0791441024(pbk.) I.Muller,A.Charles,1953.II.Kihwa,13761433.Taebanggwang won'gaksudarayouikyongsorui.English.1999.III.Title.IV. Series. BQ2232.E5M851999 294.3'85dc21 9839738 CIP 10987654321

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CONTENTS
Preface AbbreviationsandConventions Introduction WhatIstheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment? ChineseOriginsandEffects TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentinKoreaBeforeKihwa Kihwa(HamhoTukt'ong) TheSPEafterKihwa:TheChosonPeriod TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentToday OverviewoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment Translation Kihwa'sIntroduction 1.MajusriBodhisattva 2.SamantabhadraBodhisattva 3.UniversalVisionBodhisattva 4.VajragarbhaBodhisattva 5.MaitreyaBodhisattva 6.PureWisdomBodhisattva 7.PowerandVirtueUnhinderedBodhisattva 8.VoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattva 9.PurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattva 10.UniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattva 11.PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva 12.MostExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva Appendix:Kihwa'sRevisedEditionoftheSutra Notes WorksCited Index vii xi 1 3 4 16 24 35 37 40 49 51 70 86 100 121 136 153 166 182 198 217 228 240 247 287 307 317

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PREFACE
IfirstcameacrosstheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment(SPE)attheoutsetofmygraduatestudiesinEastAsianBuddhismattheUniversityofVirginia,where,inthe courseofmyreadingoflateT'angandSungCh'anworks,Ifoundthesutracitedwithfrequency.SomefurtherinvestigationledmetounderstandthattheSPEwas oneofthemostimportantdocumentsinthehistoryoftheCh'antraditionthatithadlongservedasadefinitiveguidetomeditationpractice,andthatithadbeen studiedandextensivelycommentedonbyanumberofCh'anluminaries,notleastofwhomwasTsungmi,theinfluentialT'angdynastyscholarmonk.Knowingthis,I wonderedatthefactthatasidefroma1962translationbyCharlesLuk,therewasalmostnothingelsetobefoundonthesutraintheEnglishlanguage.Myinterestthus aroused,Ibegantostudythetextinearnest,alongwithitsvariouscommentariesanditshistoricalbackgroundandbeganmyinitialworkattheEnglishtranslation presentedhere. In1988,IbeganthesecondstageofmygraduatestudiescareerintheprograminKoreanStudiesatSUNYStonyBrook,whereIhadtheopportunitytoworkin somedepthontheSPEtogetherwithSungBaePark,oneoftheworld'sforemostauthoritiesonKoreanBuddhism.ItwasinthiscircumstancethatIwasintroduced tothemajorKoreancommentaryontheSPE,thatbytheKoryoChosonmonkKihwa.ReadingKihwa'scommentary,Ifoundbothitsliterarystyleanditsreligious insighttobeexceptional,tothepointwherereadingthecommentarywasinmanyplacesmoresatisfyingthanthesutraitself,andsoIbecamenewlyabsorbedinthe studyofthesutrainconjunctionwiththiscommentary.FurtherinvestigationrevealedthattheSPEheldanevenmoreprominentplaceinKoreanSonthanithadin ChineseCh'an,asfromroughlythetimeofthethirteenthcenturyithadbeeninstalledasoneofthebasictextsusedintheKoreanmonasticeducationalsystem,

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apositionfromwhichitwouldneverbedisplaced.ThisworkalsoledmetodeeperinvestigationintotheoeuvreofKihwa,oneofthemostinfluentialscholarmonksin KoreanBuddhisthistory.IendedupdoingmydissertationonKihwa,andpresentlyhaveotherprojectsinprogressconcerninghisworks.Uponcompletingmy dissertation,IwasfortunateenoughtoreceiveagrantallowingmeaperiodofconcentratedandsecludedstudyinKorea,duringwhichtimeIreturnedwithfull attentiontotheSPEandKihwa'scommentary,finallycompletingmydrafttranslationofthecombinedtext. ItismyhopethatthiscombinedtranslationandcommentarywillprovideavaluableresourceforstudentsandscholarsofEastAsianmeditativeBuddhismwhowishto deepentheirunderstandingofitsfoundationalphilosophicalandsoteriologicaltheories,aswellasbroadentheirunderstandingofwhatisimpliedbytheconceptof "Ch'an/Son/Zenpractice."ThisworkshouldalsohelptodeepengeneralscholarlyknowledgeaboutKoreanSon,especiallytherolethatscripturalstudyhasplayedin thattradition.AndsincethesituationoftheshamefulneglectofKoreanBuddhistmaterialshasstillnotchangedthatmuchsinceitfirstbegantobenotedinWestern scholarshipadecadeorsoago,Ihopethatthistranslation,aswellastheintroduction,whichcontainsanextensivediscussionofcertainaspectsofKoreanBuddhist history,willhelpinasmallwaytocorrectthisdeficiency. Finally,thistranslationshouldalsoserveasausefulguidetothosewhoarepursuingCh'an/Son/Zenpractice,asitispackedfullofconcreteadviceonBuddhist philosophy,meditation,monasticconduct,andsoforth,presentedinaformatthatsimplycannotbefoundinpresentlyexistingworksonZeninWesternlanguages.Up tothepresent,ZenpractitionersintheWesthavehadlittleotherthankoancollectionsorthesermonsoftheirlocalteacherstoserveastheirguide,sothiswork shouldhelptofillinthisgap.InstudyingtheSPE,suchpractitionerswillhaveaccesstotheinstructionofoneofthemostauthoritativeandenduringmeditationmanuals intheentiretradition. Ihavetothank,morethananyoneelseonthecompletionofthiswork,mylongtimementoratSUNYStonyBrook,SungBaePark,whofromthetimeofourfirst meetingduringmyundergraduatedaystothecompletionofmygraduatestudieshassparked,energized,andcontinuallyhelpedmetoreclarifymyinterestin,and understandingof,EastAsianBuddhism.ItishewholedmetothetreasuretroveofthefieldofKoreanBuddhism,andIlookforwardtoworkingwithhimfurtherin thevitallyimportanttaskofopeningupthisareaofknowledgetotheEnglishspeakingworld. IamalsoindebtedtoRobertSiegel,themanagingeditoroftheKoreanStudiesseriesatStonyBrook,whoinoverseeingtheearlyproduction

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ofthemanuscript,offeredvaluablesuggestionsforitsimprovement.IwouldalsoliketooffermyheartfeltthankstoJinYoungPark,whocarefullycheckedmy translation,andsavedmefrommuchpossibleembarrassment.ValuablecorrectionsandsuggestionsontheintroductionweremadebymycolleaguehereatToyo Gakuen,BrianMcVeigh.Themainpartofthetranslationwascompletedduringmystayin1994attheAcademyofKoreanStudies,withthegenerousfinancial supportoftheKoreaFoundation,andIwouldliketothankbothoftheseorganizationsfortheirsupport.Finally,muchthanksaredeservedbymywifeMaki,whohas supportedmeincountlesswaysduringthelongprocessoffinishingthiswork. CoverArt:Calligraphy"SutraofPerfectEnlightenment"byMasatsugu Miyaji(Osaka,Japan)

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ABBREVIATIONSANDCONVENTIONS
AMFTreatiseontheAwakeningofMahayanaFaith(Tashengch'ihsinlun CYCCompilationofYungchiaoftheCh'anSchool(Ch'antsungYungchiachi DS ) ) ) ) )

HPCHan'gukpulgyochonso(TheCollectedTextsofKoreanBuddhism SHMSutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhi(Suramgamasutra,Shoulengyenching SPESutraofPerfectEnlightenment(Yanchehching TTaishoshinshudaizokyo ZDainihonzokuzokyo )

TermsthatareoriginallyofSanskritoriginbutthatarenowincludedinEnglishlanguagedictionarieswillnotnormallybediacriticalized,unlessthesituationcallsforit. Forexample,thetermsutrawillnotbediacriticalizedingeneralcircumstances,norwillitbediacriticalizedinEnglishtitlesofscriptures,suchasPlatformSutra.But itwillbediacriticalizedinthecontextoftheSanskrittitleofatext,suchasVajrasamadhisutra. ChinesereadingsofSinoKoreanlogographsareromanizedintheWadeGilessystemandKoreanisromanizedwithMcCuneReischauer.Inthecasewhereboth readingsaregiven,theChineseislistedfirstandKoreansecond.Forexample:chieh/kye.

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INTRODUCTION

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WhatIstheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment?
TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment(Ch.Yanchehching [SPE])1 isaBuddhistscripturethathasitsoriginswithintheCh'anandHuayencirclesof learning,probablycomposedinChinaaroundthebeginningoftheeighthcentury.TheSPEwasextremelypopularandinfluentialwithinthemeditationoriented BuddhistschoolsofEastAsia:firstinChineseCh'an,whereitsinfluencewasconsiderable,andthenlaterinKoreanSon,whereitgrewinpopularitytotheextentthat itwasmadepartoftheofficialmonasticcurriculumofthemainKoreanschool,theChogye.TheSPEalsohadsomeinfluenceinJapan,althoughitneverreceivedthe kindofattentionfromtheZenschoolstherethatitdidinChinaandKorea. Thehighdegreeofinfluenceandpopularityofthisscripturecanbeattributedtotwomainfactors.ThefirstisthedistinctlyEastAsianmetaphysicaldimensionofits soteriology,astheSPEcontains,inatightlyorganizedformat,focuseddiscussionsofthemostimportanttheoreticalissuesconcerningthenatureofenlightenmentthat wereattheforeoftheEastAsianBuddhistconsciousnessatitsperiodofmaturation.Thesearediscussedthroughconceptualframeworksthathavetheirantecedents inEastAsianindigenousBuddhisttextssuchastheAwakeningofMahayanaFaithandVajrasamadhisutra,inindigenousschoolssuchasT'ient'aiandHuayen, aswellasinthepreBuddhistthoughtsystemsofConfucianismandTaoism. ThesecondistheSPE'shighlypracticalandconciseorientation:muchofitscontentconsistsofdirectinstructiononmattersofmeditationandotherrelatedreligious issues,suchasmonasticritual,confession,themeansofselectingaproperteacher,howtomaintainaproperrelationshipwithsuchateacher,andsoon.Alarge portionofthemeditationrelatedexplanationsarenotmerelydescriptive,butperformative,whichmeansthatthereadingofsuchpassagesisinitselfameditative

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exercise.TheSPEdoesnotonlyexplaintoitsreaderthephilosopythatgroundsthe''asillusionsamadhi"itdirectlyleadshim/herthroughanexerciseaimedatits attainmentinthecourseofreading. TheintroductiontotheSPEofferedinthefollowingpageswillservetoframethebackgroundofthescripture,intermsofthecircumstancesofitsproduction,its doctrinal/practicalcontent,anditsseminalroleinthedevelopmentofsubsequentEastAsian,andespeciallyKorean,Buddhistmeditativepractice.Thisintroduction willbefollowedbythemainsegmentofthepresentwork:atranslationofthesutraalongwiththefullcommentarybytheinfluentialChosonKoreanmonkKihwa.

ChineseOriginsandEffects
TheProductionofIndigenousScriptures AssimilationofBuddhisminEastAsia. TheperiodoftimethatittookforBuddhismtobecomefullyassimilatedandstabilizedthroughouttheentireEastAsianregionwasratherlongatleastseven centuries.Thatsuchalengthoftimewasrequiredisduetotwogeneralcircumstances:(1)thewidediversityanddeepcomplexityoftheBuddhistteachings,and(2) theconsiderableculturalandlinguisticdistancethatlaybetweenthepeoplesoftheIndianandtheEastAsianregions. Thislongperiodofassimilationcan,forthesakeofthepresentdiscussion,beroughlydividedintothreeperiodsofearly,middle,andlate.Theearlyperiod,from aroundthefirstthroughthirdcenturies,wasthetimeduringwhichtheinitialstudiesandtranslationsofBuddhisttextswerebeingundertaken,butwhereinBuddhism was,forthemostpart,onlypartiallyandpoorlyunderstood.Duringthemiddleperiod,fromapproximatelythefourththroughthesixthcenturies,thetaskoftranslation ofthemajorityoftheimportantIndianscriptureswascompleted,withtheworkofinterpretationandcategorizationofthesematerialswellonitsway.Thisallowedfor theformationofdistinctsectsbasedoncertainIndianscripturaltraditions,suchastheSanlun,Nirvana(sutra),andSatyasiddhisects.Duringthelateperiod,fromthe middleofthesixththroughtheninthcenturies,adramaticnewchapterunfolded,withtheappearanceofnew,indigenouslyoriginatedschoolsofBuddhism,whose leadersbegantoarticulatenewinterpretationsofthebuddhadharmathataccordedmorefullywithnativeEastAsianmetaphysicalandsoteriologicalintuitions. Thisthirdperiodcanagainbefurthersubdividedintoearlyandlate.TheformulatorsoftheEastAsiandoctrinesduringtheearlierpartofthisperiodtendedtogoto greaterlengthstoprovideanIndianfootingfortheirnewideas.Laterthinkersontheotherhand,tendedtodemon

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strategreaterculturalselfconfidence,graduallyabandoningthepracticeofexpressingeverythingthroughIndianparadigms.Nonetheless,inboththeearlyandlate phasesofthisthirdperiod,thegeneraltypeofBuddhistdoctrinaltextsthatweregeneratedwerenolongerconcernedmerelywiththetransmissionofthereligionas theperpetuationofitsIndianschoolsandtheirdoctrines.Rather,theypaidattentiontothearticulationofnewEastAsianinterpretations,whichinturnwerereflectedin theformationofnewindigenousschools.Themajornewsectsthatformedduringthisperiod,andthatimpartedlongterminfluenceonEastAsianBuddhistphilosophy andpracticeweretheschoolsofT'ient'ai,PureLand,HuayenandCh'an(Zen). IndigenousSchools. Thefirst"originalschool"toappearonEastAsiansoilwasT'ient'ai,basedprimarilyonthewritingsofitsdefactofounderChihi( 538597).Chihiwasthe mostsuccessfulearlyfigureintermsofhisabilitytosystematicallyorganizethevarioustypesofteachingsthathadbeenimportedfromIndiainsuchawaythattheir relationshipwitheachothermadesense.BasedonhisstudiesofsuchtextsastheLotusSutra,Huayenching,andTachihtulun,Chihidevisedhisownsystemof practiceutilizingthebasicIndianBuddhistmeditationexercisesofsamathaandvipasyana.AlthoughtheT'ient'aischoolwouldnotcontinuetoholdwidespread influenceasadistinctentityinlaterperiodsofChineseBuddhism,itsdoctrinalandpracticerelatedinnovationsplayedanimportantroleintheformationofthetwo laterinfluentialschoolsHuayenandCh'an. TheseventhcenturyalsowitnessedthefloweringofthePureLandschool,whichreceiveditsgreatestimpetusthroughtheworksofShantao( 613681),who popularizedthepracticeofchantingtheBuddha'snameandfaithinrebirthinthepureWesternparadise.PureLandbecamepopularinalloftheregionsofEastAsia, especiallyamongthecommonpeople,asmostofitspracticescouldbefollowedwithoutneedingadeepscholarlyunderstandingofBuddhistphilosophy.Manyof PureLand'sdoctrines,suchasthatofdecliningstagesofthepoweroftheBuddhistdispensationandtheconceptionofrebirthinthePureLand,wouldendup becomingassimilatedintothegeneralEastAsianBuddhistconsciousness,ascanbeseenbythefrequentappearanceofPureLandterminologyintheSutraof PerfectEnlightenment,AwakeningofFaith,andotherinfluentialEastAsianBuddhisttexts. TheHuayenschoolemergedastheproductofadialecticalinteractionbetweenahighlydevelopedformofIndianBuddhistdependentoriginationbasedmetaphysics andindigenousEastAsianmetaphysicalintuitionsofanorganicallyinterconnecteduniverse.TheearlyformulatorsofHuayendoctrine,inspiredbythemiraculous worldviewdescribedintheIndianoriginatedAvatamsakasutra(translatedintoChineseas

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theHuayenching),rearticulatedthisview,creatinganewarrayofEastAsianmetaphysicalterminologyforitsdescription.Atthecenterofthisnewarticulationwas thelanguageoftherelationshipofthefourdharmadhatus,orfour"realmsofreality"(ssufachieh ).TheearlyHuayenthinkersproducedalargecorpusof influentialphilosophicalmaterial,andalthoughtheHuayenschool,likeT'ient'ai,wouldalsoeventuallydeclineasamajorseparateanddistinctforcewithinthe ChineseBuddhistlandscape,itsdoctrinesmadeadeepimpressionontheformationofCh'anthought,aswellasontheorthodoxNeoConfucianmetaphysicsofthe Ch'engbrothersandChuHsi.2 TheHuayenschoolhaditsdeepestandlongestlastingimpact,however,inKorea,where,undertheKoreannameofHwaom,it flourishedastheleadingdoctrinalsectforseveralcenturies.Later,afterHwaom'sforcedassimilationintotheKoreanmeditationalSonschool,Sonmonksremained deeplyaffectedbytheHwaomworldview,andmanycontinuedtocarryoutfullscaleHwaomscholarship,atendencythatcontinuesdowntothepresentday. TheCh'anmovementcameintobeingsharingwiththeHuayenworldviewofnonobstructionbetweenphenomena,coupledwithastrongpracticalorientationthat cameasareactionagainstaperceivedunbalancedstressonscholarlyendeavors.ThisisnottosaythatpriorformsofEastAsianBuddhismhadbeenwhollydevoid oftheaspectsofmeditationandconcretepracticetowardenlightenment.ButtheCh'anfounderscametofocuswithmarkedintensityontheseaspectsofthereligion, developingandfinetuningthemformorecomprehensiveapplicationinwaysthatwereinaccordwiththeadaptationsofBuddhismtoEastAsian metaphysical/soteriologicalintuitions.Therhetoricderivedfromthisemphasisonconcretepracticeasopposedtotextualstudywouldlaterreify,totheextentthatthe Ch'anmovementcametobecaricaturizedas"antitextual." Yet,whilemanyCh'anwritingsofthelateT'angandSungperiodsdebunkedscripturalstudy,allofthemainsoteriologicalpositionsofthemovementwereinitially articulatedinscriptures.EarlyCh'anhadreliedonscripturesofIndianoriginsuchastheDiamondSutraandLankavatarasutra.Butthemostsignificantinfluences onCh'anwouldendupcomingfromtextsthatwerecomposedinEastAsia.AmongtheseEastAsianscripturesweretextswrittenbyEastAsianmonks,whoselocal originswereplainlyindicatedinthetextsthemselves.SuchworksincludethePlatformSutraoftheSixthPatriarch(Liutsutanching),attributedtoamonk namedHuineng( 638713),3 andtheSongofEnlightenment(Ch'engtaok'o),byHuineng'sstudentYungchia

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Hsancheh( 665713).Therewerealsoothertexts,producedinthesameintellectualcircles,whoseauthorsattemptedtodissimulatetheirEastAsian provenance.ThesecomprisetheCh'an/Huayen/tathagatagarbharelatedsegmentoftheEastAsianBuddhistapocrypha. IndigenousTexts. ThetermapocryphaisderivedfromtheGreekapokruphos,referringtowritingsthatare"secret."ThefieldofEnglishlanguageBuddhiststudies,lackingpreexistent technicalterminologyfortheChinesewordsiching( "spuriousscriptures")borrowedtherubricapocryphafrombiblicalstudies,whereithadbeenusedto designateaclassofliteraturethat,althoughnotnecessarilyconsideredheretical,hadnot,forvariousreasons,beenincludedintothebiblicalcanonduringitsformation duringthefirstfewcenturiesafterChrist,usuallyduetodoubtsregardingauthorshiporquestionsofdoctrine.4 Althoughthetermhasvariousshadesofmeaning,inits mostcommonusageitcarriespejorativeconnotations,asdotheoriginalChinesetermsthatitisusedtotranslate. ThewritingofChinesescripturescategorizedasichingandweichinginChineseBuddhismbeganatthetimeofthefirstintroductionofthenewreligionintoEast AsiafromIndiaandCentralAsia,asEastAsianBuddhistsbegantowritetextstowhichtheyattributedIndianoriginandpresentedasthewordsoftheBuddha.The compositionofthese"forged"textsinEastAsiaoccurredasacomponentoftheprocessofassimilationofthenewIndianreligionintothesiniticculturalsphere.In ordertogainfullacceptanceintoEastAsia,theBuddhistreligionneededtomakeawiderangeofadjustmentstonewcultural,political,andphilosophicalsensibilities, andmuchoftheexpressionoftheseadjustmentscameintheformofnewcompositions. Thenewindigenoustextswerewrittenonawiderangeofthemes.AmajorportionoftheearlierEastAsianapocryphaltextsattemptedtoovercomeproblemsof initialacceptance.OtherscriptureswereaddressedtoissuesoftherelationshipbetweenBuddhismandtherulership,whilestillotherspaidattentiontotherelationship ofBuddhismtoindigenousreligious/philosophicalbeliefs,andsoon.Beyondthese,throughouttheearlyandlateperiodsoftheassimilationofBuddhismintoEast Asia,textswerewrittenthatwereostensiblytheproductofdivineinspiration,oratleastthatmadeclaimstobethetrulyrevealedteachingoftheBuddha.Amongall thesecategories,therewerewidevariationsinquality.5 Theapocryphaltextsthatwouldenduphavingthedeepestinfluence,andthatwouldattainthehighestlevelofacceptance,wasagroupofworksproducedin connectionwiththeprocessofBuddhismre

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expressingitselfasathoroughly"EastAsianized"religionwithdistinctivemetaphysicalandsoteriologicalunderpinnings.SuchBuddhistworksastheSPE,Treatise onAwakeningMahayanaFaith(Tashengch'ihsinlun[AMF]),andSutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhi(Suramgamasutra,Shoulengyenching[SHM]), despitebeingEastAsianproducts,wereuniversallyrecognizedascontainingprofoundandenlighteningdiscussionsthatnotonlyaccordedwiththemostreconditeof Buddhistprinciples,butthatalsomorefullyandcompletelydefinedtheseprinciplesfortheirEastAsianaudiencethanhadeventhemostimportantofthepreviously translatedbonafideIndianscriptures.Asaresult,theseworksbecame"morethancanonical"theycametoformthecoreofthecorpusoftextsuponwhichthe distinctivedoctrinesofthenewEastAsianschoolsofBuddhismwerebased. Inconsideringthisclassoftextsintheirroleasvehiclesofthearticulationofdistinctsinicizedmetaphysicalandsoteriologicalagendas,wemustremainawareoftheir closerelationshipwiththeequallyinstrumentalnonapocryphaltextsthatwereproducedduringthesamegeneralperiod,andwithinthesamereligious/philosophical circlesthatis,suchimportantworksofovertEastAsianprovenanceasthePlatformSutra,theSongofEnlightenment,andotheressaysbyeminentmembersof theCh'anandHuayenmovements.Whatwewillbediscussinghenceforth,then,willnotmerelybetextsthatarecalled"apocryphal,"butabroadercategorythatI willprovisionallylabel"EastAsianCh'anHuayendefinitivetexts." MajorSoteriologicalIssuesoftheCh'anHuayenDefinitiveEastAsianTexts WhatwerethedistinctiveconcernsaddressedintheseEastAsiantexts?ManyissueswerederivedfromambiguitiesinherentinthedoctrinereceivedfromIndiaone ofthemostprominentofwhichwastheproblemastowhetherthehumanmindwasatitsbasisoriginallypureorimpure.Thismatterwasoneforwhichwelldefined indigenouspositionshadbeenarticulatedinChinasincethemidChou,andwhichhadbeenopenlydebatedatleastsincethetimeofMencius(371289?BCE).6 The questionwas,ifthemindwasoriginallypure(asmostformsoftheBuddhistdoctrineseemedtoindicate),howcouldsuchathingasdefilementandignoranceoccur withinit?Andifthemindwasoriginallyimpureorignorant,thenhowcouldsuchathingasenlightenment,ornirvana,beattainable? Thisproblematicissue,firmlyimplantedintheEastAsianreligiousconsciousnessseveralcenturiesbeforetheassimilationofBuddhism,wasreplayedinthe alayavijanatathagatagarbhadebateinfifthseventhcenturyChinaandKorea,whereinadherentsofthealayavijanaview

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pointunderstoodthefundamentalhumanmindtobedefiled/ignorantandthoseoftathagatagarbhainfluencesawthebasicmindaspure/enlightened.TheEastAsian textthataddressedthisissuemostdirectlywastheAMF,whoseconclusionsonthismatterwouldbecomethebasisforthepositionstakeninsubsequentworkssuch astheSPE.7 AnotherofthemoreimportantsoteriologicalissueswasonethatwouldbepursuedwithintensityinthePlatformSutraduringthesameapproximateeraasthewriting oftheSPE:theassertionthattheBuddhistenlightenmentwasnotattainablebygradualpractice,andcouldonlybemetinasuddenflashofinsightanexperienceof enlightenedwisdom.ThiswasamatterofseriousconcernforEastAsianBuddhists,andonethathasneverdiedasanissueofcontentionduringthelonghistoryofthe tradition.Ononehand,itisobviousthatpeoplecangraduallyimprovethemselvesbymeansofseriousstudyandreflection,bylivingalifebasedonmoralprinciples, orbymeditationonsomereligiousprinciple.ButathoroughunderstandingoftheBuddhistconceptofsunyataseemstounderminethepossibilityofthoroughgoing awakeningbasedongradualistic(dualistic)constructs.Why?Onewhoundergoesapenetratingexperienceofemptinessseesthatallthingsareatbottomdevoidof characteristicsandthattheimpedimentstoenlightenmentthataretoberemovedbygradualpractice,suchasdesireandignorance,arealsoinherentlyempty.From thisperspective,theconceptualframeworkthatgrounds"gradualpractice"isrenderedmeaningless.Suddenistsholdnotonlythatgradualenlightenmentisimpossible, butalsothatitisexactlyone'sattachmenttogradualistic/dualisticperceptionsofexistenceandtheWaythatpreventsdirectperceptionofreality.Thusthey recommendthatpractitionersnotbetrappedintheconfinesofgradualisticframeworks,butinsteadendeavortoseecorrectly,toviewexistenceinanenlightenedway, righthere,rightnowtoeliminateallfalsityinonesweep,sincefalsitydoesnotinfactexist.Gradualistsinturnreplytosuchpronouncementsbycitingthesuddenist tendencytoignoretheaspectofmoralcultivation,andfurtheraskwhatistobedoneinthecaseofapractitionerwhoissimplyunabletoattainsuchasuddeninsight.8 Theargumentsadvocatingthepositionsofsuddenenlightenmentandinnateenlightenmentoverlap,sincebotharebasedinanondualisticviewofexistenceandthe Way.Fromthestandpointofsuddenenlightenment,itcanbesaidthatallsentientbeingsareoriginallybuddhas,andhencenothingspecialneedstobedoneinorderto makethemintobuddhas.TheymerelyneedtoawakentotheirownBuddhanature.Thegradualistposition,ontheotherhand,tendstoseehumanbeingsintermsof theirdeeplyrootedignoranceanddesirethatkeepthemtrappedintheendlesscycleofdeathandrebirth,enmeshedinawebofalternatingpleasureandpain.From thisstandpoint,theonlywayout

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isbycontinuouspractice,throughmanylifetimesifnecessary,ofthethreefoldprogramofmorality,concentration,andwisdom. Inadditiontothefundamentalmetaphysicalandsoteriologicalquestionssuchasinnateenlightenment/ignoranceorsudden/gradualillumination,wereanumberofother mattersofapracticalnatureconcerningwhichEastAsianBuddhistsperceivedaneedforamorethoroughtreatmentintheirownparlance.Forexample,avarietyof meditationtechniqueshadbeentransmittedfromIndia,andtheseremainedalongsidenewlydevelopingmeditativestrategiesofEastAsianorigin.Buttherelationship betweenthesetechniqueshadnotbeensortedout,norhadtheirrelativevalueinapplication.Wouldbemeditatorswerethereforeconfusedaboutwhattypeof meditationwasmostappropriatefortheirownsituation.Theyalsoneededtoknowconcretedetailsabouttheproperwaytoarrangemeditationretreats,topractice ritualizedpenance,andsoforth. ResolvingDualisticOppositionintheEastAsianScriptures:EssenceFunction. TheauthorsoftheseEastAsiantextswiththeirspecialsoteriologicalandmetaphysicalquestionshadtheirowndistinctivemethodsofresolvingtheseissues,ofwhich byfarthemostpervasivewasthehermeneuticaltoolofessencefunction(Ch.t'iyungKor.ch'eyong ).9 Thismetaphysicalprinciple,whichhasitsoriginsdeep intherecessesofearlyChouthoughtinsuchseminaltextsastheBookofOdes,Analects,IChing,andTaoTeChing,becameformallydefinedandusedwith regularityintheexegeticalwritingsofConfucian/NeoTaoistscholarsoftheLatterHanandafterward. ScholarsofthepreBuddhistChineseclassicshadutilizedt'iyunganditsearlierequivalents,suchaspenmo( ).10 Theprocessofhumanperfectionthen,asitisbroadlyconceivedintheclassicalEastAsiantradition,isoneofworkingtowardmanifestingone'sperfectt'iinone's variableyung.Orfromtheotherperspective,trainingone'syungtobeinharmonywithone'st'i.Accordingly,methods

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ofspiritualtrainingcanalsobecategorizedintotwogeneraltypes:thosethataret'ioriented,andhaveaninnertoouterfocus,andthosethatareyungoriented,and haveanoutertoinnerfocus.Forexample,methodsofcultivationthatemphasizethetrainingofthesocialhumanbeingthroughmoralpractices,suchastheConfucian FiveRelationshipsortheBuddhistTenPrecepts,canbeseenasyungoriented,andthosethatconcentrateondirectperceptionofrealitythroughcontemplationcan beseenast'ioriented.Itisbecauseofthisfundamentalconceptualviewofessencefunctioninpersonaltransformationthatthereissucharichdevelopment,inEast Asian"studyaspractice"11language,ofmetaphorsof"polishing,""training,""smelting,""purification,''"accordance,""harmonization"(of,orwiththeessence),andso on. InTaoistworkssuchastheTaoTeChingandChuangTzutherearealsoimplicationsofthefundamentalhumancapacityforsagehood,butincontrasttoConfucian textssuchastheAnalectsandMencius,itsaccomplishmenttendstobeexplainedthroughamore"handsoff"andobservantapproach,andwithagreateremphasis onrecognizingandharmonizingwitht'i(theTao)ratherthanexternaltrainingofandthroughyung.ThehumanmindinitspurenatureisalludedtovariouslyintheTao TeChingasthe"uncarvedblock"(p'u )tothispristinestate.InsteadofattemptingtobetransformedbyfollowingConfuciannormssuchasbenevolence,filialpiety, andrespectforone'sruler,theTaoistaspirantisadvisedtofreehim/herselffromrigidadherencetoworldlyvaluessuchas"loyalty"and"righteousness." Formallybeingdefinedinthet'iyunghermeneuticalformulaintheLatterHan,12t'ibecomestheontologicalultimateofpent'i( )inNeoTaoism,and commentarialworksfromalldisciplinesbegintorelyont'iyungasanoverthermeneuticalprincipleforanalyzingearlierliterature.NeoTaoismandTaoistalchemy becomemuchmoresystematicintheirprogramsfortherefinementofthe"embryooftheTao,"explainingtheirpathexclusivelythrought'iyunglanguage. TheBuddhistreligionowedmuchofitssuccessinEastAsiatoitsaffinitieswiththisEastAsianconceptionoftheperson.InthegeneralMahayanaBuddhistviewthat wouldcometoprevailinEastAsia,sentientbeings,althoughvaryinggreatlyatthelevelofyung,ormanifestactivity,possessapureenlightenedBuddhanatureatthe leveloft'i,theiressence.This"innatebuddhahood"aspectoftheBuddhistdharma,althoughpresentinIndiantathagatagarbhadoctrine,hadnotreceivedanything liketheattentionthatitwoulddrawfromEastAsianinterpretersofthereligion,whobecamewhollypreoccupiedwiththe

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articulationoftherelationshipoftheinnate( shih=yung)aspectsofenlightenment.13Indeed,wemightsaythattheAMFwaswrittenalmostentirelywiththe resolutionofthisissueinmind,andthatitsauthorsetaprecedentfordefinitiveapocryphaltextsbycastingtheentireargumentwithintheframeworkofessenceand function.HedidthisbydeclaringthattheOneMindhasbothanessential(truethusness)aspectandafunctional(defiled/undefiled)aspect.Thesetwoaspectsare furthersubcategorizedalongessencefunctionlines. InitsspecificEastAsianBuddhisthermeneuticalapplications,essencefunctionisusedasawayoflookingatthingsthatattemptstoresolvetheconflictsbroughtabout bythetwoopposingtendenciestoseethingsineither(1)afragmentary/dualisticway,or(2)asimplemonistic,undifferentiatedway.Thusapparentconflictsbetween thepositionsofsuddenandgradual,orinnateandactualizedenlightenment(whichariseasaresultofdualisticinterpretation),areperfectobjectsforessencefunction analysis.WecantaketheBuddhistsoteriologicalproblemsmentionedaboveandsaythatoneisadvisedtoseethehumanbeingaspure(empty,enlightened)atthe levelofessence,andthatitisattheleveloffunctionthatpeoplediffer.Thosewhosemindsareproperlyfunctioning,thatis,functioninginaccordancewiththeir essencearecalled"buddhas"and"bodhisattvas."Thosewhoseinnatelyenlightenedmindsarefunctioningimproperlywhoseessenceisnotproperlymanifested intheirfunction,arecalled"sentientbeings"or"worldlings.''Intermsofsuddenlyversusgraduallyattainedenlightenment:toseehumanbeings,enlightenment, ignorance,anddesireasempty(thesuddenview)istoapprehendthemintermsoftheirbasicnature,oressence.Toseehumanbeings,enlightenment,ignorance,and desireasexistent(thegradualview),istograspthemintermsoftheirfunction. TheAMFalsoaddsanintermediatecategoryof"attributes"(hsiang TextsMostCloselyRelatedtotheSPE. WeknowfromcatalogrecordsthattheSPEwasarelativelylateapocryphalwork.14Itslatenessisalsosuggestedbythedegreetowhichtheauthorshowsamature graspofthreecentralcomponentsofitsdiscoursethatwerearticulatedinotherlatedevelopments:thediscussionoforiginalenlightenmentinthelatetathagatagarbha texts,theassertionofsuddenenlightenmentintheearly )terminologyusedbythephilosophersofHuayen.

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Ch'anwritings,andtheexplicationofprincipleandphenomena(liandshih)bytheHuayenpatriarchs.15 Ofallthesesourceshowever,itisontheAMFthattheSPEshowsthemostrelianceformetaphysicalandsoteriologicalformulations.Offirstimportanceisthe primacyinbothtextsofthediscourseonoriginalenlightenment/originalignoranceandthesimilarityinthelanguagewithwhichthesepositionsarearticulated.For example,bothtextsstateunequivocallythat"allsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectBuddhas."16Giventhisposition,bothtextsneedtoaddresstheproblemofhow originalignoranceandoriginalenlightenmentaresimultaneouslypossible(orhowtheyarethesamethinginessence).Closelyrelatedtothisarethediscussionsinboth worksofexactlyhowthetransitionfromtheunenlightenedtotheenlightenedstatesoccurs.IntheSPE,VajragarbhaBodhisattvaaskstheBuddha:


WorldHonoredoneifallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas,thenhowisitthattheyallpossessignorance?Ifsentientbeingsareoriginallyignorant,howcanyousay thattheyhavealwaysbeenperfectbuddhas?Ifalltheworldlingsinthetendirectionsareoriginallyperfectlyenlightened,butlatergiverisetoignorance,atwhatpointdoesthis happen?17

TheAMFasks:
[I]fallsentientbeingshavesuchnessandallofthemarepermeatedbysuchnessequally,thenwhyaretheredifferencesbetweenthosewhohavefaithandthosewhodonot,as wellasdifferencesinthevarioustimeswhenfaitharises?18

Bothtextsgivethesamebasicanswertothequestionofthenatureofignorance,denyingitssubstantiality.Ignoranceitselfcanonlybeperceivedthroughaberrant function.TheSPEsays:
Whatisignorance?Goodsons,allsentientbeingscarrymanifoldinvertedintuitionsfromthebeginninglesspast,andarejustlikeapersonwhohaslosthissenseofdirection. ThesepeopledeludedlytaketheamalgamationoftheFourElementsastheir"body"andthecognitionoftheSixObjectsastheir"mind."Becauseofthisdelusiontheyrepeatedly undergothesufferingoflifeanddeath.Therefore,wesaythereis"ignorance."19

TheAMFsays:
[T]herefore,allsentientbeingsarenotcalled"enlightened."Since,accordingtooriginalincessantcontinuityofthought,theyhaveneverbeenfreefromthought,wesaythereis "beginninglessignorance."20

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Bothtextsalsoplacestrongemphasisontheessencefunctionrelationshipofenlightenmentandignorance.TheauthoroftheAMF,aftertellingthefamouswater wavessimile(anessencefunctionanalog),concludesbysaying"thecharacteristicsofignorancearenotdifferentfromthenatureofenlightenmenttheyareneither destructiblenorindestructible."21IntheSPE'schapterofSamantabhadra,theBuddhasaysinasimilarvein,"Goodsons,allsentientbeings'variousmanifestationsof illusionarebornfromtheperfectlyenlightenedmarvelousmindoftheTathagata,justliketheskyflowerscometoexistinthesky.Eventhoughtheillusoryflowersare erased,thenatureoftheskyisindestructible."22TheSPEandAMFalsoshare,togetherwiththeSHM,theskyflowerssimile,thesimileofdisorientationofEastand West,thediscussionoftheTwoHindrances,andthepresentationofaprogramforthecomplementarydevelopmentofsamathaandvipasyanameditation techniques.ThepointsofthematicandlinguisticcorrespondencebetweentheSPEandAMFareubiquitous,withtheSHMalsocomingverycloseinmanyplaces. ThemajordifferencebetweentheSPEandtheseothertextsisthattheSPE,havingagreaterdegreeofdirectCh'aninfluence,showsgreaterreluctancetoenterinto extendedmetaphysicaldiscussionsthantheAMFonsuchmattersasthenatureofthealayavijanaanditsreceptionofpermeationbysuchnessanddefilement.The authoroftheSPEalsodoesnotemulatethelengthyandrepetitivecontemplationsofthenatureofthesixfacultiesandsixobjectsinthemanneroftheSHM.Whilethe SPEaddressesthesethemes,itdoessomuchmoreconcisely. Twoothertextsworthyofmentionatthispoint,whichtreatthesametopics(sudden/gradualandinnate/actualizedenlightenment)throughanessencefunction framework,andwhichareinsomewaysevenclosertotheSPEthaneithertheAMForSHM,arethetwoworksbyYungchia:theCompilationofYungchiaofthe Ch'anSchool(Ch'antsungYungchiachi[CYC])23andtheSongofEnlightenment.SaidtobeadirectdiscipleofHuineng,Yungchia,likemanymonksofthe period,hadextensivebackgroundinCh'an,T'ient'ai,andHuayen.Inbothofhistextshedealswiththeabovementionedimportantthemesoftheperiod,whichare alsothetopicsoftheAMF,SPE,andSHM.24 TsungmiandtheSPE'sChineseHistoricalandCommentarialCourse WefindtheSPEfirstformallylistedintheK'aiyanCatalogofBuddhistTextsin726,theputativetranslatorbeinganobscuremonknamedBuddhatrata( ).25TheSPEapparentlybegantogainsomemeasureofpopularitysoonafteritspublication,asatleastfourcommentaries

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weresoonwrittenonit.26Butthegreatestpartofthepopularizationofthetextcameacenturyafteritswriting,atthehandsofoneofEastAsianBuddhism'spremier scholarmonks,Tsungmi( 780841). TsungmiisoneofthemostimportantfiguresinEastAsianBuddhisthistory,especiallyvaluedbymodernscholarsforhisdetailedanalysesofthedevelopmentof Ch'anandHuayeninthecontextoftheintellectualreligiousclimateofhistimes.Hewasbotharecipientof,andagreatcontributortothedevelopmentofthenew formsofindigenousBuddhism.27TsungmihadhisfeetwellplantedinboththescholasticandmeditationalstreamsofBuddhism,totheextentthathewouldlaterbe countedasapatriarchofboththeHuayenschoolandtheHotselineofCh'an.Hewas,likemanylaterKoreanmonkswhomheinfluenced,deeplyinterestedinboth thepracticalanddoctrinalaspectsofBuddhism,andespeciallyconcernedaboutthemeansfortheharmonizationoftheviewsofthosewhotendedtowardexclusivity ineitherdirection. TsungmistudiedallthemajortextsoftheChineseBuddhistcanonofhistime,specializinginthoseworkswithHuayen,tathagatagarbha,andCh'anaffinities,andis especiallynotedforhisworkintheareaofdoctrinalclassification(i.e.,attemptingtoaccountfortheapparentdisparitiesinthedoctrinesofvariousBuddhistsectsby categorizingthemaccordingtdtheirspecificaims).AlthoughheconductedimportantstudiesonothertextssuchastheHuayenching,AwakeningofFaith,and DiamondSutra,andwroteessaysonsuchissuesastherapprochementofthethreeteachingsandtherelationshipofvariousschoolsofCh'an,Tsungmi'sworkon theSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentwasthecenterpieceofhisscholarlycareer.HismajorexegesisofthesutrawashisGreatCommentaryontheSutraof PerfectEnlightenment(Yanchehchingtashu),duringthecourseofthecompositionofwhichhewroteanextensiveseriesofrelatedabridgments,outlines,and subcommentaries.28 TsungmipraisedtheSPEasatextthatofferedbothphilosophicalandpracticaldimensions:aclearandconcisedescriptionoftheattitudesandmechanicsrelatedto meditationpractice,alongwithasolidgroundinginAMF/Huayenmetaphysicalandsoteriologicalprinciples.TheSPEwasmuchshorterandmoreconcisethan relatedworkssuchastheSuramgamaandHuayensutras.ItwasnotasphilosophicallycomplexastheAMF,yetofferedmorevarietyintermsbothofphilosophy andmeditationtechniquethantheDiamondSutra.ThefactthatTsungmi,whowouldeventuallybeconsideredasoneofthefoundingfathersoftheHuayenschool, shouldhaveratedtheSPEtobeofgreatervaluethantheHuayenchingisworthyofnote.Hesaid,inthisregard:
Ifyouwanttopropagatethetruth,singleoutitsquintessence,andthoroughlypenetratetheultimatemeaning,donotreveretheHua

Page16 yenSutraaboveallothers.AncientandmodernworthiesandmastersoftheTripitakainboththewesternregionsandthislandhaveallclassifieditsassupreme,asfullyrelatedin [Ch'engkuan's]introductiontohiscommentary.Yetitsprinciplesbecomesoconfusedwithinitsvoluminoussizethatbeginnersbecomedistraughtandhavedifficultyentering intoit.Itisnotasgoodasthisscripture(theSPE),whosesinglefasciclecanbeenteredimmediately.29

SubsequenttoTsungmi'scommentariesontheSPE,itcontinuedtobeapopularsubjectofcommentaryinChinadownthroughtheCh'ingperiod.Amongthemore famousofthesecommentariesarethosebytheSouthernSungBuddhistemperorHsiaotsung( 15461623).31AnexaminationofthepostTsungmiSPE commentariesproducedinChinarevealsthedeepinfluenceofTsungmionthesubsequenttradition,asthelatercommentatorstendedgreatlytofollowandreferto hisworks.32

TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentinKoreabeforeKihwa
WhiletheSPEbecamequitepopularinChineseCh'anBuddhism,itwouldachieveadecidedlymorepronouncedinfluencewithintheBuddhistcultureoftheKorean peninsula,whereitwasgraduallypopularizedthroughitsusagebymastersoftheKoreanSonsect.Thereareanumberofreasonsforitseventualattainmentofhigh statusinKoreanBuddhistcircles,whichweshallexplorebelowatsomelength.ButfirstweshouldgainsomebackgroundonthehistoryofBuddhisttextual assimilationinKoreapriortotheSPE. EarlyScripturalInfluencesinKorea BeinggeographicallyattachedasitwastotheChinesemainland,thetransmissionofChineseculturaldevelopmentsintotheKoreanpeninsulawasalwaysfairlyrapid. OncetheKoreankingshadasufficientconceptionoftheimpactofBuddhismonthemainland,theyfollowedtheChineseemperorsquicklyinacceptingand encouragingthegrowthofBuddhismasastatereligion.AlthoughtherewereoftendelaysduetointernalKoreanpoliticalconflicts,informationaboutBuddhism, includingtranslatedtexts,alwaysmanagedtoworkitswayintotheThreeKingdomsofKoguryo,Paekche,andSilla.DuringthefifthandsixthcenturiesoftheThree Kingdomsperiod,translationsofimportantIndianworksfromtheMadhyamikatradition,aswellasVinayaworksandtheMahaparinirvanasutra,heldsignificant influence.Towardthe

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endoftheThreeKingdomsandduringtheearlypartoftheUnifiedSilla(668936)however,theKoreanBuddhistworldreceivedawidevarietyofothertextual influences,mostimportantofwhichweretheHuayenchinganditsrelatedcommentarialworks,aswellassuch"originalenlightenment"scripturessuchasthe AwakeningofFaithandLankavatarasutra.Beyondthese,therewasalsoconsiderableinfluencefromConsciousnessonly(Yusik )andPureLand. WhilethesetextswerestudiedandcommentedonbyanumberofenergeticSillascholars,byfarthemostprolificandinfluentialinterpreteroftheincomingChinese BuddhisttextualcorpuswasWonhyo( 617686),whowroteacommentaryforvirtuallyeverymajorBuddhisttextavailableatthetime.33Wonhyoiswidely recognizedbyscholarsforhavinginculcatedKoreanBuddhismwithhisappliedcombinationofHwaominterpenetrationandAMFessencefunctionphilosophy towardtheresolutionofsectariandisagreements.Inhismostinfluentialworks,suchastheHarmonizationofDoctrinalControversiesinTenAspects(Simmun hwajaengnon),hiscommentariestotheAwakeningofFaith(Taesungkisillonsoandpyolgi),theSutraofAdamantineAbsorption(Kuimgangsammaegyong non)andtheNirvanaSutra(Yolban'gyongchong'yo),Wonhyorepeatedlydemonstratedhowthetwoinseparablethemesofinterpenetrationandessencefunction couldbeuniversallyappliedtomitigatethetensionsresultantofmutualsectarianexclusivity.TheprecedenttowardsectarianharmonizationsetbyWonhyotendedto befollowedwithregularitybytheleadingKoreanBuddhistthinkersofsuccessivegenerations.ThistendencyistypifiedintheexampleofChinul(theindividualmost fullyresponsiblefortheinitiationofthesyntheticHwaomSoncharacterofKoreanBuddhism)andisalsoobviousinthe"threeteachings"ecumenicaleffortsofKihwa andHyujongduringtheChoson. AlthoughWonhyowasnotanexclusiveadherentoftheHwaomschool,hishighevaluationofHwaomphilosophy,alongwiththeinfluenceoftheworksofhis colleagueUisang( 625702),contributedgreatlytotheinitialpopularizationofHwaom.Asitturnedout,theHwaomschoolendedupbecomingthemost influentialstreamofscholasticBuddhismonthepeninsulafromthetimeofWonhyodowntothepresent.ThemajorityofteachersthroughouttheKoryoandChoson dynastiesweredeeplyinfluencedbyHwaom,asmostofthemstartedtheirecclesiasticalcareerswithastrongHwaombackground.Beyondthis,therewereexternal politicalandsocietalpressuresthattendedtoforcethemeditationalandscholasticbranchesofKoreanBuddhismtogether.Thecombinedresultofthesevarious forceswasthatthemainstreamKoreanSonschoolendedupexhibitingaHwaomtextualphilosophicalcharacterquitedistinctfromthatseeninChineseCh'anor JapaneseZen.InthisKoreanBuddhistenvironment,suchaconcisetext

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astheSPEwhichdealtwiththemostvitalsoteriologicalissuesrelatedtomeditationpracticeandofferedclearexplanationsoftheprocessofmeditationitself,yet whichwaspermeatedwithastrongHuayenflavorwasespeciallywellsuited. DelayedArrivaloftheSPE SinceWonhyo'scommentariesincludedsuchseminalapocryphalworksastheAMFandVajrasamadhisutra,thelackofacommentaryorevenmentionoftheSPE inhiswritingsisanotherindicationthattheSPEisarelativelylateperiodapocryphon.IfWonhyowouldhavehadaccesstosuchatext,whichcombinedHuayen, tathagatagarbha,andConsciousnessonlyphilosophyinsuchaneruditeandsyncreticmanner,atthesametimepresentingclearguidelinesformeditationpractice,it wouldhavebeensoclosetohisownagendathatthereislittledoubtthathewouldhavepaiditgreatattention. AsRobertBuswellhasnotedinFormationofCh'anIdeology,itseemsthatWonhyo'slifewasreachingitsclosejustastidingsofthenewCh'anschoolwerearriving inKorea.34KnowingthisandgiventhefactthattheSPEwasprobablywrittenwithinagenerationofWonhyo'sdeath(686),ithastoseemabitoddthatthereis littleornoreferencetotheSPEinKoreanBuddhistliteratureuntilthetimeofUich'on( 10551101),somefourcenturieslater.Yetifwereflectonthesectarian historyofthesituation,especiallyinlightoftheperceptiveanalysisprovidedinCh'anIdeology,therelativelylatecurrencyoftheSPEinKoreacanprobablybe explained. AlthoughtheVajrasamadhisutra,whichwasapparentlywrittenabitearlier,andquitepossiblyinKorea,wasostensiblyaproductofanincipientCh'anmovement, itwasstillatextthatwasplacingmuchofitsbidforcanonicityonitsIndiansuggestiveattributes,asindicatedbythecreationofaSanskritizedtitleandtheextensive usageofIndianterminologyinitsmetaphysicaldiscussionsonthenatureofconsciousness.Inanycase,theVajrasamadhisutrawasacceptedinKoreaalongwith thearrayofotherscripturesthathadreceivedcommentariesfromWonhyo,whichmeansthatitwasaccepted,toonedegreeoranother,intothecorpusoftexts studiedbytheSillascholasticBuddhistcommunity.ButtheSPE,writtenonlyagenerationorsolater,didnotmakeitinwiththisgroup,norwoulditgainany noticeablerecognitioninKoreaduringthenextfewcenturies. WhydidittaketheSPEsomefourcenturiestogainrecognitiononthepeninsula?Ifwepaycloseattentiontothetiming,wecannotethatalthoughtheVajrasamadhi wastheproductofanincipientCh'anmovement,thatmovementitself,asadistinctentity,hadnotyetenteredintoKoreaonalargescaleattheendoftheseventh century.Ch'an

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finallydidarriveinKoreaonawidespreadbasisduringtheeighthandninthcenturies,throughtheeffortsofKoreanmonkswhohadtraveledtoT'angChinafor instruction.TheseearlyKoreanSonleadersestablishedthe"NineMountain"schools,takingup,inoppositiontoSillascholasticism,astridentlineofantiscriptural rhetoric.AstrongantiscripturalattitudeisevidentinthesermonsofearlySonleaderssuchasToui( 801888),whosharplycriticizedthescholasticteachingsas inferiortothe"directtransmissionfrommindtomind"andthe"tongueless"teaching.35AlthoughthemidT'angCh'anmasterswhowerethesourceofinitialinstruction fortheseearlyKoreanSonteachersmaynothaveeverbeensovehementlyantischolastic,theearlytransmittersofKoreanSontendedtoplacestrongemphasison thisaspect,amajorpartofthereasonbeingtheneedtoestablishforthemselvesaclearidentityincontrastwiththefirmlyentrenchedSillascholasticestablishment. Giventhisoutpouringofantitextualrhetoric,itcertainlywouldnothavebeenefficaciousforthefoundersoftheNineMountainschoolstoturnaroundandintroducea text,andespeciallysuchatextofsuchdubiousoriginsastheSPE,asabasisofcanonicalsupportfortheirposition,orasaguidetotheirsystemofpractice.TheSPE wasnotacceptedonawidescaleuntiltheSonschoolhadbecomefirmlyenoughestablishedonthepeninsulasuchthatthecriticismsfromthescholasticschoolsno longercarriedenoughweighttocauseseriousproblems.Therefore,whiletheslightlylatertimingoftheproductionoftheSPEwouldhavetheeffectofmakingitintoa morefullyCh'ancharacteristictextthantheVajrasamadhisutra,thislatenessseemstohaveendedupdelayingthetext'sproliferationinKoreabyafewcenturies. FirstAppearancesoftheSPEinKorea ThefirstsignificantmentionoftheSPE(knowninKoreanastheWon'gakkyong)thatIhavebeenabletolocateinKoreanBuddhistliteratureisinthewritingsof Uich'on,animportantHuayenscholaroftheearlymidKoryowhoisknownforhispopularizationofCh'ont'ae(T'ient'ai)Buddhism.36InhisTaegakkuksa munjip,Uich'onincludesashortessayontheSPE(KangWon'gakkyongpalsa)thatistellingintermsofthemannerinwhichthesutrawasreceivedandthetypeof laterinfluenceitwouldcarry. InthefirsthalfofthePalsa,Uich'onidentifiesthethemesoftheSPEwiththoseoftheAMF,usinganessencefunctionanalysis.Thesecondhalfoftheessayis dedicatedtothepraiseofTsungmi'scommentariesonthetext.Uich'onreiteratesTsungmi'shighassessmentoftheSPE,asreflectingthemostprofoundcontentof theAMFandHuayenching,andascontainingtheteachingthatequallyinformstheSonandKyo

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schools.ThisshortessaywelladumbratestheroleoftheSPEasitwouldbereceivedinthesubsequentKoreantradition:first,thereceptionandinfluenceoftheSPE inKoreacanneverbeseparatedfromthepersonageofTsungmi,who,inconjunctionwithhiscommentariesonthetext,heldacommandinginfluenceonthe developmentoforthodoxSondoctrinesecond,itscitationanditsinfluencewouldinvariablycomeincloseconjunctionwithtwoothertextswhosemeaningitis understoodashavingcapturedandreflectedincondensedformtheAMFandHuayenChing(HYC)andfinally,itsroleasatextthatbridgedthegapbetween SonandKyo.TheonlyotherimportantroleoftheSPEnotmentionedhere,butwhichisnonethelessimplicitintheinvocationofthenameofTsungmi,istheroleof theSPEasanarbiterofinnate/actualizedandsudden/gradualsoteriologicalpolarities. TheSPEintheWorksofChinul TheindividualmostresponsiblefortheinitialimpactoftheSPEonKoreanSonisthesamemanwhointroducedanarrayofrelatedissuesindefiningtheentirefuture courseofKoreanSonChinul(11581210).EnoughhasalreadybeenpublishedonChinulthatweneednotgointoextensivedetailhereregardinghislifeand thought.37ItsufficestosaythatasidefromWonhyo,ChinulplayedthemostimportantroleofanyfigureinKoreanBuddhismfordeterminingitsfutureorientation. BesidesthebasicworkofdefiningandmaintainingapuresystemofBuddhiststudyandpracticeinwhatwasadecliningreligiousenvironment,Chinuldevotedhis energiestotheeffortofreconcilingdivisivefactorsthatthreatenedtobreakdowntheprogressofthesolidificationofKoreanSon,andthatthreatenedtoobstructthe courseofpersonalpractice.Insolvingtheseconcerns,Chinulturnedto,astwoofhismostconsistentresources,TsungmiandtheSPE.38Theprominenceofthe SPEinChinul'swritingshasmuchtodowiththebasicaffinitybetweenthetextandChinul'sviewsoninnateandactualizedenlightenment,thenatureofignorance,and methodsofpractice. ThemostdirectwaytosummarizeChinul'sviewonpracticeandenlightenmentistosaythathisperspectiveisoverwhelminglyessencefunctionoriented.Invirtuallyall ofhiswritings,Chinulidentifiesthebasicqualityofthehumanmindtobepureenlightenment,whichmeans,attheleveloftheirmostbasicnature,humanbeingsare equallybuddhas.Thedistinctionsbetween"enlightenmentactualized"and"enlightenmentnonactualized"peoplearerelatedtothedegreetowhichtheyaremanifesting theirbasicnatureintheirfunction.This,ofcourse,isalsothecentralargumentoftheSPE.SincethisisalsoaseminalpositionoftextssuchastheAMF,Hsinhuayen chinglun,39PlatformSutra,

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andthewritingsofYungchia,theseotherworksarealsoextensivelycitedinChinul'swritings. Asmightbeexpected,itisinChinul'smostovertlyessencefunctionorientedworksthathecitestheSPEwithgreatestfrequency.Mostprominentinthisregardishis "DirectExplanationoftheTrueMind"(Chinsimchiksol).Thisworkisdividedintofifteentopicalsections,eachofwhichtreatstherelationshipbetweenthetruemind anditsvariousphenomenalmanifestationsintermsofessencefunction.Forinstance,inanswertothequestionofwhy,eventhoughallpeoplepossessthetrue (enlightened)mind,therearedifferencessuchasthatbetweensageandworldling,ChinulanswersbycitingoneoftheSPE'smostfamousessencefunctionsimiles thatofthemanipearl,whichsays:


Goodsons,itislikeapuremanipearlwhichreflectsthefivecolors,dependinguponitssurroundings.Thefoolishseethatpearlasreallyhavingthesecolors.Goodsons,itisthe samewiththepurenatureofPerfectEnlightenment:itappearsinpeople'sbodiesandminds,accordingtotheirindividualtype.YetthesefoolssaythatpurePerfectEnlightenment reallyhasbodyandmind.40

Themanipearlrepresentsthepure(empty)enlightenedmind,whichvariesinmanifestationaccordingtoitsfunction.Inthefollowingsectionofthesametext,Chinul againcitestheSPEinanswertoaquestionregardinghowonemayescapetheconditionofdelusionandaccomplishsagehood:
Anancientteachersaid,"Whenthereisnoplaceforthedeludedmind,thatisbodhi.Samsaraandnirvanaareoriginallyequal."TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentsays:"Good sons,sincetheillusorybodyofthissentientbeingvanishes,theillusorymindalsovanishes.Sincetheillusorymindvanishes,illusoryobjectsalsovanish.Sinceillusoryobjects vanish,illusoryvanishingalsovanishes.Sinceillusoryvanishingvanishes,nonillusiondoesnotvanish.Itislikepolishingamirror:whenthefilthisgoneitsbrightnessnaturally appears."41

Chinulrespondstothequestionofhowonemaytranscendbirthanddeathbysayingthattheyareoriginallynonexistent,andthattheyonlyappeartoexistbecauseof falsethinking.Chinulaccentuateshisreplybycitingtheskyflowersimileandthesimileofconfusionofdirection,whichhequotesdirectlyfromtheSPE:
TheSPEsays:"Goodsons,allsentientbeingsfallintovariousinvertedviewswithoutbeginning.Justlikeadisorientedpersonwhoconfusesthefourdirections,theymistakenly taketheFour

Page22 ElementsastheattributesoftheirbodiesandtheconditionedshadowsoftheSixObjectsastheattributesoftheirmind.Itisjustlikewhenoureyesarediseasedandwesee flowersinthesky....Similarly,whentheskyflowersdisappearfromthesky,youcannotsaythatthereisadefinitepointoftheirdisappearance.Why?Becausethereisnopointat whichtheyarise.Allsentientbeingsfalselyperceivearisingandceasingwithinthisconditionofnonarising.Thereforetheysaythatthereistransmigrationthroughlifeand death.''42

ChinulcitestheSPEwithalmostunmatchedregularity43throughouthisworks,andevenwhennotmakinganexactcitation,oftenalludestoitsthemes.Thisis especiallythecaseinhisExcerptsfromtheDharmaCollection(Popjippyorhaengnokchoryopyongipsagi),whichisacommentarytoanearlierworkby Tsungmi.SinceTsungmi'smaintextwastheSPE,theDharmaCollectionnaturallyincludesmuchofitsimageryandparaphrase,aswhen,forexample,he distinguishesthevariousCh'ansectsbymeansofthemetaphorofthemanipearl.TheSPEalsoturnsouttobeatextwellsuitedforthedeliveryofflexible interpretationsofsuddenandgradualsoteriologythatwereattheheartoftheoeuvreofbothChinulandTsungmi.ThePlatformSutra,theothermajorEastAsian sutrathatmostdirectlyaddressedthesudden/gradualproblematic,tookanexclusivelysuddenisticstanceonthematter,effectivelydenyingthepossibilityofgradual practice.TheSPE,whilegrantingprioritytothesuddenview,nonethelessacknowledgestheneedforthegradualteachingandoffersarationaleforitsexistencealong withexamplesforitsundertaking.TheSPEwasalsoasuitabletexttoserveasacanonicalbasisfortheTsungmi/Chinulattemptatreconciliationofextremeviews towardtheusageornonusageoftextsinthecourseofBuddhistreligiouscultivation,since,althoughtheSPEwascertainlyasutra,thepositionsthatitarticulatedwere veryclearlyofaCh'anbent.Finally,withitsHuayenmetaphysicalpositioning,theSPEalsoaccommodatedtheHuayenproclivitiesofboththesemasters.TheSPE becomes,fromthetimeofChinul,anintegralpartoftheKoreanmeditativetradition,alongwithastronginterestinTsungmi,areinvigorationofAMFstudies,alasting concernforthesudden/gradualissue,andreinforcementoftheinfluenceofHuayeninterpenetrationmetaphysics. AfterChinul IncomparisonwithpreChinulwritings,thefrequencyofdirectcitationoftheSPEandthediscussionofitsprominentthemesincreasesnoticeablyinthewritingsof Chinul'sdharmaheirs.Chinul'sstudent

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Hyesim( 11781234)showstheinfluencefromhisteacherbyhavingakeeninterestinscriptures,asevidencedinhismonumentalSonmunyomsongjip.44Itisin histeachingrecord,45however,whereHyesim'sfondnessoftheSPEismostclearlydemonstrated,ashecitesthesutraextensively.AswithChinulandother contemporarywriters,hetendstocitetheprofounddiscussionsonthenatureofenlightenmentandignorancefromthefirsttwochaptersofthesutra,alongwithits popularsimiles,suchasskyflowers,themanipearl,fingerpointingtothemoon,fourdirectionsdisorientation,andsoon.46Healsowritesaspecialgathaonthe SPE,summarizingthesutra'sintroductionandeachofitstwelvechapters,47anhonorthathedoesnotaccordtoanyotherworkexcepttheDiamondSutra.48 ThroughouttheremainderoftheKoryoperiod,thesamebasicsetoftextsremainedpopularintheSonschools:theSPE,AMF,SHM,HYC,DiamondSutra,aswell astheworksofYungchia.ThecontinuedregularpresenceofYungchiaisworthyofnote,since,althoughitiscommonlyassumedthatthePlatformSutra,attributed toYungchia'steacherHuineng,isoneofthemostimportanttextsinKoreanSon,intermsofquantityofcitationsandallusions,itisclearlytheworksofYungchia thatcommandedthegreaterattentionamongKoryoandChosonSonwriters. Passingdownthroughthenextcentury,Sonwritingsmaintainthegeneralcharacterdescribedabovealotofinterestinareasonablywelldefinedgroupoftexts,with agradualincreaseinattentiontokong'anliteratureandCh'ananthologies.ButafterthistimethereisanoticeablechangeinthewritingstyleoftheseSonmasters, markedbyanincreaseinemphasisonkong'an/kanhwarelatedlectures,imagistic/natureinfluencedpoetry,andanewkindofliteraryterseness.Muchofthis tendencycanbeattributedtothesecondtransmissionoftheLinchi( Kor.Imje)lineofCh'an,whichbegantopenetratethepeninsulaattheendoftheKoryo. ThreeimportantmonksofthisperiodwhowereinstrumentalinthisImjerevival,andwhofiguredprominentlyinchartingthefuturecourseofKoreanSon,were contemporariesandfriends:KyonghanPaeg'un( 132076).AllthreewenttoYanChinatolearntheImjekanhwateachingthathadbeenpopularizedby Chinul,andallthreereturnedandestablishedthesharp,confrontationalmethodsoftheImjeschoolintheirownteaching.Eachofthethreealsohadalargenumberof disciples,andsothisnewImjeinfusionintoKoreanSonhadconsiderableimpact. AmongthethreeitwasKyonghanwhoseemedtoretainthegreatestinterestintextualstudies.Thiscanbeseeninhisteachingrecord,49

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which,althoughshowingastrongkanhwaorientation,ispermeatedwithcitationsfromnumeroustexts,mostprominentofwhicharetheSPEandthewritingsof Yungchia.TheworksofT'aegoandHyegunareevenmorestronglykong'anoriented,withubiquitoususageofphrasessuchas"themindtomindtransmission outsideofwordsandletters"andrepeatedexplanationsofhowtoinvestigateChaochou'smukong'an.Withthisnonscripturalpredilection,thereislittlewonderthat thesemenrarelycitedanytextatall,muchlesstheSPE.Butinterestinglyenough,aswereadthroughT'aego'sbiography,wecomeacrossthispassagewhich describestheearlypartofhisdharmacareer:


Duringtheautumnof1337[T'aego]stayedatPulgaksaoccupyingasingleroomalone.StudyingtheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment,hecameacrossthelinethatsaid"The cessationofallillusioniscalled'unchanging."'Atthispointallthatheknewsuddenlyfellaway.Immediatelyafterthis,heraisedChaochou's"mu."50

NotonlydidT'aegostudytheSPE,butitalsoplayedaninstrumentalpartinhisearlyawakening. Hyegun'swritings,likeT'aego's,werealmostexclusivelykong'anorientedsermonsandpoetry,showingastrongImjeorientation.Whiletheirremainingwritingsare notespeciallyextensive,T'aego,Hyegun,andHyegun'sfamousstudentMuhak(Chach'o 13271405)hadlargenumbersofdisciplesandtheirImje kong'ancenteredteachingmethods,especiallythefocusonChaochou'smu,hadadeepimpactonthelaterSontradition.

Kihwa(HamhoTukt'ong)
GeneralObservations ItisKihwa(,HamhoTukt'ong 13761433)towhomwenowturn,asthemajorKoreancommentatorontheSPE,andwhoseexegesisistranslatedinfull inthiswork.KihwaistheinheritorofaSontraditionwhosepracticeswerederivedmainlyfromtheImjeschool,whichhereceivedthroughhisteacherMuhak,who wasinturntaughtbyHyegun,bothofwhomhadtraveledtoYanChinatoreceivedirectinstructionfromChineseLinchimasters.Thehighqualityandbroadscope ofKihwa'swritingswouldleadhimtobelaterrecognizedasoneofKoreanBuddhism'smostimportantscripturalcommentators,aswellasoneofthebestpoetsand essayistsofthecombinedKoryoandChos6nperiods.

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Kihwa'sLife KihwawasbornwiththenameYuSui( )Confucianacademy.Inthecourseofhisstudiesatthisinstitution,Kihwaisregardedashavingattainedtoa remarkablelevelofproficiencyinChinesephilosophyandliterature,ashisbiographergoestounusuallengthstoconveytheextenttowhichhewasesteemedbyhis professors.


Enteringtheacademyasayouth,hewasabletomemorizemorethanathousandphrasesdaily.Astimepassed,hedeeplypenetratedtheuniversalityofthesinglethread, clarifyingthemeaningsoftheclassicsandexpoundingtheircontent.Hisreputationwasunmatched.Graspingthesubtletyofthetransmittedteachings,alltheirmeaningswere disclosedinhisexplanations.Hepossessedasonorousvoiceandgracefulbeauty,likeflowerslaiduponsilkbrocadeevensuchmetaphorfallsshortofdescription.Peoplesaid thathewouldbecometheministertrulycapableoftransmittingtheheavenlymandate,extendingupwardtotherulerandbringingblessingsdowntothepeople.Inhisgraspof thecorrectprinciplesofsocietyhehadnoneedtobeashamedevenifheweretofacethelikesofChouandShao.51

Admittingthehyperbolethatisinevitablyseeninthebiographicalsketcheswrittenbydisciplesofeminentteachers,wemustneverthelesspaycloseattentiontowhatis containedinthispassageas(1)thereisnot,intheentirecorpusofKoreanSonhagiographies,anappraisalofscholarly(Confucian)acumencomparabletothis,and (2)thisstrongassessmentofKihwa'searlyabilitiesiscorroboratedinthedegreetowhichhe,laterinhisBuddhistcareer,tooksuchastronginterestin,andshowed suchunusualabilityinliterary/philosophical/exegeticalpursuits. Accordingtothesamebiographicalsketch,attheageoftwentyone,Kihwawassoprofoundlyaffectedbythedeathofoneofhisclosefriends,thatheabandoned hisConfucianstudiesandbeganaquestforenlightenmentthroughtheBuddhistpath.Aftervariouswanderingsandencounterswithotherteachers,hearrived,in 1397,atHoeamtemple( ),wherehecameunderthetutelageofMuhakChach'o,theNationalPreceptorofthegeneration,whoinstructedhiminImje soteriologicalmethods.HisinitialtrainingwithMuhakwasfollowedbytheperiodofwanderingstudyandpracticethatwascommonfor

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KoreanSonmonks.52Inthespringof1404hereturnedtoHoeamsa,whereheenteredintoaperiodofisolated,intensivepracticeinasmallhutinthemountains.It isduringthisperiodthathehadhisfirstmajorawakeningexperience.TheHaengjangsays:
Onenight,whiletakingarefreshingwalktoconquerthedemonofsleep,suddenly,withoutintention,heblurtedoutaverse,saying:"Walking,walking,suddenlyIturnmyhead. Lo!Themountainrockpiercestheclouds!"Anotherday,heenteredtheprivyandwhenhecameout,'droppedthewashbucket'53saying:"Thereisonlythissingleaffairof realityifthereisasecond,thenitcannotbetrue.Thesewordsthemselveshowempty!"54

AfterthisKihwareturnedtoanitinerantlife,stayingatvariousmonasteries,practicingandteaching.In1414hecametoYonbongsaatMt.Chamo,wherehestayed foratimeinasmallhermitagecalled"Hamho"(lit.,"nourishingemptiness"),workingunstintinglyatthetriplepracticeofmorality,meditation,andwisdom.Duringthis stayatMt.ChamohealsoledanumberofstudysessionsonthecommentariesoffivemasterswhohadexpoundedtheDiamondSutra.55Afterthistime,heseems tohavepassedthroughanotherstageofenlightenedfreedom,ashisbiographerreportsthismajorchangeinhislifestyle:


Fromthistimeheneverspentalongperiodofpracticestuckinanyparticularplacebutallowedhismindtofollowitsowndestiny"wanderingfreeandeasy"56amongthenooks andcranniesofthemountainsandstreams.Howcouldhehaveadestinationataparticularplace?Onlyifstronglyinvitedwouldhespendthenight.Hegraspedtheinnermost mindofeachperson,andhisreputationspreadthroughouttheland.Valuingdeeplythemindofeveryperson,herespondedperfectlytotheirneeds.57

In1420KihwatraveledtoMt.OdaeinKangnung.Thiswasadharmafilialpilgrimageforhim,sincethepatriarchsofhislineageweredescendedfromOdae.Whilein thisregion,hepaidrespectstotheimageofHyegun.HereKihwaseemstohavehadathirddeepeningofhisenlightenment.Asthebiographerreports:
Hestayedatthishermitagefortwonights.Onenight,inadream,hewasapproachedbythespiritofamonkwhoaddressedhimsaying,"YouwillbecalledKihwa,styled Tukt'ong."Kihwabowedhisheadandreceivedthiswithreverence.Suddenlywakingfromthedream,hisbodyandspiritwererefreshedandcalmandheexperiencedanexalted conditionofpurity.ThenextdayhewentdowntoWoljongtemple.Hethrewawayhisstaff,castoffhisshoes

Page27 andpeacefullytookupresidenceinasingleroom.FromthistimeforthhecontinuouslynurturedtheembryooftheTao.Whenhungry,heate.Whenthirstyhedrank,just enjoyingthepassageoftime.58

HisdisciplesreportedthatafterthistimeKihwa'swholepresenceanddemeanorweretransformedsuchthathisinfluenceonthosearoundhimbecameeffortlessly powerful.Yetdespitehisenlightened"freedomandease,"Kihwawasengagedinaseriesofdifficulttaskstowardtheendofhislife,ashewascompelledtodefend theBuddhistchurchagainsttheincreasinglystridentattacksfromtheNeoConfucianelementthathadinexorablymovedintothecenterofpoliticalpower. Also,intheearlyautumnof1421,hewassummonedbythekingtoteachandperformritualsintheroyaltemple.WhiletheearlyChosonrulershiphadratherstrong antiBuddhistinclinations,itseemsthatthekingT'aejo(r.141850)hadsoftenedhispersonalstancetowardBuddhisminhislateryears.Kihwaspentthreeyearsas personaltutortothekingandhisfamily,butintheautumnof1424,hepetitionedthethronetoberelievedofthisduty.Hespentthelastseveralyearsofhislifeonce againtraveling,studying,andteachingatvariousmountainmonasteriesinKorea.Heendedhiswanderingsintheautumnof1431whenhereturnedtoPongamsaof Mt.HuiyanginYongnam,wherehesupervisedtherefurbishingofthetemple.Therepairworkdone,Kihwacalmlyobservedtheconditionsofthetimestotheendof hislife.Onthetwentyfifthdayofthethirdmonthof1433hecamedownwithasicknessthatlastedtothefirstdayofthefourthmonth.Duringthefirsthalfhourafter 3:00PMhearosefrommeditationsaying:
Howvoidandempty!Originallythereisnotasinglething.Thespiritualluminositypervadesandpenetratesperfectlythroughoutthetendirections,butthereisneithermindnor bodytoundergobirthanddeath.Pastandfuturegoandreturnwithouttheslightesthindrance.59

Amomentlaterhecontinued,saying:"Abouttodepart,IraisemygazetothetendirectionsofthevastheavenswherethereisnopathtotheWesternParadise."Upon this,Kihwapassedaway. Kihwa'sMainWorks Kihwa'swritingsareextensive,includingalargecollectionofpoetry,sermons,andshortessaysonBuddhismandreligiouscultivationingeneral.Heisbestknownfor hisfourmajorworks:(1)theTaebanggwangwon'gaksudarayouikyongsorui(CommentaryontheSutraofPerfect

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Enlightenment)(2)hisKumgangpanyaparamilgyongokahaesorui(CommentaryontheRedactedEditionofFiveCommentariesontheDiamondSutrausually referredtobytheshorttitleofOkahae)(3)theSonchongyonggajipkwajusorui(SubcommentaryontheCompilationofYungchia)and(4)atreatiseonthe intrinsicunityofthe"threeteachings"ofConfucianism,Taoism,andBuddhism,entitledHyonchongnon(ExpositionoftheCorrect). WhileKihwa'srenownwithinKoreanBuddhismislargelyconnectedtothefirsttwocommentaries,hisnotorietyingeneralKoreanintellectualhistoryismainly attributabletothefourthwork,atreatisethathewroteduringtheonsetofthepurgeofBuddhismfromitscentralroleintheKoreansocietyduringtheshiftfromthe BuddhistinfluencedKoryototheNeoConfuciandominatedChoson.SincethisdynasticshiftoccurredrightduringthemiddleofKihwa'slife,he,astheleading Buddhistfigureatthetime,wasplacedinthepositionofbeingtheprimaryBuddhistspokesmaninanswertoNeoConfucianantiBuddhistpolemic.Inthisessay, whichisanexcellentexampleoftheusageofessencefunctionthoughtintheharmonizationofthepositionsofthethreetraditions,Kihwaelucidatestheuniversalityof theconceptsofaltruism(jen/in )informingthemoralbasisforallthreeteachings.60 LookingathiscareerfromwithintheBuddhisttradition,KihwaisthemajorsuccessorintheresumptionofChinul'sargumentagainstexclusivistpositionstakenby certainmembersofthemeditational,mindtomindtransmissionorientedSonschoolinoppositiontothetextoriented,doctrinalstanceofKyo.Whileduringthelate SillaandearlyKoryotheinfluentialKyofactionhadindeedmadelifeuncomfortableforthenewlyarisingSontransmission,bythetimeofKihwa'scareer,itwasno longerthecasethattheKyocircle(typifiedbyHwaomandConsciousnessonlyscholars)weremakinganyseriouschallengetotheSonposition,astheSonschools hadalreadyheldtheupperhandforcenturies. BothChinulandKihwawereSonmonkswithastrongmeditationorientedperspectivetowardreligiouscultivation,andsoSonmeditationpracticenaturallyheldan undisputedprioritywithintheirrespectivesystems.ButbothmenalsofeltkeenlythatthecontinueddenigrationofKyostudymethodsbySonextremistswas unnecessary,andevenharmful.Thus,bothChinulandKihwawroteinsuchawayastorevalorizescripturalstudywithintheSoncamp,supportingtheirpositionswith solidexamplesandrigorouslogic,basedinessencefunctionthinking. Chinulhadaddressedthismatterinasustainedanddirectmanner,aidedbytheanalysisoftheHuayenchingprovidedbytheT'angHuayenscholarLiT'unghsan ( 635730),61whichhelpedChinul

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toutilizeHuayenphilosophytosupportSonsoteriologicalandepistemologicalviews.ChinulinturncomposedalengthydistillationofLi'swork,entitledHwaomnon choryo(EssentialsoftheHuayenTreatise).Inhisfamousprefacetothiswork,Chinulutilizedtheessencefunctionconstructiontoexplaintherelationshipofthe HuayentheoryofinterpenetrationtotheSonawakeningexperience,saying:


Thediligentpractitionerwhoiscultivatinghismindshouldfirst,bymeansofthepathofthepatriarchs,becomecognizantofthefactthatthefundamentalsubtletyofhisown mindcannotbedefinedinwordsandletters.Then,usingthetexts,heshoulddiscernthattheessenceandfunctionofhismindarenoneotherthanthenatureandcharacteristics oftherealmofreality(dharmadhlatu).Thenthevirtuouspowerof[theactualizationof]theinterpenetrationofphenomenawithphenomena,andtheefficaciousfunctionofthe wisdomandcompassion[thataregainedfromanawarenessof]thesamenessinessence[ofallthings]willnolongerbeexternalconcerns(i.e.,merelyconceptualtheories).62

ChinulusedthesamesortofapproachinaddressingtheSonKyorelationshipthroughouthisworks.63 DespitethepronouncedattentionhepaidtothephilosophicalresolutionofSonKyotensions,anexaminationofthewritingsofmajorSonfiguresimmediately subsequenttoChinuldoesnotrevealadeeporsustainedtreatmentofthisissueaswasobservableinhiswritings.64Itisalongtimeovertwocenturies,beforewe findthematteroftheSonKyorelationshipagaindealtwithasadistincttopicinasustainedmanner,thistimeintheworksofKihwa. Kihwa'sAnalysisoftheRelationshipoftheWordedandWordlessTeachings AlthoughKihwamadeapronouncedassessmentofthevalueofscripturalstudybythemerefactofthewritingofhisextensivecommentaryontheSPE,itisinhis commentarytotheOkahaethathereallydevelopshisargumentfortheusefulnessofthewordedteachinganditsbasiccompatibilitywiththewordlessaspectofthe buddhadharma.TheDiamondSutraisatextthatexaminestheontologicalstatusoflanguage,withtheexplicitpurposeofclarifyingtherolethatlinguisticconstructs canorcannotplayintheindividual'seffortstowardtheattainmentofenlightenment.Asstudentsofthesutrawellknow,itsconclusionsareparadoxical,firstrejecting thereliabilityoflanguageonontologicalgrounds,andthenreacceptinglinguisticconstructsonaprovisionalbasisastoolsintheeffortofsalvation,duetothelackof anyother

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alternative.Becauseofitspersistentpursuitofthistheme,theDiamondSutrawasanespeciallyappropriateobjectforKihwaintheexpressionofhisbidirectional approach,whichrecognized:(1)thenecessityofthepracticeof(nonlinguistic)meditationforaproperactualizationofthattowhichthescripturesrefer,and(2)the viabilityofscripturalstudyasonemeanstowardtheattainmentofsuchactualization.Theissueofwhetherlanguageisasufficientmeansforaccesstothe buddhadharmawasparticularlyrelevantforKihwa,amonkwhounderstoodbothapproaches.65Ononehand,hewasthedescendantofthedistinctlyantitextual traditionofLinchiCh'an,whichhadcarriedwithitintoKoreamanyofCh'an'sselfdescriptiveslogans,suchastheschoolthat"transmitsdirectlyfrommindtomind," or"thespecialtransmissionoutsideofwordsandletters."ThedegreeofthecontinuedpopularityofsuchslogansatthetimeofKihwaisreflectedinhisfrequent quotationoftheminhiswritings.Ontheotherhand,aswehavenotedabove,Kihwa'slevelofinterestanddegreeofaccomplishmentintextual/philosophicalstudies wasunusuallyhigh,evenatayoungage.Hewasfurthermore,asaKoreanmonk,therecipientofastrongtextualtraditionaswasoutlinedabove.Therefore,hewasa personwhocoulddeeplyappreciatebothsidesoftheissue. Whenitcomestothebottomline,however,althoughKihwaisinfavorofaninformedusageofscripturalstudyinBuddhistcultivation,hedoesnotfailtouphold Ch'an'sultimateprioritizationofthemindtomindtransmission.HesaysearlyintheOkahae:
Anancientsaid:"TheThreeVehiclesandTwelveDivisionsoftheTeachingembodytheprincipleandgraspthemystery."Thisbeingthecase,whatisthepointoftheancestral teacher'scomingfromtheWest?Theseparatelytransmittedteachingshouldalsonotbefoundoutsideofthescriptures.Butsincethatwhichiscontainedinthewordedteaching hasremainedconcealed,thepatriarchsnowrevealandspreaditstruth,sothatnotonlyisthemeaningofthe[scriptural]doctrinemadeclear,butthe"separatelytransmitted [supralinguistic]teaching"isalsofullydisclosed.Sincetherehasbeensomethingdesignatedas"thetransmissionofdirectpointing,"howcouldthisbecontainedinthedoctrinal teaching?IfwemerelyreflectonthestoryofTs'aochiofHuangmei,66thiscanreadilybeseen!67

HemeansherethatthePlatformSutra's"formless"teaching,whichmakesstrictwarningsaboutthedangersofbecomingtrappedinlanguage,issomethingthatneeds tobekeptforemostinone'smind.AlthoughhehasfirstintimatedthattheCh'anofthepatriarchsandthesermonsoftheBuddhamanifestthesamereality,andthat onecannotsticktoan

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"antilanguage"position,hesubsequentlyprivilegesthewordlesstransmission.Nevertheless,belowheoffersaviewoftheissuethatismorebalanced,pointingoutthe usefulnessofthewordedteaching,whileatthesametimemaintaininghiswarningagainstattachmenttoit:
ThedharmathattheBuddhahastaughtisabsoluteandisrelative.Sinceitisrelative,liberationisnoneotherthanwrittenlanguage.Sincewhatwastaughtintheeastandtaught inthewestforfortynineyears68isabsolute,writtenlanguageisnoneotherthanliberation69yetinoverthreehundredsermons,Sakyamunineverexplainedasingleword.Ifyou areattachedtothewords,thenyouseebranchesofthestreambutmisstheirsource.Ifyoudoawaywithwords,youobservethesourcebutareignorantofitsbranchstreams. Whenyouareconfusedaboutneitherthesourcenoritsstreams,thenyouentertheoceanofthedharmanature.Havingenteredtheoceanofthedharmanature,thenothought wisdomisdirectlymanifested.Thenothoughtwisdombeingdirectlymanifested,whateverisfacedisnoimpediment,andyoupenetratewhereveryoutouch.70

Althoughoneshouldnotbeattachedtowords,wordsalsoarenottobedenied.Here,theessencefunctionformulacanbeseeninthesourcestreamssimile.Kihwa firstcounselsregardingtheseriouspitfallthathadbeenwarnedagainstthroughouttheCh'antraditionnamely,thatanimbalancedattachmenttowords(i.e., "function")canleadtoanobstructionoftheveryessence(ch'e)ofBuddhistpractice.Yettoforgetwordsandbecomeabsorbedinthewordlessistoforgetthe phenomenalworldandbeattachedtotheessence.AccordingtoKihwaneitherextremecanberegardedasanacceptableBuddhistposition. CorrectingtheScriptures Havingacknowledgedashedoes,theplaceofscripturalstudywithintheSonprogramofreligiouscultivation,KihwagoesonestepfurtherintheOkahaebymaking astrongadmonishmentregardingtheneedforofgravityinthetreatmentofscriptures.Inconsideringhispoint,wemaywanttoremindourselvesofthedifficulties involvedinthemaintenanceanddisseminationoftextsinancienttimesbeforetheuseoftheprintingpress.BuddhistsutraswritteninliteraryChinese(ofwhichthere wereoftenvariousoriginalversions,withfurthervaryingtranslations)neededtobecontinuallyrecopiedbyhandformaintenanceandfurtherdissemination.Indeed, thiswasoneofthemajoractivitiesofBuddhistmonksofthepreprintingpressera.Intheprocessofcopying,thechancesoferrorwerehigh.Thisisparticularlythe caseinthecopying

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ofintricateChineselogographs,manyofwhichcloselyresembleeachotherbutwhichcarryvariantmeanings.Furthermore,inthecaseoftheMahayanaBuddhist sutra,theoperativelogic71isprofound,andoftenquiteoppositefromthatseeninasecularargument.Ifsomelessthanqualifiedcopyistweretohavealapsein understandingorconcentration,itwouldbequiteeasytoomitwordsorinverttheirorder. Basedonhisconsiderableexperienceinthehandlingofscripturaltexts,Kihwahadaspecialsensitivitytothismatter,andfeltcompelledtoaddressittoanextentnot seenelsewhereamongEastAsianBuddhistexegetes.ThereisalsoadistinctiveSonflavortoKihwa'sadmonishmentonthistopic,sincewhenheencouragesproper scholarlydisciplineinthehandlingoftheBuddhisttext,hedoesnotonlyrefertosuchacademicqualitiesastechnicalcareorproperphilologicaltraining.Healso prioritizesthedevelopmentofthecommentator'smeditativeinsight,whichshouldinformthescholarlywork.Hence,whilewecansaythatKihwahas,inotherplaces, arguedforaninclusionof''Kyo"in"Son,"hehereintegratesthe"Son"meditationalexperienceinto"Kyo"scholarlyactivity.Theexegeteisrequirednotonlytoread thetextdeeplyenoughtopenetrateitskeythemes,butalsotoengagehimselfinmeditationinordertohavethenecessarymentalpurityand"wisdomeye"tocarryout thework.
WrittenwordsarethetoolsfortheexpressionoftheTaoandthemeansforguidingpeople.Thesituationalthemesandtheoverallthemeshouldsupporteachother,andthe overallthemeshouldpenetratethetextthroughout,beingfullyreflecteddowntoitsminutestdetails.Onlywhenomissions,superfluouswords,inversionsanderrorsdonot confuseitspointscanthetextawakenpeople'sunderstandingandcanitbecomeanormforathousandgenerations.Ifthisisnotthecase,thennotonlywillthetextnotopen people'seyes,itwillbecomeainstrumentofconfusion.72

Again,Kihwa'sprincipleofinterpenetrationandnonobstructionisoperatingherethroughtheformulaofessenceandfunction.InaproperlytransmittedBuddhisttext, itsinnermeaning,ortheme,whichisthe"essence",shouldbefullymanifestinitsoutwardappearanceor"function."Conversely,theexternaltext("function"),should correctlymanifesttheinternal/invisibleessence:theyshouldpenetrate(t'ong)eachother."Penetration"canagainbeusedasametaphortodescribetheactionofthe mindoftheBuddhistexegete,whosecommentarialandeditorialworkdependsuponhismeditativepreparation. Thetaskofcorrectinganerrorladentextisnottobecarriedoutlightly,orbyascholarwholackstheproperpreparation.Thereforehesays,"ifyoulackthewisdom eye,youcannotbutbeconfoundedby

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arroganceanderror."73Nevertheless,onewhoinitiallylacksthesharpnesstoovercomethesemistakescanstilltreatatextwellwiththepropermeditative preparation:"Althoughyoumaylackthewisdomeye,ifyousilenceyourdiscriminationsinordertoapprehendthepoint,thentheincongruencesbetweenthe sentencesandthethemecanbegraspedandstraightenedout."74Theresponsibilityisalsogreat,sincetheexegeteispassingonthedharmaforfuturegenerations:


Ifyouhaveunderstoodthatthetext'serrorsarelike"gnarledrootsandknottedbark,"(ametaphorforastateofconfusion)andthatthemeaningisobstructedandnotpenetrating but,afraidofbeingcriticized,youdonotcorrectthem,thenhowcanyoureflectthemeaningofthecompassionoftheBuddha?Latergenerationsreceivingthetransmissionsof errorladentextswillinturmoilproduceforcedinterpretationsinordertomakesenseofthetext.Ifitisdoneinthisway,thentheuncorrectederrorsbecomeattachedtothewords oftheBuddhasandthePatriarchsandtheywillunavoidablybemixedup.Thisissomethingwhichthemanofexcellenceandthethoroughgoingscholarcannotbepartyto.75

ThisadmonishmentregardingthetreatmentofscripturesbyKihwaisofspecialrelevanceinconnectiontohiscommentaryontheSPE,sinceitistherethatKihwa takesthealmostunheardoflibertyofjudgingsectionsofthesutratobecorrupted,andthenrewritingthem,cuttingandpastingpassagesthatareseparatedbyas muchasseveralchapters. Kihwa'sTreatmentoftheSPE Kihwa,likeTsungmiandChinulbeforehim,perceivedthevalueoftheSPEasaninstructionaltoolforpractitionersofBuddhismwhoneededaguideformeditation, aguidethatincludedaconcisediscussionofthetradition'smostseminalmetaphysicalandsoteriologicalissues,suchastherelationshipofsudden/gradualand enlightenment/ignorance.Itwasalsoatext,asKihwapointedout,thatcontainedtheessentialsofHuayen'sprofoundinterpenetrationmetaphysics,butinamuch moreconciseformthanwasfoundintheHuayenching. SincemanyofKihwa'sotherwritingswereCh'anstyleimagisticpoems,hispoetictonenaturallyfounditswayintohiscommentarial/essayworks,andinthisregard hiscommentarytotheSPEisaremarkablylivelypieceofliteratureforanexegeticalwork.WhileitisclearKihwawasconversantwithTsungmi'swork,hemadea majordeparturefromhisdistantT'angpredecessorwhenhedeclaredthatthetextoftheSPE,asithadbeenreceivedbyTsungmi,wassignificantlycorruptedby copyisterrors.Kihwaidentifiedwhathebelievedtobethecorrupted

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portions,rearrangingandfillinginthetextasnecessary.76WhileitwouldbenoeasypropositiontoconvincethepublishersoftheEastAsianBuddhistcanonical collectionsthatthecurrentversionoftheSPEshouldbereplacedwithKihwa'samendedtext,thereisnodoubtthatthedocumentasamendedbyKihwareadsmore smoothlyandmakesmoresense.Thisbeingthecase,Kihwa'streatmentofthesutradeservesseriousattentionfromthosewhoconductSPEscholarshiphenceforth. SincetheissuesofdoctrinalclassificationandCh'ansectariancategorization(extensivelypursuedinTsungmi'sexegesis)arenolongerofconcerntoChosonSon practitionerswhoareviewingtheSPEprimarilyasameditationguide,suchlong,doctrinerelatedessaysasthosewrittenbyTsungmiinconnectionwithhis explicationoftheSPEareabsentinKihwa'swork,asaretheextensivescholarlyreferencesmadebyTsungmithatconnectthethemesoftheSPEwiththeir appropriatesourcesinotherscriptures.WhenKihwaneedstoexplainthemeaningofadifficultpassageorconcept,hewilldosomostoftennotbyreferringto anotherBuddhistscripture,butbycreatinghisownnewmetaphor,orbydrawinganimagefromtheTaoTeChing,ChuangTzu,Analects,orIChing.Thenotable exceptiontothisruleisKihwa'stendencytolocatethethemesoftheSPEwithintheframeworkoftheessenceaspectsfunctionschemeoftheAMF,orthefour dharmadhatuoftheHuayenschool,butnonetheless,neverwithtextualreferences.Alludingreferencestoanytext,whetheritbeConfucian,Taoist,orBuddhist,are almostneveridentifiedwithacitation.77Thus,comparedtoscholarslikeTsungmiandChinul,Kihwaisnotmuchofaphilologist.Heispossessedbyastrongpoetic streak,valuingtheliterarybalanceandflowofthepassagemorethantheidentificationofitsclassicalsources. MostinstructiveforobservingKihwa'smetaphysicalandsoteriologicalperceptionsofBuddhistpracticeascontainedintheSPEishisrathersubstantialintroduction, whichtakestheformofanexaminationofthewordsofthetitleandtheimplicationsoftheirvariouscombinations.HeseekstoshowthedegreetowhichtheSPEisa textreflectiveoftheinnateenlightenmentthoughtfoundintheAMF,ashestartsoffdirectlywithanexplanationoftheimplicationsoftheSPEintermsoftheAMF's tripleschemeofessenceaspectsfunction.HeproceedstopraisethebalanceoftheSPEasevincedinitsskillfulsimultaneoushandlingandblendingoftheabsolute (empty,sudden,immanent)aspectsofthepathwithitsrelative(concrete,corrective,practical)aspects.TheSPEisatextthathasputtheHwaomidealsofrisamu ae( mutualnonobstructionbetweenindividualphenomena)intoactualizationwithinitspassages.LikeTsungmibeforehim,Kihwa

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extolsthemeritsoftheSPEbycomparingitwiththeHwaomgyong(Huayenching):
OutsideoftheHwaomgyongonlythistextexhauststheparticularsof,andfullycontainstheteachingof"phenomenauniversallypervadingandprinciplecompletelyembracing." ThissutraonlydiffersfromtheHwaomgyongintermsoflength.Thephrase"GreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenment"78isthesameas''GreatCurativeExtensive Buddha."79"Buddha"means"enlightenment,"especiallythefullenlightenmentofselfandothers.Theterm"fullenlightenment"(foundinthetitleoftheHwaomgyong)isexactly thesameastheterm"PerfectEnlightenment."Thus,thetwoscripturesarebasicallythesame.80

Kihwa'sblendingandreblendingoftheelementsofthetitle,mostimportantlytheconceptsof"practiceawakeningrealizationandtransformation"producesaconcise summaryoftheentirecourseofBuddhistpracticeandenlightenment.Kihwa'scommentaryontheSPE,whichisstudieddowntothepresentdayintheKorean monasticeducationalsystem,providedafurtherimpetustothealreadyinfluentialpositionoftheSPEinKoreanBuddhism.Anditisduemainlytothiscommentary thatKihwaemergesasanimportantlinkintheprocessofthedevelopmentofKoreanSonfromthetimeofChinuldowntothepresent.

TheSPEafterKihwa:TheChosonPeriod
Hyujong(SosanTaesa) ThenexteminentfigureinChosonSontomakeextensiveuseoftheSPEisHyujong( ),whowasoneofthemostinfluentialteachersinKoreanBuddhism, secondintheSontraditionprobablyonlytoChinul.81Followingtheexampleofhisinfluentialpredecessors,Hyujongtookupthetreatmentofthedivisivereligious issuesofhisdaywithvigor,insight,andastrongecumenicalbent,solidlybasedinessencefunctionmetaphysics.Heshowedarenewedinterestinthediscussionofthe SonKyorelationshipthatwassostronglyaddressedbyChinulandKihwa,withhisothermajorscholarlypreoccupationbeingthepursuitofthreeteachings syncretism.HyujongcompiledandeditedananthologycalledtheSamgaKwigam(ExamplesfromtheMastersoftheThreeSchools)inwhichhearranged importantexcerptsfromtheteachingsofConfucianismandTaoismtogetherwiththoseofSoninamanner

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thatacknowledgesallthreeassimultaneouslyviablepaths.TheSonsectionofthisworkalsoincludesnumerouscitationsfromtheSPE. Hyujong'smostinfluentialworkwashisSongaKwigam(ExamplesfromtheSonMasters),whichis,liketheSamgaKwigam,ananthologyintendedasaguidefor Sonstudents.TheKwigamincludesexcerptsfromawidevarietyofSonrelatedworks,thatfallintotwomaincategories:(1)EastAsianscripturessuchastheSPE, AMF,PlatformSutra,andsoon,and(2)KoreanandChineselaterCh'anliterature,especiallykong'anrelatedmaterials.Itisinthisanthologythatwecanseethe crystallizationofthedistinctiveKoreanformofSonthatwasinitiatedwithChinul,andthatwasmoldedfurtherbythelaterKoryomastersandKihwa.Aswemight expect,essencefunctionrelatedmetaphysicsandthedoctrineoftextssuchastheSPEandAMFareforegrounded.InthemiddleoftheSon'gaKwigam,where Hyujongelucidatesthemethodofovercomingillusorythought,hecitestheSPE'sfamouslinethatsays:"Whenyouknowillusion,youareimmediatelyfree,without devisingexpedientmeans.Freedomfromillusionisinitselfenlightenment,andtherearenostages."82Hyujongfurthercomments:


Themindistheillusorychieftain.Thebodyistheillusorycity.Theworldistheillusoryoutergarment.Namesandcharacteristicsaretheillusorysustenance.Oncethemind arisesandmovesintothought,bothwordsoffalsityandwordsoftruthcannotbutbeillusory.Yetbeginninglessillusionandignorancebotharisefromtheenlightenedmind. Thesevariousillusionsarelikeskyflowers.Theextinctionofillusionsiscalled"unmoving."Therefore,amanmight,inadream,seethathehasatumorandseekadoctor.But whenheawakesnoremedyisneeded."Knowingillusion"shouldbeunderstoodinthisway.83

HyujongreliesontheSPEatvariousplacesintheKwigamtomakesimilarpoints.HealsocitestheSPEinhisotherwritings,composingversesandshortessays,that offerpraiseforboththesutraandKihwa'sworkonit.84TheinfluenceofHyujongonsubsequentChosonSonwasunusuallystrong,ashehadalargenumberof influentialdiscipleswhointurnhadtheirownsizablefollowings. LaterChoson Hyujong'sprogram,whichincludedthestudyofscripturecombinedwithkong'anmeditation,becamethenormfortheremainderoftheChoson.Hyujong's descendantswrotemostlypoetryandkong'anrelatedmaterial,buttherewasarenewedinterestinHwaomstudies,andtheHwaomyongbecamethemostcommonly citedscriptureduring

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thepostHyujongperiod.However,therewerestillreferencesmadetotheSPEanditscommentaries,suchastheshortpoemsinT'aenung's( Soyodangjip,85andCh'onghak's( 15701654)Yongwoldangtaesamunjip.

15621649)

ThefinalcanonizationoftheSPEasa"requiredtext"intheChogyetraditionoccurredduringtheearlyeighteenthcenturywhenitwasincludedaspartofthefirst generallyinstitutedmonasticsyllabus.CreationofthissetcurriculumfortheeducationofSonmonksandnuns(whichisusedinmodifiedformatsdowntothepresent) isattributedtotheKumsansamasterChian( 16641729),whoinitiated,aspartofhisprogram,asettextualstudytrack.86Themostbasic,calledtheFour TeachingsCourse(sagyokwa),includedthefourseminalscripturesoftheSiniticMahayanadoctrinaltradition:theSutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhi,the AwakeningofFaith,theDiamondSutra,andtheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment. ItseemsthatChian'sprogramoftextualstudygainedrapidacceptance,aswecanseeintheworksofsucceedinggenerationsaclearlydefinedinterestinthissetof texts.Ch'oenul( 174696)bothwroteaseriesofcommentariesthatincludedalloftheseminalsiniticdoctrinaltextsfromChian'scurriculum.Yuil'scommentaries includedtheSPE,AMF,SHM,andDiamondSutra,alongwithotheressaysandeditionsofCh'anrelatedworks.87Uich'om'scommentariesincludedtheSPE, AMF,SHM,Huayenching,andDiamondSutra,again,alongwithotherCh'anrelatedworks.88Thesetwosetsofcommentaries,writtenduringthesametime periodandincludingbasicallythesamesetoftexts,provideaclearindicationofthedegreeofdefinitionthattheKoreanBuddhistscripturalcanonhadcometo assume.Themodernstandardscripturalcurriculumhascertainvariationsaccordingtothemonastery,buttheabovelistedworksremainatthecoreoftheChogye school'sscripturalcurriculum.89

TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentToday
Scholarship AlthoughthereareafewpopulartranslationsofthetextinKoreathatareusedprimarilyformonasterystyleinstruction,Ihavenotbeenabletolocateanyfulllength studyoftheSPE,orofKihwa'scommentarybyamodernKoreanscholar.TheonlyavailableEnglishtranslationatthetimeofthiswritingwasdonein1962by CharlesLuk,whichincludesTech'ing'scommentary.Luk'sworkiscertainlyreliableastranslation,

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butitcouldhavebeenmoreusefulifhehadprovidedabitmoreinthewayofhisownintroductionandcommentary.Sincehisfootnotesareusedexclusivelyforthe purposeofdefiningBuddhisttechnicalterms,IsuspectthatreaderswithoutasubstantialbackgroundinthemajorissuesoftheearlyperiodofCh'anhavenothadan easytimedigestingitscontents.Nonetheless,beinganaccurateandfaithfultranslation,itiscertainlyusefulforthestudyoftheSPE.90[note:Justpriortothe publicationofmymanuscript,anewEnglishtranslationbyShengyenwasreleasedbyDharmaDrumPublications.Ihavenothadsufficientopportunitytoexaminethis worktobeabletooffercomment.] The1987translationintomodernJapanesebyYanagidaSeizanwasthefirsttreatmentofthetextseeninJapanesescholarshipformanyyears.Itisauseful contributionintermsofSPEscholarship,butaswithLuk'swork,inviewofthefactthatthetranslatorseemstoconsideranonscholarlyaudiencetobehismaintarget, itmaybethecasethatsuchanancientandprofoundtextastheSPEneedsmorethematicintroduction,aswellasexplanatorycommentary,tobeproperly apprehendedbythemoderndayreader.AnothershortcomingofthisworkisYanagida'sstateddecisiontotranslatethetextwithoutrelyingonthetraditional commentaries.Becauseofthis,histranslationhasmissedthepointinseveralplaceswhererelianceonthecommentarialtraditioncouldhaveresolvedissuesrather cleanly. ApositiveaspectofYanagida'swork,however,istheessaythatheaddsafterthetranslation,inwhichhedrawsonhisextensiveknowledgeofthehistoryofCh'anto clarifymanyimportantissuesrelatedtotheSPE,suchasitsplacewithintheoverallChineseCh'antradition,aswellaswithinJapaneseZenandTendai.Inthecourse ofthisessay,Prof.YanagidaexploresthepositionoftheSPEwithintheapocryphaltraditionanditsrelationshiptootherimportantapocryphaltextssuchasthe AwakeningofFaithandtheSuramgamasutra,especiallylayingemphasisonthedegreetowhich,aftertheirappearance,suchEastAsiantextsastheSPEand SHMbegantoeclipsetraditionalIndianCh'anfavoredtextssuchastheVimalakirtinirdesasutraandLankavatarasutras.Healsoexplainstheroleand importanceofTsungmi'sscholarshipontheSPE,showinghowtheSPEandTsungmibothhadprofoundeffectsoneachother'sfutureposterityandhowTsungmi's attentiontothistextalsodeeplycontributedtothedegreeofcanonicityitattainedwithinthesubsequentChineseCh'anandJapaneseZentraditions.91Hemakesno note,however,ofthefargreaterrolethatthesutraplayedinKoreanBuddhism. AnexcellentplacetolookforbackgroundontheSPE,alreadycitedabove,isPeterGregory'sfinebook,TsungmiandtheSinificationofBuddhism.Sincethe SPEwasTsungmi'sfavoritetext,thereisdiscussionofthetextinnumerousplaces,aswellasabibliographyofTsungmi'scommentarialworksonthesutra.

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TheFuture,theWest,thePractitioner ForthesamereasonsthatitachieveditsearlierpopularityinthesedistantEastAsiancultures,theSPEhaspotentialvalueinmodernWesternBuddhismasan instructionaltool.Asthesituationcurrentlystands,agreatnumberofmoderndayWesternZenpractitionerscometothedisciplinewithlittleornobackgroundin Buddhistdoctrine,andthusbegintheirpracticewithoutknowingverymuchaboutwhattheyaredoing.ApproachinganewandforeigntraditionsuchasZen,theyare oftenlackinginfirmcriteriabywhichtojudgetheaccuracyofwhattheyarebeingtaught,orthecredentialsoftheirteachers.Thissituationisoftenaggravatedbythe factthatmuchofwhathasbeeninitiallytransmittedtotheWestunderthebroadrubricof"Zen"hasbeenasomewhatimbalancedmoderntransformationofcertain narrowaspectsofJapaneseZen.Forexample,inmuchofmodern/WesternZen,itistaughtthatthestudyofdoctrine,historyandphilosophyisunnecessary,andeven ahindrance,asZenisa"pureexperience"thattranscendsword,thought,andreligion,andthatscholarly/academicdiscussionofZenisutterlymeaninglessand inherentlywrong.ThisisathoroughlymistakenmisrepresentationoftheactualCh'an/Son/Zenmessage. AnyonewhohassufficientlystudiedtheChineseandKoreanhistoricalrootsofZenknowsthattraditionalCh'an/Sontraininghasalwaysbeenbaseddeeplyinthe studyofphilosophicaltexts.AsevidencedinthebiographiesoftheKoryoandChosonmastersmentionedearlierinthisdiscussion,itwasstandardpracticetobe engagedinalongperiodofscripturalandphilosophicalstudyinconjunctionwiththedeeperaspectsofSoncontemplation,typifiedbykong'anexamination.Itisalso evidentfromthebiographicalmaterialoftheChineseCh'anandKoreanSonmastersthatasignificantpercentageofthemgaveregularlyscheduledlecturesonthe sutrasandsastras. Itispreciselyduetothecultivationofthisdeepdoctrinalbackgroundthatoncepractitionersengagedthemselvesintherarefiedkong'anliteratureitcouldhavesucha powerfulimpactontheirconsciousnesses.IfapractitionerhasbeenstudyingtheramificationsofBuddhanaturetheoryforadecadeorsointhecourseofresearchon themajorMahayanasutras,thenChaochou'spronouncementofthenonexistenceoftheBuddhanatureinasentientbeingisnaturallygoingtohaveadeeply unsettlingeffectonhisconsciousness,andthe"mu"kong'ancanbecomethe"barrier"thatWumenintendedittobe. WesternZencircleshavetendedtorelyuptothispointprimarilyonEnglishtranslationsofunsystematicandreconditekoancollectionsasthemainsourceoftheir inspiration.Thismethodofinstructionisfineuptoapoint,butcanbringaboutproblemsifadheredtoexclusively,sincethesematerialscontainverylittleinthewayof presentationof

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doctrinalbackground.Suchworksalsodonotcontainspecificexplanationsofthenutsandboltsofmeditationpractice,confession,vowtaking,monasticbehavior, andsoforth.TheSPEoffersallofthese,alongwithadiscussionofthegroundingtheoriesofZensoteriology,inrelativelycompactform. AlsoimportantforpractitionersisthecharacterofportionsoftheSPEasselfcontainedcontemplativeexercises.InamannersimilartosuchtextsastheDiamond SutraandPlatformSutra,theSPEiscomposedofpassagesthataredesignedtocreateashiftintheconsciousnessofthereadertoengenderawakening(most importantlythefirstthreechapters,butalsoinlaterportionsofthetext).92Thisiswhatismeantbysayingthatthepassagesofthisscripturearenotonlydescriptive theydonotonly"explain"thedoctrineoforiginalenlightenmentandsuddenenlightenment.Theyseekdirectly,intheirverystructure,toforcethereadersoutoftheir dualisticthinkinghabits.

OverviewoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment
Title TheEnglishtitleofthetext,SutraofPerfectEnlightenment,isatranslationofthepopularshortChinesetitle:Yanchehching( originallymeans"round,"but includesconnotationsof"complete,""consummate,''or"perfect."Becauseofthiswiderangeofmeaning,Ihaveseenamultiplicityoftentativetranslations,including: "ScriptureofConsummateEnlightenment,""BookofCompleteEnlightenment,""SutraofRoundEnlightenment,"andothers.ThereasonthatIhavechosentheterm "perfect,"insteadof"round"or"consummate,"isbecauseofthestrongimplicationswithinthetextthatthisenlightenmentisnotonly"complete,""round,"or "consummate,"butalso"correct,""real,"or"true."AsKihwaexplainsinhiscommentary,itisnotonlythatthedoctrinecontainedwithintheSPEis"complete"and "allembracing,"butitslecturesare"corrective"theyenablepractitionerstofixtheirmistakestoperfecttheirpractice.Withtheimpressionthatitisthewordbestfit toexpressalloftheseaspects,IhavechosentheEnglishword"perfect." Theideographcheh originallymeans"book,"andintheChineseliterarytradition,graduallycametocarrythemeaningof"canonicaltext."WiththearrivalofBud

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dhism,itwasusedtotranslatetheSanskrittermsutra,therecordedwordsofaBuddhaorotherdeeplyenlightenedteacher.Withthemeaningof"recordedsermons ofagreatsaint,"itisquitereasonabletofurthertranslatethetermintotheEnglish"scripture."Butthisisnotabsolutelynecessary,sincetheword''sutra"isnow consideredpartoftheEnglishlanguage.TherearealsoreasonsofconventionrelatedtothecontextofthedevelopingWesternBuddhistscholastictradition,sinceit hasbecomecommonpracticetosay"PlatformSutra,""DiamondSutra,""LotusSutra,"andsoon,ratherthan"PlatformScripture,""DiamondScripture,"or"Lotus Scripture."Forthesereasons,Ihaverenderedchingas"sutra." Theterm"perfectenlightenment,"asitistaughtinthistext,referstoanenlightenmentthatisnotlimitedinscope.Itisalsonotanenlightenmentthatisattained exclusivelyfromanypartialaspectoftheBuddhistdoctrine,suchasthesocalled"elementary"teachingsorprajnaparamitateachings.Itisanenlightenmentthatcan acceptandexplainallthevariousaspectsoftheBuddhistdoctrine.Thisiswhythefull,formalnameofthesutraaslistedintheEastAsianBuddhistcanonistheGreat CorrectiveExtensivePerfectEnlightenmentSutraoftheCompleteDoctrine SinceKihwaexplainsthecomponentsofthistitlein depthinhisintroduction,weneednottreatitfurtherhere. ContentOverview TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentisarrangedintwelvechapters,plusashortintroductorysection.Theintroductorysectiondescribesthesceneofthesermonand liststhemajorparticipants.Thelocationisastateofdeepmeditativeconcentration(samadhi)andtheparticipantsaretheBuddhaandonehundredthousandgreat bodhisattvas,amongwhomtwelveeminentbodhisattvasactasspokesmen.EachoneofthetwelvegetsuponebyoneandaskstheBuddhaasetofquestionsabout doctrine,practice,andenlightenment.Thestructureofthesutraissuchthatthemost"essential"andsuddenisticdiscussionsoccurintheearlierchaptersandthemore "functional"andgradualisticdialoguesoccurlater.ThiskindofstructurereflectsamotifassociatedwiththedoctrineoftheHuayenschool,whichaffirmsthatthe BuddhadeliveredtheabstruseHuayenchingashisfirstsermon,inanefforttodirectlyawakenthosewhose"rootsofvirtue"werewellmatured.Theterminology thatTsungmiandKihwausetodescribetheseadvancedpractitionersisthattheypossessthecapacityfortheteachingof"suddenenlightenment"adirectawakening tothenondualnatureofreality,whichnecessarilyprecludesgradualistic,"goaloriented"practice.Inthefirsttwochapters(thechaptersofMajusriand Samantabhadra),theBuddhaholdsverystrictlytothesuddenposition,denyingthepossibilityof

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enlightenmentthroughgradualpractice.Inthethirdchapterhebeginstoallowforabitofagradualview,andthenextseveralchaptersbecomemixturesofthetwo. Thefinalfewchaptersofferafullygradualisticperspective. Kihwa'sprimarymeansofcategorizationofthechaptersisaccordingtothe"threecapacities"ofpractitioners:superior,middling,andinferior.AccordingtoKihwa, thefirstthreechaptersareaimedatthoseofsuperiorcapacity,thenextsevenforthoseofmiddlingcapacity,andthefinaltwoforthoseofinferiorcapacity.However, thismethodofcategorizationdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatthelaterchaptersbecomegraduallyeasiertoreadandunderstand.Infact,someofthemostdifficult discussionscomeinthelaterchapters.Mostnotableinthisregardisthediscussionofthe"fourtraces"ofself,person,sentientbeing,andlifeinchapter9.Sincethe distinctionbetweeneachofthesefourisextremelysubtle,andthewordingofthetextitselfisnotthatclear,thisturnsouttobeoneofthemostdifficultchaptersto digest. Thecruxofchapter1,thechapterofMajusri,isadiscussionofthemeaningoftheterm"ignorance,"inwhichtheBuddhawarnsagainstperceivingignorance ontologicallyseeingitasaselfexistententity.Hedescribesignoranceusingthemetaphorof"skyflowers"(ora"secondmoon")flowersonemistakenlyperceives intheskyduetoanopticalmaladysuchascataracts.Thisperceptionofskyflowersiscomparedtotheperceptionofcyclicexistence"lifeanddeath''(samsara)by unenlightenedpeople.Whenthevisualmaladyiscorrected,theskyflowersdisappearspontaneously.Thereisnopointintryingto"gradually"removetheskyflowers fromthesky.Thenatureofthis"ignorance"isalsocomparedtothesituationofapersonwhoistemporarilydisorientedintermsofthefourcardinaldirections.There isnoentitativeblockagetobeovercome:itismerelyastateofmistakenperception,andallthepersonhastodoisrealizethatEastisEastandWestisWest.Inthis kindofsituation,thereisnosystemof"practice"thatneedstobeinstalled.Onemerelyneedstoseethingsastheyare. Since,inhisanswertoMajusri,theBuddhahasassertedthatthehumanbodyandmindandallofsamsaraarenothingbutillusoryskyflowers,thebodhisattva Samantabhadra,inthesecondchapter,hastoaskhow,ifallthingsareillusion,oneissupposedto"remedyillusionusingillusion."Inotherwords,ifeverythingis illusion,howisitpossibletoevenpractice?Andifpeoplebecomediscouragedbysuchaprognosisanddonotpractice,howcantheypossiblyescapeillusion?The Buddhabeginshisreplybyhintingforthefirsttimethatthereis"somethingelse"besidesillusionthatwhenillusioniserased,the"unchangingmind"doesnotdisappear. Hethenapprovesthepossibilityof"usingillusiontoremedyillusion"byinstructinghislistenershowto"separatethemselvesfromillusion,"comparingthispracticeto the

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rubbingtogetheroftwostickstoproducefire.Thesticks("illusion")ignite,andbothburnupanddisappear.Butwhentheyaregone,thereisstill"awareness."He nonethelessconcludesthislessonbyclearlystating"thereisnosuchthingasgradualpractice." Thethirdchapter,thatofthebodhisattvaUniversalVision,isthelongestandprobablythebestknownofthechapters,asitisevencirculatedbyitselfasaseparate textforstudyinKoreanSonmonasteries.UniversalVisionaskstheBuddhatorelaxhisinsistenceonthesuddenviewandcompassionatelyoffersomeexpedient methodsforthesentientbeingstopractice.Morespecifically,heasks"Howshouldwethinkandabide?"Inotherwords,whatsortofmentalcultivationor contemplationshouldbecarriedout?TheBuddha'sresponseisalong,guidedmeditationstartingwithanearlyIndianBuddhistanalysisofthebodyandmindas defiledandbaseless,followedbyaConsciousnessonly/Huayenexerciseinthevisualizationofinterpenetration.HefinisheswithaCh'ancharacteristicexercisein "nonabiding,"thatis,thedevelopmentoftheabilitytoremaincontinually"unstuck"inanysortofparadigmaticframework.Theendofthisthirdchapterconstitutes, accordingtoKihwa,theendofthe"teachingforthoseofsuperiorcapacities." TheintroductioninthepriorthreechaptersoftheparadoxicalcoexistenceofthedoctrineoforiginalenlightenmentandoriginalignorancecausesVajragarbha Bodhisattva,inthefourthchapter,toquestionhowtheseseeminglycontradictorypositionsaresimultaneouslypossible.Furthermore,heasks,ifignoranceisonce quelled,isitpossibleforittorearise?TheBuddhabeginshisanswerbyonceagainreiteratinghisfundamentalnondualisticstance.Itisbynatureimpossiblefora disturbed,samsaricmindtofinditswayoutofitscondition.Heprovidessomemetaphorsofdisorientationcausedbyrelativemotion,suchasthetendencyfora personinaboattoperceivetheshoreasinmotion,orthemistakenfeelingofthemotionofthemoonwhencloudsarepassingby.Healsoretellstheskyflowersimile intermsoftheimpossibilityoftheskytoactuallybethe"cause"oftheskyflowers.Butthemostimportantsimileinthischapteristhatof"purifyinggoldore."The gold,asymbolforenlightenment,isalreadycontainedintheore(originalenlightenment)itisnotsomethingthatisnewlycreatedbythesmelting.Nonetheless,once thesmeltingisaccomplished(realizationofenlightenment),gold(enlightenment)neverrevertsbacktotheconditionofore(ignorance).Therealizationofenlightenment insentientbeingscanbeunderstoodinthesameway.TheBuddhaconcludesthechapterwithanotheradmonishmentabouttheimpossibilityofmeetingenlightenment throughdiscursiveorsamsaricmethods. Asineachofthepriorchapters,thebodhisattvainthefifthchapter,Maitreya,formulateshisfirstquestionbasedontheconclusionofthe

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immediatelypriordiscussion.AndsincetheBuddhaadmonishedVajragarbhaabouttheimpossibilityofescapingsamsarawhileusingsamsaricviews,Maitreyaasks, "Howdowesevertherootofsamsara?"Healsomakesamoredirectrequestfortheteachingofexpedient(gradual)methods,anindicationthatwearenowwell intothemidstoftheteachingforthoseofmiddlingcapacities.Hefurthermorequeriesregardingthetypesofdistinctionsthatexistbetweenthenaturesofsentient beings,intermsoftheircapacityforenlightenment.TheBuddhaanswersthefirstquestionbyattributingtheempowermentofsamsaratotheforcesof"attachedlove" and"desire,"whichmutuallyenhanceeachother.Inordertoovercomesamsara,itisnecessarytoseverthesetwo.TheBuddhagoesontodistinguishthecapacities ofsentientbeingsinto"fivenatures,"whicharearevisionofthefivenaturestheoryofYogacara.Hedistinguisheseachofthesefivetypesofpeopleintermsoftheir relativedegreeoffreedomfromtheTwoHindrances,whicharecalledinthistext,''thephenomenalhindrance"and"thenoetichindrance,"andwhichcorrespondto the"hindranceofdefilement"and"hindrancebytheknown"oftheYogacaraschool.Heconcludesthischapterbyteachingthevowofthebodhisattvastosaveall sentientbeings,andexplainingthatsinceduetothisvow,bodhisattvasmustentertheworldofdesire,itbecomesnecessaryforthemtodeviseexpedientmethodsto helppeople.Thepeople,ontheotherhand,needtoseekoutateacherwhoisnothimselfenmeshedindesire. Asthediscussioncontinues,thequestionsofthebodhisattvastendfurthertowarddistinctionsindiscriminatedpractice.Thus,inchapter6,thebodhisattvaPure Wisdomasksthequestion"Whatdifferencesaretherebetweenthatwhichisgraspedandactualizedbysentientbeings,bodhisattvas,andWorldHonored Tathagatas?"TheBuddhabeginshisanswerbyremindingthebodhisattvasonceagain,thatsincesuchthingsasdistinctionsinnaturearebasedonillusoryviewsto beginwith,suchathingasvaluationisultimatelyimpossible.Buthethenproceedstodistinguishbetweenlevelsofattainmentintermsofthedegreetowhich practitionersareabletoavoidbeingtrappedbythetracesoftheirownenlightenmentexperiences.Thesefourlevelsarethoseofunenlightenedworldling,lowerlevel bodhisattva,higherlevelbodhisattva,andbuddha.Theoverridingmessageofthechapteristhatwhichisgiveninthepassagethatsummarizesthefourstages:Whatis mostimportantisforthepractitionertolearnthepracticeof"nonabiding"nottobetrappedinone'sviewsorexperiences,nomatterhowsublimetheymaybe. Thebodhisattvaoftheseventhchapter,PowerandVirtueUnhindered,continuestoquestiononthethemeofgradationsinpractice,emphasizingthefactthatheand hiscolleagues,whileteaching,findthatthere

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aremanydifferentpathsthatonemayfollowtoarriveatthesamedestinationofenlightenment.TheBuddharespondsbyteachingthreetypesofmeditationpractice, whicharedefinedbytheSanskrittermssamatha,samapatti,anddhyana,understoodastechniquesapplicabletopractitionersofvaryinginclinations.Thepractice ofsamathaisdefinedinawayveryclosetoitsoriginalconnotationof"mentalstabilization"or"calmabiding,"referringtoapracticeofstillingthemindinsingle mindedconcentrationonanobject.Thetermsamapatti,normallyjustageneraltermforconcentrationormeditationandnotsodifferentinmeaningfromsamatha,is hereaccordedaspecialinterpretationthatisequivalenttotheconceptofvipasyana,usuallytranslatedintoEnglishas"observation''or"analyticalmeditation."This typeofmeditationisnecessaryforthebodhisattva'spracticeofcompassion,sincethroughthismeditation,hecanperceiveandproperlyutilizethephenomenalworld ofdependentorigination.Healsogivesaspecialinterpretationtothetermdhyana,whichisalsonormallyusedasageneraltermformeditation.Hereitreferstoa nondualisticpracticethatsimultaneouslysubsumesandtranscendsthepriortwoformsofmeditation. InthechapterofthebodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernment(theeighthchapter)thesethreeformsofmeditationaretaughtagain,thistimeintermsofvariouspossibilitiesof applicationinconjunctionwitheachother,basedonmorespecificdistinctionsintheinclinationsofmeditationpractitioners.Thethreearewoventogetherinintricate combinationsthatresultfromallthepossiblevariantorderingsofthesethreepracticesyieldingtwentyfiveformats,called"wheels"(translatedinthistextas "applications").Thus,theBuddhahasgonefromanexplanationofthreegeneraltypesofinclinationsinpracticetotwentyfive. Inchapter9thediscussionmovesawayfromtheexplicationofmethodsofmeditationbacktomattersoftheoperationofconsciousness,similartothatseenin chapters5and6.Asmentionedearlier,thechapterofPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattvaisoneofthemostdifficultchaptersinthetexttograspbecause ofthesubtletyofthedistinctionsimpliedintheexplanationoftheFourTracesofself,person,sentientbeing,andlife.TheseFourTracesarealsodiscussedinthe DiamondSutra,butwithdifferentconnotations.Hereeachoneisexplainedononehandasalevelofenlightenedawareness,butontheotherhand,ifanyoneof themisallowedtoreifyintheconsciousness,itwillbecomeanimpedimenttoenlightenment.Inthefinalstageofovercomingthesefour,thedestructionofone's conceptionofegoiscomparedtothesituationoficemeltingawayinabathofhotwater. Thecenterpieceofthetenthchapter,thatofthebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenment,istheexplanationofthe"FourMaladies."Thesearefourviewpointsthatare normallyassociatedwithreligiouspractice,andto

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whichpractitionersoftenattachas"theWay."Theseare:(1)"contrivance"orthenotionthatonecan"arrange"hislifeandpracticetowardtheattainmentof enlightenment(2)''naturalism,"atypeof"Taoist"viewofjustlettingallthingsbeastheyare(3)"stopping"or"cessation,"theviewthatenlightenmentistobeattained bysinglemindedconcentrationandstillingofthoughtand(4)"annihilation,"theviewthatoneshouldattainenlightenmentbyobservingtheemptinessofallthings, therebyextinguishingallafflictions.Theonewhoisnotconstrainedbyanyoneoftheseattitudes,butwhoholdstothecorrectBuddhistpracticeofnonabidingandyet consistentlydemonstratesahighlymoralbehaviorisfittobeateacher,anditisthissortofpersonthatstudentsshouldseekout.However,oncetheyfindsucha teacher,theyshouldnotexpecthim/hertocatertotheiregos.Thestudentshouldkeepasteadfastattitude,regardlessofwhethertheGenuineTeacherestablishesan intimateordistantrelationship.Finally,theBuddhateachesthevowthatpractitionersshouldmaketowardtheattainmentofenlightenment. ThechapterofPerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva,whichistheeleventhchapterofthesutra,finishesupthemainbodyoftheteaching.Inthischapter,whichisaimed at"sentientbeingsoftheageofthedegeneratedharma"ofinferiorcapacity,theBuddhateacheselementaryexpedientsofentryintothethreetypesofmeditationfor thosewhoarehavingdifficultygettingtheirpracticeontrack.Headvisesthemtopracticelongandconcentratedconfessiontohelpthemtoovercomethepastheavy karmathatiscurrentlyimpedingtheirpractice.Thischapteralsoteachesthemechanicsofsettingupandenteringintoameditationretreat,whichcanbeofthree lengths:eighty,onehundred,oronehundredandtwentydays. ThesutraconcludeswiththequestionsofMostExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva,whoinvitestheBuddha'senumerationoftheinconceivablevirtuesofthesutra, alongwithalistingofthenamesbywhichitistobeknown.ThischaptertakestheformatcommontothefinalchaptersofmanyMahayanatexts(calledthe "dissemination"chapter)whereinnumeroustypesofsupernaturalbeingsappeartogivetheirguaranteeofprotectiontothetextandthosepeoplewhoembraceitand practiceit. Kihwa'sIntroductiontotheSPE TheKoreanpronunciationoftheChineseideographsinthetitleoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentistaepangkwangwonkaksutarayouikyong( ) means"great"or"large."Inhisintroduction,Kihwawillexplain"great"throughtheinfluentialprecedentestablishedintheAwakeningofFaithwherein"great"refers

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tothegreatnessofenlightenmentinitsessence(ch'e ).Kihwamakesaspecialinterpretationoftheword"great"tosignifytheinitialexperienceofenteringthepath,a kindofinitialenlightenment,ortransformationinanactoffaith.Inthisusage,theterm"great"refers,alongwith"perfect''(won),toatransconceptualexperience. Thetermpang( ),whichmeans"expedientmeans"orthemethodsofteachingandpracticethatareusedaccordingtotheactualsituationinthephenomenal world.Kihwahereinterpretspangas"the(curative)practicesofselfimprovement,"thatis,theconcretemethodsofreligiouspracticeespeciallytheprocessof correctingmistakenhabituation,offreeingtheindividual'smindfromaffliction.Theemphasisatthestageofpangisontheapplicationoftheproperremediesto correctone'sownfaults.Untilonehasdonethis,heorshecandolittleinthewayofawakeningothers. Onceonehaspracticedsufficientlytogainameasureofwisdomforoneself,onehasthecapacitytoteachthetruthtoothers.ThisisKihwa'sinterpretationofthe meaningofkwang,( ),whichliterallymeans"wide,""broad,"or"extensive."Kihwainterpretsbreadthhereascompassioninreachingouttosaveothersafterone hascorrectedoneself. Won( ),thatis,theactivitiescarriedoutbyaperfectBuddha.Attheperfectstage,althoughonecarriesoutpractices,heorshedoessofromthestandpointof reality,inwhichthereisactuallynosuchthingasdistinctionbetweenselfandother,orignoranceandenlightenment.Wheneachoneofthepriorthreestagesoftae, pang,andkwangareseenfromthestandpointofperfection,eachoftheirmeaningscontaineachother. Kak( theenlightenmentthatisnotdistinguishedintoinnateandactualized).

Afterexplainingthemeaningofeachideographindividually,withitsrelationshiptoeachoftheotherterms,Kihwaalsoinvestigatesthemeaningofthesequenceofthe terms.Hethenexaminesthetermsinpairsandinsetsofthree,tofurtherdeepenthesenseoftheirmeaning

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throughthecontrastoftheirsequentialrelationship.TheoperationofKihwa'salwayspresentunderstandingofinterpenetrationisherecarriedoutthroughtheconcept ofwon(perfection).Becauseofwon,nomatterwhatkindsofdistinctionsaremadeintermsoflevelsofpractice,therewillalwaysbeasinglethreadthatconnectsthe firststagewiththefinalstage.Thesamefourfoldinterpretationwillbedoneforeachofthewords,finallyinterweavingthemeaningsofthewordstotheextentthat eachsinglewordcomestocontainthemeaningsofallthewordsinthetitle,andviceversa.Onecontainsall,allcontainone. Thenextthreeideographssutara( )istheChinesetranslationfortheSanskritsutra.BoththeChineseandSanskritwordshaveetymologiessimilartotheEnglish wordtext,inthattheyrefertotheweaving,crossthreading,ortyingtogetherassociatedwithtextilework. WhilesuchtitularexegesesarecommoninEastAsianBuddhistcommentaries,Kihwaturnsthisoneintoacomprehensive,selfenclosedreligiousdiscourse.Henot onlyanalyzesthemeaningofeachwordtoshowitsgreatdepthofimplication,butalsoshowsthedeepsignificanceofthepreciseplacementofeachwordinthetitle. Thisisnotameretextualexercise,sinceheusestheexplicationofthemeaningandjuxtapositionofthewordstogiveacomprehensiveyetcompactexplanationofhis understandingoftheentireprocessofMahayanaBuddhistpractice.

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TRANSLATION

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NotesonTextualDivisionsandMarkers:
Ihaveused,asthesourceforthistranslation,thecombinededitionofthesutraandKiwha'scommentaryascontainedinvolume7oftheHan'gukpulgyochonso, pages122to169.Inordertoaidthereaderinfollowingthediscussionofthesutraandcommentary,textualdivisionshavebeenaddedthatarenotcontainedinthe originaltext.Inthechapter"Kihwa'sIntroduction"thetranslatedtexthasbeenbrokenintoanoutlineformoftopicsandsubtopics.Thesamehasbeendonewiththe sutrapassagesinthemaintextofthetranslation,includingtheadditionofpagenumberstothepassagesofthesutraastheyweredividedforexegesisbyKihwa.This isdoneinordertohelpthereaderfollowKihwa'scommentary,especiallyinthefrequentcasewherehereferstoapassageinamuchearlierorlatersectionofthe sutra. SinceKihwa'scorrectionstotheoriginaltextconstituteanimportantdimensionofhiscommentary,Ihaveplacedaninvertedblacktriangle" "asamarkeratthe beginningofthosepassageswherehehasmadeanamendment.

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Kihwa'sIntroduction
ClarificationoftheFirstFiveWordsoftheTitle TheMeaningofTae("Great" ) [HPC7.123a5] [Kihwa] "Great"hasthreeimplications:thefirstisthegreatnessof[enlightenment's]essence(ch'e ).1 TheessenceofPerfectEnlightenmentisopen.Itembracesheavenand earth,itcontainsthetenspatialdirectionsandiscompletewithoutlimit.Thisisthegreatnessofitsessence.[Interlinearnote:Thelineinthesutrathatsays"the Tathagatagarbhaisabsolute,perfectlycomplete"referstothisgreatnessofessence.2 ] Repletewiththethreevirtues,thereisnodharma3 thatisnotincluded.Enlightenmentoriginallypossessespuremeritoriousvirtuesmorethanthenumberofgrainsof sandintheGangesRiver.Thisisthegreatnessofitsattributes.[Interlinearnote:Thisreferstothe"dharanientrance"4 andthe"secretstoreofthethreevirtues."] Itiscapableofsagelyandprofanemanifestation.Itiscapableofdefilementaswellaspurity.Involvingitselfinitsentiretyineverysinglesituation,itbringseverysingle affairtocompletionthisisthegreatnessofitsfunction.[Interlinearnote:Thusthesutrasays:"Fromitismanifestedallpurity:suchness,bodhi,nirvana,andthe paramitasthatteachbodhisattvas."5 Thesutraalsosays:"Allsentientbeings'variousillusionsarebornfromtheperfectlyenlightenedmarvelousmindofthe Tathagata."6 ] Takentogether,essence,attributesandfunctionpervasivelycontainthemeaningoflimitlessnessandinexhaustibility.Thisiswhytheyarecalled"great."Thecustomary associationof"greatness"withthemeaningsoflimitlessnessandinexhaustibilityasseeninthesutrasandsastrasisrootedinthis.

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TheMeaningofPang("Curative" ) [HPC7.123a16] "Curative( )"7 containstheconnotationof"stopping(chi ).Thestoppingofrestraintisalsocorrectivethestoppingofreposeisalsocorrectiveandsoisthe stoppingofabsolutenegation.Itsoppositeiserror.Possessingoneamongthesethreeandlackingtheothertwoisimbalancepossessingtwoamongthesethreeand nottheotheroneisimbalance.Onlywhenthethreekindsofstoppingarefullypracticedisthereneitherimbalancenorerrorandcanthecurebecorrect.[Interlinear note:Thusthesutrasays:"togainthecorrectabidingsuchthattheywillnotfallintoerroneousviews.''8 ] Correctingmistakesandeliminatingerrors,youarrivetotranscendenceofthingsthisisthecorrectionthatisthestoppingofrestraint.[Interlinearnote:Thusthesutra says:"[Youshould]separatefromallfalserealms."9 ]Gatheringinwhathasscatteredandreturningtothetrue,andreposingintheprincipleofjusticethisisthe correctionthatisthestoppingofrepose."[Interlinearnote:Thisisthesameasthesutra'steachingofthepracticesofmeditationandaccordancewiththenatureof enlightenment.]Sentimentsofrightandwrongareclearedawaysubjectandobjectarebothforgotten:10thisisthecorrectionofthestoppingofabsolutenegation. [Interlinearnote:Thusthesutrasays:"Inthisrealizationthereisneithersubjectnorobject,andultimatelyneitherrealizationnorrealizer."11]Whereverthereis emotionalattachment,youcompletelyextinguishitwithoutremainder.Onepointedlyaccordingwiththeenlightenednature,youdonotfallagainintoimbalanceand error.Thisiswhyitiscalled"cure."Allsuchteachingthemesasthestoppingoftheadherencetothepreceptsandtheactivetransgressionofthem12theactive adherencetothepreceptsandthestoppingoftheirtransgression,aswellas"notbeingimbalanced"and"notbeinginerror,"areincludedhere. TheMeaningofKwang("Extensive") [HPC7.123b6] "Extensive"alsohasthreeimplications:thefirstistheextensivenessofthepracticesthatimproveoneself(charihaeng )13thirdistheextensivenessofequalizingself andothers,tobeperfectlyinterpenetratedwithoutobstruction.

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Completelycultivatingamyriadpractices,totallyextinguishingallhindrancesthisistheextensivenessofthepracticesofselfimprovement.[Interlinearnote:Thus, whenthesutraspeaksofseveringhindrances,itsays:"freefromallkindsofafflictions"14or"separatefromallhindrances."15Whenittalksaboutdisplayingvirtue,it says:''thefacultiesandobjectsareuniversallypure,allispure,etc."16] Reachingouttotheworld,extensivelybringingaboutsalvationthisistheextensivenessofthepracticesthatarebeneficialtoothers.[Interlinearnote:Thus,ineach chapterofthesutratheBuddhaisfirstaskedtoteachthosepresentattheassembly(thebodhisattvas),andthenheisaskedtoteachforthesentientbeingsofthe degenerateage.ThisisthecaseuntilwegetuptothetwochaptersofUniversalEnlightenmentandPerfectEnlightenment.Therethefocusisonthesentientbeingsof thedegenerateage,sotheBuddhaisaskedaboutexpedientmeans.] Inseveringevil,thereissevering,yetnothingisactuallysevered17incultivatinggoodness,thereiscultivation,yetnothingisactuallycultivatedtransformingtheworld, thereistransformation,butnothingisactuallytransformed.Bothadherencetoandtransgressionofmoraldisciplineareforgotten,selfandotherareequalized:thisis theextensivenessofunlimitedperfectinterpenetration.[Interlinearnote:Thusthesutrasays:"(Bodhisattvas)arenotattachedtothedharmaanddonotseek liberationfromthedharma."18] Whereverthereissomethingtobeeliminated,thereisnothingthatisnoteliminated.Whereverthereissomethingtobecultivated,thereisnothingnotcultivated. Whereverthereissomeonetobeperfected,thereisnoonenotperfected.Thisissoupuntilnothatingsamsaraandnotlovingnirvanaonestaysandgoeswithout obstruction.Itisbecauseofthisthatitiscalled"extensive."Suchdoctrinalthemesas"reachingouttotheworld,"and"perfectinterpenetrationwithoutany obstruction,"canbeunderstoodinthissamecontext. TheMeaningofWon("Perfect" ) "Perfect"alsohasthreeimplications:thefirstistheperfectionofselfenlightenmentthesecondistheperfectionofenlighteningothersandthethirdisabsolute perfection.Severingdelusionandconsummatingvirtue,washingawayhindrances,andfulfillingenlightenment:thisistheperfectionofenlighteningoneself.Universally gatheringthoseofthethreecapacities19toreturnasonetoPerfectEnlightenmentthisistheperfectionofenlighteningothers.Realizingeventhoughthereisnothingto berealizedandtransformingeventhoughthereisnothingtobetransformed,realizationandtransformationarecarriedoutto

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theutmost,andthereisnobeingtowhichtheydonotreach.Thisisabsoluteperfection.Realityismasteredandsentimentsareforgottenimmersedinsagehood,yet thesameasworldling,youkeepnoteventhemostsubtlepartialityinview.Itisforthisreasonthatitiscalled"perfect."Theordinaryunderstandingof"perfection"as wellasthemeaningof"totalfulfillment"isalsoincludedhere. TheMeaningofKak("Enlightenment" ) "Enlightenment"alsohasthreeimplications:thefirstisinnateenlightenment20thesecondisactualizedenlightenmentthethirdistheenlightenmentofthenondualityof innateandactualizedenlightenment.Innateenlightenmentiscalled"greatness,"enlighteningoneselfiscalled"curative,"andenlighteningothersiscalled"extensive." Whentheenlightenmentofselfandotherarefulfilled,theyreturntothesamenessofinnateenlightenmentthisiscalled''PerfectEnlightenment." Whyisinnateenlightenmentcalled"great"?Ifwediscussenlightenmentintermsofitsessence,thenitisallembracingwithoutlimit.Ifwediscussitintermsofits attributes,thenitincludesamyriadvirtuouscharacteristics.Ifwediscussitintermsofitsfunction,thenitmanifestsitselfwithoutlimit.Itisflowsoutinpuritywith transparentpenetrationandspiritualpermeation.Inthesageitbecomesbodhiandbecomesnirvana,yetnothingisadded.Inworldlingsitbecomesafflictionand becomessamsara,yetnothingissubtracted.Itislikethebrightmoonintheskythatdoesnotdistinguishbetweenthepureandtheimpureorthebeautifulandthe ugly,andthatdoesnotcareaboutpovertyandwealth,elevation,ordebasement.Itequallyenlightensallthosewhoapproachit.Inthiswayitsmysteriousessence embracestheentirecosmos,yetitisnotlarge.Itrestsonthetipofahair,yetitisnotsmall.Itincludesbothpastandfuture,yetisbeginninglessandendless.It pervadescountlessworldswithoutmissingtheslightestarea.Itisneitherexistentnornonexistent,andthereisnotimethatitisnot"justso."Thisiswhyinnate enlightenmentiscalled"great." Whyisselfenlightenmentcalled"curative"?Whenallthosewhoaretrappedinbondagesuddenlyrelyuponateacherandspontaneouslyreturntotheirinnateabilities, reflectingontheirownpureandfullyendowedattributes,theywillarisefaithandunderstandingtheywillcastofferrorandreturntothecorrect,resistevilandfollow thegood.Theywillreturndefilementtobodhi,returnignoranceintopraja,transformsamsaraintonirvana.Thisiswhyselfenlightenmentiscalled"curative." Whyisenlighteningotherscalled"extensive"?Sinceoneisalreadyabletoenlightenoneself,heendsdelusionandconsummatesvirtue

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hethoroughlyperceivesthatalthoughsentientbeingsareofthesamebasicnature,theyaredeluded.Atthispoint,onespreadsoutcompassionateteachingslikeclouds inthesky.Likewavesarisingandcrossingtheocean,hemanifestsvariousforms,teachesvariousdharmas,andisextensivelyabletobenefitallsentientbeings.Thisis whyenlighteningothersiscalled"extensive." However,whileselfenlightenmentiscalled"curative,"italsoincludesthemeaningof"extensive."Andwhileenlighteningothersiscalled"extensive"italsoincludesthe meaningof"curative."Inquellingevil,thereisnoevilnotdispelled.Inpracticinggoodness,thereisnogoodnessnotupheld.Inone'scapacitytobefree,thereis nothingfromwhichoneisnotfree.Inone'scapacitytocreate,thereisnothingthatonedoesnotcreate.Thisiswhyselfenlightenmentcanbecalled"curative''andyet atthesametimebecalled"extensive."Universallycausingall[others]tocease[evil]justasIhave,therearenonewhodonotceaseit.IndoinggoodnessasIhave, therearenonewhodonotdoit.Thisiswhyimprovingothersiscalled"extensive,"butatthesametimehasthemeaningof"curative." Theenlightenmentofselfandothersisfulfilled,andyoureturntoinnateenlightenment.Whyisthiscalled"PerfectEnlightenment?"Eventhoughyouhaveself realization,ifyougrasptotheideaof"realization,"youstillabideintheviewofsubjectandobject,andhavenotletitgo.Howcouldyoupossiblycallthisa thoroughgoingrealization?Eventhoughyoutransformothers,ifwithinyourselfyouhavenotletgooftheideaofatransformingsubject,andoutsideofyourselfthereis stillarealmofthingstobetransformed,howcouldyoupossiblycallthis"greattransformation?"Onlyafterforgettingtheideaofobtainingrealizationcantherebe thoroughgoingrealization.Onlyafteryoustopgivingrisetoviewsofbuddhahoodcantherebegreattransformation.Thestatesofthoroughgoingrealizationandgreat transformationcoalescewithinnateenlightenment,arisingdependentlywithoutobstruction.Wrongandright,goodandevil,pollutionandpurity,yesandno,holyand profane,delusionandawakeningallmergeintoonerealm.Bodhianddefilementdonotinterferewitheachother,samsaraandnirvanaarealsonotcontradictory. WisdomandfoolishnessmergeasprajahellandheavenarethesamePureLand.Selectingandrejectingarebothinyourhandpleasureandpainareaccordingto thesituation.Thisiswhythefulfillmentoftheenlightenmentofselfandother,whichisthereturntoinnateenlightenment,iscalled"PerfectEnlightenment."

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TheSemanticRelationshipbetweenTaepangkwangwonkak [HPC7.124a24]

TheSanskritwordanuttarasamyaksambodhimeans"unsurpassedcorrect(ive)universaltrueenlightenment."This"unsurpassedcorrect(ive)universaltrue enlightenment"meansthesamethingas"greatcurativeextensivePerfectEnlightenment.""Unsurpassed"(musang )."Correct(ive)wisdomisselfenlightenment universalwisdomisenlighteningothers.Sinceneitherselfenlightenmentnorenlighteningothersisbiasedorwrong,theyarecalled"correct(ive)universaltrue enlightenment."Themeaningof"cure"astheforgettingofbothsubjectandobject,themeaningof"extension"astheequalityofselfandother,themeaningof"perfect" asabsolute,completeinclusion,andthemeaningof"enlightenment"asthenondualityofinnateenlightenmentandinitialenlightenmentallcontainthesamemeaningof "correctenlightenment."Thereforeweknowthatwhatiscalled"correctenlightenment,"isthesameaswhatiscalled"PerfectEnlightenment." TheMeaningoftheRelativePlacementoftheWordsoftheTitleandtheImportanceoftheirDistinction [HPC7.124b8] Whyisitthatthetitlesays"great( )"?"Great"referstofaithandunderstanding"curative"referstoselfimprovement"extensive"referstoimprovingothers. "Perfect"referstorealizationandtransformation.Whyarefaithandunderstandingcalled"great"?Itisbecausethatwhichisbelievedandunderstoodisgreat.Whyis selfimprovementcalled"cure"?Becausethepracticesoneperformsarecorrective.Whyisimprovementofotherscalled"extensive"?Becauseintheactofimproving others,oneextendsoneself.Whyisrealizationtransformation"perfect"?Becausewhatisrealizedandtransformedisperfection.

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Thus,"great"beingfirstand"cure"beingnextmeansthatonecompletesone'sunderstandingandthenengagesincorrection.WhydoIsay"completeunderstanding''? Becausecompleteunderstandingistheprinciplebywhichwethoroughlypenetrategoodandevil,defilementandpurity,deathandlife,darknessandillumination.Itis thesameas"thewisdomreachingtoallthemyriadphenomena"and"inthephenomenalnothingnotknown"and"intheprinciplenothingnotpenetrated."21 [Translator'snote:"Principle"isoneEnglishtranslationfortheideographli/ri ),whichshouldbefollowed,andinthecaseofthesages,befullyrealized. WhendoctrinalBuddhismdevelopedinChina,lireceivedmorespecificdefinition,becomingassociatedwiththeBuddhistconceptofparamarthasatya,thehigher, orabsolutetruth.ThebasicnonentitativecharacterofthetermisfurtherdefinedinBuddhism,aslibecomesidentifiedwithsunyata("emptiness" ,).Bythetime Kihwawritesthiscommentary,theconceptoflihasmanyconnotationsattachedtoit.] [Kihwa] WhydoIsay"practiceofcuring"?Becauseinpracticethereisstoppingandgoing,apprehensionanddiscardingandscrupulouscorrectionwithouterror.Itislikethe saying"extendingeverywherewithouterror."22Itisalsolikethesaying"reverencecorrectsfromtheinside,righteousnessalignsontheoutside."23Wellknown conceptssuchas"stoppingevilanddevelopinggoodness"and"castingoffevilandreturningtothecorrect"arethesameasthis.Whyiscurefirstandextensionnext? Onceyouhavevirtueinabundanceyoucanreachouttotheworldandcangiveofyourselfwithoutanyreservations.Thisislikethesaying:"abidingatpeaceand valuingbenevolence,youcanlovepeople."24Itisalsolikethesaying:"Onlywhenyouhavegoodnesswithinyourselfcan

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youstimulatethegoodnessofothers.Onlywhenthereisnoevilwithinyourselfcanyoucorrecttheevilofothers."Italsomeans"possessinggoodnessandpossessing disciplineyouimprovesentientbeings." Whydo"cure"and"extension"comebefore''perfection"?Youhavealreadyestablishedthepracticesofselfimprovementandimprovementofothersrelyingonyour "selectingandrejecting."25Now,afterbeingabletoforgettheideaofselectingandrejecting,andafterwipingouttheviewsofsubjectandobject,youareableto attaintotherealmofthoroughgoingrealizationandgreattransformation.EventhoughtheTaolacksdefiniteshape,itisattainable.Itislikethesaying:"spirithasno shapeandchangehasnoessence."26[SuchwellknownBuddhistphrasesas]"Neitherpracticenorrealization"and"nothingarisingintransformation"and"noarising ofnontransformation"andsoon,arethesameasthis.Thesearethereasonsthat"great"comesbefore"cure,""cure"comesbefore"extension,"and"cureextension" comesbefore"perfection." Though"great"and"perfect"aredifferentwords,theyhavethesamemeaning.Anexampleisthephrase"greatperfectcompleteenlightenment."Faithunderstanding andrealizationtransformationarepenetratedbyonethreadfrombeginningtoend.27Thephrases"accordingwiththewisdomofMajusriisnoneotherthan beginner'smind,"and"whenyouenterthestageofthepracticesofSamantabhadrathereisalreadynoseparateessence"expressthissamemeaning.[Translator's note:Thestageoffaithunderstanding ),whichoftenappearslinkedtothisterm. MajusriBodhisattvaisaMahayanasymbolrepresentingtheWisdomaspectoftheBuddhistpath,andthusinmanyMahayanascriptures,thesectionsconnected withhisnamearethemostprofound.IntheSPEthechapterofMajusricontainsthesuddenteachingthatadmitsofnogradualismwhatsoever.Samantabhadra(in contrasttoMajusri)representsthe"gradualpractice"aspectoftheBuddhistpath,inwhichpracticesarecarriedoutinrelianceuponaphenomenalunderstandingof causeandeffect."Faithunderstanding"istheinitialstageofBuddhistpractice,while"realizationtransformation"isequivalenttoBuddha

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hood.YetKihwasaysherethatbothoftheseare"penetratedbyonethreadfrombeginningtoend"( ).HereKihwaiselucidatingaposition articulatedintheHwaomschool,thatsinceallthingsareinterpenetratedandcontaineachother,therecanultimatelybenosuchthingasaseparationbetweentheearly stagesofsocallednonenlightenmentandthefinalstageofenlightenment.Thesamemessageisexpressedinthetwofollowingquotations,whichidentifythehighest stageofwisdomwiththeverybeginningofpractice.ForanexplicationofthisimportantHuayeninterpretationofmutualcontainmentofthestagesofthepathtoward enlightenment,seeSungBaePark'sBuddhistFaithandSuddenEnlightenment,pages11822.] TheSemanticRelationoftheIndividualWordstoEachOther [HPC7.124c14] Furthermore,"great"and"extensive"haverelatedmeaning,and"cure''and"perfect"mutuallyrespond.Already,theenlightenmentthatknowsthesamenessofessence is"great"withoutborderorlimitthatselfandotherarenotdistinguished.Youarenowabletoextendyourselftotheworldand"extensively"awakenothers.Thisis themutualconnectionof"great"and"extensive.""Perfectingthe'great'kingofenlightenmentand'extensively'savingallkindsofsentientbeings,"canbeunderstoodin thesameway.ItislikewhentheIChingsays:"wematchgreatnesswithheavenandextensivenesswithearth.Withwisdomwespeakof[heaven's]greatnesswith goodnesswespeakof[theearth's]extensiveness."28OnlyafteryouareabletocombinethevirtuesofwisdomandgoodnessandunifytheTaoofheavenandearth, canyouembracetheimperfectandtheperfect,fullycontainthe"extensive"andthe"great"andassumethetitleof"sage."Thereforeitissaid:"Thechangesarethatby whichthesageelevateshiswisdomandextensivelyacts."29"Elevatingwisdom"meansthatwisdompenetratesallthingsandilluminatesthemfromabovelikeheaven. Itisthesameassamyaksambodhi."Actingextensively"meansthattheWaygivessuccortoallthoseintheworldwhilebeingasbroadastheearthitself.Itislikethe "greatcompassionthatsavestheworld."Themeaningsof"great"and"extensive"arethesameasthis. Sinceyouareabletocastoffevilandreturntothecorrect,cutoffdelusionandperfectvirtue,andblendwiththeworldlywhilekeepingunitywiththesagely,you respondperfectlywithoutanylimitation.Thisisthe"complementarityofcureandperfection"Thismeansthatifyoudesiretogainthisperfection,youmusthavethe curefirst.Inthe

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sutratheBuddhafirstsetsupthestagesofworldling,worthyandsage30andthenconcludesbysaying"allhindrancesarenoneotherthanultimateenlightenment."31 ThisislikeintheConfucianclassicswheretheyfirstmentionthevariousworthiesandsummarizethediscussionwithConfucius'words,"therearenonewhoare capableandnonewhoareincapable."32Thisiswhythetitlesays"cure"firstand"perfect"after.TheIChingsays:''Knowledgeexaltsandproprietymakeshumble. Theexaltedimitateheavenandthehumblepatternthemselvesaftertheearthperfectingone'snatureandmaintainingit:thisisthegateofrighteousnessandtheTao."33 Heavenenvelopstheexterioroftheearth,completelycontainingitwithoutboundary:thisishigh,thisisgreat,thisis"perfect."Theearthstayswithinheavenandis heavy,unmoving.Thisisthehumble,theextensive,the"cure."Theinterdependenceofthethreepowers34andmyriadthingsiscalledtheWay.Thesageembodiesit anduniversallyrespondswithoutanypartialitythisis"perfection."PracticingwithgoodnessasthebasisandattainingtheWayaccuratelythisis"righteousness." Thesageusesthisandholdstothecorrectwithouterror:thisiscalled"cure."Onlywhenyouhavebecomeasagedoyouunitewithheavenandearthandblendthe sacredandprofane.Thenyouareabletopracticethecurativeandtheperfectandthereisnothingtowhichyoucannotapplyyourself.Thisislikethephrase:"Thereis noplacewherethesagelynaturedoesnotpenetrate."Onceagreatsagehasbeenbornintothisworld,hecannotavoidtakingonlimitedviewsandtheafflictionof delusions.Therefore[theIChing]says:"Thebenevolentseeitandcallitbenevolencethewiseseeitandcallitwisdomthecommonpeopleuseitdailywithout awareness."35BecauseofthistheydonotseethegreatcompletenessoftheWayandareunabletopracticethecurativeandpracticetheperfect.Thisisthemeaning of"cureperfection." TheExplanationoftheRelationshipbetweentheTripletCompoundsoftheTitle [HPC7.125a22] "Greatcurativeextensive"( )takescauseandeffectandreturnsittonocauseandeffect.Thephrases"nonotfollowingtheflowofthisrealityrealmandnonon returningtothisrealityrealm"reflectthesamemessage.Alreadyawakenedandthenpracticingpracticingforoneselfandtransformingothers:thisis"greatcurative extensive."Alreadyhavingpracticedandreachingtorealization,yourealizeeventhoughthereisnothingtobe

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realized.Havingalreadyrealized,youdisclose[reality]andtransform[others]eventhoughinthistransformationthereisnothingthatistransformed.Sincerealization andtransformationarebothperfected,youfunctionfreelywithoutobstruction:thisis"curativeextensiveperfect."Itisbecauseofallofthesethatthemagnificently adornedpathofenlightenmentistheadornmentofnoadornment.Eventhoughthewordsoftheloftyandluminousteachingspeakoftheenlightenednatureofthe sage,itisnecessarytofirsthavethiscauseandeffectofpracticeandrealization.Howtruethesewordsare! CategorizationoftheTwelveChapters CategorizationbytheWordsoftheTitle [HPC7.125b6] IfwematchthewordsofthetitletothetwelvechaptersofthesutrathenthesinglechapterofMajuri36clarifies"greatness"relyingonthe[initial]practiceof[the path]offaithunderstanding.Theeightchapters37fromSamantabhadrauptoPurifierofKarmicHindrancesclarify"cure"dependinguponthepracticesofself improvement.ThesinglechapterofUniversalEnlightenmentclarifies"extensiveness"dependingonthepracticeofimprovingothers.ThesinglechapterofPerfect Enlightenmentclarifies"perfection"dependingonthefinalpracticeofrealizationandtransformation. HowisitthatthechapterofMajusriBodhisattvaisguidedbythepracticeoffaithandunderstandinginclarifyinggreatness?Thetextsays:"possessesthegreat dharanientrance,whichiscalledPerfectEnlightenment.Fromitismanifestedallpurity:suchness,bodhi,nirvana,andtheparamitasthatteachbodhisattvas."38This ishowitclarifies"greatness"Italsosays:"Alltathagatasrelyontheattributesofperfectlyluminouspureenlightenmenttoseverignoranceanddirectlyaccomplishthe Buddhaway."39Theterm"perfectillumination"isasynonymfor"faithunderstanding''ThisiswhythechapterofMajusriBodhisattvaclarifiesgreatnessrelyingon thepracticeoffaithunderstanding. WhydotheeightchaptersfromSamantabhadraBodhisattvatoPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattvaexplain"cure"relyingonthepracticesofself improvement?Eachchapterteacheshowtodestroydelusionandmanifestvirtue,toclearlydistinguishbetweentrueandfalse,betweenthecorrectandthemistaken. Thecourseofpracticeisclearlyanalyzedandcontainsthedoctrineof"restraintstopping,""reposestopping,"and"stoppingbyabsolutenegation."Thisiswhywecan saythattheeightchaptersfromSamantabhadraclarifythecurebasedontheaspectofselfimprovement.Thesechaptersalsocontain

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thedoctrineof"extension"butthisissupplementary,andisnotthemainpoint. HowisitthatthechapterofUniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattvaclarifies"extensiveness"basedonthepracticesofimprovingothers?Thewords"universal enlightenment"mean"universallyusingmyownenlightenmenttoenlightenthosewhoaretobeenlightenedafter."Thetextsays:"Whatkindofpersonshouldwehave thesentientbeingsseek?Onwhatkindofteachingsshouldtheyrely?"andsoonupto:"preventtheblindmultitudefromfallingintomistakenviews''40and "completelyembracingalltypesofpeople,extensivelymakingthemawaken."ThisishowthechapterofUniversalEnlightenmentclarifies"extensiveness"dependingon theaspectofimprovingothers.Withinthisdoctrinethemeaningofcureisnotabsent,butitissupplementaryandnotthemainpoint. HowdoesthechapterofPerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattvaclarify"perfection"dependingontheaspectofthefinalpracticeofrealizationandtransformation?The term"PerfectEnlightenment"means"thefulfillmentoftheenlightenmentofselfandother"and"ultimate,completeinclusion."Whenthetextsays:"[we]havealready attainedawakening,"41thisistheperfectionofselfrealization."CompletelyembracingallkindsofpeopleandreturningthemtogethertoPerfectEnlightenment,"42is theperfectionoftransformingothers.Thephrase"alreadyenlightened"andtheconceptof"completelyembracing"havenotbeenexpressedinearlierchaptersthey areonlyfoundhere.ThisiswhyIsaythatthechapterofPerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattvaclarifiesperfectionbasedonthefinalpracticeofrealizationand transformation. CategorizationbytheThreeLevelsofCapacity [HPC7.125c14] Amongthetwelvechapters,thetwochaptersofSamantabhadraBodhisattvaandUniversalVisionBodhisattvateachthepracticeandrealizationofthoseofsuperior capacity,sincethesechapterscontainthedoctrineofrealization. [Translator'snote:Inthiscategorizationofthechaptersaccordingtothethreecapacities,Kihwahasomittedthefirst,thechapterofMajusri.Accordingtohis discussionofthechapterofMajusriinthemainbodyofthecommentary,itshouldcertainlybeclassifiedasaimedatthoseofsuperiorcapacity(thisishowTsungmi categorizesitseeTsungmi'sGreatCommentaryZ243.9.334c17).Italsomaybethatbecauseofitsradicallysuddenisticcontent,Kihwaconsidersthechapterto becompletelyapartfromtherealmofpractice.]

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[Kihwa] [Interlinearnote:ThusinthechapterofSamantabhadraBodhisattvaitsays:"Separationfromillusionisitselfenlightenment."43ThechapterofUniversalVision Bodhisattvasays:"Whenthefilthisgone,[themirror's]brightnessnaturallyappears."44Italsosays:"Intheonewhorealizes,thereisno'contrivance,''stopping,' 'naturalism,'or'annihilation'.'']45 ThesixchaptersfromthechapterofVajragarbhaBodhisattvaarethe[teachingof]practiceandrealizationforthoseofmiddlingcapacity.Thechapterofthe BodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesespeciallyfocusesonthefactthatthesubtlemarkofcausequicklyreachingeffectneedstobeeliminated,sinceonce thesedefilementsareeliminated,oneisabletorealizeandenter[intoenlightenment].ThetwochaptersofUniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattvaandPerfect EnlightenmentBodhisattvaoperateinthesphereofcomplete,ultimaterealizationandtransformationandareaimedataidingthoseofinferiorcapacity.Thereforethey embodytheteachingofthepracticeandrealizationofthoseofinferiorfaculties.Atthispoint,theCorrectDoctrine46iscompleteandisfittobetransmittedasanorm forlatergenerations.ThereforeitisfollowedbythechapterofMostExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva.ThischapteristheDisseminationchapter47thatsummarizes thegeneralimportofallthechapters. CategorizationbyInterpenetration [HPC7.125c23] Itcannowbeseenwithgreatclarity,asifonewereexaminingajeweledmirror,thatthefivewords"GreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenment"completely summarizeallthechapters,andthatthetwelvechaptersasawholearticulatethemarvelouspointofthetitle.Thedharma[objectiveprinciple]thatisrealizediscalled GreatEnlightenment,iscalledPerfectEnlightenment,iscalledMarvelousEnlightenment.Thesubjectivelyactualizingperson,andthesubjectivelyactualizingwisdom arealsocalledGreatEnlightenment,arealsocalledPerfectEnlightenment,andarealsocalledMarvelousEnlightenment.Howisitthatthesubjectiveandobjective aspectsofenlightenmenthavethesamename?Itisbecauseintherealmofultimaterealization"person"and"dharma"arebothforgotten.Since"forgettingboth"isalso nihilated,principleandwisdomarebothcomplete.Sincetheyarebothcomplete,thecompletionofbothalsovanishesbotharecompleteandbothvanish.Since subjectandobjectlackduality,subjectiveandobjectiverealizationhavethesamename.

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Whatisthetextualbasisfortheobjectivelyrealizeddharmabeingcalled"GreatEnlightenment,""PerfectEnlightenment,"and"MarvelousEnlightenment"?Theseare expressedinthesayings:"SpacearisingfromthemidstofGreatEnlightenment"48''Possessesthegreatdharanientrance,whichiscalledPerfectEnlightenment"49 and"Unsurpassedmarvelousenlightenmentpervadesthetendirections"50andsoon. Whatisthetextualbasisforthesubjectivelyactualizingpersonandthesubjectivelyactualizingwisdomalsobeingcalled"GreatEnlightenment,""Perfect Enlightenment,"and"MarvelousEnlightenment"?Theseareexpressedinthesutrawhenitsays:"GreatlyEnlightenedWorldHonoredOne,""PerfectlyEnlightened Bodhisattvas,""MarvelouslyEnlightenedBodhisattvas,"andsoon. "Awakeningcultivation51realizationtransformation"(wuhsiuchenghwa/osuchonghwa )isthemainteachingofthisparticulartext,anditisalsothe doctrinalthemeofmanyscriptures.Yetsomeschoolsdiscussitinthecontextof"innateenlightenment"and"actualizedenlightenment,"whileothersdiscussitinthe contextof"enlighteningoneself"and"enlighteningothers."Ineithermethodofexplication,"awakeningpracticerealizationtransformation"isreflectedlimitlessly. ComparisonwiththeHwaomgyong [HPC7.126a18] OutsideoftheHwaomgyongonlythistextexhauststheparticularsof,andfullycontainstheteachingof"phenomenauniversallypervadingandprinciplecompletely embracing."ThissutraonlydiffersfromtheHwaomgyongintermsoflength.Thephrase"GreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenment"isthesameas"Great CurativeExtensiveBuddha."52"Buddha"means"enlightenment,"especiallythefullenlightenmentofselfandothers.Theterm"fullenlightenment"(foundinthetitleof theHwaomgyong)isexactlythesameastheterm"PerfectEnlightenment."Thus,thetwoscripturesaregenerallythesame.Sincethissutratakes"awakeningpractice realizationtransformation,"dischargesthemandgivesthemtheirfullexpression,magnificentlyadorningthedharmadhatu,itis"hwaom."53Thereforeitissaid:"taking aninexhaustibleamountofdharanijewelsandmagnificentlyadorningthetruejewelpalaceofthedharmadhatu."54Whenitsays"inexhaustible,"themeaningsofgreat andsmall,partialandcomplete,expedientandtrue,suddenandgradual,incompleteandcompletedoctrinesarecompletelydissolvedwithoutremainder.Itislikethe lackofborderbetweenariverandtheoceanintowhichitflows.ThisiswhytheHwaomgyongispraisedas"greatteaching,"andisalsocalled"perfect."

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TheMeaningof"SutraFullyRevealedDoctrineScripture [HPC7.126b5] Whatisthemeaningofthephrase"sutrafullyrevealeddoctrinescripture"?Amongthemanysutras,thosethataredistinguishedbytheterm"fullyrevealed doctrine"(liaoi/youi ).Thisisaminordifferencebetweenthetwo.55 "Sutra"(ching/kyong )means"warpandwoof.""Warpandwoof"means"verticalandhorizontal."56Thisislikethemarvelousinstructiondiscussedabove:it explainshorizontallyandvertically,sometimesrefuting,sometimesestablishingtakingwords,phrases,andsentences,puttingthemtogethertoformateachingthat becomesthenormfortenthousandagesopeninguptheunderstandingoflivingbeingsandcausingthemtoreachtheothershore.Thisiswhatiscalleda''sutra."To expressmyunderstandingofthemeaningofthetitle"GreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenmentSutraCompleteDoctrineScripture,"Iofferthefollowingverse: Theexceedinglydeep,marvelousdharmaissubtleanddifficult toexpound, Yetwhenweliftoureyestoseeit,itisalreadypresentbeforeus. Ifwefullyknowthatthetitlehasnotasingleword, Theninreadingthescriptures,howcanwefollowverbal explanations? [HereKihwaendshisexplicationofthetitleandbeginstotreatthefirstlineoftheactualsutra,whichisthetestamentbytheBuddha'sassistant,Ananda,thatwhat followsbelowis"whathehasheard."] [HPC7.126b16] TheBuddhacontinuallyextendedhimselftovastnumbersofpeoplemorethanathousandbodhisattva"oceanassemblies,"andeachofthesecrowdsnumbereda hundredthousandpeople.HowisitthatonlyAnandasaid"Ihaveheard"andhisstatementhasappearedatthebeginningofallsutrasdownthroughtheages?Howis this?AmongthetengreatdisciplesAnandahadheardthegreatestnumberoftheBuddha'ssermons. [Translator'snote:AccordingtoBuddhisttradition,AnandawastheBuddha'sadministrativeassistantduringmostofhisteachingcareer,and

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waspresentatalmosteverysermon.Hewassupposedtobepossessedofgreatintelligenceandapowerfulmemory,andcouldthereforerecountthecontentofthe Buddha'ssermons.However,whenheappearedatthefirstconvocationaftertheBuddha'sdeathtoofferhisversionsofthesermons,thecouncilchairman, Mahakasyapa,rejectedthemonthegroundsthatAnandahadnotyetattainedenlightenment,andthereforehisunderstandingandrenditionoftheBuddha'ssermons couldbeflawed.Anandasubsequentlyendeavoredwithallhisstrengthtoattainenlightenment,andoncehesucceeded,thecouncilacceptedhisaccounts.Therefore, allBuddhistsutrasthatproposetobeanactualaccountoftheteachingsofSakyamunistartoffwiththephrase,"ThusIhaveheard..."] [Kihwa] AndAnanda'smeritwasduetothefactthathehadlongagosowntherootsofvirtuehissharpnessexceededthatofothers,andhealwayscherishedtheopportunity ofbeingtheBuddha'sassistant.Thus,hekeptinhismemoryeverysinglephraseandeverysingleverseoftheBuddha'swordswithoutrecordinganythinginwriting.At thetimeoftheBuddha'sparinirvana,hisonlyquestiontotheBuddhawaswhatkindofphraseshouldbeplacedatthebeginningofallthesutras,andtheBuddhatold himtosay"ThusIhaveheard."NowaftertheBuddha'spassingaway,Kasyapawasthefirsttoattaintheconditionof"extinctionofoutflow,"57andthereforehe servedaschairpersonatthefirstconvocation.Butwhentheassemblyraisedthethreedoubts,58Anandaclarifiedthemwiththissinglephrase.Thereforeweknowthat thisphraseissomethingthatwaspersonallyrecommendedbytheBuddha,andthemeansbywhichAnandawasabletoovercometheirdoubts.Andthissamephrase startsoffeveryoneofthescripturesthatappearastheresultoffortynineyearsoftheBuddha'steaching.Accordingtothecontentofhissermons,Ananda transmitteditthroughaneternityuptothepresent.Subjectedtoeachperson'sexamination,everyonehaspraiseditas"excellent."Isthisnotwonderful?Theoceanic teachingthatpoureddirectlyfromtheGoldenMouth,overflowedfromIndiaandpouredoutinEastAsia,permeatingpeople'seyesandearsandarousingthe goodnessoftheirminds.ThewheeloftheDharmaeternallyabidesandtransmits,whilewisdomandlifecontinuewithoutlapse.Whosemeritisthis?Heearnedthe predictiontobecometheKingMountainSeaWisdomOmnipotentPenetrationcanthisbewithoutreason?!59 Generallytheformatofthesutrasoutsideofthemainbodyofthetextitselfisfirstanintroductionofthetimeandplace,theBuddhaandhisfollowers.Afteraproper ritualisperformedforaskingaquestion,

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thelistenersreceivetheteachingwithfaithandsincerelypractice.Allsutrawritersfollowthisorder.Sonowcomestheintroductionoftimeandplace,Buddhaand followers.Myverse: TheWombofRadiancealloysworldlingandsagewithin Intheassemblyofequality,ritualclearlyoccurs. Withoutdroppingasingleword,hisvoiceshakestheearth. Afterfinishingthespeech,hehasnotenlightenedallofthe people. [Sutra(#1)][T842.17.913a27HPC7.126c18]

ThusIhaveheard.Onetime,theBhagavan... [Kihwa][HPC7.126c19] "Thus"["likethis" ]referstothesubsequentlyexpoundeddharma."Ihaveheard"meansthat"IhaveheardthisdharmafromtheBuddha."Whydoeshesay''One time"?Ifwerecordedthedatesforthepreaching,theneachsutrawouldbedifferent.Bysimplysaying"onetime,"hecoversallofthem.Thereforehemerelysays "one(time)."BhagavanisanothernamefortheBuddha.Sincethiswordhassuchanextensiverangeofmeaning,IleaveituntranslatedintheSanskrit.60 [Sutra(#2)][T842.17.913a27HPC7.126c24]

...enteredthesupramundanegreatradiantbrightgarbha,intheexactlyattainedsamadhi,wherealltathagatasabideinradiantsplendor.Thisisthegroundofpureenlightenment ofsentientbeings,theequaloriginalrealitywherebodyandmindarecompletelyerased.Hecompletelyfilledthetendirectionswiththeaccordancewithnonduality,andinthis nondualstatemanifestedallpurelands. Hewaswithonehundredthousandgreatbodhisattvamahasattvas.Thosewhoservedasleadersoftheassemblywere:MajusriBodhisattva,SamantabhadraBodhisattva, UniversalVisionBodhisattva,VajragarbhaBodhisattva,MaitreyaBodhisattva,PureWisdomBodhisattva,PowerandVirtueUnhinderedBodhisattva,Voiceof

Page68 DiscernmentBodhisattva,PurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattva,UniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattva,PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva,andMostExcellentof WorthiesBodhisattva.Withtheirretinues,allenteredintothesamesamadhiastheTathagataatthisassemblyoftheequaldharma.

[Kihwa][HPC7.127a11] Thatinwhichthingsarestorediscalledgarbhaithasthemeaningof"containing"italsohasthemeaningof"producing."Itrefersdirectlytotheessenceof enlightenment.Thereasonthattheessenceofenlightenmentisindicatedwiththiswordisbecauseitiswheremyriadvirtuesaregathered,anditistheplacefromwhich thesupramundaneradianceemanates.Asforthephrase"theexactlyattainedsamadhi,"thisisthesituationwheretheessenceofenlightenmentisclearandself luminousandisnotaffectedbyexternalconditions."Enter"means''toaccordwithandstablyabidein"thisclearandselfluminousbody.Yetwithinthisclearandself luminousgarbha,itisnotonlytheTathagatawhoaccordsandstablyabidesitistheplacewherealltathagatasabidetogetherandmutuallyillumineandadorneach other.Anditisnotaplacewhereonlybuddhasabidenosentientbeingisexcluded.Itisonlybecauseoftheimpedimentsofbodyandmindthattheyareunableto accordandstablyabidewithin.Thebodyandmindthatarewithinthisgarbhaareoriginallyquiescent.Itisbecauseweseefromtheperspectiveofthetracesofbody andmindthatthereseemstobeadifferencebetweensageandworldling.Ifweseefromtheperspectiveofthequiescentessence,thensentientbeingandBuddhaare equal,andthisequal,originalrealityistheuniversallypervading,fullycontaining,perfectlyinterfusedrealmofnonduality.TheBuddhaaccordswithitandstablyabides init.Withoutleavingquiescence,hemanifestsworldsinresponsetoconditions.Thebodhisattvas,100,000innumber,comprisetheaudience.These100,000 bodhisattvas,alongwiththeirretinues,allentersamadhiinthesamesubtlestateastheBuddha. [Translator'snote:SamadhiisaSanskrittermthatreferstothestateofpureconcentrationexperiencedinthedeepestofmeditations.TathagataisaSanskrit epithetoftheBuddha,usuallytranslatedintoEnglishas"thuscome."TheBuddhaisnotatranscendantgod,butahumanbeingwhohashadtopassthroughthe courseofsufferingandpractice.ThenaturallyenlightenedconditionthattheTathagata"abides"inisdescribedas"adornedwithlight."Theabovementioned "supernatural"samadhi,whichhasbeendescribedasaspiritualstateoftheTathagataisidentifiedasthe"ground"(or"stage" )ofpureenlightenment"ofsentient beings,thatis,ordinarypeople.Heregroundreferstothat

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whichisinitselfpureenlightenmentthehumanmind.ThustheequalityofBuddhaandsentientbeingispositedinthefirstpassageofthesutra.Inthistext,aswellas inmanyotherMahayanatexts,theterm"equal"(tung arethefourcardinalpoints,thefourintermediatedirections,thezenithandthenadir.Thetermmeans "everywherethroughouttheuniverse."]

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1. MajusriBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.127b6] [Interlinearnote:"Majusri"means"mostprofound."]Theunfathomableiscalled"profound"(maju).Thefirstamongmanyiscalled"most"(sri).Thereasonheis called"mostprofound''isbecausehegathersamyriadvirtueswithoutshowingthem,suchthateventhegodscannotfathomhim.Thoughhecarriesoutamyriad transformations,heisneverdepletedthoughheishigh,hecannotbelookedupto.ThereasononehundredthousandbodhisattvasselectMajusritoinitiatethe teachingisbecauseofhislevelofwisdom."Wisdom"isthespearheadofamyriadpracticesandatthesametimetheirmarvelousfinalproduct.Ifthemyriadpractices lackwisdomthentheywillalldevelopflaws. [Translator'snote:Thewordbeingtranslatedhereas"flaws"istheBuddhisttechnicaltermyulou/yuru bepureandperfect.] anasrava),andthereforewhateveriscreatedbyitcan

[Kihwa] Ifwisdomislackinginthefinalproduct,thenthatfinalproductwillbenothingbutevilseeds.Thereforeitissaid:"Amongthemyriadpractices,thereisnotasingleone thatcanlackthisruler[wisdom]."Itis

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alsosaid:"Notdevisingthese[ignorant]understandingsiscalled'theexcellentstate.'Ifyoudevisetheseunderstandings,youinvitecountlesserrors."Thewaytoavoid "devisingunderstandings"isthroughthepowerofwisdom. ItisbecausetheBuddhawantstomakeallpractitionersofPerfectEnlightenmentfirstrelyonwisdomandthenpractice,thathehasMajusriaskthequestion,first explainingthedharmapracticeoftheTathagata'scausalstage.This"dharmapracticeofthecausalstage"isnoneotherthantheabovementioned"faith understanding."Firstyoumusthave"faithunderstanding''andthenyoucanbegintopracticeandreachtorealization.ThisiswhyMajusriisfirsttoraiseaquestion. Myverse: IfyouwanttounderstandthepracticesoftheTathagata'scausal stage, ReadandunderstandthequestionsputforthbyMajusri. Whenyoufullyrealizetheemptinessofdharmas,emptinessis alsoforgotten Fromthisafoolistransformedintoakingofenlightenment. Majusri'sQuestionontheDharmaPracticeoftheCausalStage [Sutra(#3)][T842.17.913b15HPC7.127b23]

MajusriBodhisattvaarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Hethenkneltdown withhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying:

[Kihwa][HPC7.127c2] Hegetsupfrommeditationandfixeshishairandclothing.FirsthebowstotheBuddha'sfeetwithclaspedhands,thenheuseswordstotransmithismessage.Thisis theultimateinreveringtheBuddhaandreveringthedharma. [Sutra(#4)][T842.17.913b8HPC7.127c4]

GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne...

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[Kihwa][HPC7.127c5] Thefundamentalreasonthatallbuddhasappearintheworldistosavesentientbeings.Sincethevastdesiretosavesentientbeingsisoriginallyfromhisgreat compassion,wheneversomeonewantstoaskhimtoteachtheessentialsofthedharma,theyshouldfirstaddresshimas"greatlycompassionate." [Sutra(#5)][T842.17.913b9HPC7.127c7]

Please,forallmembersofthisassemblywhohavecomeforyourdharma,teachusaboutthedharmapracticeoftheTathagata'soriginallyarisenpurecausalstage.Also,please teachthebodhisattvastoarousepuremindinthegreatvehicleandbecomedistantlyremovedfromallafflictions,suchthattheycanpreventthefuturesentientbeingsofthe degenerateagewhoseekthegreatvehiclefromfallingintomistakenviews."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Translator'snote:Thetermtranslatedhereas"degenerateage"ismoshih/malse( ),whichcouldalsobetranslatedas"latterage"or''finalage."Theconcept comesfromthedoctrinesofPureLandBuddhism,inwhichitwastaughtthattherewerethreeagesoftheBuddhistdharma.Thefirstageistheageofthe"true dharma,"duringwhichitisrelativelyeasytomeetagoodteacherandattainenlightenment.Thenextageisthatofthe"semblancedharma,"whenthereisgreater delusionintheworldanditismoredifficulttoattainenlightenment.Thefinalageisthatofthe"degeneratedharma,"whichistheperiodofgreatestdelusion,during whichtherearefewenlightenedteachers,andduringwhich(inPureLandthought)itisimpossibletoattainenlightenmentthroughone'sownefforts.Thewriterofthe sutraisnotintendingstrictPureLandinterpretations,butnonetheless,itistobeunderstoodthatduringthedegenerateagetherearefewreliableteachers,andsince mostsentientbeingsaredeeplyimmersedinignorance,itisextremelydifficultforthemtoattainenlightenment.ThroughoutthesutratheBuddhaandtheeminent bodhisattvaswhoparticipateinthediscussionwillregularlydistinguishbetweenteachingsthatareaimedatthepresentaudience(the"greatassembly")andthosethat areaimedatsentientbeingsofthe"degenerateage."] [Kihwa][HPC7.127c12] Incontrasttofinalproductwesay"originallyarisen."Incontrasttodefiledhabituationwesay"purity."Inrelationtotheanticipatedgoal

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wesay"causalstage."Incontrasttodirtyandpainfulkarmicactivitywesay"dharmapractice."Nowifperfectilluminationalsohas"faithunderstanding,''thismeans thatthefundamentalcauseisalreadyperfected.Inthe"finalstage,"whichnormallyrefersto"perfectrealization,"theremustalsobepracticeagainstdefiledhabituation andworktowardfurtherpurification.Theremustbetransformationofkarmicactivityintodharmapracticethepracticeofaccordancewithreality. Whatisthemeaningof"arousepuremind?"OriginallyexistentenlightenmentisnotdifferentfromBuddha.Itisonlybecauseofdeludedthoughtthatwearenotfully enlightened.Knowingthis,youshouldthink:"TheonlyreasonthereisadifferencebetweentheBuddhaandIisbecauseofthestainoffalsethinking.FirstImust correctmyhabitsanderadicatedefilementbychangingtheoldandactualizingthenewinordertoreturntothefountofpurity."Thinkinginthiswayiscalled"the arousalofpuremind(bodhicitta)." Whatisthemeaningof"distantlyremovedfromallafflictions"?Theafflictionsthatcripplethedharmabodyarenotofasingletypethereforehesays"all."Sincethe variouscuresareeffectiveandoneiscompletelyfreedwithnoafflictionremaining,hesays"free."Whydoeshesay"abletoprevent"?Ifyouwanttosaveothers,you mustfirstsaveyourself.Ifyouhavenotattainedsalvationyourself,howcanyousaveothers?ThereforeMajusriasksonbehalfofthebodhisattvasfortheBuddhato teachthedharmapracticeofthecausalstage.Thenheasksforthewaytosaveoneselfandsaveothers.Asfor"Havingsaidthis...threetimesinsuccession":Having statedhispoint,heusesthetechniqueofrepetition. Thewaterisclear, Themoonreflects Withsensitivitytotal, Hisresponseisimmediate. [Translator'snote:TheBuddhaissaidtohaveafewdifferenttypesofbodies,eachofwhichrepresentsadifferentwayofperceivinghisexistence.Themostbasic divisionofthebodiesoftheBuddhaisintothree,inSanskrittrikaya.Thesearethedharmakaya( ).(1)Thedharmakayaisareferencetothe transcendenceofformandrealizationoftruesuchness(2)thesambhogakayaisthebuddhabodythatiscalled"rewardbody"or"bodyofenjoymentofthemerits attainedasabodhisattva"(3)thenirmanakayaisthebodymanifestedinresponsetotheneedtoteachsentientbeings.Ofthese,thedharmabodyisthemost profound,inthattheBuddhaishereseenastheultimatetruth,orprincipleofallofexistence.Onemightalsounderstandthetermtomean"theoriginal,enlightened

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natureofallofexistence."Thetermisverycloseinconnotationtothatof"realityrealm"(dharmadhatu [Sutra(#6)][T842.17.913b14HPC7.128a7]

).]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtoMajusriBodhisattva,said:"Excellent!Excellent!Goodson,youhaveskillfullyaskedonbehalfofthebodhisattvasaboutthedharma practiceoftheTathagata'scausalstage.Youhavealsoenabledthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseekthegreatvehicletogainthecorrectabidingsuchthatthey willnotfallintoerroneousviews.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou." MajusriBodhisattvareceivedtheteachingwithreverenceandjoyallthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Translator'snote:Correctabidingisacentraltopicinthisscripture,sinceitsdefinitionandmethodsofattainmentareamajorprobleminthepracticesofall Buddhistschools,whethertheybeTheravada,Mahayana,Zen,Huayen,andsoon.Practitionersofmeditationarehamperedbythemovementoftheirmind,which operatesaccordingtodeeplyingrainedhabitsdevelopedthroughignorance,attachment,anddesire.Ifpractitionersaretostoptheirmindsfrom"abiding"inthese conditions,theyneedtoknowexactlywheretheyaresupposedtoplacetheirattention.] [Kihwa][HPC7.128a13] Inbetween"dharmapracticeofthecausalstage( ).Thesentenceshouldsay:

YouhavebeenabletoaskforthebodhisattvasaboutthedharmapracticeofthecausalstageoftheTathagata,andhavecausedallthebodhisattvastoarousethepuremindin thegreatvehicle.Youhavealsocausedallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseekthegreatvehicletogaincorrectabidingsuchthattheydonotfallintoerroneous views.

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Attheconclusionofthischapter,thetextsays:"Bodhisattvas,dependingonthis,arousepuremindinthegreatvehicle.Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage, dependinguponit(thispractice),willnotfallintoerroneousviews."1 Theagreementbetweenthislatersentenceandtheaboveoneisitthusquiteobvious. Whatisthemeaningof"gaincorrectabiding"?IntheessenceofPerfectEnlightenment,natureandcharacteristicsarebothsubmerged,andallmistakesarecutoff. Onedoesnotgeneratethehindrancesthatcomefromtheviewsof"natureandcharacteristics"or"beingandnonbeing"andsoon,butsinglemindedlyactualizesthe enlightenednature.Itisbymeansofthisthatyouattaincorrectabiding.Ifyoudonotdothis,youwillnotavoidfallingintothepitofmistakenviews. Whydoeshesay,"NowlistenwellandIshallexplainforyou"?Inthepresentforthoseattheassembly,andextendingtofutureages,hedisclosesthecausalpractice, lettingthisbecomethebasisfortheiractivities.Firstheshowstheseriousnessofhisintentionsandthenherespondsaccordingtotheircapacities.Thereforehepraises thequestionas"excellent"andagreestoexplain.Althoughthemoondoesnotwithholdanyofitsluminosity,onlystillwatercanreflectit,andalthoughtheBuddha's voiceisperfectlyimpartial,itcannotenterascatteredmind.Thereforeheadmonishesthemto"listenwell.""Joy,"referstothejoyofthedharma.''Silently,"refersto theblissofmeditation.ThisimpliesembracingtheenjoymentofthedharmaandtheblissofmeditationwithinwhilelisteningfortheBuddha'ssubtlevoice.Thereforehe says"[receivewith]joy"and"[became]silent[andlistened]." TheBuddha'sAnswer [Sutra(#7)][T842.17.913b18HPC7.128b9]

Goodsons,theunsurpassedKingoftheDharmapossessesthegreatdharanientrance.Itiscalled"PerfectEnlightenment."Fromitismanifestedallpurity:suchness,bodhi, nirvanaandtheparamitaswithwhichheteachesbodhisattvas.

[Kihwa][HPC7.128b12] "Great"referstothethreeGreatnessesofessence,attributesandfunction.Dharanidenotesthegreatnessofattributes,butitalsoincludesthemeaningof"curative.""is manifestedallpurity:suchness,bodhi,nirvana,andtheparamitaswithwhichheteachesbodhisattvas"iswhatIhavereferredtoasthegreatnessoffunctionbutitalso includesthe

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meaningof"extensive."Whyisdharanidefinedas"attributes"and''curative?"Sincetheworddharanihassuchawiderangeofmeanings,IleaveintheSanskrit untranslated.2 Ifwemusttranslateit,thenIwouldsay"completelyretaining( )."Inmaintaining,allgooddharmasaremaintained,andindispelling,allevildharmas aredispelled.Itcompletelyretainsanunimaginableamountofvirtuousfunctions:thisisthegreatnessofattributes.Itkeepsthegoodanddispelstheevil:thereforeit hasthemeaningof"curative." Whyisitthat"manifestedallpurity:[..]suchnesswithwhichheteachesbodhisattvas"iscalled"function"andiscalled"extensive?"Theoppositeoffalsityiscalled "truth."Theoppositeofchangeiscalled"suchness.""Truesuchness"istheteachingthatdispelsfalsityanddissolvesdistinctions.Theoppositeofdefilementiscalled bodhitheoppositeofsamsaraiscallednirvana.Bodhiandnirvanaarethedharmasresultantoftransformingdefilementandseparatingfromsamsara. Thesufferingswhichdevelopfromdefilementnumbermorethan84,000.Theparamitasarethemarvelousmethodbywhichthosedefilementsaretransformed,yet noneofthemlieoutsidetheprocessof"stoppingevil,keepinggoodness,gettingridofmistakes,andreturningtothecorrect."Therefore,generatingthesekindsof innumerablemarvelousfunctionsiscalledthe"greatnessoffunction."Theseareusedtoteachbodhisattvaswithoutexcludinganysortofpersonwhatsoeverthisis whyIhavealsocalledthem"extensive."Sincethesekindsofinnumerablevirtuousattributesandthesekindsofinnumerablemarvelousfunctionsalldependuponthe sameessencefortheirexistence,Ihavealsosaid"greatnessofessence."Ifenlightenmentisreallygoingtobeenlightenment,itmustincludethesethreegreatnesses. ThenitcanbecalledPerfectEnlightenment.Sincethisisthemostpureenlightenmentinwhichoneescapesbondage,thetermisonlyappropriatetotheBuddha. Thereforethetextsays"theunsurpassedkingofthedharma."Sinceitsays"possessesthegreatdharanientrancethatiscalledPerfectEnlightenment,"weknowthat whichtotallypermeatesawakening,practice,realization,andtransformationwithoutlapseisthePerfectEnlightenmentpossessedbytheBuddha. Theconceptof"entrance"includesthetwobasicmeaningsof:(1)enteringuponajourney,or(2)enteringintoaroom."Enteringintoaroom"hasthemeaningof "goingfromshallowtodeep."Enteringuponajourneyhasthemeaningof"goingfromthebeginningtotheend."Thewavesoveravastexpansealloriginateonthe samegreatocean.Athousanddifferentpathshavetheiroriginatthesamegate.Thereforethepresentmeaningof"entrance"isthatof"goingfrombeginningtoend."In metaphoricalterms,PerfectEnlightenmentisthe"root"ofthe

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myriadvirtuesandthe"origin"oftenthousandpractices.Thereforenoneoftheexpedientmeansofpracticeandrealizationandtheteachingofthedoctrinecanbe initiatedwithoutit.ThisiswhyPerfectEnlightenmentiscalledan"entrance."Thisentranceisinnumerable,infinitethusitiscalled"great."Itisrepletewiththethree Greatnesses,thereforeitiscalledPerfect.Itisclearlybright,silentlyluminousthusitiscalledEnlightenment. [Sutra(#8)][T842.17.913b21HPC7.129a2]


Alltathagatasintheiroriginallyarisencausalstagerelyontheperfectilluminationoftheattributesofpureenlightenmenttopermanentlyseverignoranceanddirectlyaccomplish theBuddhaWay.

[Kihwa][HPC7.129a4] Theenlightenedilluminationexperiencedbybeginnerscannotbutincludeessenceandfunction.But[inthecaseofbeginners]theessencegeneratesdeluded conceptualizationandinitsfunctionitiscoveredoverbytheeverydaymind.Sincetheconsciousnessofthebeginneriscoveredover,hisilluminationdoesnotreachto theessenceandhisfunctionisincomplete.OnlytheBuddhathoroughlyactualizeshisessenceandcompletelyunfoldshisfunction.Theenlightenmentilluminatedbythe beginnerisnothingmorethanbeingtrappedintheattributesofthepurityoftheenlightenednature.Therefore,saying,"illuminationoftheattributesofpure enlightenment"islikethesocalled"realmofobjectivefaith."Thisisthesameasbeingboundtotherealmofthepurityofthenature. Yetsincetheseattributesarealsolimitless,includingallvirtues,"illumination"inthistextissaidtobe"completeillumination."Andsincemerelybeingableto "completelyilluminateallattributesofenlightenment"issufficienttooverturnignoranceandaccomplishcorrectenlightenment,alltathagatas,becauseoftheirabilityto completelyillumine,severafflictionandaccomplishtheWay.Thereforeweknowthatdevelopingmyriadsofpracticesandreachingrealization,realizinggreat enlightenmentandsavingsentientbeings,alldependuponthepowerofcompleteillumination.Accordingly,whathasbeentaughtiscalled"thedharmapracticeofthe causalstageofalltathagatas.'' TheDefinitionofIgnorance [Sutra(#9)][T842.17.913b22HPC7.129a17]

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Whatisignorance?Goodsons,allsentientbeingsfallintovariousinvertedviewswithoutbeginning.Justlikeapersonwhoisdisorientedandconfusesthefourdirections,3 theymistakenlytaketheFourElementsastheattributesoftheirbodiesandtheconditionedshadowsoftheSixObjectsastheattributesoftheirmind.Itisjustlikewhenoureyes arediseasedandweseeflowersinthesky,orasecondmoon.Goodsons,theskyactuallyhasnoflowerstheyarethefalseattachmentofthediseasedperson.Becauseofthis falseattachment,notonlyareweconfusedabouttheselfnatureoftheskywearealsomixedupabouttheplacewhererealflowerscomefrom.Fromthisthereisfalselyexistent transmigrationthroughlifeanddeath.Thereforeitiscalled"ignorance."

[Translator'snote:TheFourElementsthatrepresenttherangeofsensoryexperienceareEarth,Air,Fire,andWater.InsomeschoolsofearlyIndianmetaphysics, theelementswereconceivedasbeinginherentlyexistent.InlaterMahayanaphilosophy,however,thesefoursensibletendenciesthatexistinthematerialworldarenot selfexistentproperties,butonlyappearinrelationtootherthings. TheSixObjectsaretheobjectsofvision,hearing,taste,touch,smellandconceptualization.Therelationofthesefactorstotheconstructionofafalseideaofselfis discussedindetailinchapter3anditisalsoapredominantthemeoftheSHM.] [Kihwa][HPC7.129a23] Awareness(Skt.vidya)hasthemeaningsof"marvelousillumination"and"illuminationofthecorrect."Ignorance(Skt.avidya)means"toturnawayfromillumination andfacethedarkness,"or"losethetrueandabandononeselftoerror."Abandoningthetrueandfallingintoerrorisgenerallycalled''inversion."Sincethetypesof errorarenotlimitedtoonekind,thetextsays"various." Ifthenatureisoriginallyclearandbright,howcantherebeignorance?Beyondtheclearandbrightessence,delusionsuddenlyarises,andonelosesthetruebrightness andcorrectwisdom,turnstodarknessandfallsintoerror.Itislikeapersonwhosuddenlybecomesconfused,mistakingNorthforSouthandEastforWest.The marvelouslybrighttruemindisstillandluminousatthesametime.Beingluminousyetstill,itiscalledthedharmabody.Beingstillyetluminous,itiscalledtruewisdom. Truewisdomendsthoughtthedharmabodylacksattributes.Yeteventhoughtheattributelessdharmabodyisthetruebody,wetakethematerialbodyasourown bodyandwhilethethoughtending

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wisdomisthetruemind,wetakeconditionedthoughtasourownmind.Sincewetakeconditionedthoughttobeourmind,weconfusetruewisdom.Sincewetake thematerialbodytobeourbody,weconfusethedharmabody.Becauseofthis,notonlyareweconfusedaboutthedharmabodyandtruewisdom,wealsodon't knowthatthematerialbodyandconditionedthoughtarebothunreal.Allofthisisbroughtaboutbythemostprimarymanifestationofnonenlightenment. Itislikelookingintotheskywithimpairedvisionandseeingflowersthereorpressingontheeyeballwhilelookingatthemoonandseeingasecondmoonattheedge ofthemoon.The"vastsky"referstothedharmabodythe"skyflowers"refertothematerialbodythe''realmoon"referstotruewisdomthe"secondmoon"refers toconditionedthought.Eventhoughthetruebodylacksattributes,wetakethematerialbodyas[ourown]body.Eventhoughthetruemindseversthought,wetake conditionedthoughttobe[ourown]mind.Thisisjustlikeseeingflowersintheskyorasecondmoonattheedgeofthemoon.Thematerialbodyhasattributes,yetin theendtheyagaindissolveintoextinction.Theconditionedmindisfalseitarisesandceasesaccordingtotheenvironment.Becauseofourattachmenttothebodyof arisingandceasingandtakingittobereal,wefalselyperceivetransmigrationthroughlifeanddeath.Thisistheerrorofnonenlightenment,whichisexactlythe characteristicofignorance. Ifweholdtothemarvelouslyluminousessenceandconstantlyawaken,andtakethedharmabodyasourbodyandtaketruewisdomasourmind,then,sincethe dharmabodyandtruewisdomoriginallylackthemarksofarisingandceasing,wewilldefinitelynotperceivetransmigrationthroughlifeanddeath.TheTathagata's originallyarisenpracticeofhiscausalstage,whichisthecompleteilluminationoftheattributesofpureenlightenment,isnoneotherthanthis. [Translator'snote:Ignoranceisnoneotherthanthemistakenviewregardingourownexistence.Notonlydowecreateanillusorypersonwherethereisnone,but wealsodonotunderstandthewayinwhichwetrulyexist,muchlessthenatureofabsolutereality.Wehavethehabitofreifyingconceptsandattachingtothem. Therefore,whenwearetoldthattheobstructiontoenlightenmentisourignorance,andthatignoranceisthebasisfordesireandsuffering,"ignorance"immediately becomesan"it"anobjective"something,"separatefromourrealconsciousness. HeretheBuddhaexplainsthatignoranceisnot"something,"that"ignorance"isatermusedtodescribethemistakenperceptionofthemodeofourbeing.Thus,ifwe cancallignoranceanything,itisourcontinuingfalseperceptionofourownselves.Thisincorrectmentalfunctionresultsin:(1)theformulationofthingsthatreallydo notexistatall

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(skyflowersafalseself)(2)themisunderstandingofthecorrectwaytoperceivephenomenalexistence(theplacewherearealflowerhasitsbeingthetruewayof existence)and(3)themisunderstandingofthenatureofthereal,ortheabsolute(theskysunyata).Thesethreecanbecorrelatedwiththe"threenatures"of Consciousnessonly:(1)"skyflowers"representthenatureof(mistaken)discriminatingconception(parikalpitahsvabhava)(2)thetruemodeoftheexistenceof flowersisthenatureofdependentorigination(paratantrasvabhava)and(3)thequalityoftheskyiscomparabletothenatureofperfectlyaccomplishedreality (parinispannasvabhava).] IgnoranceLacksSubstance [Sutra(#10)][T842.17.913b28HPC7.129c5]

Goodsons,this"ignorance"actuallylackssubstance.Itislikeamanwhoisdreaming.Atthetimeofthedream,thereisnononexistence,untilheawakensandfindsthatthereis nothingforhimtoholdonto.Similarly,whentheskyflowersdisappearfromthesky,youcannotsaythatthereisadefinitepointoftheirdisappearance.Why?Becausethereis nopointatwhichtheyarise.Allsentientbeingsfalselyperceivearisingandceasingwithinthisconditionofnonarising.Thereforetheysaythatthereis"transmigrationthrough lifeanddeath."

[Kihwa][HPC7.129c10] Becauseofourconfusion,weperceivetheexistenceoftransmigrationthroughlifeanddeathaswellastheperfectilluminationofthemarksofenlightenment.Yeton theotherhand,ifweinvestigatehowitisthatthereislifeanddeath,andhowdelusionarises,thenwewillfindoutnotonlythatlifeanddeathcannotbeconfirmed,but thatdelusionitselflacksanyessence.Itisjustlikethecaseofamanwhoseesvariousthingsinadream.Whenheawakens,thosethingscannotbeheldandthe contentsofthedreamcannotbeconfirmed.Thisisbecausethedreamanditsphenomenaalllackapointofarising.Itisalsolikelookingattheskywithimpaired visionandseeingflowers:iftheimpairmentcanbecorrected,youwillseetheflowersreturntonothingness.Still,althoughtheskyflowersareseentoariseandseento disappear,theseflowersintheskyoriginallyhavenopointatwhichtheyarise,norhavetheyaplaceinwhichtheydisappear.Transmigrationthroughlife

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anddeathisjustlikethedreamrealm,andjustliketheskyflowers.Ifweinvestigatetothesource,thereisreallynopointwheretheyarise.Itisonlybecauseoffalse conceptualizationthatweperceivearisingandceasing.Thereforethereitiscalled"transmigrationthroughlifeanddeath." [Sutra(#11)][T842.17.913c3HPC7.129c21]


Goodsons,thepracticeofPerfectEnlightenmentinthecausalstageoftheTathagataistoknowthattheseare"skyflowers,"4whichisthesameasknowingthatthereisno transmigration,andthatthereisnobody/mindtoundergolifeanddeath.Buttheyarenotcausedtobenonexistent.Theyarenonexistentbecausetheylackoriginalnature.

[Kihwa][HPC7.129c24] Whenwecompletelyilluminatethemarksofenlightenment,weknowthattherealisoriginallyexistent.Andsince,whenweobserveignorance,wefindittobefalse, lackinganessence,thereisnoobjectivedelusionsuchas"samsara,"noranysubjectivedelusionssuchas"bodyandmind."Thesearenotmadenonexistentbyany activity(i.e.,suchasconceptualanalysis),rather,theiroriginalnatureisperfectlyempty. TheDharmaPractice [Sutra(#12)][T842.17.913c5HPC7.130a4]


Now,this[prior]awarenessisjustlikeemptyspace.Yetsincetheknowledgethatitislikeemptyspaceisnoneotherthantheappearanceskyflowers,youalsocannotsaythat thereisnonatureofawareness.Whenexistenceandnonexistencearebothdispelled,itiscalled"accordingwithpureenlightenment."

[Kihwa][HPC7.130a7] Eventhoughyouknowtherealoriginallyexists,andrealizethatthefalseoriginallydoesnotexist,theawarenessthatknowsthis[existenceandnonexistence]isalso originallynonarisen.Also,eventhoughyouknowofthenonarisennessofthisawareness,thisknowingisalsothesameasthenonarisennessofbodyandmindand lifeanddeath,whichisagain,thesameastheskyflowers.Ifyouwilljustnotdiscriminate

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betweenexistenceandnonexistence,youwillexperienceunitywiththefountofthereal.Howcouldtherebenoawarenesswhatsoever?Ifwesaythereisno awareness,itisthesameastheviewofnihilism.Thisisbecausethemarvelouslyluminousoriginallyexistenttruenatureisnotthesameasthepresentcounteractive awareness.5 Whenthecounteractiveawarenessexhaustsitself,thenoriginalluminosityiseverpresent.Thereforeitiscalled"accordingwiththenatureof enlightenment." [Sutra(#13)][T842.17.913c7HPC7.130a15]

Why?BecauseitsnatureiscompletelyemptybecauseitiseternallychangelessbecausethereisneitherarisingnorceasingwithintheMatrixoftheTathagata,andbecause therearenofixedpointsofview.Likethenatureoftherealityrealmitistotallycompleteandperfect,pervadingthetendirections.Thereforeitiscalledthe"dharmapracticeofthe causalstage."Bodhisattvas,relyinguponit,arousetheirpuremindwithintheMahayana.Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhopracticerelyingonthiswillnotfallinto erroneousviews.

[Translator'snote:MatrixoftheTathagata( tathagatagarbha)isatermthatsignifiesthesentientbeingasthecircumstanceoffuturebuddhahood.The conceptaroseinBuddhistthoughtasanexplanationofhoworiginalbuddhahoodcanexistinthestateofdelusioncalled"sentientbeing."Thustathagatagarbha expressesthealreadyperfectaspectoftheoriginalnatureofthemindthatisclearandpurewithoutarisingorcessation.] [Kihwa][HPC7.130a20] Thebodyandmindexist.Lifeanddeathchange.Eventhoughtheskyflowersseemtoexist,theydonotexisteventhoughtheyseemtochange,theydonotchange. SohowcantheBuddhasaythatthebodyandmindandlifeanddeatharethesameasskyflowers? Furthermore,theviewthatseesthedisappearanceofflowersisnotthesameastheviewthatseestheappearanceofflowers.Theknowledgeofthenonarisennessof body/mind,life/deathisnotthesameasthefalseknowledgethatauthorizesbody/mindorthefalseviewthatseesbirthanddeath.Whythen,doeshegoontosay"this awarenessisjustlikeemptyspace"? Furthermore,thenature'sownspiritualunderstandingoriginallyhasawareness.Sincehehasalreadysaidthatthisawarenessisthesameas

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space,whydoeshegoontosaythatitisthesameastheappearanceofskyflowers? Furthermore,sinceallviewsarerepeatedlyclearedawayuntiltheyareutterlyextinguished,whydoeshegoontosay:"youcan'tsaythereisnoessenceof awareness"? [Theanswerstothesequestionsareasfollows:] Whydoeshepointtobodyandmind,lifeanddeathandcallthem"thesameasskyflowers"?Eventhoughbodyandmindseemtoexist,itisonlybymistaken conceptualizationthattheyappeartoexist.Intermsoftheiressencetheyareliketheskytheirexistenceisexactlytheirnonexistence.Eventhoughlifeanddeathseem tochange,itisonlythroughmistakenconceptualizationthattheyappeartochange.Intheirchangethereisnochangeintheirnaturetheirchangeiseternally changeless.Thereforehesaysthatbodyandmind,lifeanddeath"arethesameasskyflowers." Whyisitthateventhoughbodyandmind,lifeanddeathareknowntobelikeskyflowers,thisknowledgeisagainsaidtobelike"thesky"?Andthisknowledgethat knowsknowingtobelike"thesky"isfurthersaidtobe"thesameastheappearanceofskyflowers"?Well,itisonlybymistakenconceptualizationthatweseebody andmind,lifeanddeath,whichisliketheimpairedeyes'seeingtheappearanceofskyflowers.Onceyouarefreefrommistakenconceptualizationyoudonotperceive theexistenceofskyflowers.Oncetheimpairmentiscorrectedyoudonotperceivethedisappearanceofskyflowers.Sincethisperceptionthatseesarisingandsees cessationisoriginallybasedonandfullyeffectedby[theviewof]bodyandmind,lifeanddeath,soistheperceptionthatknowsknowledgetobelikespace dependentontheviewofarisingandceasingforitsownexistence.Noneofthesecanavoidturningintothestainofviews.IntheMatrixoftheTathagatathereis originallynoarisingandceasingofbodyandmind,orlifeanddeath.Thereisalsonoperceptionthatseesarisingorseescessation,andthereisnoperceptionwhich knowsknowingtobelikespace.Thereforethetextsays:"this(prior)awarenessisjustlikeemptyspace.Yetsincetheknowledgethatitisemptyspaceisnoneother thantheappearanceofskyflowers..." Ifallviewshavebeenutterlyextinguished,howcanhesay"youcannotsaythatthereisnonatureofawareness"?Thisawarenessthatunderstandstheskyflowers existsbaseduponbodyandmind,lifeanddeath.Theawarenessthatknowsknowingtobelikespaceinturnexistsindependenceonthisawarenessthatunderstands theskyflowers.Bothexistintheirrelationtoconditions.This"counteractiveawareness"isnot"originallyexistentawareness."Ifitwereanoriginallyexistent awareness,itwouldnotexistindependenceuponcounteractiveawareness,andalsowouldnotbeattainedfromconditions.Thisisthemarvelous

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completelyrealandeternallyrealawarenessoftheTathagatagarbha.Itsscopeisvast.Justlikethenatureofrealityrealm,itisperfectlycomplete,itpervadesand penetratesthetendirections,yetitisnotattainedsubjectivelyorobjectivelybycorrectiveviews.Thereforethetextsays:"youcannotsaythereisnonatureof awareness." Whenthisawarenessthatrecognizesbodyandmindandlifeanddeath,andthecorrectiveawarenessthatfollowsconditionsarebothdispelled,thentheoriginally existentattributesofpureenlightenmentappearbeforeyou,andthisiscalled"thedharmapracticeoftheoriginallyarisencausalstage."Becauseofthis,bodhisattvas conceivethemselvestobeoriginallythesameastheBuddha,differentonlyintermsofconditioning.Firstquellingconditioning,thenactualizingpuritythiswillarouse bodhicitta.Sentientbeingscanalsocultivatepurepracticesbasedonthisbodhicitta,andsodoing,willnotfallintothepitoferror. TheGatha [Sutra(#14)][T842.17.913c11HPC7.130c15]

Then,theWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: Majusri,youshouldknow AllTathagatas Fromtheiroriginallyarisencausalstage Penetrateignorance Withenlightenedwisdom. Knowingittobelikeskyflowers Theyareabletoescapetransmigration.

Page85 Itislikethemaninthedream Whohasnothingtograspuponawakening. Awarenessislikespace, Equal,changeless. Enlightenmentpervadingtheworldsofthetendirections IsnoneotherthantheattainmentoftheBuddhaway. Allillusionsceaseatnoplace AndinaccomplishingtheWaythereisnothingattained. That'sbecausetheoriginalnatureiscomplete,perfect. Init,bodhisattvas Areabletoproducebodhicitta. Allsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Practicingthis,willavoiderroneousviews.

[Kihwa][HPC7.130c23] Knowtherealtobeoriginallyexistent.Understandthatfalsehoodisoriginallyempty.Fromthisyouavoidtheviewofsamsara.Thenyouareabletorealizethatthe viewsof"knowingthereal"and"understandingfalsehood"arebothskyflowersbothlackanythingwhatsoever.Yetthismindthatisclearedofviewsalsodoesnot exist.Fromtherealmofneitherdelusionnorenlightenment,youabidestill,withoutchange.Here,youcoalesceselfandthingswithoutgap,youunitetherealityrealm withtheessentialnature.ItisthroughthisthattheBuddhawayisaccomplished.The"accomplishedway"removesthedefilementofillusion.Whenthedefilementof illusionisgone,"counteractiveawareness"alsovanishes.Thereforehesays:''inaccomplishingtheWay,nothingisattained."

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2. SamantabhadraBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.131a10] Thewordsamanta( )means"greatvirtue."Thewordsamantabhadrameanstoextendgreatcompassionsuchthatnotypeofsentientbeingisnotimproved,andto practicemyriadsofpracticessuchthatnovirtueisnotperfected. WhydoesSamantabhadraasktheBuddhaanotherquestionafterMajusri?Majusriemphasizestheaspectoffaith,whileSamantabhadraemphasizestheaspectof practice.SinceMajusriemphasizestheaspectoffaith,heaskedtheBuddhatorevealthedharmapracticeofthecausalstage,firstcausingeveryonetoawakenpure PerfectEnlightenment.SinceSamantabhadraemphasizestheaspectofpractice,heaskstheBuddhatoteachthestagesofpracticeandmakeeveryonebegintheir practicerelyingontheirawakening. Inalamp,oilandflamearebothnecessary.Inaperson,eyesandlegsbothhelpeachother.Iftheflamelacksoil,itwillcertainlygoout.Iflegscannotbeguidedby eyes,one'sadvancewillcertainlybehalted.Theflame,dependingontheoil,getsbrighterwithoutgoingout.Thelegs,dependingontheeyes,canfurtheradvance withouthavingtostop.Therelationshipofpracticetounderstandingisjustlikethatofoilandflame.Therelationshipofunderstandingtopracticeisjustlikethatofthe eyestothelegs.Anunderstandingthatdoesnothavepracticeisempty.Apracticethatdoesnothaveunderstandingwillbeobstructed.Therefore:ifyoudesireto practice,youmustfirstactivateyourunderstanding.Ifyouhaveactivatedyourunderstandingthenyoumustbegintopractice.ItisforthisreasonthatMajusrifirst awakenspurePerfectEnlightenment.Samantabhadrathen,willcausethelistenerstorelyontheirawakeningandbegintopractice.Myverse: Rightunderstandingalreadyaccomplished, youmustbegintopractice.

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ThereforeSamantabhadraasksforthemethod. Whenfreedomfromillusioniscomplete, thereisnothingfromwhichtoseparate. Thatfromwhichonecannotseparateisthetrueconstant. Samantabhadra'sQuestionsonthePossibilityofPractice [Sutra(#15)][T842.17.9c23HPC7.131b5]

ThenSamantabhadraBodhisattvarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Hekneltdownwith hishandsclasped,andsaidtotheBuddha: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.IwouldliketoaskforalltheBodhisattvasatthisassembly,andforsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticing Mahayana:letthemhearthisteachingofthepurerealmofperfectenlightenment.Howshouldwepractice?"

[Kihwa][HPC7.131b10] Betweenthetwophrases"practicingMahayana(

)."Thetextshouldread:

"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Iwouldliketoaskforallthebodhisattvasatthisassemblyandforthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticing Mahayana:Pleaserevealtheexpedientstagesofpracticeandletthemhearofthispurerealmofperfectenlightenment.Howshouldwepractice?"

ThismeansthatsincetheyhavebeenabletoawakenpurePerfectEnlightenmenttheymustalsoinitiatepractice.Iftheywanttoinitiatepractice,uponwhatkindof expedientmeansofgradualpracticeshouldtheydepend?

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[Sutra(#16)][T842.17.913c26HPC7.131b17] ?
WorldHonoredOne,ifthesesentientbeingsknowabout"illusion,"andthatbodyandmindarealsoillusion,howcantheyremedyillusionusingillusion?

[Kihwa][HPC7.131b19] Themyriadpracticesofthebodhisattvasdependuponbodyandmind.Intherealizationofthemyriadpractices,wisdomisthecuttingedge.Butthesutrahasalready said:"Thisawarenessisjustlikeemptyspace.Yetsincetheknowledgethatitislikeemptyspaceisnoneotherthantheappearanceofskyflowers."1 Thisbeingthe case,thenthewisdomthatguidespracticeisillusoryandnotreal.Again,thesutrahassaid:"knowthattheseare'skyflowers,'2 whichisthesameasknowingthat thereisnotransmigration,andthatthereisnobody/mindtoundergolifeanddeath."3 Thisbeingthecase,therealmofpracticeisalsoillusoryandnotreal.Since subjectiveandobjectivepracticearebothtotallyillusory,thenintheonebodyof"[subjective]illusionand[objective]illusion"thereisnoplacefromwhichtopractice. Wheredoesthesocalledpracticehaveitsreferent? [Sutra(#17)][T842.17.913c28HPC7.131c3]
Ifallillusorynaturesarecompletelyannihilated,thenthereisnomind.Whoisgoingtocarryoutthepractice?Moreover,[basedonthis,]howcanyouteachthepracticeof "illusion?"

[Kihwa][HPC7.131c5] Ithasalreadybeensaidthatallviewsofbodyandmindareillusion.Thereforeillusionisemptywithoutsubstanceandalsoreturnstoextinction.Ifthisisthecasethen thereisnoonewhoisabletopractice.Whocancarryoutthemyriadpractices?Ithasalreadybeensaidthatallillusorypracticesarealsotobecalledillusion.Yetthe factthatpracticeleadstoBuddhahoodiswellestablished.Sohowcanwesaypracticeis"illusory"? [Sutra(#18)][T842.17.913c29HPC7.131c10]


Ifallsentientbeingsoriginallydonotpractice,thentheywillremainforevertrappedwithintheillusionoflifeanddeath.Nothaving

Page89 penetratedtherealmoftheillusory,howwilltheyliberatethemindthatistrappedinfalseconceptualization?

[Kihwa][HPC7.131c13] Ifyousaythatpracticeisillusory,andfundamentallylacksanyprinciple,thenthepresentsentientbeingswillremaininillusionforeverwithoutevercompletelyrealizing the"illusoryrealm,"andtheirfalselyconceptualizingfloatingmindwillhaphazardlyariseandcease.Iftheydonotremedytheirillusoryconceptualization,howcanthey beliberated? [Sutra(#19)][T842.17.914a2HPC7.131c17]


Iimploreyouonbehalfofallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage:Whatkindofexpedientmeansofgradualpracticeshouldweintroducetocausesentientbeingstobe permanentlyfreefromallillusions?

[Kihwa][HPC7.131c19] Thereisprobablytextmissingbothbeforeandafterthephrase"allsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage(

)."Thus,thetextshouldreadlikethis:

Iimploreyouonbehalfofallthebodhisattvasatthisassembly,aswellasforallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,toteachthegradualpracticeofexpedientmeans:What kindofexpedientmeansofgradualpracticeshouldweintroducetocausesentientbeingstobepermanentlyfreefromallillusions?

Startingfromthetop,thequestionpointsoutthreeproblems: 1.Ifsubjectiveandobjectiveillusionformonebody,istherenostandpointfromwhichtoinitiatepractice? 2.EventhoughtheBuddhahassaideverythingisillusory,canpracticebesaidtobeinvain? 3.EventhoughtheBuddhahassaidthatpracticeisoriginallyemptyandfundamentallylacksanyprinciple,thepresentsentientbeingshavefallenintofalseviewsand areboundupintheirfalseconceptualization.Iftheydonotpractice,howcantheybeliberated?

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Havingposedthesequestions,Samantabhadramakesarequestthatwemayparaphrasebysaying:"IfwedesiretoreachBuddhahood,wemustfirstbefreedfrom falseconceptualizationifwedesiretobefreefromfalseconceptualization,wemustprovisionallypracticeifitisnecessarytopractice,wemustknowthestages.The Buddhahasalreadyrevealedtheperfectlyenlightenedpurerealm,universallycausingustoawakenandenter,andhasmadepracticethebasis.Ihopethathewillalso teachthestagesofpracticetocausethemultitudeatthisassembly,aswellasallthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetobefreefromfalseconceptualizationand beabletoreachrealization." [Translator'snote:"Provisionalexplanation,"or"expedientmeans,"isavitallyimportantaspectoftheBuddhistteaching,andisdirectlyrelatedtotheconcept of"twotruths."Therealor"absolute"Buddhistteachingistheimmediateapprehensionofthetruenatureofexistence,whichhasnoduality,isperfectinitselfand inconceivable.ThecontentofthechapterofMajusriisemblematicofthiskindofteaching.Butthefactis,asSamantabhadrastateshere,thatalmostallsentient beingsarecompletelyboundintheirillusoryperceptionsandconceptions,andwhentheyhearthe''truth,"itgoesovertheirheads,andmakesnosense.Thereforethe Buddha,adaptingtothevariouscapacitiesofhisfollowers,provisionallygivesthemateachingthattheycangrasp,whichincludesphysicalandmentaltechniquesthat purifybodyandmind.Butsincethesemethodsareprovisional,andpractitionersareapttoholdtothemas"reality,"inthissutraandotherslikeit,theBuddhawill oftenunderminethesubstantialityoftheprovisionalteachingsoonaftergivingit.] [Sutra(#20)][T842.17.914a4HPC7.132a13]

Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtoSamantabhadraBodhisattva,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavepracticedwellthebodhisattva'sexpedientgradient,'as illusion'samadhiforallthebodhisattvasaswellasforthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage.Thispracticeenablesallthesentientbeingstogainfreedomfromillusion.Now listenwell,andIshallexplainitforyou."

Page91 Samantabhadrareceivedthisteachingwithgreatjoyandreverenceallinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.132a20] Havingcausedthemtoawaken,healsowantstoteachthemhowtopractice.Sincethebodhisattvahasrequestedappropriately,theBuddhagiveshisemphatic approval. Betweenthephrases"sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage( )."4 Itshouldsay:

YouhavewellaskedtheTathagataonbehalfofthebodhisattvasandthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateageabouttheexpedientstagesofthepracticeofthebodhisattva's "asillusionsamadhi".

Thewordcha( )means"toaskaboutgoodness."ItmeansthatheaskstheTathagataabouttheprovisionalstagesinthepracticeofthebodhisattvas'"illusion samadhi,"requestinghimtoteachaboutthem.Thewords"asktheTathagata"canbefoundineachchapterinthisplace. "Bodhisattvas'samadhi"isthebodhisattvas'excellentperformanceofmyriadpractices,witheverysinglepracticebeingpurewithoutanyconceptualizationor attachment.Onceeverysinglepracticeisdonewithoutattachment,eventhemostferventactivityisnothingbutillusion,andultimatelydoesnotexist.Thereforehesays "illusionpractice."Whenthispracticeisdonebythoseofsuperiorfaculties,therearedefinitelynostages.Yetsincetherearepeopleofbothdullandsharpfaculties andinactualpracticethereisdifficultandeasy,provisionalstagesmustbetaught.ThisiswhythebodhisattvaaskstheBuddhatoteachandthisiswhytheBuddha giveshim"emphaticapproval." TheBuddha'sAnswer IllusionIsBaseless [Sutra(#21)][T842.17.914a10HPC7.132b12]

Goodsons,allsentientbeings'variousillusionsarebornfromtheperfectlyenlightenedmarvelousmindoftheTathagata,justlike

Page92 theskyflowerscometoexistinthesky.Eventhoughtheillusoryflowersvanish,thenatureoftheskyisindestructible.Theillusorymindofsentientbeingsalsovanishesbased onillusion,andwhileallillusionsareutterlyerased,theenlightenedmindisunchanged.Theuseofillusiontospeakofenlightenmentisalsocalledillusion.Ifyousaythereis enlightenment,youarenotyetfreefromillusion.Ifyousaythereisnoenlightenment,thisisthesamething.Therefore,thecessationofillusioniscalled"unchanging."

[Kihwa][HPC7.132b18] Theword"sentientbeing"contrastswith"Tathagata."AsidefromonepersontheBuddhaeveryoneiscalled"sentientbeing."Hence''innerworldlings"and"outer worldlings"arebothcalled"sentientbeing."Thereforeitissaid:"Bothinnerandouterworldlingsaresentientbeings."Thus,thebodyandmindandlifeanddeaththat theyexperiencearestillthesameinthattheyareillusion.Theyonlydifferinbeing"fragmentarysamsara"and"miraculoussamsara."Thereforethetextsays"various." YetsincethisdifferentiationhasnoplaceasitsbasisbesidesPerfectEnlightenment,thetextsays:"all[sentientbeings'variousillusions]arebornfromtheperfectly enlightenedmarvelousmindoftheTathagata."Suchdoctrinesas"apartfromPerfectEnlightenmenttherearenoSixDestinies"and"withoutPerfectEnlightenment therearenoThreeVehicles"arethesameasthis.Thereasoneverythingiscalled"illusion"isbecausethemindofenlightenmentisoriginallypure,andhasneverhad arisingorcessation.Wheneverthereisarisingmindandmovementofthought,thereisillusion. [Translator'snote:SentientbeingsremaintrappedinsamsarauntiltheyattainBuddhahood.Thusbodhisattvas,orbeingswhoareenlightenedinsomemeasure,are stillinsamsara.Butthesamsaraofthebodhisattvasisexperiencedinadifferentwayfromthediscriminated,fragmentarysamsara( ). TheThreeVehiclesarethetwo"Hinayana"vehiclesofsravaka( "solitaryrealizer"whoawakensby

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practicingisolatedmeditation),plustheMahayanavehicleofthebodhisattva.InMahayanatextssuchastheSrimalasutra,theenlightenmentofsravakasand pratyekabuddhasisexplainedasbeinginferiortothatofthebodhisattva,whounderstandsemptinessandbaseshispracticeincompassion.TheLotusSutrateaches thatallthreevehiclesaremerelyprovisional,andthereisinrealityonlyonetrueBuddhavehicle. ThetermTooVehiclesreferstothepracticesofthesravakasandpratyekabuddhas.ThesetwokindsofpractitionersarepresentedasfoilsinMahayanatextssuch asthis,asbeingrepresentativeofthebestpossibleresultofthepracticesoftheearlierIndian(socalled"Hinayana")formsofBuddhism.Thesepractitionersare regardedasbeinglimitedtotheteachingsofearlyBuddhism,specificallytheFourNobleTruthsandtheTwelveLimbsofConditionedOrigination.InMahayanatexts suchastheSPE,thepractitionersoftheTwoVehiclesareunderstoodtobefarsuperiortononpractitioners,butduetoanincompleteunderstandingofemptiness,and alackofcompassionforothersentientbeings,theirlevelofinsightisconsideredtobeinferiortothatofpractitionersoftheThirdVehiclethebodhisattvavehicle.] [Kihwa] ThewisdomoftheTwoVehiclesiscapableofcuringthesicknessoftheSixWorldlyDestinies.ThewisdomofthebodhisattvaisabletocurethemistakesoftheTwo Vehicles.Eventhoughthesetwokindsofwisdomaredifferentfromeachotherintermsofsuperiority,fromthepointofviewofthemindofpureenlightenmentneither canavoidbecomingillusoryappearancesultimatelythereisnothingthere.Therefore,theyarebothcalledillusion.Hencethetextsays:"justliketheskyflowerscome toexistfromthesky."Theskyflowersarisefromtheskyandalsoceasefromthesky.Yeteventhoughtheskyflowerscease,thenatureoftheskyisindestructible. Illusionisbornfromenlightenmentandalsoceasesfromenlightenment.Yeteventhoughillusionceases,thenatureofenlightenmentisunchanged. Asforthephrase"Theillusorymindofsentientbeingsalsovanishesbasedonillusion":EventhoughthewisdomofthepractitionersoftheTwoVehiclescannotavoid becomingillusion,ifitisnotusedtoovercometheafflictionsoftheSixWorldlyDestinies,thenthosewhoarewithintheSixDestinieswillbetrappedthereforever. Hence,itisnecessarytousethewisdomofthepractitionersoftheTwoVehiclestoovercometheafflictionsoftheSixWorldlyDestinies.Thewisdomofthe bodhisattvascorrectsthemistakesoftheTwoVehicles,andtheBuddhaviewcorrectsthatofthebodhisattvas.When,throughthissortofcorrection,allillusionsare completelyerased,thegreatwisdomofPerfectEnlightenmentaloneluminouslyremains.Thisisthemeaningofthesentence"Theillusorymindofsentientbeingsalso vanishesbased

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onillusion,andwhileallillusionsareutterlyerased,theenlightenedmindisunchanged." TheThreePoisons5 andtheTenFetters6 oftheSixWorldlyDestinies,andtheFourNobleTruths,theTwelvefoldConditionedOrigination,andtheSixPerfections ofthepractitionersofallthreevehiclesareallillusion.Allfallunderdependentorigination.Itislikeanoceangivingrisetowavesduetothewind.Thoughadifference maybefoundinthewaterintermsofcloudyandclear,allarenonethelesscalled"waves."7 Whenconditionsareexhausted,illusionvanishes,yetthemindof enlightenmenteternallyremains.Itisliketheocean:whenthewindstops,thewavescease,yettheyrelyupontheprimordialstillness.Intheplacewhereillusionis exhaustedandenlightenmentisactualized,thereisneveragainarisingmindandmovementofthought.Howwonderful! Yetpeoplehavedifficultyinattainingthisstate.Agreatworldlingwhoexpoundsenlightenmentdependingonillusionhasnotyetletgooffixedviews.Heregards illusionassomethingthatceasesandregardsenlightenmentassomethingthatmanifests,andstillretainsthesentimentsoflossandattainment,likeanddislike.These arecalledfixedviewstheyarealso"illusion."If,atthepointwhereillusionisextinguishedandenlightenmentisactualized,youagainproducementationandmove thought,andbelievethatillusionhasindeedbeencompletelyextinguishedandthatthemindofenlightenmenteternallyremains,thenyouhavenotletgoof "enlightenment"andhavefallenintotheviewofeternalism.Becauseofthis,youdonotletgooffixedviewsanddonotfreeyourselffromillusion. Again,ifyouhearthisandagainproducementationandsetthoughtintomotion,imaginingthatyouhaveindeedextinguishedillusion,andthatenlightenmentisalso nonexistent,thenyouarefollowingthenihilisticviewandarenotfreefromillusion.Butifyoumaintainawarenessatthepointofthecessationofallillusionsandyoudo notagainproducementationandsetthoughtintomotion,themindofenlightenmentwillbeselfapparent.Itislikepolishingamirror.Whenthefilthisgone,the brightnessappears.Thisbrighteningdoesnotcomefromtheoutside,norisitproducedfromwithin.Theprimordialstillness,whichisclearandselfluminous,iscalled "unchanging." SeparationfromIllusion [Sutra(#22)][T842.17.914a15HPC7.133a15]

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Goodsons,allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldseparate8fromallillusoryandfalserealms.Byfirmlyabidinginseparationfromthought,youalso separatefromthethoughtof"illusion."Asthisseparationbecomesillusion,youagainseparatefromit.Youagainseparatefromthisseparationfromseparationfromillusion, untilyoureach"nothingtobeseparatedfrom,"whichistheremovalofallillusion.Itislikemakingafirewithtwosticks.Thefireblazesandthewoodisconsumedtheashesfly awayandthesmokevanishes.Usingillusiontoremedyillusionisexactlylikethis.Yeteventhoughallillusionsareextinguished,youdonotenterintonothingness. Goodsons,whenyouknowillusion,youareimmediatelyfree,withoutdevisingexpedientmeans.Freedomfromillusionisinitselfenlightenment,andtherearenostages.

[Kihwa][HPC7.133a24] Theteachingof"illusionpractice"hasbeenexplainedcompletely.Nowhewantstoclarifythematterofthe"stainofviews,"aswellastheideaofprovisionalstages. Healsowantstomakeitclearthatifweareonlyabletoseparate[fromillusion]withoutarisingdiscriminations,thentherearenoprovisionalgradualstages.Itisonly toperfectthepersonofthecapacityforthePerfectandSuddenteachingoftheGreatVehiclethathesays:"Goodsons,allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthe degenerateageshouldseparatefromallillusoryandfalserealms[andsoforthupto]whenyouknowillusion,youwillimmediatelybefree,withoutdevisingexpedient means.Freedomfromillusionisitselfenlightenmentandtherearenostages." Asforthephrase"shouldseparatefromallillusoryfalserealms":ExceptfortheBuddha'sownaccordancewithofthenatureofenlightenment,peoples'bodiesand mindsandpeoples'viewsareallcalled"illusoryandfalserealms."Thereforehesays"all."Peoplewhowanttoactualizethenatureofenlightenmentmustbefreefrom alltheseillusoryrealms.Iftheycanjustfreethemselvesandnotagainproducetheirdiscriminations,thentherewillbenomoreillusion,andtheycanbesaidtobe "accordingwiththenatureofenlightenment.''Thenwhyshouldtheycarryoutprovisionalgradualcultivation?Itisbecausetheyareunabletocarryouttheabove accordance,andarehopelesslystuckinthearisingofdiscriminations.Onlyafternotbeingabletoattainaccordanceistheretheteachingofprovisionalstages. Asforthesentence"Byfirmlyabidinginseparationfromthought,

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youalsoseparatefromthethoughtof'illusion.'Asthisseparationbecomesillusion,youagainseparatefromit.Youagainseparatefromthisseparationfromseparation fromillusion":Thedefilementofviewsisshownhere,andtheprovisionalteachingisexplainedindetailtograduallycausethemtopractice.Usingthisprovisional methodofgradualpractice,purityconsumesallwithoutremainder.Becauseofthis,oneattains"'nothingtobeseparatedfrom,'whichistheremovalofallillusion." Onegraduallypracticesandpurifiesoneselfcompletelywithoutremainder. Whyis"purityconsumingallwithoutremainderbygradualpractice"characterizedwiththesimileof"makingafirewithtwosticksofwood,thewoodbeingconsumed andthefirevanishing"?TheSutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhisays:"SpacearisingfromthemidstofGreatEnlightenmentisliketheoceanproducingasingle bubbleamyriaddefiledlandsarebornfromspace."9 Theearthexistsindependenceuponspacewoodexistsindependenceupontheearthfireexistsin dependenceuponwood.Now,eventhoughwoodandfirebothdependupontheearthfortheirexistence,ifwetracethembacktotheirorigin,thentheyactuallyexist independenceuponspace.Thereforeitissaid:"Thenatureoffireisactuallythatofspacethenatureofspaceisactuallythatoffirepenetratingeverywhereintheten directions,purityistheoriginalcondition."10Apartfromspacethereisnoearthapartfromearththereisnowoodapartfromwoodthereisnofire. Space,then,isametaphorforGreatEnlightenment.Earthisametaphorforalltheworldsofsentientbeings.Thetwosticksaremetaphorsfortheabilitytocureand thatwhichiscured.Thatwhichiscuredislikeoriginalwooditrepresentsthepersonalitythatistransformed.Theabilitytocureisliketheignitionofthewoodit representstheremedythatisabletotransform.The"remedy"isactually"compassionandwisdom."Thefireistheenlightenmentthatisactualizedthisis"actualized enlightenment."Theemergenceofactualizedenlightenmentdependsoncompassionandwisdom.Thearousalofcompassionandwisdomdependsonbeingsensitive totheactualcircumstancesofindividualpeople.Thatwhichtheactualcircumstancesofindividualpeoplefollowisthekarmaofallsentientbeings.Thatwhichall sentientbeingsfollowdependsuponGreatEnlightenment.ApartfromGreatEnlightenmenttherearenosentientbeingsapartfromsentientbeingsthereisno applicationtotheactualcircumstancesofindividualpeopleapartfromapplicationtotheactualcircumstancesofindividualpeoplethereisneithercompassionnor wisdomandapartfromcompassionandwisdomthereisnoactualizedenlightenment.Thereforeitissaid:"ApartfromPerfectEnlightenmenttherearenoSix DestiniesapartfromPerfectEnlightenmenttherearenoThreeVehicles."Itisalsosaid:''Dependinguponsentientbeingshemanifestshis

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GreatCompassiondependingonGreatCompassionheproducesbodhicittadependingonbodhicittaheaccomplishesEqualCorrectEnlightenment."Thisislike theearthexistingindependenceuponspace,woodexistingindependenceuponearth,andfireexistingindependenceuponwood."Thewoodbeingconsumedand thefirevanishing"isasimileforpullingoutnails,removingthewedges,dissolvingtheglue,andunloosingthebonds.Thisisemancipatingcompletelydowntothelast detail,purifyingallwithoutexception. Asforequatingthefirewithactualizedenlightenment:Thesayings,"Onlywaitingfortheappearanceof(theplanet)Venus"and,"Uponreturninghome,youreachyour goalforthefirsttime,"containthesamemeaning."TheappearanceofVenus"referstothemanifestationofactualizedenlightenmentandthefireisasymbolfor actualizedenlightenment,yetitissaidto"vanish."Actualized(initial)enlightenmentexistsonlyfromtodayitdoesnotrefertotheabsolutenessofinnate(originally existent)enlightenment.Therelationshipbetweenactualizedenlightenmentandinnateenlightenmentcanbecomparedtotheclearskiesofasingledayandtheskythat hasexistedforever.Itisalsolikeblurryvisionsuddenlyseeingtheclearsky,whichalsocannotavoidbecomingillusion.Illusionarisingfromenlightenment,andalso ceasingfromenlightenment,islikefirearisingfromspaceandalsoceasingfromspace.Thoughthefireceasesfromspace,thenatureofspacekeepsitsprimordial stillness.Thoughillusionsceasefromenlightenment,thenatureofenlightenmenthasnotchangedfromantiquity.Hencethetextsays:"usingillusiontoremedyillusionis exactlylikethis.'' Asforthephrase"Yeteventhoughallillusionsareextinguished,youdonotenterintonothingness":Thisisliketheaboveteachingofgradualprovisionalstages,which existonlywhenoneisnotabletoattainBuddhahood.Ifyoudonotagainproducediscriminationatthepointoftheveryfirstseparationfromillusion,then"whenyou knowillusion,youwillimmediatelybefree,withoutdevisingexpedientmeans.Freedomfromillusionisinitselfenlightenment,andtherearenostages."Thisisthe correctpathofthebodhisattvasandthemostdirectcourseofpractice.Sentientbeingsonlycreatethequagmireoffixedviews.Theyareunabletostablyabideinthis state[offreedomfromillusion],andthusforcetheTathagatatohavenorecoursebuttoteachexpedientmeansandstagesofpractice. [Sutra(#23)][T842.17.914a21HPC7.134a14]
Allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhodependuponthispracticewillaccordinglybeabletofreethemselvesfromallillusion.

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[Kihwa][HPC7.134a16] Themeaningofsuddenandgradualhasbeenfullyexplained.Thusitissaid:"Thoseofsharpfacultiespracticeusingthesuddenthoseofdullfacultiespracticeusingthe gradual."Theapplicationofthisistopracticeaccordingtothevariousteachingsasappropriate.Thenyouwillbeabletobefreefromallillusions,andactualizethe natureofenlightenment. TheGatha [Sutra(#24)][T842.17.914a23HPC7.134a20]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: Samantabhadra,youshouldknow Thebeginninglessillusoryignorance Ofallsentientbeings Isallcreatedfrom TheperfectlyenlightenedmindofallTathagatas. Itisjustliketheskyflowers Thatappearinrelationtothesky Thoughtheskyflowersvanish Theskyhasneverchanged. Illusionisbornfromenlightenment Inthecessationofillusion,enlightenmentremainsperfectly complete. Thisisbecausetheenlightenedmindischangeless. Ifthesebodhisattvas Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Alwaysappropriatelyseparatefromillusion, Theywillcompletelyfreethemselvesfromit.

Page99 Liketheflamethatspringsfromwood: Thewoodisconsumedandtheflameagaindisappears. Ifyouareenlightened,thentherearenostagesofpractice Noristheresuchathingasexpedientmeans.

[Kihwa][HPC7.134b4] Illusionarisesfromenlightenment,liketheflowersthatappearinthesky.Thisistheaspectof"creatingcharacteristicsbecauseofconfusionregardingreality."When illusionceasesthenatureofenlightenmentisselfso.Whentheflowersvanishthenatureoftheskyremainsasitalwayswas.Thisistheaspectof"goingagainstthe flowandreturningtoone'snature."TheBuddhahastaughtthesetwoaspectstoencouragesentientbeingstoseparatethemselvesfromillusion.Thus,theculmination ofbothoftheseteachings,the"disclosureofthepartial"and"goingagainsttheflow"istheencouragementtoseparatefromillusion.Yetitisalsosaid:''inseparating fromillusiontherearedifferencesofgradualandsudden.""Gradual"islikethefirecomingfromthewood,andthewooddisappearingbecauseofthefirethewood andthefirebothvanish,leavingtheskyremaining.Althoughpeopleofdullfacultiesareabletoseparatefromillusion,theyarenotabletoavoidagainproducing discriminations,andsotheymustrepeatedlyseparatefromillusion.ThentheycanreturntoPerfectEnlightenment.Ifyoucanseparatefromillusionandnotagain producediscriminations,thenenlightenmentwillappearbeforeyouwithoutanymentalstrain.Thewaythatisusedis:"whenyouknowillusion,youwillimmediatelybe free,withoutdevisingexpedientmeans.Freedomfromillusionisinitselfenlightenment,andtherearenostages."Thisislikecuttingthrougharollofthreadinoneslice allthreadsarecut.Thisiscalledthe"sudden."Itisusedbythoseofsharpfaculties.

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3. UniversalVisionBodhisattva
[Translator'snote:thisisthelongestchapterofthesutra,aguidedmeditationthatanalyzesvariousfacetsofexistencefromtheviewpointsofprogressivelysubtler contemplativeapproaches.Thischapterisconsideredtobesovaluableforitscontemplativecontentthatitisoftencirculatedforstudyasaseparatedocumentin Koreanmonasteries.Attheendofthepriorchapter,theBuddhahasagaindeniedthevalidityoftheconceptof"gradualpractice,"butUniversalEyesbegins immediatelywiththistopic,pressingtheBuddhaforaprovisionalexplanation.Kihwa,asintheotherchapters,beginswithanexplanationofthemeaningofthe bodhisattva'sname.] [Kihwa][HPC7.134b19] Thesun'spervasiveilluminationiscalled"universal"thefacultyofsightiscalled"vision."Theterm"universalvision''meansthatinthesamewaythattheshiningsun leavesnodarknessunilluminated,compassionandwisdomoperateuniversally,havingnoplacewheretheydonotfunction.WhydoesUniversalVisionaskanother questionafterSamantabhadra?MajusrihasdemonstratedawakeningandSamantabhadrahaselucidatedpractice,sotheprinciplesofawakeningandpracticehave alreadybeenclarified.Butsincethemethodofinitiatingpracticeisdifficulttoelucidate,thisbodhisattvawantstotakethecontentofhisownpenetratingvisionanduse itasthemethodforinitiatingpractice,thuscausingeveryonetoengagethemselvesintheasillusionsamadhi,1 torealizeandentertheTathagata'sgreatquiescent ocean.ThereforeheaskstheBuddhatorevealthemethodofinitiatingpractice. Selfandother,bodyandmind,areillusoryandoriginallyempty.Worldlingandsage,whodifferonlyintermsoftheircorrectness,areinterpenetratedinonerealm thereisonlyasingularpuritythatpervadestherealityrealmthisisthecontentofthepenetratinginsightof

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UniversalVisionBodhisattva.Usingthisasthemethodandcreatingthiskindofpenetratingview,peoplewillnotwanderoffonotherpaths.Sincetheytrulytreadthe correctpathofbodhi,themethodiscalled"thecorrectexpedientmethod,"andthisviewiscalled"correctthought."Ifyouinitiateyourpracticebasedonthis,how coulditnotbeeffective?Andhowcouldyounotbefreefromillusion?Actually,practiceisalreadyaccomplishedandyouarealreadyfreefromillusion.Howcould youbeinPerfectEnlightenment,yetbeafflictedandnotawakenandenter?ThisiswhyUniversalVisionasksanotherquestionafterSamantabhadra.Myverse: Ifyouwanttoknowthemostfundamentalmethodforbeingfreefromillusion, ThenfullygraspthechapterofUniversalVision. Withrightcontemplation,theillusionofbodyandmindvanishes. Withpurity,andperfectclarity,theBuddharealmisilluminated. UniversalVision'sQuestiononExpedientMeans [Sutra(#25)][T842.17.914b6HPC7.134c15]

ThenthebodhisattvaUniversalVisionarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Hethenknelt downwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying:"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Ibegofyouonbehalfofthebodhisattvasofthisassemblyand thesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,toexpoundonthebodhisattvas'stagesandpractice.Howshouldtheythink?Howshouldtheyabide?Forsentientbeingswhohave notyetawakened,whatkindsofexpedientmeansshouldbedevisedtocausethemalltoawaken?" "WorldHonoredOne,ifthesesentientbeingslackthecorrectexpedientsandcorrectthought,then,whentheyhearyouexplain

Page102 thissamadhii,confusionwillariseintheirmindsandtheywillbeunabletoawakenandenter.Pleasearouseyourcompassionforusandforthesentientbeingsofthedegenerate age,andprovisionallyexplaintheseexpedientmethods."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Hemadethisrequestthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.135a2] Ajourneyofathousandmilesstartswithonestep.2 Themyriadpracticesofthebodhisattvasbeginwithmeditation.Ifthefirststepisincorrect,theneachsubsequent stepwillwanderoffontootherpaths.Howcanyouproceeddirectlytotherealmforwhichyouareaiming?Iftheobjectofmeditationisincorrect,theneverystepwill beoffofthecorrectpath.Howwillitbepossibleforyoutostraightforwardlyactualizetheresultyouareseeking?Thereforehemustteachthecorrectviewtothe deludedaspirants,sothattheywillnotwanderoffondifferentpathsandbepreventedfromreachingthetreasuretrove.ThisiswhyUniversalVisionBodhisattva discloseswhathasnotbeendisclosedandaskshisquestion.Theterms"correctexpedientmeans"and"correctthought'referto"correctcontemplation."Ifyoudonot havethecorrectcontemplation,thenevenifyouheartheBuddha'steachingofthepracticeofthebodhisattvas'illusorysamadhi,andofthestagesofexpedientmeans youwillstillbeconfusedandwillbeunabletoawakenandenter. TheBuddha'sAnswer [Sutra(#26)][T842.17.914b14HPC7.135a12]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaUniversalVision,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentientbeings ofthedegenerateageaboutthestagesoftheTathagata'spracticeabouthisthoughtandabiding,andabouttheexplanationofallthevariousexpedientmeans.Nowlistenwell, andIshallexplainforyou."UniversalVisionBodhisattvareceivedthisinstructionwithgreatjoy.Thegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.135a18] SinceitisalsotheBuddha'soriginalintentiontocauseallsentientbeingstofirstcreatethecorrectviewandthenperformthemyriadpractices,hegladlygiveshis approvalandadmonishesthemtolistenwell.

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TheMeditationonNoSelf [Sutra(#27)][T842.17.914b19HPC7.135a20]

Goodsons,thesenewlyawakenedbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoyearnforthepureenlightenedmindoftheTathagatamustcorrecttheirthoughts andridthemselvesofallillusions,firstrelyingontheTathagata'spracticeofsamatha.

[Translator'snote:SamathaisthefirsttypeofmeditationnormallytaughtinBuddhistmeditationaltraditions,andistranslatedintoEnglishas"concentration," "cessationofthought,"or"calmabiding.''Itisaformofmeditationwherethepractitionerfocuseshismindononething(thebreath,acertainphenomenon,etc.)to developonepointedness.InmostschoolsofBuddhism,thepracticeofsamathabyitselfisnotconsideredsufficientfortheapprehensionofreality,butthe concentrationpowerdevelopedfromsamathaisusedinconjunctionwithothertypesofmeditation.Atthispointinthesutra,samathaistobepracticedbeforeone carriesouttheupcominganalyticalexercise.] [Sutra]


Firmlyestablishedinmoraldisciplineandlivinginharmonywithlikemindedstudents,thenpracticingsilentsittinginaquietroom,theyshoulduninterruptedlybemindfulofthe following: ThispresentbodyisasynthesisoftheFourElements.Hair,nails,teeth,skin,flesh,bones,marrow,brains,andpigmentallreturntoEarth.Saliva,mucus,pus,blood,sputum, scum,phlegm,tears,semen,urine,andfecesallreturntoWater.HeatreturnstoFire,andmovementreturnstoWind.WhentheFourElementshavebeenseparated,wherecanthe falsebodyexist?Nowyouknowthatthisbodyultimatelyhasnosubstance.Asasynthesisitappears,butinrealityitislikeanillusionconjuredbyamagician. Whenthesefourfactorstemporarilycombine,theSixFaculties3falselyappearthroughtheinternalandexternalmatchingoftheSixFacultiesandFourElements,thereisthe deludedapprehension

Page104 ofconditionedenergy.Withinthisconglomeration,thereseemtobemarksofthisconditionedenergy,whichisprovisionallycalled"mind."Goodsons,ifthisfalseminddoesnot haveitsSixObjects,itcannotexist.IftheFourElementsareseparated,therearenoobjectstobeexperienced.Atthispoint,thecognizedobjectseachdisperseandvanish,and ultimatelythereisnodependentlyarisenmindtobeseen.

[Kihwa][HPC7.135b11] Thedistanttravelerwhodesirestoreturntohishomelandmustfindthecorrectroute.MistakenlyconditionedaspirantswhowishtoactualizePerfectEnlightenment needtoknowtheessentialtechniqueofreturningtotheorigin.Themeaningof"correctingthought,"then,isthesubtleaspectofreligiouscultivation.Itisthecorrect methodofseparatingfromillusionitistheessentialtechniqueofreturningtotheorigin.Withoutit,thereisnowherefromwhencetoinitiatepractice,andnofinalresult ofseparationfromillusionandattainmentofrealization.Thereforehesays:"whoyearnforthepureenlightenedmindoftheTathagatamustcorrecttheirthoughtsand ridthemselvesofallillusions."Themeaningof"correctthought''isthesameasthatof"correctcontemplation." Regardingtheline:"firstrelyingontheTathagata'spracticeofsamatha."Thereligiouscultivationofagreatworldlingdoesnotgobeyondthethreepractices.4 Concentrationisproduceddependinguponmoraldisciplinewisdomisproduceddependinguponconcentrationthisistheorderofpractice.Concentrationcannot becompletewithoutmoraldisciplinewisdomcannotbemanifestedwithoutconcentration.Themeaningof"correct[their]thought[s]"is"praja."Theconceptof "settingupproperobservation"isthesameasthis.Themeaningof"firmlyestablishedinmoraldiscipline"is"sila.""Silentlysitting"referstothepracticeofsamadhiit isalsothesameasthepracticeofsamatha.Ifyouenterintocontemplationwithoutconcentration,wisdomwillnotbecorrect.Ifyouenterintoconcentrationwithout moraldiscipline,concentrationwillnotbecorrect.Ifyouwantcorrectcontemplation,youmustfirstenterconcentrationifyouwanttoenterconcentration,youmust firstmaintainmoraldiscipline.Ifyouenterconcentrationafterbeingwellestablishedinmoraldiscipline,thenthisissamathaintherealsenseoftheword.Depending onthis(samatha)practice,yousetupyourcontemplation.Thereforeitiscalled"correctthought."Havingthiscorrectcontemplation,youareawarethatbodyand mindultimatelylacksubstanceandyouareabletoseparatefromallillusions.Thustheline"mustcorrecttheirthoughtsandridthemselvesofallillusions"refers generallytothefactthatyoumustfirstcorrectyourthinkingandthenyoucanseparatefromallillusion.Thepassage"first

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relyingonsamatha,uninterruptedlybemindfulofthefollowing":showshowtothinkcorrectly.Thepassagefrom"Nowyouknowthatthisbodyultimatelyhasno substance"upto"andultimatelythereisnodependentlyarisenmindtobeseen"showshowtoseparatefromillusion. "Firstusing"meansthatyoufirstmustkeepthepreceptsandthenbeginthepracticeofconcentration.Onlyafteryouhavetrulypracticedsamanthacanyousetup contemplation.HowcouldtheBuddhapossiblysay"firstpracticesamathaandthenkeeptheprecepts"?Thereisnosuchthingasfirstpracticingwisdomandthen concentration,orfirstpracticingconcentrationandthenkeepingtheprecepts.Thusthephrase"Firmlyestablishedintheguidelinesofmoraldisciplineandlivingin harmonywithlikemindedstudents,thenpracticingsilentsittinginaquietroom"refersto"keepingthepreceptsandthenstartingconcentrationpractice,"thatis, "practicingsamatha.''InthechapterofVoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattvaitsays:"youmustmaintainpracticesofpurity,quiescenceandcontemplation."5 Here,the "practicesofpurity"meanskeepingtheprecepts."Quiescence"means"practicingconcentration"and"contemplation"means"wisdom."This,then,isthelineof reasoningfor"Firmlyestablishedintheprecepts,silentlysittinginaquietroomandbeingmindful." BodyandMindareIllusoryFilth [Sutra(#28)][T842.17.914c2HPC7.135c20]

"Goodsons,sincetheillusorybodyofthissentientbeingvanishes,theillusorymindalsovanishes.Sincetheillusorymindvanishes,illusoryobjectsalsovanish.Sinceillusory objectsvanish,illusoryvanishingalsovanishes.Sinceillusoryvanishingvanishes,nonillusiondoesnotvanish.Itislikepolishingamirror:whenthefilthisgoneitsbrightness naturallyappears.Goodsons,youshouldunderstandbothbodyandmindtobeillusoryfilth.Whenthedefiledaspectsarepermanentlyextinguished,theentireuniverse becomespure."6

[Kihwa][HPC7.136a1] OnewhostrivestoactualizePerfectEnlightenmentrealizesthatbodyandmindareillusoryfilth.Thesamehappenswithillusoryobjectsandthusallofthemvanish. Thisvanishingalsovanishesandthereis

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nothingelsetodispel.Sincethenonillusorynatureofenlightenmentoriginallydoesnotarisebasedonillusion,italsodoesnotvanishbasedonillusion.Hencethetext says:"Sinceillusoryvanishingvanishes,nonillusiondoesnotvanish.Itislikepolishingamirror..." Now"everysinglerealminthetendirections,""thedistinctionbetweenworldlingandsagebasedoncorrectness"and''selfandother,""bodyandmind"areallin PerfectEnlightenmentandyetareillusoryfilth.Thisisjustlikedusthidingthebrightnessofamirrorandpreventingitfromreflecting.Sinceinthecorrect contemplation,"knowingillusionisexactlyfreedom,"thecharacteristicsoffilthpermanentlyvanish,andeverythinginthetendirectionsbecomespure,itislikethatold mirror:itsdirtisclearedawayanditreflectsclearlywithoutobstruction.Thereforethetextsays"youshouldknowbothbodyandmindasillusoryfilth.Whenthe defiledaspectsareeternallyextinguished,theentireuniversebecomespure." PerfectEnlightenmentIsLikeaManiPearl [Sutra(#29)][T842.17.914c6HPC7.136a12]

Goodsons,itislikeapuremanipearlthatreflectsthefivecolors,7dependinguponitssurroundings.Thefoolishseethatpearlasreallyhavingthesecolors.Goodsons,itisthe samewiththepurenatureofPerfectEnlightenment:itappearsinpeople'sbodiesandminds,accordingtotheirindividualtype.YetthesefoolssaythatpurePerfect Enlightenmentreallyhasbodyandmind. ItisonlybecausethesepeopleareunabletofreethemselvesfromillusoryappearancesthatIcallbodyandmind"illusoryfilth."Theonewhoopposesandremovesillusoryfilth iscalledthe"bodhisattva."Whenfilthisgone,itsoppositionisremovedthenthereisnoopposition,nofilth,noranythingtobenamed.

[Translator'snote:A"manipearl"isageminIndianmythologythatiscompletelypureandpossessesvariousoccultpowers.Thefirstsentenceheredescribesthe experienceonehaswhen,withonepointedconcentration,hefollowsthemeditationofnegationtoitsend.Theillusory,defiledworldsuddenlyvanishesand everywhereonelooks,oneseespurity.Inthenextpart,thesimileofthemanipearl,theignorantdonotseethatthepearl("bodyandmind")andPerfect Enlightenmenthavenorealexistence.Inthewaythatitistheemptinessofthemanipearl

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(itslackofowncolor)thatallowsittoreflectwhatevercolormeetsit,itistheemptinessofPerfectEnlightenmentthatallowsallthingssuchastheappearancesof bodyandmind,tooccur.Thisteachingofsunyataissimilartothattaughtintheprajaparamitaliterature,whichexplainsthingstobeemptynotbecausetheycanbe analyticallysubdividedadinfinitum,butbecauseemptinessitselfisthenatureofallthings.] [Kihwa][HPC7.136a20] TheBuddhahasalreadyestablishedthatbodyandmindareillusoryfilth.Butnowhewantstoclarifyhowitisthatbodyandmindareillusoryfilth.Heusesthe exampleofthemanipearlinordertoshowthatPerfectEnlightenmentispure,originallylackingbodyandmind.Thisbodyandmindthatcometoexistonlyobtain theirattributesfromexternalconditions.Ignorantpeoplearenotawareofthis,andattachtothemasiftheyarereal.Becauseofbodyandmind,theydonotdistinguish impurityandpurity,andthoughbothbodyandmindareinPerfectEnlightenment,bodyandmindbecomeillusoryfilth,whichpreventspeoplefromdirectlyawakening andentering.Thoughhehasalreadycausedthemtobeawareofillusionandthusseparatefromit,itseemsthatatthepointofseparationfromillusion,theyhavenot forgottensubjectivity/objectivity,anddespitethefactthattheirbasicnatureisPerfectEnlightenment,theyreestablishtheirownobstructions.Theyshouldalsowipeout theviewsofanapparentsubjectandobjectandforgetbothselfandthings.Onlyafterallimagesarecompletelyerasedaretheyabletointimatelyrealizethestateof PerfectEnlightenment. Thereasonheusesthemanipearlasametaphoristoshowthatenlightenmentisoriginallypureandthatitisbodyandmindwhichareillusoryfilth.Afterhecauses themtobefreefromdefilement,healsocausesthemtobecompletelyfreefromanysentimentoffreedomfromdefilement.Therefore,hesays:"Whenfilthisgone,its oppositionisremoved..."andsoforth. [Sutra(#30)][T842.17.914c12HPC7.136b10]
Goodsons,becausethesebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagefullyrealize[thenatureof]allillusionanddispelall[illusory]images,theydirectlyexperience limitlesspurity.

[Kihwa][HPC7.136b12] Thedefiledandpurebodiesandmindsofthetendirections,despitetheirbeinginPerfectEnlightenment,areallmanifestingasillusoryfilth.Theirinabilitytobepureis merelybecausesentientbeingsattachto[bodyandmind]asrealandareunabletoseparatethemselves.Now,sincetheawarenessofillusiondirectlyresultsin separationfromillu

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sion,allattachmentbasedperceptionsarethoroughlyerased.Sinceyoudonotagaingiverisetosentiments,thetendirectionsarepure,leavingnoobstructions whatsoever. ThePermeationoftheSensesbyPurity [Sutra(#31)][T842.17.914c13HPC7.136b17]

Enlightenmentrevealslimitlessspace.Sinceenlightenmentisperfectlyclear,themanifestmindispure.Sincethemindispure,theobjectsofvisionarepure.Sincevisionispure, theeyefacultyispure.Sincetheeyefacultyispure,thevisualconsciousnessispure.Sincethisconsciousnessispure,hearingispure.Sincehearingispure,theearfacultyis pure.Sincethefacultyispure,theauditoryconsciousnessispure.Sincetheconsciousnessispure,allperceptionispure,andsoitistrueforsmell,taste,touchand conceptualizationaswell.

[Translator'snote:SpaceisatranslationoftheChinesehsk'ung .] [Sutra]
Goodsons,sincetheeyefacultyispure,thecolorspectrumispure.Sincecolorispure,thefieldofsoundisalsopure.Thesameistrueofthefieldsofsmell,taste,touch,and conceptualization. Goodsons,sincethesixobjectsarepure,theEarthelementispure.SinceEarthispure,Waterispure,andsoareFireandWind.Goodsons,sincetheFourElementsarepure,the TwelveLoci,8the

Page109 Table1:TheCognitiveOperationsandtheEighteenRealms Cognitive Operation Sight Hearing Smell Taste Touch Thought Faculty (subjective) Eye Ear Nose Tongue Nerves Mind Object (objective) Color FieldofSound Odors Tasteobjects PhysicalObjects Concepts,symbols Consciousness (subjecttoobject) Visualconsciousness Auditoryconsciousness Olfactoryconsciousness Gustatoryconsciousness Tactileconsciousness Mentalconsciousness

EighteenRealmsandtheTwentyFiveKindsofExistence9arepure.Sincethesearepure,theTenPowers,10theFourKindsofFearlessness,11theFourTypesofUnobstructed Wisdom,12theBuddha'sEighteenDistinctiveCharacteristics,13andtheThirtySevenAidstoEnlightenment14arepure,andsoonuptotheeightyfourthousanddharani entrances,15everythingispure.

[Translator'snote:Inthispassagetheauthorshowshowtheinitialexperienceofpurity(broughtaboutbythecontemplationofinsubstantiality)hasapurifyingeffect onallofone'sperceptionandcognitivefaculties,aswellastheirobjectsandtheconsciousnessesthatconnectthem.Thispurificationismadethroughthestructureof anearlyIndiantheoryofconsciousnessandperceptionthatwouldserveasatemplateforBuddhistepistemologythroughoutthelaterspreadofBuddhistthought.In thistheory,allcognitionthatoccursintheworldhappensthroughthesixorgansofeye,ear,nose,tongue,body(asatactileorgan),andmind(whichhasconceptsand symbolsasitsobjects).Each"organ"representsthesubjectivecapacitytoperceiveanobject.Inorderfortheorgantoperceiveitsobject,toconnectwithit,a specificconsciousnessisnecessary.ThisisschematizedasinTable1. InBuddhistterminology,thefirstfive,withoutthemind,areusuallyreferredtoasthefiveconsciousnesses,fiveorgans,andfiveobjects.Whenthecategoryofmindis included,theyarecalledthesixorgans,etc.Thesixorgans(or"faculties"),togetherwiththeirobjectsarecalledtheTwelveLociandthesetwelve,whencombined withthesixconsciousnesses,arecalledtheEighteenRealms.] [Kihwa][HPC7.136c7] Beforethephrase"Limitlessspace...( )..."Thisphrasealwaysmarksthenewdiscussion,sowhywouldn'titbethesamehere?"Purity"istheoppositeof "illusoryfilth."Whenenlightenmentisnotyetdisclosed,thefacultiesandtheirobjectsarenothingbutillusoryfilth.Whenthe

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natureofenlightenmentisapparent,thefacultiesandtheirobjectsreturntopurity.Whyisthisso?Limitlessspace,alongwiththesefacultiesandtheirobjects,theFour Elements,thesageandworldling's"distinctionbycorrectness,"mundaneandtransmundanementalstates,allreturntotheirorigin.Allaremanifestationsofthenature ofenlightenment.Itislikeonehundredthousandlampsthatallgettheirinitiallightfromonelamp.Becausetheoriginallightispure,thelightfromonehundred thousandlampsispure.Allthingsinexistencearejustlikethis.Sincetheyareoriginallymanifestationsofpureenlightenment,allarecompletelypure.Before,itwas justbecauseofmistakenattachmentthatallthingsbecameillusoryfilth.Nowthatmistakenattachmenthasbeenremoved,thenatureofenlightenmentissuddenly apparent.Therefore,allthingsinexistenceareagainpure.Itislikethelightfromalamp,whichisunclearduetoaperson'scataracts.Oncethecataractsareremoved, everysinglelightisclear,withnoobstructionwhatsoever. Ifyousinglemindedlyconcentrateonbodyandmindasillusoryfilthbutdonotfurtherilluminethepurityofeverything,thenindividualthingswillnotbeproperly establishedandthemarksofrealitywillalsonotbediscernible.SincetheBuddhawantstodisclosethetruemarksofallthings,hefirstshowswhereallthingscome fromandsays:"Enlightenmentrevealslimitlessspace."Andsincespaceisrevealedbyenlightenment,canwenotsaythatallthethingsthatexistinspace,suchasthe faculties,theobjects,theFourElements,andthemundaneandtransmundanedharmascanbeunderstoodasmanifestationsofenlightenment?Sincehehasrevealed thesourceofallthings,hethenshowstherealmarksofallthingsandsays:"Sinceenlightenmentisperfectlyclear,themanifestmindispure.Sincethemindispure,the objectsofvisionarepure.Sincevisionispure,theeyeorganispure,andsoonuptotheeightyfourthousanddharanientrances,everythingispure." Nowthepurityanddefilementofallthingsisconditionedbythepresenceorabsenceofmistakenattachment,inthesamewaythatthebrightnessordullnessofthe lamp'slightdependsupontheclarityofone'seyes.Therefore"purity"meansthatatthepointoftheerasureofillusionandappearanceofenlightenment,thetruemarks ofallthingscanbeseenclearly. ThePermeationoftheUniversebyPurity [Sutra(#32)][T842.17.914c25HPC7.137a11]

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Goodsons,sincealltruemarksarepureintheirnature,onebodyispure.Sinceonebodyispure,manybodiesarepure.Sincemanybodiesarepure,thesameistrueofall sentientbeingsinthetendirections,whoareperfectlyenlightenedandpure.Goodsons,sinceoneworldispure,manyworldsarepure.Sincemanyworldsarepure,wecansee thatthroughoutallofspace,completelyincludingthethreetimes,allthingsareequal,pure,andchangeless.

[Kihwa][HPC7.137a17] Aboveitwassaidthatwhenweareinillusoryfilth,everysinglethingisdefiled,incapableofpurity.Wewerealsotoldthatwhenwearefreefromillusoryfilthevery singlethingisinmotionandcannotbeproperlyestablished.Now,withthedisclosureofalltheirtruemarks,everysinglething,suchas"selfandother,""bodyand mind,""distinctionofsageandworldlingbasedoncorrectness,"everythinginthewholeuniverse,includingallthethreetimeperiods,isequal,pure,andchangeless. Whyisthisso?Sincethepurityofthenatureofenlightenmentisoriginallychangeless,thepurityofeverysinglethingisalsochangeless. [Translator'snote:Earlier,itwasshownthatimpurityonlyappearsasacharacteristicintherealmofduality.Innonduality,wherethereisnodistinctionofgoodor bad,andsoon,allthingsareclear,justastheyare.Thisisthemeaningofpurityhere,whichshouldnotbeunderstoodasadichotomousoppositeofimpurity,butasa stateofclarity,wherethereisneitherpuritynorimpurity.Fromhere,thispuritypervadesthroughouttheuniverse.] AllThingsareEqualandChangeless [Sutra(#33)][T842.17.915a2HPC7.137b1]

Goodsons,sincespaceisequalandchangeless,youshouldknowthatthenatureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless.SincetheFourElementsarechangeless,youshould knowthatthenatureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless.Thesameholdstrueallthewayupthroughtheeightyfourthousanddharanientrancesthatareequaland changeless.Thereforeyoushouldknowthatthenatureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless.

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[Kihwa][HPC7.137b5] Thisexplainsthatallmundaneandtransmundanedharmasaremanifestationsofenlightenmentandarealreadypureandchangeless.Becauseofthiswecanknow inductivelythatthenatureofenlightenmentisoriginallypureandchangeless.Forexample,knowingthepurityandnonobstructionbetweenonehundredthousand lamps,wecaninductivelyknowthepurityandchangelessnessofonelamp. PerfectMutualInterpenetration [Sutra(#34)][T842.17.915a5HPC7.137b9]

Goodsons,theunchangingpurityofthenatureofenlightenmentcompletelypervadesitincludeseverythingwithoutrestriction.Thereforeyoushouldknowthatthesix facultiescompletelypervadetherealityrealm.Sincethefacultiescompletelypervade,youshouldknowthatthesixsensoryfieldscompletelypervadetherealityrealm.Sincethe sensoryfieldscompletelypervade,youshouldknowthattheFourElementscompletelypervadetherealityrealm.Itisthesamewaywithallthings,includingthedharani entrances,whichcompletelypervadetherealityrealm. Goodsons,sincethismarvelousnatureofenlightenmentcompletelypervades,thereisneitherconflictnorconfusionbetweenthenaturesofthefacultiesandtheirobjects.Since thefacultiesandobjectshavenoconflict,itislikethisthroughallofexistence,includinginthedharanientrances,whichhaveneitherconflictnorconfusion.Itislikeone hundredthousandlampsshininginoneroom.Theirlightcompletelypervadeswithoutconflictorconfusion.

[Kihwa][HPC7.137b17] Theteachinginthissectionexplainsthatsincethenatureofenlightenmentisoriginallypureandcompletelypervadestherealityrealm,allmundaneandtransmundane dharmasthatarerevealedbyenlightenmentarealsoidenticalinessenceandfunctionuniversally.Pervadingtherealityrealmagainandagainwithoutexhaustion,they containandentereachotherwithoutobstruction.Itislikethelightfromonelampthathasalreadyfilledoneroom.Thelightfromonehundredthousand

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lamps,whichwereignitedfromthisonelamp,alsofillthesameroomagainandagainwithoutexhaustion,containingandenteringeachotherwithoutobstruction.Yet thelightraysdonotdamagetheotherindividuallights,norarethelightsconfusedwitheachother.Theindividualcharacteristicsofeachlamparenotdamagedeach characteristicremainsjustasitis.Theseparateraysoflightinterpenetratetoformonerealm,togetherlightingtheoneroom.Alldharmasbeingthesameinessenceyet functioninguniversallyisjustlikethis. Thepartabove,from"ThispresentbodyisasynthesisoftheFourElements..."upto"immediatelyexperiencelimitlesspurity"clarifiesseparationfromillusionand manifestationofenlightenmentthatis,"goingagainsttheflowandreturningtothesource."Thepartfrom"Infinitespaceisthemanifestationofenlightenment"upto ''throughoutallofspace,completelyincludingthethreetimes,allareequal,pureandchangeless"showsthatthefacultiesandthebody,thecontainerworld,16 mundaneandtransmundanedharmasarealreadythemanifestationofpureenlightenmenttherefore,theyareidenticalwithpurityoftheessence.Likethefivecolors thatreflectfromthemanipearleachoneispure.Itisalsolikethehundredthousandlightswhichhavebeenderivedfromthelightofonelampeachoneisalso pure.Thisaspectislikethatexpressedinthesaying:"thereisnothingthatdoesnotflowoutfromthisrealityrealm." Thepartfrom"spaceisequalandchangeless"upto"..theeightyfourthousanddharanigatesthatareequalandchangeless.Thereforeyoushouldknowthatthe natureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless"canbecharacterizedbysuchsayingsas"byseeingtheshootsyoucanknowwhatkindofrootsthereare"and"by seeingthebranchesyoucanknowwhatkindofrootsthereare."Thisteachingisexpressedbythesaying:"thereisnothingthatdoesnotreturntothisrealityrealm." Theformatoftheearlierteachingwasgoingfromtheonetothemanythisoneis"startingwithmany,yetbeingone."Or:"thesameyetdifferentdifferentyetthe same." Thepassagefrom"theunchangingpurityofthenatureofenlightenmentcompletelypervadesitincludeseverythingwithoutrestriction.Thereforeyoushouldknowthat thesixfacultiescompletelypervadetherealityrealm"upto"Theirlightcompletelypervadeswithoutconflictorconfusion"isanexpressionofthemutualinclusionof oneandmanyandthenonobstructionbetweenindividualphenomena.Thisisalsolikethesaying:"oneatomcontainsalltheatomsoftheuniverse."TheTathagatahas clarifieddefilementandpurityingreatdetailhehasfullyexpoundedthehiddenandthemanifestselectingandrejecting,killingandgivinglife,rollingupandextending outfreely.ThisistherealmperceivedbyUniversalVisionBodhisattva.

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DetachmentinNonduality [Sutra(#35)][T842.17.915a11HPC7.137c22]

"Goodsons,sincetheirenlightenmentisfullyperfected,youshouldknowthatbodhisattvasarenotattachedtodharmas,anddonotseekliberationfromdharmas.Theydonot hatesamsaraanddonotlovenirvana.Theydonotvenerateoneforkeepingtheprecepts,nordespisethepersonwhobreaksthem.Theyarenotinaweofthelongtime practitioneranddonotlookdownonthebeginner.Why?Becausetheyareallenlightened.Itislikevisionseeinganobject.Thevisioncompletelypervadeswithoutexperiencing attractionoraversion.Why?Vision,inessence,hasnoduality,thereforeithasneitherattractionnoraversion.

[Kihwa][HPC7.138a5] FromtheperspectiveofdisclosureofPerfectEnlightenmenttheBuddhahasalreadyshownthepurityofallexistences.Fromtheperspectiveofpurityhehasshown thateverythingischangeless.Fromtheperspectiveofchangelessnesshehasalsoshownthateachfacultyandeachobjectandallkindsofthingseachpervadethe realityrealm,containingeachotherwithoutobstruction.Byclarifyingthemeaningofnonduality,heshowsrealitytobelikethis.Atthispointhealsoclarifiesthat "enteringandattaining"islikethis,andthat"actinginaccordance"islikethis. Theclause"theirenlightenmentisfullyperfected"meansthattheyhavealreadygainedcompleteawarenessofthemarvelousnatureofPerfectEnlightenmentthatsage andworldlingareofthesamenature,defilementandpurityhavethesamesourceandtheyareabletoactaccordingtothisawareness.Thisclarifies"enteringand attaininginthisway."Thephrase''notattachedtodharmas"meansthatsincetheyarealreadyawareofthenondualityofthenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentandare abletoactaccordingtoit,theydonotgiverisetodiscriminativeandselectiveviewsinregardtosuchdichotomiesassageandworldling,bindingandliberation, samsaraandnirvana,keepingthepreceptsandbreakingtheprecepts,longtimepractitionerandbeginner.Havingattainedthisstate,theyareabletoappearinthe worldandexperienceitasitis. Thequestion"Why?"means"Whyisitthattheyhavethiskindofawarenessandthiskindofperceptionandfunction?"WhenthemarvelousnatureofPerfect Enlightenmentexistsinthesage,nothinghasbeen

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addedwhenitexistsintheworldling,nothinghasbeensubtracteditisboundyetunbound,itisliberatedyetnotliberated.Withsamsaraandnirvana,keepingthe preceptsandbreakingtheprecepts,thelongtermpractitionerandthebeginner,thereisalsoneitheradditionnorsubtraction.Thisisbecausethereisneitherdualitynor discrimination.Thisshowsthebasisforactinginaccordancewithnonduality,yetneitherselectingnorrejecting. Theclause"Itislikevisionseeinganobject"referstothetimewhenvisionmeetsitsobjectsbutsentimentsregardingtheobjecthavenotyetarisen.Thisisthemeaning ofthesaying"awareofonlythesinglestepinfrontofone."Inthevisionofagreatworldlingitisonlyatthefirstinstantofhisperceptionofformthatthereisno discrimination.Immediatelyafterthat,hemanifestsaffectedviewsandproduceslikeanddislike.Thereforeitissaid:"Whenfirstabidinginperfectdirectperception, floatingdusthasnotyetarisensubsequentlyyoufallintotheperceptionofthestageofthemanoconsciousness,17andtheconcealmentanddisclosureoftheexternal worldtakesplace."Atthetimeofnodiscrimination,eventhoughyoumeetbeautifulandugly,youdonotknowthemasbeautifulanduglythereforethereareno viewsofattractionandaversionorgraspingandreleasing.Theparticipationintheworldofdifferencesbythepractitionerofenlightenment,withouthavingtheviewof difference,islikethis. Theline"Why?Vision,inessence,hasnoduality"askswhyvisionisperfectandhasneitherattractingnoraversion.Thedirectperceptionofthevisualfacultyiswhat isreferredtoby"theessenceofvision."This"essenceofvision"isthesameas"nondiscriminatedillumination.''Sincetheilluminationlacksdiscrimination,thereareno viewsofattractionandaversionorgraspingandreleasing.Theearliereightnegations("isnotboundtothedharma,doesnotseekfreedomfromthedharma,etc.") expresstheone"nomind.""Nomind"meansthemindofnodualityorchoosing."Vision,inessence,hasnoduality"isanotherwayofsaying"nomind." SentientBeingsareOriginallyPerfectBuddhas [Sutra(#36)][T842.17.915a16HPC7.138b16]

Page116 Goodsons,thesebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhocultivatethismindandareabletofullyconsummateit,haveneithercultivationnorconsummation. TheirPerfectEnlightenmentilluminateseverywhere,andisperfectlystill,withoutduality.Here,Buddhaworldsaquintilliontimesasmanyastheincalculableamountofgrainsof sandintheGangesRiverhaphazardlyariseandceaselikeflowersinthesky.Thereisneithersamenessnordifference,neitherbondagenorfreedom.Nowyouknowforthefirst timethatallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhasthatsamsaraandnirvanaarelikelastnight'sdream. Goodsons,sincetheyarelikelastnight'sdream,youshouldknowthatsamsaraandnirvanahaveneitherarisingnorceasing,neithercomingnorgoing.Intherealizationofthis thereisneithergainnorloss,neitherselectingnorrejecting.Intheonewhorealizes,thereisno"contrivance,""stopping,""naturalism,''or"annihilation."Inthisrealizationthere isneithersubjectnorobject,andultimatelyneitherrealizationnorrealizedone.Thenatureofalldharmasisequalandindestructible.

[Kihwa][HPC7.138c4] "thismind"istheabovementionedmindofneithergraspingnorreleasing.Forthepersonwhocultivatesthismindandisreallyabletoconsummateit,thereisno thoughtofpracticeorrealizationthereisonlytheoriginallyexistentnatureofenlightenment,whichisperfectlyluminousandshiningeverywhere.Inthisuniversal illumination,whichisequanimousandquiescent,therearenolongermarksofdifference. Thephrases"Buddhaworldslikeskyflowers,""sentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas,"and"samsaraandnirvanaarelikelastnight'sdream,"andsoon,all showtheaspectofnondualityfromtotalnihilation.Ifyouseethroughdiseasedeyes,thentheskyflowersarenotnonexistent.Ifyouseethroughcleareyes,thenthe skyflowersarenotexistent.Theworldisalsolikethis.Fromtheperspectiveofdeludedconsciousness,itisnotnonexistent.Fromtheperspectiveofthenatureof reality,itisnotexistent.Neitherexistentnornonexistentisthesameas"neitherthesamenordifferentneitherboundnorfree." Whatisthemeaningoftheclause"allsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas"?SinceSuchnessisinvolvedasanentiretyineverysinglesituation,accordingto conditionsandconsummatingallkindsoffalseanddefiledexistences,Buddhaisasentientbeing.Sincedeludedexistencesarefundamentallyemptyandallareexactly Suchness,sentientbeingsareBuddha.SinceBuddhaisasentientbeing,nirvanadoesnotobstructsamsara.SincesentientbeingsareBuddha,samsaradoesnot obstructnirvana.Sincesamsaraisnirvana,samsaraislikelastnight'sdream.Sincenirvanaissamsara,nirvanaislikelastnight'sdream.

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Whatisthemeaningoftheclause"samsaraandnirvanahaveneitherarisingnorceasing"?SamsaraandnirvanaarelikeMercuryandOrion:whenoneisvisiblethe otherisalwaysinvisible.Whensamsaraisdisclosed,nirvanaisconcealedwhennirvanaisdisclosed,samsaraisconcealed."Disclosure"hereisequivalentto "arising"and''coming.""Concealment"isequivalentto"cessation"and"going."Inthisway,nirvanaandsamsaraarelikeMercuryandOrion,buttheyhavedifferent traces.Now,sincesamsaraandnirvanaarelikelastnight'sdream,theirdisclosureisnottruedisclosurethereisno"arising"thereisno"coming."Theirconcealment isnottrueconcealment:thereisno"cessation"thereisno"going."Thisiswhyhesaysthatsamsaraandnirvanaarejustlikelastnight'sdream,butareactuallythe sameasillusoryflowers. Whatisthemeaningoftheclause"Intherealizationofthisthereisneithergainnorloss."Whenoneisawakened,itiscalled"attainment"or"selecting."Whenoneis deluded,itiscalled"losing"or"rejecting."Seenfromtheviewpointofreality,atthetimeofawakeningthereisneitherattainmentnorselecting,andatthetimeof delusionthereisneitherlosingnorrejecting.Whenoneisawakened,itisjustbecauseoftheoriginalexistenceofawakening.Itisnotthatyouformerlylostitandnow youhavefirstattainedit,orthatyouhadrejecteditbeforeandnowyouhavefirstselectedit.Whenyouaredeluded,itisjustbecausedelusionisoriginallypresent.It isnotthatyouhadformerlyattaineditandnowyouhaveforthefirsttimelostit.Norisitthatbeforeyouhadselecteditandnowyouhaverejectedit.Attainingand losing,selectingandrejectingarenothingbutthedeludedprojectionsofsentientbeings.Thenatureofenlightenmentisoriginallypresent:itsexistenceornonexistence doesnotdependupondelusionandawakening. Whatisthemeaningof"Intheonewhoactualizes,thereisno'contrivance''stopping,''naturalism,'or'annihilation'?"18"Contrivance,""stopping,""naturalism,"and "annihilation"aredistinctionsmadebythepractitioner.Whenithasbeensaidabove"thatwhichistobeactualized,"thatwasinreferencetotheconsummationof dharmas(objectiveevents).Here,thephrase"theonewhoactualizes"referstotheperson.Thisphrasemeansthatintermsofdharma(objectiveevent)thereisno suchthingasdistinctionbetweenattainingandlosing,selectingandrejectingfromthepositionofthepersontherearenodiscriminationsofcontrivance,stopping, naturalism,andannihilation.Inthenondualityoftotalnihilationthesubjectiverealizerandtheobjectiverealizationareerasedtogetherwithoutatrace. Asforthemeaningofthephrase"Thenatureofalldharmasisequalandindestructible,"whatisthemeaningof"indestructible?"Ithasalreadybeensaidthatthe dharmanatureincludesthemeaningsofbothoneandmany.Thesingularisnotdestroyedintheaccomplishmentofallthings,andallthingsarenotdestroyedwhen theymergeinto

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singularreality.Onedoesnotchangethesingularrealityinordertoaccomplishallthings,andonedoesnotchangeallthingsinordertomergewithsingularreality.You alsodonotdestroyonecharacteristicinordertoincludeallcharacteristics,ordestroyallcharacteristicsinordertoenterintoonecharacteristic.Youdonotchange onecharacteristicsothatitcanincludeallcharacteristicsyoudonotchangeallcharacteristicssothattheycanbecontainedandenterintoonecharacteristic.Itisone andyetmany,itismanyandyetone.Thenatureofoneandmanyisequal.Originallytheyarenottwo. [Sutra(#37)][T842.17.915a25HPC7.139b5]


Goodsons,thesebodhisattvasusethiskindofpractice,graduallyadvancelikethis,thinkinthisway,abideinthisway,usethesekindsofexpedientmeansandawakeninthis way.Ifyouseekthiskindofdharma,youwillnotagainbevexed.

[Kihwa][HPC7.139b8] Intheoriginalquestionhesaid:"Ibegofyouonbehalfofthebodhisattvasofthisassemblyandthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,toexpoundonthe bodhisattvas'stagesandpractice.Howshouldtheythink?Howshouldtheyabide?Forsentientbeingswhohavenotyetawakened,whatkindsofexpedientmethods shouldbedevisedtocausethemalltoawaken?"Healsosaid:"ifthesesentientbeingslackthecorrectexpedientsandcorrectthought,then,whentheyhearyou explainthissamadhi,confusionwillariseintheirminds."TheBuddha,inhisanswer,said:''[those]whoyearnforthepureenlightenedmindoftheTathagatamust correcttheirthoughtsandridthemselvesofallillusions."Now,whenhesays"usethiskindofpractice,"heisreferringtothewholediscussionabout"correctthought" and"separationfromillusion."Thisisthesummaryanswertothequestionsaboutpractice. Also,inthefirstsetofquestionstheBuddhahadsaid:"firstrelyingontheTathagata'spracticeofsamatha.Firmlyestablishedinmoraldisciplineandlivinginharmony withlikemindedstudents,thenpracticingsilentsittinginaquietroom,theyshoulduninterruptedlybemindfulofthefollowing."Now,whenhesays"thesestages"heis referringtothepassagethatsays"firstmoraldiscipline,thensamadhiandthenpracticeanalysis"Thisanswersthequestionaboutstages.Next,heteachesthe contemplationof"bodyandmindasillusion,"whichcorrespondstothelineinthispartofthetextthatsays:"thinkinthisway,abideinthisway."Thiscorrespondsto thelinesthatexplainthecontemplationofbodyandmindasillusion,etc.,anditanswersthequestion"howshouldwethink,howshouldweabide?"

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Hehasalreadyshownthatbodyandmindareillusoryfilth.Hehasalsosaid"Theonewhoopposesandremovesillusoryfilthiscalledthe'bodhisattva.'Whenfilthis gone,itsoppositionisremovedthenthereisnoopposition,nofilth,noranythingtobenamed."Now,[atthispoint]whenhesays"thesekindofexpedientmeans"he isreferringtothepassagethattalksaboutopposingandseparatingfromfilth,theexhaustionoffilthandremovalofopposition.ThenextpartoftheBuddha'sanswer says:"[becausethesebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage]fullyrealize[thenatureof]allillusionanddispelallimages,theydirectlyexperience limitlesspurity."Thepresentlinesaying''awakenlikethis"referstothatpassagethatsaid"fullyrealize[thenatureof]allillusion."Thisanswersthequestionthatsays: "Forsentientbeingswhohavenotyetawakened,whatkindsofexpedientmeansshouldbedevised,tocausethemalltoawaken?" Thewords"thiskindofdharma"refertoalltheteachingsofpractice,stages,thought,abiding,expedientmeans,andawakening.Whenhesays"seekthiskindof dharma,andnotagainbevexed"itmeansthatitisnotonlythebodhisattvasofthisassemblywhocanpracticelikethisandawakenlikethis.Sentientbeingsofthe degenerateagewhoseekthiskindofdharmawillalsogainenlightenmentandnotagainbedeluded.Sinceinhisquestionthebodhisattvasaid"Ifthesesentientbeings lackthecorrectexpedientmeansandcorrectthought,iftheyheartheBuddhateachthissamadhi,theywillarisedelusion"theBuddhaconcludeshisanswerinthis way. TheGatha [Sutra(#38)][T842.17.915a28HPC7.139c14]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid:

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UniversalVision,youshouldknow Thebodiesandmindsofallsentientbeings Areonlyillusion. ThebodyiscomposedoftheFourElements TheminddependsupontheSixObjects. WhentheFourElementsdisperse, Whowillbethereasasynthesis? Inthiskindofgradualpractice Alliscompletelypure, Unchanging,pervadingtherealityrealm. Withoutcontrivance,stopping,naturalism,orannihilation Andalsowithoutanysubjective"realizer," AllBuddhaworldsare Justlikeskyflowers. Thethreetimesareallthesame Ultimatelywithoutcomingorgoing. Bodhisattvaswhohaverecentlyarisentheirminds Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage WhowanttoentertheBuddhaWay Shouldpracticelikethis. [Kihwa][HPC7.139c22] ThebodyiscomposedoftheFourElementstheminddependsupontheSixObjects.Ifyoureflectinthisway,thenatureisempty,justclear.Allthingsarepure, unchanging,equalandnihilated.Thereisalsoneitherpracticenorrealizationthereisalsoneithercomingnorgoing.TheWayofpracticeandrealizationisculminated here.Thoseofsharpfacultieshavealreadybeenawakened.Butsincethoseofmiddlinganddullfacultieshavenotyetawakened,afterthistheBuddhawillaccept manymorequestionsandgivemanymoreanswers.Thesentence"Bodhisattvaswhohaverecentlyarisentheirmindsandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewho wanttoentertheBuddhaWayshouldpracticelikethis"closesthepriorsectionandadumbratesthenextsection.

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4. VajragarbhaBodhisattva
[Translator'snote:ThenameVajragarbhaiscomposedofthetwoSanskritwordsvajraandgarbha.Vajra,inIndianreligiousliterature,isthehardestsubstancein existencetheessenceofdiamondormetal.Italsomeans"thunderbolt"aswieldedbythegodIndra,ormythicalvajrawarriors.GarbhaistheSanskrittermfor "storageplace"or"container''butsimultaneouslycontainsthemeaningof"womb"or"matrix"afertileenvironmentwherethingsarenourishedinaprenatalstate.In histreatmentofthetermvajrabelow,KihwafocusesonthemeaningofthetwoSinoKoreanlogographsthatareusedtotranslatetheterm,whicharechin/kum( ), whichmeans"hard"or"strong."Whenheexplainstheconnotationsofgarbha,however,hewillpursuetheSanskritetymology.] [Kihwa][HPC7.140b6] Thereasonvajraiscalled"strong"isbecauseitissohardthatitisimpervious,andsosharpthatitcancutanything.Initsuseasametaphorforthesubtletyofwisdom, itisthatwhichdemonscannotenter,andthatwhichdoubtcannotconfuseitisabletodestroythenetofdoubt,tocutawaythecordsofrestriction."Store"refersto the"radiant,brightgarbha."1 Thisstoremindcontainsthesubtlewisdomthatisdifficulttoconceive,andcontainsthevirtuousfunctionsofhardnessandsharpness. Bodhisattvas,actualizingthis,areabletosevertheirownhindrancesandarealsoabletoseverthenetofdoubtthatrestrictssentientbeings.Thisiswhyheiscalled Vajragarbha("StoreoftheAdamantine"). WhydoesVajragarbhaquestionfurtherafterUniversalVisionBodhisattva?Majusrihasrevealed"awakening"Samantabhadrahasdisclosed"practice"Universal Visionhasshown"thecorrectcontemplation

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thatresultsinrealization."Certainlytheinstructionsforawakening,practiceandrealizationhavebeenwellclarified.However,whilethoseofsuperiorcapacitywhoare sharpintheirdiscernmentgetthewholepointinasinglehearing,thoseofmiddlingandinferiorcapacitieswhosepowerofdiscernmentisweak,cannotavoidarising doubt. Why?ThechapterofMajusrisays:"permanentlyseverignorance,anddirectlyaccomplishtheBuddhaWay."2 ThechapterofSamantabhadrasays:"beginningless illusoryignorance/Isallcreatedfrom/Theperfectlyenlightenedmind"3 thuscompletelyrevealingignorance,faults,andafflictions,causingthemtobecompletely severed.ButtheninthechapterofUniversalVisionitsays:''youknowforthefirsttimethatallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhasthatsamsaraandnirvana arelikelastnight'sdream."4 Thisisdoneinordertoshowthedoctrineof"neitherpracticenorrealization."Sincewhatwassaidbeforeandafterseemtobe contradictory,doubtarises. Nowcontemplationisthecorrectpathofpractice,whichreachestothesublimestateoftheBuddha.Doubtisaheavyobstacletothepracticeofcontemplationandit impedescorrectcultivation.Ifyouwanttodothe"correctcontemplationthatresultsinrealization,"youcannotbehinderedbydoubt.Ifthereisdoubtinyourmind, contemplationcannotbebroughttofruition,andintheendtherewillbenoachievementofrealization.ThereforeVajragarbhafollowsUniversalVisionwithanother question,askingtheBuddhatoresolvedoubts.Myverse: ThetransformationandnontransformationofbothsentientBeingandBuddhaaredoubted: Iftherewerenogreatenlightenment,whocouldtell? Thegold,theflowers:withonecryyouareawakenedfromyourdream. Thecloudsdissipate:theskyandmoonareperfectlyrevealed. Vajragarbha'sQuestionsontheParadoxoftheCoexistenceofEnlightenmentandIgnorance [Sutra(#39)][T842.17.915b10HPC7.140c6]

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ThebodhisattvaVajragarbharosefromhisseatinthegreatassemblyandbowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet.Hecircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright,andthenheknelt downwithhishandsclaspedandsaidtotheBuddha: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhavelecturedsuperblyforallthesebodhisattvasaboutthepurityofPerfectEnlightenment,thegreatdharani,thedharma practiceofthecausalstageandgradualpracticesaccordingtoprovisionalexplanations.Youhaveclearedawaythesentientbeings'cloudsofdarknessallthoseatthisdharma assembly,havingreceivedyourcompassionateinstruction,haveclarifiedtheiropticalillusionsandpurifiedtheirwisdomeye. WorldHonoredOneifallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas,thenhowcantheyalsopossessignorance?Ifsentientbeingsareoriginallyignorant,howcanyousay thattheyhavealwaysbeenperfectbuddhas?Ifalltheworldlingsinthetendirectionsareoriginallyperfectlyenlightened,butlatergiverisetoignorance,atwhatpointdoall thesetathagatasregeneratetheseafflictions?

[Kihwa][HPC7.140c17] "Dharmapracticeofthecausalstage"referstotheteachingofthechapterofMajusri."Gradientpracticesaccordingtoprovisionalexplanations"referstotheteaching ofthechapterofSamantabhadra.Thesentence"Ifallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas,thenhowcantheyalsopossessignorance?"doubtstheteachingof thechaptersofMajusriandSamantabhadrabasedontheteachingofthechapterofUniversalVision.Thesentence''Ifsentientbeingsareoriginallyignorant,howcan yousaythattheyhavealwaysbeenperfectbuddhas?"doubtstheteachingofthechapterofUniversalVisionbasedontheteachingsofthechaptersofMajusriand Samantabhadra.Thesentence"Ifalltheworldlingsinthetendirectionsareoriginallyperfectlyenlightened,butlatergiverisetoignorance,atwhatpointdoallthese tathagatasregeneratetheseafflictions?"doubtsactualizedenlightenmentbasedontheideaofinnateenlightenment.Thedoubt,then,isthreefold.Thefirstdoubtsays thatifweareoriginallybuddhas,thendelusionshouldnotarise.Theseconddoubtsaysthatifdelusionisoriginallypresent,thenwecannotoriginallybebuddhas.The thirddoubtsaysthatifsentientbeingsareoriginallyenlightenedyetnowdeluded,eventhoughtheTathagatahasactualizedenlightenment,heshouldalsobedeluded, andstillneedtodo"thecorrectcontemplation

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thatresultsinrealization."Thesethreedoubtsfunctionasgreatimpedimentsatadeeplevel.Youmustfirstgetridofthesedoubts,andthenyoucandevelopand mastercorrectcontemplationandpenetratetothesublimestateoftheBuddha. [Sutra(#40)][T842.17.915b18HPC7.141a9]


Myonlyrequestisthatyounotdiscardyourlimitlessgreatcompassionandthatyourevealtheconcealedtreasuretothebodhisattvas,andthatyou,forallsentientbeingsof thedegenerateage,gainaccesstothiskindofsutrateaching,theteachingofthecompletedoctrine,sothattheycanpermanentlyseverdoubtandregret.

[Translator'snote:Thissentencedoesnotmakesenseasitis.IfKihwadidnotcorrectitdirectlybelow,Iwouldhavetomakeaninterpretivedecisiontomakethe translationsensible.ButsinceKihwadoestreatit,Ileaveitasis,inordertomakeclearthepointofhiscorrection.] [Kihwa][HPC7.141a12] Thisisanotherpassagethatdoesnotreadsmoothly.Theremaybeanerrorofomission,ortheremighthavebeenalotoftextskippedoverinreflexiveabbreviation. After"thebodhisattvas( "causesentientbeings").Thetextshouldsay:

Myonlyrequestisthatyounotdiscardyourlimitlessgreatcompassionandthatyourevealtheconcealedtreasuretothebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerate age.Thiswillcausebodhisattvastogainunshakablefaith,andallowallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetogainaccesstothisteaching,whichisasutrainstructionofthe completedoctrine,suchthattheycanpermanentlyseverdoubtandregret.

[Sutra(#41)][T842.17.915b21HPC7.141a20]

Havingsaidthis,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

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TheBuddha'sAnswer

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtothebodhisattvaVajragarbha,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsof thedegenerateageabouttheTathagata'sextremelydeepandreconditefinalexpedientmeans.Thisisthehighestteachinggivenbythebodhisattvas,thefullyrevealeddoctrine oftheGreatVehicle,whichisabletocausetheenlighteningbodhisattvasofthetendirections,aswellasthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetogainunshakablefaithand permanentlyseverdoubtandremorse.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainthisforyou." VajragarbhaBodhisattvareceivedthisinstructionwithreverenceandgreatjoyandthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.141b5] Faithistheoriginofenlightenmentandisthemotheroftheaccumulatedpowerofvirtuousactions.Itfostersanddevelopsallgooddharmas.5 Doubtisitsopposite.It isthethiefwhostealsaccumulatedvirtuepowerandbringstheenmitythatdestroystherootsofgoodness.Ifdoubtisnotremoved,faithcannotbeproduced.How willyoubeabletousecorrectcontemplationtopenetratetothesublimestateoftheBuddha?Firstyoumustdestroydoubt,thenyoucanarousefaithandcorrectly contemplate,bringingaboutrealization.Inordertoresolvethisdoubt,VajragarbhaaskstheBuddhatoteachtheextremelydeepandreconditefinalexpedientmeans, and[thebodhisattvas']highestteachingofthefullyrevealeddoctrineoftheGreatVehicle.Heisthusabletocauseeverybodytoattainunshakablefaith,severing doubtandremorse.Sincecausingeveryonetoenterthe"contemplationthatresultsinrealization"isalsotheBuddha'sheartfeltwish,hegladlyteaches. Samsara'sDisorientingPower [Sutra(#42)][T842.17.915c1HPC7.141b14]

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Goodsons,allworldsbeginandend,arebornanddie,havepriorandafter,existanddonotexist,gatherandscatter,ariseandcease.Continuingwithoutamoment'slapse,the circularmotionofgoingandreturning,ofvariouslyselectingandrejectingthisisallcyclicexistence.ThenatureofthePerfectEnlightenmentthatisdiscernedwithouthaving leftcyclicexistenceissimplytransmigratory.Ifyouthinkyoucanescapecyclicexistenceinthisway,youarecompletelyoffthemark.

[Translator'snote:Forconveyingthesenseofsamsara,theSPEusesfourdifferentterms,threeofwhichappearhereinthispassage.Althoughtheirimplicationsare basicallythesameinthistext,Ihavetranslatedthemsystematically(andperhapsarbitrarily)inordernottoblurtheirdistinctionintheoriginaltext.Thesetermsare: lunhui ,translatedas"lifeanddeath"and"samsaric."Shengssucouldhavebeenrenderedthroughoutas"lifeanddeath"ifnotforthedifficultyofusingsucha phraseadjectivallyandadverbially.] [Sutra]


Itiscomparabletothewayinwhichshakingtheeyescanmakestillwaterappeartomove,orthewaythatatransfixedgazecanenabletheappearanceofafirewheel.6Inthe sameway,cloudsflyingpastthemoonmakeitseemtomove,andwhenyouareinamovingboat,theshoreappearstomove.7Goodsons,allthesethingsareinmotionwithout cease,andeventhoughtheobjectsarealreadystill,youcan'tgetafixonthem.HowcanyoupossiblyexpecttogetaglimpseoftheBuddha'sPerfectEnlightenmentwiththe transmigratory,samsaric,stainedmindthathasneverbeenclear?Becauseofthis,youarepronetogiverisetothesethreedoubts.

[Kihwa][HPC7.141b24] Thetwophrases"Continuingwithoutamoment'slapse( moment'slapse,variouslyselectingandreject

)"areprobablyinverted.Thetextshouldsay:"thiscyclicalmotionofgoingandreturningwithouta

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ing,isallcyclicexistence( Asforthephrase"allworlds":thoughtheword"world"namesasinglething,itcontainsthedistinctionofinnerandouter.Thereforethetextsays"all."8 Kye(chieh ) hassuchmeaningsas"beforeandafter,"andhasthecharacteristicoftemporality.Thebirth,aging,sickness,anddeathoftheorgansandbody,andtheformation, abiding,disintegration,anddisappearanceofthecontainerworldarereferredtobythisterm.So"beginningandend,birthanddeath,priorandafter"areindicatedby se."Existenceandnonexistence,gatheringandscattering,arisingandcessation"areindicatedbykye.Thephrase"cyclicalmotionofgoingandreturning"speaksin referencetothemergingofspaceandtime.Thepartuptohereisallsaidinreferencetothefacultiesandbody,andthecontainerworld. "Withoutamoment'slapse,variouslyselectingandrejecting"refersspecificallytothearising,abiding,changing,andceasingofthemind.Withthefacultiesandthe body,oncethereisbirththereisdeath,andoncethereisdeaththereisagainbirth.Withthecontainerworld,oncethereisformationthereisdisintegration,andonce thereisdisintegrationthereisagainformation.Thesearepreciselythecharacteristicsofsamsara.Inthemind,thecessationofthepriorthoughtbringssubsequent awareness,andthesubsequentthoughtarisesincontinuitywiththepriorcessation.Intheworld,selectingandrejectingarenotthesame.Thesearealsothe characteristicsofsamsara.Therefore,thetextsays:"thisisallsamsara.ThePerfectEnlightenmentthatisdiscernedwithouthavingleftsamsara."Theearlierpart showshowlifeanddeathandthedefiledmindaresamsara.Thispartshowshowtheassumptionsmadethroughdeludedconceptualizationaresuchaheavyobstacle. ThepurenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentoriginallyhasneitherarisingnorceasing.Ifyoucontemplatethispurenaturewiththedefiled,samsaricmind,thenature,which actuallyneverchanges,seemstobethesameassamsara.Itislikeflutteringeyeslookingatstillwater.Thoughthewateractuallynevermoves,itseemstomove. When,witharigidstareyoulookatatwirlingfirerope,thefireisactuallynotawheel,butitappearstobeawheel.Orwhenyoulookatthemoonthroughflying cloudsthemoonisactuallynotmovingitonlyappearstomove.Whenyoulookattheshorefromamovingboat,theshoreisactuallynotmoving,butitappearsto move.Ifflutteringeyesdonotrest,thewatercannotbutappeartomove.Ifeyesengagedinafixedstaredonotrest,thespinningfirecannotbutappearasawheel.

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Ifthepassingcloudsdonotstop,themooncannotbutappeartomove.Iftheboatdoesnotstop,theshorecannotbutappeartomove. Thus,ifthesubjectivelyobservingmindisnotsettled,theobjectivelyobservedrealmcannotstopbeingimpureorstopvacillating.InthestateofPerfectEnlightenment, thereisoriginallynothingtobeindoubtabout.NowyouareusingyourdefiledmindtoobservetherealmofBuddha.Thereforeyouhaveproducedthesethree doubts.Yetifyoumerelyobservewithaclearmind,enlightenmentwillnaturallyappearbeforeyou.Whymustyouconjectureinignoranceaboutarisingandnon arisingandtheaccomplishmentofbuddhahoodandnonaccomplishmentofbuddhahood,andtherebykeepyourselffromthecorrectcontemplation? TheSimileofIllusionandSkyFlowers [Sutra(#43)][T842.17.915c9HPC7.142a10]

Goodsons,itislikeanillusoryeyediseasefalselyengenderingavisionofskyflowers.Iftheillusoryeyediseaseisremoved,youcannotask:"Nowthatthiseyediseaseis clearedaway,whenwillothereyediseasesreappear?"Why?Becausethesetwothingsflowersandeyediseasearenotinterdependent. Itisalsolikewhentheskyflowersvanishfromthesky.Youcan'task:"Whenwilltheskyagainproduceskyflowers?"Why?Sincetheskyoriginallyhasnoflowers,theydonot ariseandcease.Samsaraandnirvanaarethesameasarisingandceasingmarvelousenlightenmentilluminatesperfectly,andisfreefromflowersoreyedisease.

[Kihwa][HPC7.142a17] Sincedoubtisnowfullymanifest,itmustberemoved.Thereforehegivesthetwosimilesofgold9 andflowersinordertodestroythethreekindsofnetsofdoubt.He issayingthatsentientbeingsareoriginallyBuddha,andtheyoriginallyhavenoignorance.Onlywhenconfusionisoriginallypresentandyoudevelopignorancedoyou mistakenlyseesamsaraandnirvana.Thedeludedmind,oncerestored,neveragainbecomesdeluded.Delusionhasbeenerased!Sincebodyandmindandlifeand deatharealsoerased,thereisnomoredelusiontodependupon,andthereisalsonothingthatillusoryfalsehoodcandependupon.

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Asintheexample,theskyoriginallyhasnoflowers.Itisonlybecauseofeyediseasethatonemistakenlyseesskyflowers.Iftheillusoryeyediseaseisremoved, therewillneveragainbeeyedisease.Indeed,oncetheeyediseaseisgone,inthat,theflowersarealsogone.Thereisnofurthereyediseasetodependupon,and alsonoflowerstodependupon.Thisbeingthecase,thereisnoprinciplebywhichthesetwothingstheflowersandtheeyedisease,shouldreariseoncetheyare erased.Delusion,alongwithbodyandmindandlifeanddeathshouldbeunderstoodinthesameway.InthepurenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentthereisoriginally neitherbodyandmindnorlifeanddeath,justasintheskythereareoriginallynoflowers.Thisisbecauseinessencethereisnoarisingorcessation.Samsaraisthe sameastheflowersappearinginthesky.Nirvanaisliketheflowers'vanishingfromthesky.Intheperfectilluminationofmarvelousenlightenment,thereisoriginally neitherdelusionnorenlightenment,neithersamsaranornirvana.Itisliketheeyesthatoriginallyhavenodiseaseandtheskythatoriginallyhasnoflowers.Therefore thetextsays:"Samsaraandnirvanaarethesameasarisingandceasingmarvelousenlightenmentilluminatesperfectly,andisfreefromflowersoreyedisease."This answersthefirstquestion. [Sutra(#44)][T842.17.915c14HPC7.142b11]
Goodsons,youshouldknowthattheskydoesnotexistforaninstantnordoesitnotexistforaninstant.HowmuchmoresoitisintheTathagata'sPerfectEnlightenmentclosely according(sic)andbecomingthesky'sequaloriginalnature.

[Kihwa][HPC7.142b14] Thephrases"closelyaccording( originalnatureofthesky(

)."Italsocouldsay:"HowmuchmoresowiththeTathagata'sperfectlyenlightenedmarvelousmind10andbecomingtheequal )?''

Thepremisethatsentientbeingsareoriginallybuddhasandoriginallylackignorancehasbeenfirmlyestablished.Thisbeingso,thereshouldbenodoubtabouteither theexistenceornonexistenceoftheoriginallypresentmarvelousnatureofPerfectEnlightenmentinsentientbeingsandbuddhas.Why?Spaceissomethingthatis manifestedfromenlightenment.Ifeventhisspaceisnotforaninstanteitherexistentornonexistent,howcouldwepossiblydebateabouttheexistenceornonexistence

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ofthesubtlenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentthatspacedependsupon?Thisanswersthesecondquestion. TheSimileofPurifyingGold [Sutra(#45)][T842.17.915c17HPC7.142b22]

Goodsons,itislikesmeltinggoldore.Thegolddoesnotcomeintobeingbecauseofsmeltingonceitisperfected,itwillneveragainbecomeore.11Eventhoughitpasses throughendlesstime,thenatureofthegoldisnevercorrupted.Itiswrongtosaythatitisnotoriginallyperfect.ThePerfectEnlightenmentoftheTathagataisalsolikethis.

[Kihwa][HPC7.142c1] Eventhoughthegoldisoriginallypure,itneedsprovisionalrefinementtobecometruegoldforthefirsttime.Oncetruegoldisperfected,itsessencecannotagain becomeore.Eventhoughweareoriginallybuddhas,webecomeobstructedbyourafflictions.Wemustreceivenewperfumationandthenaccomplishcorrect enlightenment.Onceweaccomplishcorrectenlightenment,wewillnotagainsufferaffliction.Youcannotsaythatwearenotoriginallybuddhas.Youalsocannotsay thattherewillbeareturnofdelusion.Thisistheanswertothethirdquestion. [Sutra(#46)][T842.17.915c19HPC7.142c7]


Goodsons,themarvelousperfectlyenlightenedmindofthetathagatasoriginallyhasneitherbodhinornirvanaithasneitheraccomplishmentofbuddhahoodnornon accomplishmentofbuddhahoodnofalsecyclicexistenceandnononcyclicexistence.

[Kihwa][HPC7.142c10] Havingsolvedthethirdproblem,hedisclosesPerfectEnlightenment,whichcutsoffthepathofthoughtandspeechandcannotbefathomedbydiscrimination.Hefirst revealsthatoriginallythereisneithertruthnorfalsity,thuserasingallrelativity.Thetermbodhiisestablishedincontrasttoafflictionthetermnirvanagetsitsmeaning[in itscontradistinctionto]samsara.InthemarvelousmindofPerfectEnlightenment

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thereisoriginallyneithertruthnorfalsity,neitherdelusionnorawakening,neitherbuddhahoodnornonbuddhahood,neithersamsaranornonsamsara.Howcould relativeconceptspossiblyfunctionindebateaboutthis? TheFutilityoftheUseofDiscrimination [Sutra(#47)][T842.17.915c22HPC7.142c16]

Goodsons,inthefinalstageofthesravakaspath,thereiscompleteseveranceofthekarmicactivitiesofword,thought,andaction.Yettheyarestillincapableofattainingtheir ownactualizedandmanifestnirvana.HowcanyoupossiblyexpecttofathomtheTathagata'sstateofPerfectEnlightenmentusingdiscursivethought?ItisliketryingtoburnMt. Sumeruwiththefirefromafireflyitisimpossible!Usingthecyclicmind,youproducecyclicviewsandyouwillneverbeabletoentertheTathagata'soceanofperfecttranquillity. Therefore,Isaythatallbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldfirstseverthebeginninglessrootofcyclicexistence.

[Translator'snote:ThesravakawasintroducedasoneofthepractitionersoftheTwoVehiclesinthesecondchapter.Thedifferencebetweenthesravaka pratyekabuddhaenlightenmentandthatofthebodhisattvawassometimesarticulatedinConsciousnessonlyliteratureintermsofthesocalled"twohindrances"(erh chang ).Thishindrancereferstothefactthatitispreciselyourcurrentperceptionofrealitythatweareclingingtothatpreventsusfromproperlyactualizingour originallyenlightenednature.Thishindrancecanbeequatedwiththe''ignorance"definedinthechapterofMajusri,andcanonlybeovercomethroughtheuseofthe proper

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MahayanameditationstaughtinthisandotherMahayanatexts.TheTwoHindrancesarediscussedfurtherinchapter5,sutrapassage57.] [Kihwa][HPC7.142c23] Abovehehasdisclosedtheerasureofallrelativity.Hereheshowsthatitcannotbeattainedthroughdiscursivethought.Thesravakaisthelowestlevelamongthefour sages.12Yetevenheseversviewsoflove13andextricateshimselffrombirthanddeath.Thoughhehasnotreachedthelevelofbodhisattvasandbuddhas,hehas gonefarbeyondthebirthanddeathofregularpeople.Thisisthemeaningofthephrase"above,incompletebelow,thereisremainder."Eveninthefinalstageofthe sravakas,themarksofspeechandthoughtareannihilated.HowmuchmoresointhestateoftheTathagata'sPerfectEnlightenment?Anddoyouthinkyoucan completelyrealize[throughconceptualization]thefinalstageofthesravaka,wherethoughtandspeechareextinguished,andalsopenetratetothis?!Iftheworldling's mindcannotevenconceptualizethefinalstageofthesravakas,howcoulditsoeasilyconceptualizeofthestateofthetathagatas?ComparethistoMt.Sumeru,which isthekingamongmountains.Afireflycouldnotevencomeclosetoburningupanyregularmountain.HowcoulditpossiblyscorchMt.Sumeru?Discursivethoughtis cyclicmind.Conceptualizationiscyclicview.ThestateofPerfectEnlightenmentisnomindandnoviewsthegreatquiescentocean.Howcouldyoupossiblyusethis kindofthoughtandviewstoentersuchastate?Therefore,ifyoudesiretoactualizePerfectEnlightenment,youmustfirstlearn"nothought."Nothoughtmergeswith enlightenment.Themindofthoughthasdifficultyinfollowing. [Sutra(#48)][T842.17.915c27HPC7.143a15]

Goodsons,habituateddiscursivethoughtarisesfromtheconditionedmind.Thesixdatafields,falseconceptualization,andconditionedenergiesarenotthetrueessenceof mindindeed,theyarelikeskyflowers.ButusingdiscursivethoughttodiscerntheBuddhastateisliketheskyflowersfurtherproducing"skyfruits."Circularfalsethoughtsare uselesshere.

[Kihwa][HPC7.143a19] ThereasondiscursivethoughtcannotactualizePerfectEnlightenmentisbecausediscursivethoughtisfalsity,andthenatureofenlightenmentistruth.Truthandfalsity cannotmeet.Itislikethedifferencebetweenlightanddarkness.Ifyouusefalsitytodiscerntruth,truthwillnotbe

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discernedandone'seffortwillbewastedinaimlesswandering.Thereforefalsityaugmentsandenhancesfalsity,justlikeskyflowersfurtherproducingskyfruits. [Sutra(#49)][T842.17.916a2HPC7.143a24]
Goodsons,falsefloatingthoughtsandnumerouscleverviewsareincapableofperfectingtheexpedientmeansofPerfectEnlightenment.Usingthiskindofdiscrimination,you cannotevenformulateaproperquestion.

[Kihwa][HPC7.143b2] Discursivethoughthasalreadybeenadjudgedahindrance,uselessintherealizationofenlightenment.TheBuddhaconcludesbyshowingthatthequestionhasalso comefromdiscursivethought,andisthereforeflawedandincorrect.Hehassaidthatdiscursivethoughtis"floatingthought"andthatcleverviewsarenotthecorrect expedientmeans.Ifyoustraightenyourmindandcorrectyourviews,thenyoucanpersonallyactualizetheexpedientmeansofPerfectEnlightenment.Whenhefirst addressedthequestion,hecalledit"thehighestteachingofthefullyrevealeddoctrineoftheGreatVehicle."14Nowhedisparagesit,callingit"floatingthoughtsand cleverviews,"takingthisasanopportunitytoseverdoubt.Therefore,thatwhichisquestionedcanbecalled"thehighestteachingofthefullyrevealeddoctrineofthe GreatVehicle,"butinitsuse[inattaining]PerfectEnlightenment,itcannotavoidbecomingfloatingthoughtsandcleverviews. Thischapterfirstshowsthatwhenyouusefalsitytodiscerntruth,truthistransformedaccordingtofalsity.Thenheusesrealitytodirectlyseverthethreedoubts.Then herevealsPerfectEnlightenment,erasingallrelativity.Henextshowsthatitisnotsomethingthatthoughtcanconceptualize,inordertoencourage"nothought."Next heshowsdiscursivethoughttobecircularandfalse.Finallyhereturnstoassailtheoriginalquestionasbeing"floatingthoughtsandcleverviews,"teachinginstead"no discursivethoughtordiscrimination"asthecorrectexpedientmeans. Thischapterconcentratesoncuttingoffdoubtandinducingfaith.Thereasonhecriticizesdiscursivethoughtanddiscriminationsoharshlyisbecausetheyarethe mentalstatesthatcontaindoubt.ThosementalstatesthatdarkenandcoverthetruenatureandenhanceignorancearetheFiveObscurations.15TheFive Obscurationsarethesourceoffalsedefilementandarethehindrancestothepracticeofcontemplation.DoubtisoneoftheFiveObscurations,andisthedeepest

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hindrancetothepracticeofcontemplation.Faithisthebasisfortheinitiationofpracticeifthereisdoubt,thenfaithcannotariseandtherewillbenobasisforthe initiationofpractice.Thereforeitmustbecastoff.Hence,Vajragarbhasaysinhisrequest:"causebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetoattain unshakablefaith,andseverdoubtandremorse."FromheretothechapterofVoiceofDiscernment,eachoftheFiveObscurationsareremoved,onebyone. ThoughMajusrihasalreadyinducedfaithandunderstanding,thereasonwhydoubtisagainseveredandfaithisencouragedhereisbecausealthoughthoseofsharp facultieshavealreadyattainedfaithandunderstanding,andhaveinitiatedthepracticeleadingtorealization,thoseofmiddlingandinferiorfacultieshavenotonlynot arisenfaith,buthavealsobeguntowaver,andthiswaveringhasnowbecomeahindrance.ThereforeinthischapterVajragarbhaagainraisedthequestion,tosever doubtandbringforthfaith.Inthisway,thischapterhasbeenateachingoffaithandunderstandingaimedatthoseofmiddlingandinferiorcapacities.Inthefollowing chapters,theywillbetaughthowtocommencetheirpractice. TheGatha [Sutra(#50)][T842.17.916a3HPC7.143c6]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse,saying: Vajragarbha,youshouldknow TheTathagata'sperfectlytranquilnature Hasneverhadabeginningorend. Ifyouusethecyclicmind Discursivethoughtjustrevolves, Atmost,reachingthelimitsofcyclicexistence,

Page135 AndyouareunabletoentertheBuddhaocean. Itislikesmeltinggoldore: Thegolddoesnotexistbecauseofsmelting, Yetcrudegold,fromsmelting Oncesubsequentlyperfected, Neverreturnstothestateofore. Samsaraandnirvana, Worldlingsandbuddhas Likeskyflowers,areappearances. Discursivethoughtisjustanillusoryphenomenon: Howcanitpenetratefalsity? Onlyafteryoufullyknowthismind CanyouseekPerfectEnlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.143c14] TheWayoriginallyhasnothought.Thoughtgoesagainstthereal.Becauseofthis,thethreedoubtscanonlyproducecleverviews,whichinturninducestheTathagata tocreatethesimilestodestroythem.Ifthoughtisatoddswithreality,howcanwordspossiblyembraceit?IfyouwanttoactualizePerfectEnlightenment,youmust firstknowthemind.Themindisoriginallynomind.NomindistheWay.

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5. MaitreyaBodhisattva
[Translator'snote:"Maitreya,"means"benevolent"or"compassionate."AccordingtoBuddhisttradition,heisthebodhisattvawhowillappearinthisworldto becomethenextBuddhaafter5,670,000,000years,whenheendshislifeintheTusitaHeaven.Heissaidtopresideoverthespreadofthesangha,andtoprotectits members.TheSanskritname"Maitreya"istranslatedintoChinesewiththeideographtz'u/cha( ).] [Kihwa][HPC7.143c19] "Kindness( )."Attachedlovegenerateslifeanddeathkindnessdevelopsmeritandwisdom.Pitycanremovesufferingkindnesscanenhancehappiness.Sentient beingstransmigratethroughvariousdestiniesbasedondesireandattachment:thisiswhyattachedlovegenerateslifeanddeath.Allbuddhas,becauseoftheir "kindnessandpity"("compassion")marvelouslyadornthepathofenlightenment:thisiswhykindnessdevelopsmeritandwisdom.ThisishowMaitreyatransforms

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attachedloveintokindnessandfulfillstheroleofsuccessortoSakyamuni.ThehallmarkofSakyamuni'steachingistheuseofpitytoremovesuffering.Thehallmarkof Maitreya'steachingistheuseofkindnesstoenhancehappiness.ThisiswhyMaitreyaappearsintheworldasasuccessortoSakyamuni.Butthe"pityofSakyamuni" andthe"kindnessofMaitreya"areonlyphrasesusedtoexpressaspecialtendencyoftheteachingsofthesetwobuddhas.Infact,howcouldSakyamunipossibly possess''pity"andlack"kindness"?AndhowcouldMaitreyapossess"kindness"andlack"pity"?Generallyspeaking,pityandkindnessfitwitheachothertoreferto onething.[Thatis,"compassion."] WhydoesMaitreyaraiseanotherquestionfollowingVajragarbha?Vajragarbhatransformeddoubtintofaithandthusimpartedthewisdomthatthelistenerscoulduse forthemselves.Maitreyatransformsattachedloveintokindnessandmakesthemfeelpityforotherbeings.ThequestionsraisedbyVajragarbhaconcentratedon severingdoubt.ThequestionsraisedbyMaitreyaconcentrateonseveringattachedlove.Yetalthoughthe"wisdomofVajragarbha"andthe"kindnessofMaitreya" leadonetofocusontheirdistinctiveattributes,thereisnodoubtthattheyenhanceeachotherandcontributetogethertothemetamorphosisofgreatenlightenment. HowcouldVajragarbhapossiblypossesswisdomandlackkindness?AndhowcouldMaitreyapossiblypossesskindnessandlackwisdom?SinceVajragarbhahas alreadyfullydisclosedthe[meaning]ofwisdom,Maitreyawillnowdothesameforkindness.Thisiscertainlytheproperorderoftheteaching.Myverse: Withtherootofattachedlovedestroyed,thesproutsofsufferingarealsoburntaway. Greatandsmallentertheforestofsagehoodbythesameroad. Themoonofwisdomtheflowerofcompassionthetripleworldisradiant. Livingspirits,followingthis,willavoidfloatingandsinking. [Sutra(#51)][T842.17.916a15HPC7.144a20]

ThebodhisattvaMaitreyaarosefromhisseatinthegreatassemblyandbowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet.Hecircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright,andthenknelt downwithhishandsclasped.HeaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveopenedwidethesecrettreasureforthebodhisattvasandhavemadeallinthegreatassemblydeeplyawakento[the marksof]transmigration

Page138 anddistinguishbetweenthecorrectandmistaken.YouhavebeenabletoimparttheFearlessEyeoftheWayandunshakablefaithinGreatNirvanatothesentientbeingsofthe degenerateagetheywillnotagainchaseaftercyclicexistenceorgiverisetocyclicviews."

[Kihwa][HPC7.144b3] Whatwasnotexplainedbeforeisnowdisclosed.Thereforehesays,"openedthesecrettreasure...andhavemadethemawaken."Ithasbeenmadeclearthatclever viewsandfloatingthoughtsareincapableofactualizingenlightenment.Butifyouhavethecorrectmindandrightview,thenyoucanintimatelyactualizeexpedient means.Thisiswhyhesays,"distinguishbetweencorrectandmistaken"and"imparttothemtheEyeoftheWay."The"EyeoftheWay"isaneyethatisobstructed neitherbyemptinessnorexistence,thatcancelsandilluminatessimultaneouslyandpenetratestoperceivetheMiddlePath.Sometimesitiscalled"greatPerfect Enlightenment''sometimesitiscalled"GreatNirvana.""PerfectEnlightenment"isatermthatisusedtopointdirectlytotheessenceofenlightenment."Nirvana"isa termthatisusedtopointdirectlytotheawarenessofnoarisingandceasingbeyondtheessence.Withinthismeaningthereisperfectfaithwithoutabitofdoubt,such thatonedoesnotagainproduceconfusion.Thisiswhythetextsays,"unshakablefaithinGreatNirvana"and"theywillnotagaingiverisetocyclicviews." Maitreya'sQuestionsontheSeveranceoftheRootofTransmigration [Sutra(#52)][T842.17.916a20HPC7.144b14]

WorldHonoredOneifthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaspiretofloatontheTathagata'sgreattranquilocean,howshouldtheysevertherootof cyclicexistence?Inthevariouskindsofcyclicexistence,howmanytypesofbeingsarethere?HowmanydifferencesarethereintypesofpracticeoftheBuddha'sbodhi?When wereenterthedirtyanddifficultworld,whatkindsofteachingdevicesshouldweestablishtosaveallsentientbeings?Iimploreyounottorelaxinyourworldsavinggreat compassionthatyouclarifythewisdomeyeofallpracticing

Page139 bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,illuminatetheirmindmirror,andcompletelyawakenthemtotheTathagata'sunsurpassedinsight."Aftersayingthis,he prostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.144b22] "Greattranquilocean"refersto"greatnirvana."Italsoimpliesthecessationoftheawarenessandviewsofbodyandmind,andthedeep,vast,anddifficulttoperceive subtleentryofsamadhi.Sincethisisnotsomethingthatyoucanenterusingtheviewsofthecyclicmind,heasks,"Howshouldtheysevertherootofcyclicexistence?" VajragarbhahadaskedhisquestionsbasedontheclauseinthechapterofUniversalVisionthatsays"[allsentientbeingsare]originallyperfectbuddhas."1 Maitreya nowaskshisquestionbecauseoftheclauseinthechapterofVajragarbhathatsays"firstsever[thebeginninglessrootof]cyclicexistence.''2 Butthatsentenceonly says"firstsevertherootofcyclicexistence,"anddoesnotclarifyexactlywhattherootis.ThereforeMaitreyaexpressesthisdoubtintheformofaquestionandasks theBuddhatodispelit.Sincethedistinctionofthetwokindsofdoctrinesconcerningarousal[offaith]andpractice[toseverdefilement],aswellastheattainmentof realizationandthebringingaboutoftransformationalsohavenotyetbeenclarified,heasksthesequestionsoneaftertheothertoinitiatetheinstruction. "Wisdomeye"referstothesubjectivelyobservingwisdom."Mindmirror"referstotheobjectivelyperceivedprinciple."Insight"isthemeritoriousfunctionbeyondthe principle.TheWisdomEyeofsentientbeingsisoriginallycompletelypure.TheMindMirrorisoriginallyperfectlybright.Insightisoriginallyreplete.Itisonlybecause oftheobscurationsofcravingandattachmentthattheWisdomEyesuffersimpairment,thattheMindMirrorbecomesblemishedandthatinsightisincomplete.Ifwe severcravingandattachment,thentheeyelacksimpairmentandisclearthemirrorlacksblemishandisperfectlybrightandone'sinsightisreplete,lackingnothing. ThereforeMaitreyarequeststheBuddhatoremovetheseobstructionsandtheBuddha,outofhisgreatcompassion,expoundstheteaching. TheBuddha'sAnswer [Sutra(#53)][T842.17.916a27HPC7.144c17]

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ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaMaitreya,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwellonbehalfofthebodhisattvasandsentient beingsofthedegenerateageabouttheTathagata'smysterious,secret,subtledoctrine.Youhaveenabledthebodhisattvastopurifytheirwisdomeye,andallowedallsentient beingsofthedegenerateagetopermanentlyseverthemselvesfromcyclicexistence.Theirmindswillawakentotheirtruecharacteristicandtheywillpossesstheequipoisethat comeswiththeawarenessofthenonarisingcharacteristicofexistence.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainthisforyou."Maitreyareceivedthisinstructionwithjoyandgreat reverence.Allthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.145a1] Sinceseveringattachmentandcreatingcompassion,completingrealizationandbringingaboutmetamorphosisisalsotheBuddha'sownheartfeltintention,henaturally giveshisapprovaltothisrequest."Mysterious"islikeasmallroominsideofanotherroom,whichishiddenbehindmanydoors,andintowhichoutsidersnevercome. "Secret"islikeanextremelyvaluablegeminaroomthatiskepthiddeninasecretrepository,andthatpeopleneversee."Subtle"islikethemostdelicateofyoung maidens,whoisperfectlyexquisiteandwhodoesnotallowherselftobetouched.TheBuddhahasexplainedthenatureofexistenceascyclingthroughbirthand death,andsotheprocessesofpracticeandtransformationarenowknowntoeverybody.Butiftheyareunawareofthevariationsinthebasesoftransmigration,the distinctionsinthebasictypesofpracticeandthevarietyofexpedientmethodsoftransformingothers,thentheywillbeobstructedbytheirattachmentandtheir wisdomeyewillbeimpaired.Throughthefalselyconceptualizingmind,theprincipleoftruemarkswillbeconfusedthroughsamsaricviews,theprincipleof unarisennesswillbeobscured. Maitreyaraisesthesequestionsforthesentientbeingstomakethemunderstandattachedlovetobetherootoftransmigrationandtopermanentlyseverit.Byfurther explainingthedistinctionsinpracticeandtheexpedientmeansforteachingandtransforming,allcanbecompletelyclarifiedwithoutremainder,sothatthedeludedly conceptualizingmindisstoppedandsamsaricviewsareextinguished.Theimpairmentsofthewisdomeyecanonceagainbeclearedawaytheconfusionsaboutthe principleoftruemarkscanonceagainbeilluminatedtheobscurationsoftheprincipleofnonarisingcanonceagainbesuddenlyremoved.Thisiswhythequestionsof Maitreyaarecalled"excellent."

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AttachedLove/DesireastheRootofTransmigration [Sutra(#54)][T842.17.916b4HPC7.145a201

Goodsons,allsentientbeingsareincyclicalexistencebecauseoftheirpossession,frombeginninglesstime,ofaffection,attachedlove,craving,anddesire.Sinceallthedifferent typesofbeingsthosebornfromeggs,thosebornfromwombs,thosebornfrommoistureandthosebornbytransformationallreceivetheirbirthandlifefromsexualdesire,you shouldrealizethatcyclicexistencehasattachedloveasitsbasis.Thistendencytobegrippedbyattachedloveisabettedbytheexistenceofalldesires,andthereforeitisableto empowerthecontinuityofsansara.Desirearisesdependinguponattachedlovelifepowerexistsdependingupondesire.Furthermore,theattachedloveandlifeofsentient beingshavedesireastheirroot.Attachedloveanddesirearecausesattachedloveandlifeareresults.

[Kihwa][HPC7.145b21 Attachedloveisthebasisofbeingandbecoming3 therootofcyclicexistence.Withattachedloveattheroot,youareboundtoproducecravinganddesire.With desireasanaid,youareboundtoproducethenatureofattachedlove.Withattachmentanddesireworkingtogether,younaturallyundergorebirth.Havingbeen causedbyattachmentanddesire,youreceivetheempowermentoflife.Again,causedbyattachmentandlifepower,youagainproducecravinganddesire.Inthisway youcompletethecircleofthecontinuityofcauseandeffect.Hencethesutrasays,'attachedloveanddesirearethecausesattachedloveandlifepowerarethe results."ThisanswersMaitreya'squestionabouttherootofcyclicexistence. But"attachment"hasdistinctionsofpureandimpure,andrisingandfallingarenotthesame.Theobjectsofdesirearenotoneamongthosethingsthataredesired thereareathousanddifferences.Sincethetypesofattachmentarenotthesame,andsincethereareathousanddifferencesbetweentheobjectsofdesire,thereare alsodifferencesinthetypeofbirthonereceives.Fromthisweknowthatthesethree"attachedlove,""desire,"and"lifepower"arethecordsthatkeepsentientbeings inbondage.

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TheCausesoftheVariousRebirths [Sutra(#55)][T842.17.916b9HPC7.145b12]

Itisinreferencetotheobjectsofdesirethatyouproducevarietiesofcomfortanddiscomfort.Whentheobjectiscontrarytotheattachedmind,yougiverisetoaversionand jealousy,creatingallsortsofkarma.Itisbecauseofthisthatyouarerebornasahellbeingorahungryghost.Butthen,knowingthatdesireshouldbeabandonedandadhering tothepathofabandonmentofkarmicactivity,youcastoffevilandenjoygoodnesshence,youarerebornasagodorhuman.Again,knowingthatyoushoulddislikeallforms ofattachment,youletgoofattachmentandenjoydetachment.Thisgreatlynourishestherootofattachmentandyouautomaticallyproduceconditionallyenhancedpositive states.Butsinceallofthisiscyclicexistence,youstilldonotattaintothesagelyWay.Therefore,sentientbeingswhodesiretobefreefromlifeanddeathandwanttoescape cyclicexistence,firsthavetoseverdesireandridthemselvesofattachedlove.

[Kihwa][HPC7.145b19] Placedincontactwithagreeableanddisagreeableobjects,yourmindgivesrisetoattachmentandaversion,andbaseduponthisattachmentandaversion,youcreate allsortsofkarma.Whenyourkarmaisevil,youarerebornintheThreeEvilDestinies.4 Whenyoudetachfromevilandfollowthegood,youarerebornasagodor human.Castingoffattachmentandenjoyingdetachment,younaturallyproduceconditionallyenhancedpositivestates.Karmahasgoodandbad,attachmenthaspurity anddefilement.Eventhoughtherearedifferencesbetweengoodandbadanddistinctionsbetweenpurityanddefilement,sincenoneofthesearefreefrom discrimination,nonecanavoidcyclicexistence.Sincecyclicexistencecannotbeavoided,throughwhatmeansisthesagelyWaytoberealized?Therefore,ifyou desiretoaccomplishthesagelyWay,youmustavoidcyclicexistence.Ifyouwanttoavoidcyclicexistence,youmustfirstsevercravingandattachment.Thereforethe sutrasays,"Ifyouwanttoavoidcyclicexistence,firstsevercravinganddesireandberidofattachedlove."Thissectionanswersthequestionsonthedistinctionsin nature.

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TheNonattachedCompassionoftheBodhisattva [Sutra(#56)][T842.17.916b15HPC7.145c5]

Goodsons,whenbodhisattvasappearintheworldtoteach,itisnotbasedonattachment.Itisonlybecauseoftheircompassionateintentiontohavethesentientbeingsdiscard attachmentthattheyprovisionallytakeonallkindsofdesireandenterlifeanddeath.Ifallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagecancastofftheirdesiresandremoveloveand hate,theywillpermanentlyendtheircyclicexistence.SeekingtheperfectlyenlightenedstateoftheTathagataintheirpureminds,theywilldirectlyattainawakening.

[Kihwa][HPC7.145c10] Ithasalreadybeensettledthatattachedloveistherootofcyclicexistenceandthatitistobesevered.Now,theBuddhaisfearfulofpeoplemixingupattachedlove andcompassionthattheymightbecomemuddled,bringingharmtothecompassionthattheypossess.Hencehereclarifiesthedistinctionbetweenpurityandimpurity, tomakeitunderstoodexactlyhowcompassiondiffersfromattachedlove.Ifattachedloveismistakenforcompassion,itcancorruptthemeaningofcompassion. Sincecompassionissimilartoattachedlove,itcaneasilybespoiledbyattachedlove. Nowabodhisattva,motivatedbyhisgreatpityinordertosavesentientbeingsfromtheirintensesuffering,isbornintothesecularworldandadaptstoitscustoms.He takesawifeandhasababywithher.Inadvancingintheworldandmakinghisliving,thereisnothingthathecannotaccomplish.Butifhelacksthewisdomtoregulate thispursuit,thenitwillturnintocravingandbedefiledbyattachmentandhewillbeunabletoavoidthetrapofcyclicexistence.Thisisthemeaningof"attachedlove spoilingcompassionbecauseoftheirsimilarity." Ontheotherhand,itispossibleforthisbodhisattvatogofromonebartoanotherandfromonebrotheltoanother,livingwithpeopleandtransformingthemand maintainingaconstantlypuremind:inthiscasewisdomandcompassionworktogetherwithoutfallingintoattachedviews.Eventhoughdesireandcompassionare similarinappearance,theydifferintermsofpurityanddefilement.Itislikecomparingheavenwiththeearth:Canyoueversaythattheyarethesame? ThereforetheBuddhadiscussescravingandattachmenttoprovideameansforpractitionerstodiscriminatepurityandimpurity.Cravingisofthenatureofsamsara compassionisofthenatureofenlighten

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ment,andthedistinctionbetweenpurityandimpurityisasclearasthedifferencebetweenheavenandearth.Thelackofmanifestationoftheenlightenednatureisdue solelytotheobscurationbycraving.Whenthestainofattachmentanddesireiswipedout,themindispureandthegreatwisdomofPerfectEnlightenmentshines brightly.Thereforehesays"attainawakening." TheFiveNaturesandtheTwoHindrances [Sutra(#57)][T842.17.916b20HPC7.146a8]

Goodsons,duetotheirinherentdesire,sentientbeingsgenerateignoranceandmanifestthedistinctionsandinequalitiesoftheFiveNatures.DuetotheTwoHindrancesthey manifestdeepandshallow[afflictions].WhataretheTwoHindrances?Thefirstisthenoetichindrance,whichobstructscorrectawarenessthesecondisthephenomenal hindrance,whichenablesthecontinuationofsamsara. Whatarethe'FiveNatures?'

[Translator'snote:Thewriterfromhereintroducesacombinationofthreedifferentdoctrinesasawayofdistinguishingbetweendifferencesinlevelofpractice,yetat thesametimemakingacharacteristic"Mahayana"universalisticargument.Firsthebringsintoplayaconceptwhichheldmuchinfluence,andwasatthesametime causeformuchcontroversy,thatis,thedoctrineofthe"FiveNatures"oftheYogacaraschool.TheexponentsofthislateIndianschoolhadarticulatedaschemein whichthereligiouscapacitiesofhumanbeingsweredividedintofivecategories,accordingtoapredeterminedlevelofattainmentanindividualpractitionermightreach. Thisdeterminationwasaccordingtothe"seeds"(bijas )containedinonesalayavijana

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or"storeconsciousness."TheFiveNatureswere:thenaturepredeterminedforsravakathenaturepredeterminedforpratyekabuddhathenaturepredeterminedfor bodhisattva,theindeterminatenature(meaningthatanyofthepriorthreewerepossible)andthesocalledicchantika(anexceedinglyevilperson,considerddevoid ofseedsofbuddhahood)nature. ThisdoctrinewasimportedintoEastAsiaprimarilythroughthetranslationsofYogacaratextsdonebyHsantsangandhisschool.WhilemanyaspectsofYogacara doctrinebecameinfluentialinEastAsia,EastAsianBuddhistswereonthewholeratherunreceptivetothisrigiddoctrineofFiveNatures.Theywereespecially doubtfulofthepropositionthatanypersoncouldbecompletelydevoidoftheBuddhanature,asicchantikasweresupposedtobe.Soherethesutrawriter reinterpretsthisdoctrinetomakehisownpoint.Hehasalreadystatedclearlyabovethat"allsentientbeingsactualizebuddhahood."Forhim,theFiveNatureswill representdifferentlevelsofpenetrationintotruth,ordifferentdegreesoftheremovalofthehindrancesofenlightenment. ThedoctrineoftheTwoHindrances(alreadyintroducedinthepriorchapter)isanotherimportantBuddhistconceptthatcomesfromYogacaraandwasincorporated tosomedegreeinHuayenandCh'andoctrine.Thisdoctrineteachesthattheinabilityofsentientbeingstoattainenlightenmentwasduetotwogeneraltypesof obstructions.Thefirstwascalled"thehindranceofdefilement( ).Otherpossibletranslationsofthistermmightbe"hindranceinregardtoprinciple''or"hindrance ofattachmenttounderstanding." InYogacarasoteriologicaltheoryitisbelievedthatonemayonlyovercomethehindrancebytheknown("noetichindrance")throughthedevelopmentofthe emptinessbasedwisdomofthebodhisattva.Thus,whilesravakasandpratyekabuddhasmayonlyovercomethehindranceofdefilements,bodhisattvasmay overcomeboth.TheChinesetermsbeingtranslatedhereas"phenomenal"and"noetic"representthetwoimportantcategoriesofdiscourseseeninHuayenBuddhism: shih/sa

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( "principle,"here,"noetic").Inthisscheme,tobehinderedatthephenomenallevelwouldmeanthatoneisobstructedintermsoftheactivityofone'sdesiresand aversions,thatonehasnotyetpenetratedtoatrulydeepandtransformativereligiousexperience. Tobehinderedatthenoeticlevelwouldmeanthatoneisobstructedpreciselybythereligiousinsightheorshehasattained.Here,somedistinctionneedstobemade incontrasttorenderingsofthetermas"hindranceofrationalization"or"hindranceofintellectuality"(seeninsomeotherscholarlyworks)asthesetwoattributea distinctivelydiscursivecharactertothishindrance.IntheSPE,one'sdeepestandmostprofoundexperientialrealizationsmaybeconsideredas"noetichindrances" aslongastheyfallshortoftheperfectrealizationoftheBuddha.Asthesutrasays,"thisawarenessofenlightenmentagainbecomesanobstruction."Thesutrawill definetheFiveNaturesintermsofthepractitioner'sabilitytodealwiththesetwohindrances.] [Sutra]


Goodsons,ifsentientbeingshavenotyetbeenabletodestroytheTwoHindrances,thisiscalled"nonconsummationofone'sBuddhahood."Ifsentientbeingspermanently discarddesire,thentheyhavesucceededinremovingthephenomenalhindrance,buthavenotyetseveredthenoetichindrance.Theyareabletoawakeninthewayofsravakas andpratyekabuddhasbutarenotabletomanifestanddwellinthestateofthebodhisattva. Goodsons,ifallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedesiretofloatonthegreatoceanoftheTathagata'sPerfectEnlightenment,theyshouldfirstarousethedeterminationtodo awaywiththeTwoHindrances.OncetheTwoHindrancesaresubdued,onecanawakenandenterthestateofthebodhisattva.Afterpermanentlydestroyingthenoeticand phenomenalhindrances,oneisabletoenterthesublimePerfectEnlightenmentoftheTathagata,andabletofullyaccomplishbodhiandgreatnirvana. Goodsons,allsentientbeingswithoutexceptionactualizePerfectEnlightenment.5WhenyoumeetaGenuineTeacher,relyonthedharmapracticeofthecausalstagethathesets upforyou.Whenyoufollowthispractice,bothsuddenandgradualwillbecontained.IfyoucomeuponthecorrectpathofpracticeoftheunsurpassedbodhioftheTathagatas, thenthereareno"superior"or"inferior"abilitiesofpeople:allaccomplishbuddhahood. If,whileseekingaGenuineTeacher,sentientbeingsmeetonewithmistakenviews,theywillnotgainthecorrectawakening.Althoughthisiscalledthe"heterodoxnature,"the faultlieswith

Page147 theteacher,notwiththesentientbeings.Thisisthe"distinctionoftheFiveNatures"ofsentientbeings.

[Kihwa][HPC7.146b2] Abovehehasansweredthequestionaboutthevariousnatures,andinexplainingthevariousnatures,hasidentifiedattachmentastheirbasis.Nextheexplainsthat attachmentandcompassion,whilehavingsimilarities,areactuallyquitedifferent.Helastlyexplainsthatwhenthedrossofattachmentanddesireareburntaway,you awakentotheenlightenednature.Also,wantingtoanswerthequestionaboutvariationsinpractice,hefirstreferstotheFiveNaturessothathecanexplainhowitis thattherehappentobefive. Thereasonthattherearebothdenseandlighthindrancesisbecauseintheircreationthereisbothshallowanddeep.Nomindpenetratingtotheprinciple:thisis correctinsight.Butalthoughoneperceivestheprinciple,thediscriminatedawarenessofperceivingtheprincipleremains,andchangestobecomeahindrancethe noetichindrance.Themindisoriginallyunarisenanddeludedkarmasareallquiescent.Butthearousalofonesinglethoughtbringsthewholeofsamsaraintoactivity. Thisisthephenomenalhindrance. Originallyarisenignoranceisactivatedbydesire.Duetoignorance,theTwoHindrancesexist.BasedontheTwoHindranceswecandistinguishtheFiveNatures.He hassaidthatwhentheTwoHindrancesarenotsevereditiscalled"noncompletionofBuddhahood."ItiswhenyoufirstknowthecessationoftheTwoHindrances thatyouperfectyourBuddhahood.Sickofsuffering,youseveritsarisingalthoughyouarefreedfromsamsara,theperceptionoftheprincipleremainsinyourmind andyoucannotpreventitfromturningintoahindrance.Thisisthemeaningofthe"natureoftheTwoVehicles." Havinggottenfreefromthephenomenalhindrance,younowsubduethenoetichindrance,buthavenotpermanentlyseveredit.Thisisthesocalled"bodhisattva nature."WiththeTwoHindrancespermanentlyextinguished,youfulfillyourbodhiaswellasgreatnirvana.Thisisthesocalled"natureofBuddhahood."Inrelyingon thedharmapracticesdevisedbyaGenuineTeacher,practicehasbothsuddenandgradual.WhenyouencountertheBuddha'sunsurpassedcorrectpathofpractice, everyoneperfectstheBuddhafruit.Thisisthesocalled"indeterminatenature."DespiteadeterminationtofindaGenuineTeacher,youractivitiesdepartfromyour intention,andtheteacheryoumeetisnotagenuineoneyouareinfluencedtoformmistakenviewsanddonotattainthecorrectawakening.Thisisthesocalled "heterodoxnature." NowyouareawareforthefirsttimethatthenaturesofallsentientbeingshavenolackofgoodnessallarecapableofintimatelyactualizingPerfectEnlightenment. However,dependingon[whatkindofteacher]

Page148 Table2:TheDistinctionoftheFiveNatures TypeofPractitioner [NonconsummationofBuddahood (Worldling)] 1.TheNatureoftheTwoVehicles 2.TheNatureoftheBodhisattva 3.TheNatureoftheBuddhahood 4.IndeterminateNature 5.HeterodoxNature Accomplishment [Bothhindrancesintact] Phenomenalhindrancesubdued Bothhindrancessubdued Bothhindrancesextinguished AllattainBuddhahood MisleadsStudents

theymeet,[thesentientbeing's]practiceswillbringabouterrororcorrectness.Theresponsibilityforthiserrororcorrectnesslieswiththeteacheritisnotthean afflictionoriginatingfromthesentientbeings.HavingexplainedtheFiveNatures,heconcludesbysaying"thisiscalledthedistinctionoftheFiveNaturesofsentient beings."Thisanswersthequestionaboutthevariationsinpractice. [Translator'snote:AlthoughonlyFiveNaturesareclearlydistinguishedassuch,wecanactuallyoutlinethecomponentsoftheabovesectionintosixparts.Thatis, priortothedefinitionoftheFiveNaturesperse,theBuddhamentionstheinitialconditionof"nonconsummationofBuddhahood( )."TheFiveNatures,along withthisconditionofnonconsummation,areschematizedintable2.] [Sutra(#58)][T842.17.916c7HPC7.146c4]

Goodsons,itisonlythroughtheirgreatlycompassionateexpedientmeansthatbodhisattvasenterthesecularworld,awakeningtheunenlightened,manifestingvariousforms andshapes,functioninginagreeableanddisagreeablecircumstances.Itisonlyrelyingonthebeginninglesspurepoweroftheirvowtosaveallbeingsthattheyphysicallywork togetherwiththesepeopleandcausethemtoaccomplishbuddhahood.

[Kihwa][HPC7.146c8] Earlierheexplainedthedistinctionsinpracticehereheexplainstheexpedientmethodsforsavingsentientbeings.Bodhisattvas,outoftheirgreatcompassion,adaptto theworldandawakentheunenlightened.Accordingtothedifferencesinthesentientbeings,thecharacteristicstheymanifestarevarioussometimespleasingand sometimesnot.

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Theyworktogetherwiththebeingsintheirworldlytasks,andbycreatingmanyexpedientmethodstheytransformthemintoBuddhas.Hereatthecausalstagethey havealreadymadethevowtosaveallbeings.Relyingonthepowerofthatvow,theyhavereachedtothetransformationsofthepresentcircumstance.Thereforeit says:"allrelyonthebeginninglesspurepoweroftheirvow."Thisanswersthequestionontheexpedientmeansthatsavesentientbeings. TheVowoftheBodhisattva [Sutra(#59)][T842.17.916c9HPC7.146c15]

AnysentientbeingofthedegenerateagewhowouldarousethemindintensifiedtowardgreatPerfectEnlightenmentmustarousethepuregreatdeterminationofthe bodhisattvas.Heshouldsay,"IherebyvowtodwellinthePerfectEnlightenmentoftheBuddha,toseekGenuineTeachersandnottoplantrootswithheterodoxpathsor practitionersoftheTwoVehicles."Practicingbasedonthisvow,youseverthehindrancesonebyone.Whenthehindrancesaregone,thevowisfulfilled.Youwillautomatically ascendtothePureDharmaPalaceofLiberation,andactualizethemarvelouslyadornedrealmofGreatPerfectEnlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.146c21] Inthepriorpassagehetaughtthebodhisattvas'relianceupontheirvowtosavesentientbeings.Hereheencouragessentientbeingstoarousethevowtopractice. "Intensifiedmind"isthemindthatisintensifiedincompassionandwisdomtowardthehighestfruit.Intensifiedinwisdom,itseversdoubtsandactualizesthereal intensifiedincompassion,itawakensandtransformssentientbeings.Arousingthiskindofmind,youproducethepurevow.Thisisthe"onelegraisedbythecranein thedeepmarsh,"6 andthe"firststepofathousandlijourney."7 ThepurposeoftheBuddha'sencouragementisexactlythis.Youshouldproducethevow,saying:"In thepastIturnedmybackonenlightenmentandbecameimmersedinthesensoryrealm.Ipassedthroughdestiniesofsufferingunspeakablesuffering.Thepastisgone andcanneverberetrieved,butthefuturecanbedealtwith.IvowthathenceforthIwillabideinthePerfectEnlightenmentoftheBuddhawithoutmovingfromit,and willnottakerebirthinthethreeworlds."Onceyouhavecompletedthisvow,seekoutaGenuineTeacher,findthe

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essenceofthemind,andbaseyourpracticeonit.Butatthetimeoftakingthefirststep,youcannotbecarelessininvestigatingtheroad.Atthetimeofyourdecision togoforenlightenment,youcannotbecarelessaboutselectingyourteacher.ThereforeyouaretaughttoseekaGenuineTeacher,andnottoplantyourselfon heterodoxpaths,orwithintheTwoVehicles.Ahair'sbreadthdifferenceatthebeginningresultsinathousandierrorlateron.Whenyoumakethevow,therewillbe suddenreleaseandtheroadofenlightenmentwillappearbeforeyoureyes.Butfullrealizationthistakestime,soyouneedtopracticetoreachit.Thereforehe teachespracticedependinguponthevow,whichgraduallyseversallhindrances.Whenthehindrancesareextirpatedandthevowisfulfilled,thenthatwhichisbeneath yourfeetisnoneotherthanthepuredharmapalace,towhichyouhavenaturallyascended.Whatisinfrontofyoureyesisnoneotherthanthemarvelouslyadorned realm,whichyounaturallywitness. Therearethreekindsofadornment.Thefirstistheadornmentofthenaturalworld.Thesecondistheadornmentofsentiency.Thethirdistheadornmentofthe wisdomofcorrectenlightenment. Heavencoversandearthsupportsmountainssoarandriversflowthesunrisesandthemoonsetsthecoldcomesandthewarmthdepartsspringpeaksandsummer beginstobudtheflowersopenandtheflowersdropthehillsriseandholessinkthepureandthepollutedarewrappedineachotheronerestsonthemountainsand ridesontheriverspeopleandanimalsaremixedinonelottheoceansandcontinentsscatterandaresubmerged.Despiteallkindsofconfusionanddisorder,the sagelyanddull,thefoolishandwiseareclearlydistinguished.InthespacebetweenHeavenandEarth,withinthevastuniverse,allabidewithinhorizontallyand verticallytheyarearrangedintheirorder:thisisthe"adornmentoftherealmofthenaturalworld." Ontheoutside[ofthehumanbody]therearesevenopeningswithin,fiveviscerathethirtysixcomponentsverticallyandhorizontallyadorn.Yetwithin,the"mind king"ismasterandtheobjectsofthemindareattendants.Theeightyeightdefilementscomeandgothroughtheorgansandtheirobjects.Horizontallyandvertically theydashabout,busilycreatingallsortsofkarma.Emotionallyrespondingtoathousanddifferencestheyemergeandsubmergeinthefourkindsofbirth,risingand fallingintothevariousdestinies.Thisistheadornmentoftherealmofsentiency. Theessenceofemptinessisgreatwithoutlocationthefunctionofspiritualwisdomshines,penetratingwithinandwithout.Thesunofwisdomshinesbrightlythrough everyfacultyeachobjectisemptyofnaturejustclear.Theprincipleandwisdommergetogether,equallycontainingthetenthousandforms,asthesuncontainsthe skyandthelapislazulicontainsthemoon.Sight,hearing,andallformsofawareness

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nevermisstheirmarvelousfunction.Color,odor,taste,andtoucharealltruemarks.Thisistheadornmentofcorrectlyenlightenedwisdom. Butcorrectlyenlightenedwisdomhasneverexistedapartfromtherealmsofadornmentofthenaturalworldandsentiency.Thisiswhyitiscalledthemarvelously adornedrealm.Separatelyseekingthemarvelouslyadornedrealmapartfromtheothertworealmsofadornmentislikeseekingthewaterapartfromthewaves,or seekingthegoldapartfromthevesseltotheendyouwillneverapprehendtheprinciple.Henceitissaid:"TheBuddhadharmaiscontainedintheworld"you cannotseparatetheworldandenlightenment.Seekingbodhiapartfromtheworldislikelookingforhornsonarabbit.This,then,isthemarvelousadornedrealmof thewisdomofcorrectenlightenment.So,withoutchangingasingleaspectoftheworld,heopensthegreatgateofliberation.Thismessagecanbefoundinexpressions suchas:"onthetipofahairhemanifeststheworldofthejewelking,"and"sittingonasingledustmoteheturnsthegreatwheelofthedharma." TheGatha [Sutra(#60)][T842.17.916c14HPC7.147b19]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaversehesaid: Maitreya,youshouldknow Thatthenonattainmentofgreatliberation Byallsentientbeings Isonlyduetodesire Thereforetheyaredrawnintolifeanddeath. Ifyoucanseparateyourselffromlikeanddislike, Aswellasdesire,hatred,andignorance YouwillallperfecttheBuddha'sWay

Page152 AndpermanentlydestroytheTwoHindrances, Withoutneedingany"distinctionsinnature." Seekateacherwhohasthecorrectawakening, Practicethevowtoarousethebodhimind, RelyonGreatNirvana. Thebodhisattvasinthetendirections Allappearintheworldofsamsara Relyingonthegreatlycompassionatevow. Presentpractitioners Aswellassentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Shouldstrivetoeliminateallattachedviews AnddirectlyreturntoGreatPerfectEnlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.147c3] TheonlyreasonallsentientbeingsarenotliberatedisbecauseoftheThreePoisons.8 IfyoueliminatetheThreePoisons,thenthereisnosuchthingasgreaterand lessercapacityallaccomplishtheBuddhaway.Thereforeyoumustfirstfindtherightteacherandgrasphiscorrectinsights.Basedonyourvow,practice,severing hindrances,andproceedtorealization.Allthebodhisattvasofthetendirections,dependingontheirvowofcompassion,appearintheworldtosavesentientbeings. PresentandfuturepractitionersshouldstrivetoseverallhindrancesandtodirectlyreturntoPerfectEnlightenment.

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6. PureWisdomBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.147c9] Purityopposesfilthwisdomopposesignorance.Ignorance,throughthestainofitspollution,becloudstheclarityofthetruth.Wisdom,bymeansoftheeffervescence ofitspurity,adornsthepathofenlightenment.Heiscalled"PureWisdom"becauseheuseshispurewisdomtodissolvethebecloudmentandstainofignoranceto revealtheclarityofthetruthandbringaboutthecompletionofomniscience. WhydoesPureWisdomfollowupMaitreyawithfurtherquestions?MaitreyaraisedhisquestionsinreactiontothediscussioninthechapterofVajragarbha,which said"firstseveringtherootoftransmigration,"inordertomakethesentientbeingsconverttheirattachedloveintocompassion.Thisbodhisattvainturnquestionsin reactiontothediscussioninthechapterofMaitreyainregardtothe"distinctionsinlevelofpracticeandrealization,"andlikewiseinducesthesentientbeingstoconvert theirignoranceintowisdom.Theseveringofanxietyattheleveloffaith,theseveringofthe"understandingobstruction"atthelevelofworthy,andthenonabiding enlightenmentatthelevelofsage,thatincludestheabilitiesof"neitherarisingnorcessationofthought,""noaddingofknowledge,''and"nodiscernmentofreality": thesearebroughtaboutthroughPureWisdom'sinducementofthesentientbeingstoconverttheirignoranceintoomniscience. Themeaningofsuchsayingsas"wisdomandignorancearebothpraja"isthecompletionofomnisciencetheviewthatisnotattachedtoduality.Thisisthe relevanceoftheorderofMaitreya'sconversionofattachedloveintocompassionandPureWisdom'sconversionofignoranceintowisdom.Myverse: Thesinglefountofpurityhavingbeenrevealed Herequestsfurtherexplanationtoclarifythestages.

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Knowingthatonedoesnotgraduallyadvanceinskillandthenascendtoperfection, Trueandfalsearebothforgotten,thesunrisesinthesky. PureWisdom'sQuestionontheDistinctionsinLevelofPractice [Sutra(#61)][T842.17.916c26HPC7.148a4]

ThebodhisattvaPureWisdomrosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Hethenknelt downwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOneyouhavemagnanimouslyexplainedforallofourgroupthisinconceivablematter,whichwasoriginallynotseenandoriginallynot heard.Wewhoarepresentlyhereandhavereceivedyoursuperbinstructionhavegainedcomposureofbodyandmind,andreceivedgreatbenefit.Iwouldliketorequestthis: WouldyoureexplainthenatureofthePerfectFulfillingEnlightenmentoftheKingoftheDharmaforthosewhohavecomeforyourteaching?Whatdifferencesaretherebetween thatwhichisgraspedandactualizedbysentientbeings,bodhisattvas,andWorldHonoredTathagatas?Pleaseletsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehearthissagelyteaching sothattheymayconformtoit,awakenthroughitandgraduallybecomecapableofentering." Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.148a14] Withinnoncyclicexistence,theydeludedlyseecyclicexistencewithinnopracticeandrealization,heprovisionallyintroducespracticeandrealizationthisiswhyitis called"inconceivable."Ignorancedoesnotpermeatetruesuchness1 yetthereispermeationwhentruesuchnessundergoespermeation,itisnotchanged,yetthereis achange.Hencetheexistenceofthethreesubtleandsixcoarsedefilements.2 Thisis

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whyarisingisregardedasinconceivable.Truesuchnessdoesnotpermeateignorance,yetthereispermeationWhenignoranceundergoespermeation,itisnot changed,yetthereischange.HencetheexistenceoftheThreeVehiclesandtheSingleVehicle.Thisiswhypracticeandseveringareregardedasinconceivable.Since thesetwokindsofinconceivability3 arethetopicsthatthemembersofthisassemblyhavenotyetheardabout,theynowavailthemselvestotheBuddha'sextensive exposition[ofthematter].Thisiswhythebodhisattvapraiseshimas"greatlycompassionate"andis"encouraged."ReceivingtheBuddha'sinstruction,theyknowthat thesituationcanbechanged,thatthemindistobereflectedupon,andtheymayhavetotalconvictionintherealityofpracticeandrealization.Thisiswhatismeantby "composureofbodyandmind,"and"receivinggreatbenefit.'' TheBuddha'spriordiscourse,whilerevealingthedistinctionsintheFiveNatures,hasnotgiventhereasonsforthedistinctions.Thisissomethingthattheignoranthave notyetbeenabletofathomontheirown,andisalsothereasonwhyPureWisdomasksthisquestiontotheBuddha.Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhohave notyetreceivedthisteachinghavenomeansthroughwhichtoobtainthisknowledge,sothereforetheBuddha,relyingonPureWisdom,explainsit,fullyenlightening theirignorance.Thisiswhyhesays"sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehearthisandawaken,andaregraduallyabletoenter." TheBuddha'sAnswer [Sutra(#62)][T842.17.917a6HPC7.148b8]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPureWisdom,said: "Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthedistinctionthattheTathagatamakes[between]the levels[ofattainmentbypractitioners].Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplaintheseforyou."ThebodhisattvaPureWisdomreceivedthisinstructionwithreverenceandgreatjoy.All themembersofthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.148b13] SentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhohavenotreceivedtheBuddha'sinstructiondonotknowaboutthedistinctionsinpractice

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andrealization,andthuscannotavoidthestainofignorance.NowPureWisdomraisesthisquestionforthebeingstoundarkenthepathofcultivationofreality.Thisis whytheBuddhareadilyapprovesofthequestion. InReality,ThereareNoStages [Sutra(#63)][T842.17.917a10HPC7.148b17]

Goodsons,althoughtheselfnatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotanature[likethepreviouslydescribednatures],nonetheless,anatureexiststhatisconcomitantwiththe arisingofallnatures.Butthereisneitheracquisitionnorrealizationofit.Fromthepointofviewofreality,thereareactuallyneitherbodhisattvasnorsentientbeings.Why? Bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsarenothingbutillusoryappearances,andsinceillusoryappearancesareerased,thereisneither"acquirer"nor"realizer."Itisliketheeyenot beingabletoseeitself:inthenature'sownequality,thereisnothingthatis''equal."

[Kihwa][HPC7.148b22] TheselfnatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisitselfempty,andisoriginallydivorcedfromnamesandmarks.Butthereisalsoanaturethatisnotempty,whichspiritually penetrates,sensesandrespondsfollowingconditionsitcompletesallindividualdharmas.Yetthisconditionednatureisitselfemptyitsessencedoesnotreallyexist. Thusthesameistrueofpracticeandrealization,whichexistaccordingtoconditions,butlackinherentreality.Thereforehesaysthatbodhisattvasandsentientbeings areallillusion.Thephrase"itisjustliketheeye..."showsthatbeginningandendareconnected,andthatthemindandtheobjectssharethesamerealitythereisno separatething.Since,inthedevelopmentofsubjectandobject,thereisactuallynosubjectorobject,thenonexistenceofsubjectandobjectisalsononexistent. Thereforehesays"inthenature'sownequalitythereisnothingthatisequal." [Sutra(#64)][T842.17.917a13HPC7.148c6]


Sentientbeingsarethoroughlyconfusedandareunabletoridthemselvesofallillusoryappearances.Sincetheyhavenotextinguished

Page157 [themarkof]cessationinillusoryactivity,theyautomaticallymakediscriminations.IftheyattainaccordancewiththeextinctionoftheTathagata,thereisreallyneitherextinction norpersonwhobringsextinctionabout.

[Translator'snote:Herethetextdoesnotsay"markof"cessation.ThisisKihwa'sinterpretation,whichheexplainsbelow.Thefourmarksthathereferstoarethe marksofarising,abiding,changing,andcessation,whichhetreatsaccordingtotheframeworkoftheAwakeningofFaith.Themeaningofthesefourmarksas developedintheAwakeningofFaithisthateachthought,orthoughtmoment,hasthesefouraspects.Intermsoftheexerciseofgainingawarenessofthoughtin meditationandeliminatingitsmistakenfunction,themostsubtle(anddifficult)pointatwhichonecanbeawareisthepointofarisingofthought.Themostcoarse(and easiest)pointatwhichonecancutoffthoughtisatitspointofcessation.Foracomprehensivediscussionofthefourmarks,seeWonhyo'sKisillonso,HPC1.698 722T1844.44.202a226a. Inhiscommentarytothispassage,TsungmialsomakesreferencetothefourmarksoftheAwakeningofFaith,butdoesnotdiscussthemtotheextentthatKihwa doeshere.ThesefourmarksaretobedistinguishedfromtheFourTracesofself,person,sentientbeing,andlife,whicharethetopicofdiscussioninchapter9. BecauseofKihwa'sinterpretationofthisline,mytranslationofitisdifferentfromLuk's.InordertomaketheinterpretationofthispassagecompliantwithKihwa's subsequentexplanation,itisnecessarytoassigntwodifferentEnglishterms"cessation"and"extinction"tothesuccessiveappearancesofthelogographmieh/myol .] [Kihwa][HPC7.148c9] Havingalreadyelucidatedthecharacteroftheequalitythatlacksdistinctions,henowwantstoexplainthedistinctionsinlevel,startingwithanexplanationofthe rationaleforthedistinctions.TheconsequenceofoneinstantofdelusioninthismindistheFourMarks.TheconsequenceoftheFourMarksiscyclicexistence.Ifyou wanttolaybarecyclicexistence,youneedtoextinguishtheFourMarks.Sincethesemarksareoriginallyempty,andtaketheirsubstancebasedonfalsity,theyare called"illusorytransformations."Sincethesemarksarealreadyillusory,andtheirextinctioncannotbereal,theyareunderstoodashavingfunctionbutarestillcalled "false." TheextinctionoftheFourMarksisnotasuddenextinctiontheireliminationisgradual,proceedingfromcoarsetosubtle.Thecoarsenessandsubtletyisasfollows: themarkofarisingisthesubtleofthesubtlethemarkofabidingisthecoarseofthesubtlethemarkofchangingisthesubtleofthecoarsethemarkofceasingisthe coarseofthecoarse.Fromthestandpointofarising,thesequenceisfromsubtletocoarse:

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arising,abiding,changing,andceasing.Fromthestandpointofcultivationandsevering,thesequenceisfromcoarsetosubtle:ceasing,changing,abiding,andarising.If youextinguishthemarkofcessation,thenyouhaveforthefirsttimeattainedtheleveloffaith.Ifyouextinguishthechangingmark,thenyouaretransformedtothe levelofworthy.Ifyouextinguishtheabidingmark,youaretransformedtothelevelofsage.Ifyouextinguishthearisingmark,youhavefinishedbyaccomplishingthe leveloffruition(Buddhahood).Thus,thepersonattheleveloffaithhasextinguishedthemarkofceasing,buthasnotyetextinguishedthemarkofchanging.The personatthelevelofworthyhasextinguishedthemarkofchanging,buthasnotyetextinguishedthemarkofabiding.Thepersonatthelevelofsagehasextinguished themarkofabidingbuthasnotyetextinguishedthemarkofarising.Thepersonattheleveloffruitionhasextinguishedthemarkofarising,andthereisnothingfurther tobeextinguished.Thisisthemeaningof"severingdelusion." Outerworldlingshaveadvancedtotheleveloffaithbuthavenotyetadvancedtothelevelofworthy.Thoseoftheleveloffaithhaveadvancedtothelevelofworthy buthavenotyetadvancedtothelevelofsage.Thoseofthelevelofworthyhaveadvancedtothelevelofsagebuthavenotyetadvancedtotheleveloffruition.Those ofthelevelofsagewhohaveadvancedtotheleveloffruitionhavenofurtherlevelonwhichtoadvance.Thisisthemeaningof"realizingreality."Hence,thosewho have"alreadyceasedandadvanced"finishearlierandthosewhohave"notyetceasedandadvanced"finishlater.Thismeansthatthosewhoareenlightenedatthe priorlevels[i.e.,levelsoffaithandworthy]shouldnotreceivetheappellationofthelaterlevels[levelsofsageandfruition].Theearlierareinferiortothelaterandthe lateraresuperiortotheearlier.Hence,within"neithersuperiornorinferior''therearesuperiorandinferior,andwithinnondistinctionthereisdistinction.Thereforethe sutrasays:"Sincetheyhavenotextinguishedthemarkofcessation,inillusoryactivitytheyautomaticallymakediscriminations."WhentheFourMarksarecompletely extinguished,thenthereisnotevenatraceofcessation,andyoureturntooriginalreality.Thereforehesays"Iftheyattainaccordancewiththeextinctionofthe Tathagata,thereisreallyneitherextinctionnorpersonwhobringsitabout."Thissectionaboveshowshowitisthatthelevelsaredistinguishedandyetlackdistinction. TheWorldling'sAccordancewiththeEnlightenedNature [Sutra(#65)][T842.17.917a16HPC7.149a18]

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Goodsons,allsentientbeings,becauseofadeludedlyconceived"self"andattachmenttothatself,havebeginninglesslyneverknownmomenttomomentarisingandcessation forthemselvesthereforetheygiverisetoattractionandaversion,andbecomeaddictedtotheobjectsinthefivesensefields.IftheymeetaGenuineTeacherhewillawakenthem totheessenceofpurePerfectEnlightenment.Discoveringarisingandcessation,theywilldirectlyknowthatthislife'sverynatureisthatofanxiety.Ifthereisapersonwho permanentlyseversthatanxietyandexperiencesthepurityoftherealityrealm,butwhoallowshisunderstandingofclarityinturntobecomeahindrance,thispersonistending towardPerfectEnlightenmentbutisnotperfectlyfree.Heiscalleda"worldlingwhoisaccordingwiththenatureofenlightenment."

[Kihwa][HPC7.149b1] Theword"life( )."WhereasearliertheBuddhahasexplainedthereasonsfordistinguishingthelevelsofattainment,herehepreciselyelucidatesthe distinctionsthemselves.Withinthenaturetherearenoskandhas,yetwedeludedlygiverisetothefiveskandhas.Withintheskandhasthereisnoself,butwe mistakenlygiverisetothetracesofaself.Asaconsequenceoftherebeingtracesofself,weproduceattachedviewsandwithmomenttomomentarisingand cessation,weagitateourtruenature.Unawareofourarisingofdiscriminationsandaddictiontodesires,wecreatekarmaandinviteitsrewards,andthusremain boundintheleveloftheunenlightened.IfyoucangainaccesstotheguidanceofaGenuineTeacher,hewilldisclosetheenlightenednaturethatoriginallylacksarising andceasing.Sinceyounowrealizehowarisingandceasingdisturbthetruenature,youwillnowknowthatitisonlybecauseofmistakendiscriminationthatthenature itselfhasanxiety,andthattheperfectlyclearandpureessenceischangedtoaconditionofpollution.Themindoriginallyhasnoanxiety,andthenatureisoriginally clearandcomposed.If,withinthismindyoucanpermanentlyseveranxiety,thenthenature'spureessencewillbemanifested,andallthingswillberealandpure.Ifat thispointyoudonotagainproduceviews,youwillattainliberationonthespot,andaccomplishmentoftrueaccordance.Yetevenifanxietyisseveredandyourpure understandingismanifestedbeforeyou,ifthispureunderstandingrevertsintofalsity,becomingitselfanobstruction

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totheperfectlyenlightenedpurenature,thenthisisthecaseofanouterworldlingwhoisonthevergeofascenttotheleveloffaith,butwho,obstructedbyhis understandingofpurity,isnotabletoaccomplishtrueaccordance. TheBeginnerBodhisattva'sAccordancewiththeEnlightenedNature [Sutra(#66)][T842.17.917a21HPC7.149b18]


Goodsons,allbodhisattvasseetheirunderstandingasanobstruction.Buteveniftheyeliminatethe"understandingobstruction"theystillabideinaviewofenlightenment. This"enlightenmentobstruction"becomesahindranceandtheyarenotperfectlyfree.Theyarecalledbodhisattvaswhohavenotyetenteredthebhumis4whoareaccording withthenatureofenlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.149b21] Oncetheunderstandingofpurityhasbeenmanifested,itrevertstobecomeanobstruction.Thenyouonceagainuseexpedientwisdomtoreflectonthisobstructionin ordertodoawaywiththeunderstandingofpurity.Eventhoughthe"understandingobstruction"hasbeenerased,theviewofthereflection(ontheobstruction)also revertstobecomefalse,andthenbecomesanobstructiontothenatureofpureenlightenment.Thisistheaccordancewiththeenlightenednaturecarriedoutbythe personatthestageoffaithwhoisascendingtothelevelofworthy,butwhohasnotyetenteredthelevelofsage.Eventhoughitiscalled"accordance,"sinceheis obstructedbyhisviewofenlightenment,heisstillnotabletoaccomplishtherealaccordance. TheAdvancedBodhisattva'sAccordancewithPerfectEnlightenment [Sutra(#67)][T842.17.917a24HPC7.149c3]

Goodsons,sincethepossessionofilluminationandenlightenmentaretermedtogetheras"hindrance"and"obstruction,"thebodhisattvaisalwaysenlightenedwithoutabiding. Illumination

Page161 andilluminatorsimultaneouslyvanish.Itislikethecaseofapersonwhocutsoffhisownheadwhentheheadiscutoff,thereisnolongerany"cutter."Hencetheuseofthe obstructingmindtoeliminateallobstructions:whenobstructionshavebeeneliminated,thereisnoonetoeliminateobstructions.Theteachingsofthesutrasarelikethefinger pointingtothemoon.Ifyoualsolookatthemoonandcompletelyunderstand,thenthatwhichispointingisultimatelynotthemoon.5Allthevariouswordsandexplanationsof theTathagatathatareusedtoawakenbodhisattvasarealsolikethis.Theyarecalled"bodhisattvaswhohaveenteredthebhumiswhoareaccordingwiththenatureof enlightenment."

[Kihwa][HPC7.149c11] The"understandingofpurity"ofthepriorpassageisthesameas"possessionofillumination"here.The"viewofenlightenment"ofthepriorpassageisthesameas "possessionofenlightenment"here.Notonlydoestheunderstandingofpuritybecomeanobstructiontheviewofenlightenmentisalsocalledanobstruction.Itislike whenyouuseamedicinetotreatasickness,andthemedicineitselfendsupcausinganothersideeffect.Ifyouuseadreamtoawakenfromadream,thenthis awakeningisalsoadream.Ifyouareawarethatthepureunderstandingisanobstruction,andyoualsodonotabideinenlightenment,then,togetherwiththeprior pureunderstanding,bothobstructionsaredissolvedsimultaneously.Itislikeamancuttingoffhisownhead.Oncetheheadiscutoff,thereisnolongerany''cutter." Toberegardedasaman,onemusthavebothbodyandhead.Whenonehasbothbodyandhead,onecanhavelife.Oncetheheadiscutoff,bodyandlifearelostat thesametime.Whenbodyandheadhavebeensevered,thereisnolongeranyonecapableofcutting. Inthebodhisattva'suseofexpedientwisdom,whenthepureunderstandingandtheviewofenlightenmentarebothdissolved,alltheobstructionsareerased,andthere isnolongeranydissolvingwisdom."Expedientwisdom"isalsocalled"obstructingthought."If,whentheobstructionsaredissolved,youdonotavoidthethoughtofa subjectivedissolver,thismakesanobstructionofthepurityandtheenlightenmentthereforeitiscalled"obstructingthought."Yetif,followingonthedissolutionofall obstructions,youagaindissolve,thisistheaccordancewiththeenlightenednaturecarriedoutattheleveloftheworthywhohasascendedtothelevelofsage,but whohasnotyetascendedtotheleveloffruition.Eventhoughitiscalled"accordance,"sincethepersonhasnotascendedtothefinallevel,hehasnotaccomplished realaccordance. Thepassagethatgoesfrom"theteachingsofthesutras"upto"toawakenbodhisattvasarealsolikethis(

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)"belongsrightafterthelineinthechapterofVoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattvathatsays"thesearecalledthetwentyfivewheelsofthebodhisattvas"6 andhas beenmistakenlyinsertedhere.Intransmittingthetheme,[thisarrangementofthetext]doesnotresultinjen. [Translator'snote:HereKihwaisusingoneofhisfavoritemetaphorsfortheproperflowofthethemeofthetexthyolmaek( )intheancientChinesemedicaltexts. AsKihwaexplainsit,themedicaltermnonjenreferstoaconditionoflackofflowinthenerves,whichresultsinthesymptomsofnumbnessorparalysis.When Kihwasays"nonjen"here,hemeansthattheflowofthetexthasbeenobstructedbythepresenceofaphrasethatisoutofplace.SeetheHyonchongnon,HPC 7.219b19c13.] TheTathagata'sAccordancewithPerfectEnlightenment [Sutra(#68)][T842.17.917b2HPC7.150a7]

Goodsons,allhindrancesarenoneotherthanultimateenlightenment.Whetheryouattainmindfulnessorlosemindfulness,thereisnononliberation.Establishingthedharmaand refutingthedharmaarebothcallednirvanawisdomandfollyareequallyprajathemethodthatisperfectedbybodhisattvasandfalseteachersisthesamebodhiignorance andsuchnessarenotdifferentrealmsmorality,concentration,andwisdom,aswellasdesire,hatred,andignorancearealldivinepracticessentientbeingsandlandssharethe samedharmanaturehellandheavenareboththePureLandthosehavingBuddhanatureandthosenothavingitequallyaccomplishtheBuddha'senlightenment.All defilementsareultimatelyliberation.Therealityrealm'soceanlikewisdomcompletelyclarifiesallmarkstobejustlikeemptyspace.Thisiscalled"theTathagata'saccordancewith thenatureofenlightenment."

[Kihwa][HPC7.150a16] ThesetenpairsofoppositesshowtheinsightoftheBuddha.Allthosewhohavenotyetascendedtothefruitionlevelseedualitywithinthe

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realmofreality.Thosewhohavealreadyascendedtothefruitionlevelonlyperceiveasinglecategory.Thepassagefromthewords"allhindrancesarenoneotherthan finalenlightenment"upto"alldefilementsareultimateliberation"reflectthemeaningof"onlyknowingasinglecategory"and"perceivingnondualistically.''"Thereality realm'soceanlikewisdom"referstothevastnessofthewisdomgate[teaching]thatoperatesthroughouttherealityrealm."Allmarks"referstosuchcharacteristicsas natureandaspects,existenceandnonexistence,illuminationandobscuration,formandemptiness.Thephrase,"therealityrealm'soceanlikewisdomcompletely clarifiesallmarkstobejustlikeemptyspace,"meansthatwiththesilentlyluminous,nondualvastlimitlesswisdom,onecompletelyclarifiesthemiddlewayof nondualitybetweenabsoluteandmundane,marksandnomarks.Thisistheaccordancewiththeenlightenednaturecarriedoutbythepersonwhohasascendedto theleveloffruition.Atthisleveltheprinciplehasbeenfullyactualizedanddiscriminationsfullyannulled.Thereisnothingelsebeyondthis.Thisisthefirsttimeitis "accordance"thatcanbesaidtobe"withreality."ThisistheleveltheBuddhaisspeakingofwhenhesays,"IfyouattaintheTathagata'saccordanceofcomplete cessation,thereisactuallyneitherextinctionnorpersonwhobringsaboutextinction." DirectAccordancewiththeNatureofEnlightenment [Sutra(#69)][T842.17.917b9HPC7.150b6]

Goodsons,ifallbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewouldjustdesistfromgivingrisetofalsethoughtsatalltimes,andwheninfalsestatesofmind,not striveforcessationwhenabidinginfalseconceptualrealms,nottrytoimposeacompleteunderstandingwhilelackingcompleteunderstanding,nottrytoanalyzetruereality.If thesesentientbeings,hearingthisteaching,believe,understand,assimilate,andrememberitwithoutbeingshockedorfrightenedbyit,theyaresaidtobe"accordingwiththe natureofenlightenment." Goodsons,youshouldallbeawarethatthesesentientbeingshavealreadymadeofferingstomyriadsofbuddhasaquintilliontimesasnumerousasthegrainsofsandinthe GangesRiver,andhavecultivatedtheirrootsofvirtuewithasmanygreatbodhisattvas.Icallthesepeople"fullydevelopedinomniscience."

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[Kihwa][HPC7.150b14] Earlierheexplainedthedistinctionsintheprogressivelevels.Hereheshowsthesuddenrealizationaccomplishedbythoseofsuddenfacultieswhoextinguishthought. Whathemeansinthispassageisthatsincethenatureoriginallylacksthought,youneednotgiverisetothought.Evenifyoudoarisethought,sincethoughtsare inherentlyempty,youneednotextinguishthem.Evenifyouareabidinginfalseconceptualrealms,sincetherealmsareoriginallythismind,youshouldnotdistinguish them.Withoutdistinctions,youwon'tarisediscriminations.Sincepeopletaketheseconditionstobereality,theBuddhateachesthesefour"shouldnots,"showinghow toabandonthought. Sincethisexpedientteachingtranscendsregulardiscrimination,some,whenhearingit,willbedoubtful.Butifthereareotherswhohearitandarereadilyconvincedof itstruth,andthusputitintopracticeexactlyasithasbeenexplained,thentheywillnotslipoffintodistinctionsandwillaccomplishthetrueaccordance.Havingdone this,theywillmanifestcompletebodhiwithoutleavingthisbody.Thesepeoplehaveinthepastaccumulatedadeepstoreofvirtue.Hence,whentheyreachthispoint, theyareabletoabandontheir[discriminating]mind.Theirmeritoriousvirtuenowcomplete,theyarecalled"perfectedinomniscience."Thisisthemeaningof"sudden realization."Fromtheline"theselfnatureofenlightenmentisnotanature,yetnaturesexist"upto"theTathagatas'accordancewiththeenlightenednature"expresses distinctionfromthestandpointofnondistinction.Fromtheline"atalltimes''upto"perfectedinomniscience"expressesnondistinctionfromtheperspectiveof distinction.Thisisdistinctionwithinequalityandequalitywithindistinction,inordertoshowthatthevariouslevelsareactuallyequalfrombeginningtoend. TheGatha [Sutra(#70)][T842.17.917b15HPC7.150c6]

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ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,composedaverse.Hesaid: PureWisdom,youshouldknow Thenatureofperfectbodhi Hasnoacquisition,norealization Neitherbodhisattvanorsentientbeing. Yetbetweenthetimesofenlightenmentandnonenlightenment Therearedifferencesinlevel. Sentientbeingsareobstructedbytheirunderstanding Bodhisattvasarenotfreefromenlightenment. Enteringthebhumistheyareforevertranquil Anddonotabideinanymark. Greatenlightenmentfullyincludeseverything Andiscalled"pervasivelyaccording." Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Whosemindsdonotgiverisetofalsity Icall"Appearingintheworldasbodhisattvas." Theyhavemadeofferingstocountlessbuddhas Andarealreadyrepletewithvirtuousmerit. Eventhoughtherearemanyexpedientteachingmethods Asasum,theyarecalled"thewisdomthatapprehendseverything.''

[Kihwa][HPC7.150c14] Thenatureofbodhilacksacquisitionandrealizationitalsolacksenlightenmentanddelusion.Itisonlyinregardtoawarenessornonawareness,eliminationor noneliminationoftheFourMarksthattherearedistinctionsoflevelsuchas"worldling,""worthy,""sage,"and"fruition."Ifyouareonlyableto,inonethoughtmoment, forgetthe[discriminating]mindtheninthebodyofaworldlingyouareabletodirectlytranscendthestageofworthy,passovertherankofsageandconsummate omniscience.Thesepeoplewhohavealreadymadeofferingstoallbuddhasandarerepletewithvirtuousmerit,forgetthenotionsof"worldling,""worthy,""sage,"and "fruition"andexperiencesuddenrealization.Althoughtherearedistinctionsinsuddenandgradual,theyarenotcategorizedasdeepandshallowallarecalled "accordance."Thereforeeachstageiscalled"accordingwiththenatureofenlightenment."

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7. PowerandVirtueUnhinderedBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.150c23] Thepressureofaforceonpeople,coupledwiththeiraweofthisforce,iscalled"power."Blessingscomingdowntopeople,andtheirloveandappreciationforthese iscalled"virtue."Poweriscontrastedwithvirtueandissimilartoanger.Virtueiscontrastedwithpower,butisantitheticaltoanger.Virtueistheabilitytogatherand bringin.Poweristheabilitytosubdue.Thisiswhytheyaresaidtobeincontrastwitheachother.Angershouldnotbetouchedpowerisnottobetransgressed:this ishowtheyaresimilar.Angeriscapableofbringingaboutanxietyandpain,whilevirtuecancompassionatelysuccor.Thisishowtheydifferfromeachother.The meaningof"powerandvirtueunhindered''isthesimultaneouspracticeofpowerandcompassion,tokillandgivelifeaccordingtothesituation,tobeunimpededlikea king. [Translator'snote:Thetermbeingtranslatedhereas"unhindered"isoneoftwointhischapterthatareespeciallydifficulttoadequatelyrenderintoEnglish.The binometzutsai/chajae ,meaning"selfso,""natural,""freeandatease."EvenbeforeBuddhism,thetermhadimplicationsoftheachievementofanenlightened stateinwhichthehumanbeingwasfreefromsufferingandanxiety.ButwiththeadventofCh'anandHuayenBuddhism,chajaetakesonevendeeperconnotations, manyofwhichareindicatedthroughouttheSPEingeneral,andthischapterinparticular. ThemajortheoreticalunderpinningsoftheBuddhistchajaecanbeunderstoodthroughtheconceptsofmutualcontainment,nonobstruc

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tion,andinterpenetrationinHuayen,exceptthatinthecaseofchajae,theseareunderstoodtobefullyenactedinthepersonageofanenlightenedbeing,suchasthe Buddha.Becausetheuniverseisinterpenetratedandunobstructed,andsincetheBuddhaisabletoexperiencetheuniverseasitactuallyis,hismindisableto penetrateallthingsandaffairs:heisabletobeawareofthesufferingsofallbeingsandrespondtothem.Thereasonheisabletobesocapableofawarenessand responseisbecausehehasridhimselfofallafflictions,anxieties,biases,andattachments,andsoheneverfeelscompelledtobetrappedindichotomiesofgoodand evil,activityandquiescence,orsubjectandobject.Hencethetermchajaecarriesthemeaningsofliberation,nonobstruction,detachment,relaxedness,and omnipotence.Unfortunately,choosinganyoneofthesetermsforcesustoleaveouttheotherconnotations.ItisalsodifficulttofindanequivalentterminEnglish,thatis notanegativeformsuchas"unobstructed"or"unconstrained."Thespecialcharacteristicofthebodhisattvainthischapteristhatheisabletosimultaneouslyblend withinhispersonanauthoritativesternness("power")andgentlekindness(''virtue")withoutanyconflict.] [Kihwa] WhydoesthisbodhisattvaraiseanotherquestionfollowingPureWisdom?PureWisdombasedhisquestionsonMaitreya'stransformationofattachedloveinto compassion,andthenproceededtomakethesentientbeingstransformtheirignoranceintowisdom.PowerandVirtueagainraisesaquestionfollowinguponPure Wisdom'stransformationofignoranceintowisdom,andcausesthepeopletotransformtheirangerintopower.Onlywhenpityandwisdomguideeachother,and kindnessandpowerarepracticedtogethercanonebecalled"unhindered."Nonhindranceindicatestheattainmentofbreadthinmindandeaseinbodyandacertain pliancyindealingwithsituations. [Translator'snote:PliancyisatranslationoftheSinoKoreanlogographiccompoundch'ingan/kyong'an "peaceful"),thetermreferstoaconditionoflightness inbodyandmindandeffortlessnessinaction,andisverycloseinconnotationwiththetermchajae.Butitisquiteabitmorethanjustlightnessandflexibilityitisa stateofblissfulexhilarationthatoneexperiencesthroughdeepmeditation.InIndianBuddhistmeditativetraditions,prasrabdhireferstoaspecificlevelofattainment. CharlesLukglossesprasrabdhias"thefourthofthesevencharacteristicsofbodhi,alleviationofallweightofbodyandmindcausingthemeditatortofeellight,free

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andatease"(p.229).Becauseofthemultipleconnotationsofexhilarationandbliss,adaptabilityandskillfulness,translationssuchas"lightness,""flexibility"''bliss,"and "pliancy"lackthemultiplicityinmeaningrequiredtoadequatelyrendertheterm.Therefore,wehopethatthereadermaykeepinmindthebreadthofconnotations beingindicatedherebytheEnglishword"pliancy."] [Kihwa] Whenfacingdifficultyonehandlesitcalmlyandwithoutanxiety.Thecausesofpeople'snotattainingpliancyandtheirinabilitytobefreefromanxietyaretheThree Poisons.1 Butitisespeciallyangerthatcausestrouble.Angerspringsfromcontraryemotionsitisborninresponsetotheenvironment.Notonlydoesitagitate oneself,butothersaswell.Woundstothespirit,damageofone'svirtue,harmtocreatures,andinjurytolifeitselftherearenoneofthesethatdonotspringfromit. Thisiswhyangererrswithpowerandnegatesvirtue.Onecanattainneitherpliancynornonhindrance.Thebodhisattvasfullyrealizethebodyandmindtobeempty andnegatethemarksofselfandother,andsotheycontinuallyabideinthemidstofagreeableanddisagreeableenvironmentswithoutbeingagitatedbytheagreeable ordisagreeable.TheyareabletocausedemonsandhereticstoheartheBuddha'snameandseehisform,2 suchthattheirharmfulintentionsaredestroyedandtheir spiritsarevanquished.ThebodhisattvascauseallbeingstorevereandadmiretheBuddha,suchthattheyharmoniouslyfollowandconvertthemselves.Thisiswhythe bodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhinderedusesthepriordiscussionsofthevariousnaturesandexpedientmeanstosetuphisquestions.Hisintentionliesincausingall thepeopletogethertoconvertangerintopower,simultaneouslyattainingpliancyandconsummatingnonhindrance. TheBuddhaanswersthequestionsbyteachingthethreemeditations,sayingintheteachingoneachmeditationthatitwill"arisepliancyfromwithin"andconcludingby sayingthatitis"somethingthatselfandotherandbodyandmindcannotattainto."Thisiswhyhecausessentientbeingstoemptytheirmindsandforget characteristics,sothattheycanthemselveshavetheabilitytotransformangerintopeaceandconsummatepowerandvirtue.Theorderofthecontinuityofthe discoursefromMaitreyatoPureWisdomandfromPureWisdomtoPowerandVirtueUnhinderedislikethis.Myverse: Generally,theexpedientmeansofaccordancearenumberless, Butquiescence,observationoftheillusoryanddhyanaarethethreemainprinciples. Donotembracethesethreeasdifferentkindsofpaths:

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Amongathousandways,therearenoroadsthatdonotreturntoone'shometown. PowerandVirtue'sQuestionontheTypesofMeditation [Sutra(#71)][T842.17.917b27HPC7.151b9]

ThenthebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhinderedarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestothe right.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveanalyzedforusatlengththisaccordancewiththeenlightenednature,causingtheenlightenedmindsofthebodhisattvas toeffloresceandreceivetheBuddha'sPerfectVoice,andcausingthemtoreceiveexcellentbenefitthatisnotcausedbyreligiouspractice. "WorldHonoredOne,itislikeagreatcitythathasfourgatesonitsexteriorthosewhocomefromvariousdirectionsarenotlimitedtoonepath.Similarly,allbodhisattvaswho adornBuddhalandsandwhoperfectenlightenedwisdomarenotlimitedtoasingleexpedientmethod.WorldHonoredOne,myonlywishisthatyouexplainindetailforusthe gradationsofalltheexpedientmethods.Ingeneral,howmanykindsofreligiouspractitionersarethere?Pleaseallowthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage whoareseekingthegreatvehicletoquicklyattainawakeningandtosportaboutintheTathagata'sgreatoceanofcessationextinction."3 Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.151b21] Theenlightenednatureispure.Itisafirewithaspiritualluminescence,anefflorescencethatpenetrateswithinandwithout,anillumi

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nationthatpermeatescountlesseons.Thereforehesays"enlightenedminds...effloresce."WhencoveredandobscuredbytheFourMarks,thisilluminationcannot appear.Onemusthaveextinguishedthemarksinordertoattainthefirstmanifestationofluminosity.NowtheBuddhateachesthem,allowingthemtoexperiencethe unveilingoflight.Thisishowitisthatthemultitude's"enlightenedmindseffloresce."Whenthemarksareextinguished,thebrightnessappears. Thisdoctrineisrecondite,andcanonlybeapprehendedthroughpractice.Butnow,theaudience,withbutasinglehearingofthisteachingisabletoattainthe "emissionoflight."Becauseofthisprofoundblessinghesaysthey"receiveexcellentbenefit."Eventhoughthetopicsofthevariousnaturesofpractitionersandthe gradationsinexpedientmethodshavealreadybeenfullyexplained,thoseofdullerfacultieshavenotyetbeenabletounderstand,andsoheoffersasimiletoclarify andhelpthemtoawaken.SometimestheBuddhasays"GreatOceanofCessationExtinction,''andsometimeshesays"GreatOceanofPerfectEnlightenment."The singlefountfromwhichBuddhasareborniscalledtheGreatOceanofPerfectEnlightenment.PracticeandultimaterealizationiscalledtheGreatOceanofCessation Extinction.ThemeaningofGreatPerfectEnlightenment,is"noplacewhereitsessencedoesnotpermeate,"and"noplacewhereitsfunctiondoesnotoperate."The meaningofGreatCessationExtinctionis"nomarknoterased"and"nodelusionnotextinguished." [Sutra(#72)1[T842.17.917c7HPC7.151c11]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhindered,said: "Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageabouttheseexpedientmethodsoftheTathagata.Listen wellnow,andIshallexplainthemforyou."ThebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhinderedreceivedthisteachingwithaweandjoyallthoseinthegreatcrowdbecamesilentand listened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.151c16] Sinceuniversallycausingsentientbeingstodependonmeditation,accordwithenlightenment,andarrivetogetherinthestateofnonhindranceisalsotheBuddha's originalintention,hegladlyapprovesofthequestion.

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TheBuddha'sAnswer:ThereareThreeKindsofExpedients [Sutra(#73)][T842.17.917c11HPC7.151c18]

Goodsons,unsurpassedmarvelousenlightenmentpervadesallthetendirections.Itgivesbirthtoalltathagatas,whosharethesameequalessencewithalldharmas.Asfarasthe variouspracticesareconcerned,thereisinreality,noduality.Nonetheless,theexpedientmethodsthatconformtoPerfectEnlightenmentarenumberless.Amongthese,thereare threegeneraltypesthatallpractitionersrelyon,accordingtothedifferencesintheirinclination.

[Kihwa][HPC7.151c22] Wantingtoclarifythethreekindsofmeditationastheexpedientmethodsforaccordingwiththenatureofenlightenment,hefirstexplainsthesinglepracticeas numberless,andthenthatthenumberlesscanbecategorizedintothree.Enlightenmentpervadesallthetendirections,andgivesbirthtobuddhasanddharmas.These buddhasanddharmasareequalintheiressence.Therefore,eventhoughtherearemanyaspectstopractice,thereisactuallynodualityamongthem.Buteventhough thereisactuallynoduality,themethodsarenumberless.Andeventhoughthemethodsarenumberless,theycanbesummedupbythree. Samatha [Sutra(#74)][T842.17.917c14HPC7.152a3]

Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,andusingthemindofpureenlightenmenttakequiescenceastheirpractice.Then,bysettingallthoughts theybecomeawareoftheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousness,andthusproducequiescentpliancyfromwithinthemselves,Becauseofthiscessationandquiescence,the mindsofallthetathagatasinalltheworldsintheten.

Page172 directionsaremademanifest,justliketheimagesinamirror.Thisexpedientmethodiscalledsamatha.

[Translator'snote:Samathaisoneofthemostcommonformsofmeditationpractice,thatisalsofoundinotherIndianmeditationsystemsbesidesBuddhism.It referstotheretrievalofanagitated,scatteredmindtoaconcentratedfocusonasingleobject.Inmanymeditativetrainingsystemsitisthefirstformofmeditation taught,sincetheabilitytofocusthemindisnecessaryforanyformofadvancedmeditativepractice.SamathaiscommonlytranslatedintoChinesewiththeideographs chih ,whichmeans''still,""quiet,"or"silent."ThetermsamathahasbeenpreviouslytranslatedintoEnglishwithsuchvarioustermsas"stopping,""calmabiding," "cessation,"andsoon.Irenderithereas"quiescence"becauseofthemeaningoftheideographching,andbecauseofotheraspectsofthecontextofthediscussion thatsurroundsthewordinthissutra.] [Kihwa][HPC7.152a9] Previouslyheexplainedtheoneasnumberless,andthenumberlessassummedupinthree.Herehebeginshisconcreteexpositionofthethreekindsofmeditation. YouhavealreadyawakenedtoPerfectEnlightenment,whichisoriginallypure,lackingallkindsofscatteredmotion.Youshouldthengatherinyourscatteredness, graspholdofquiescenceandmakethisyourpractice.Ifyoudon't,thenyourentiremindwillbedeluded,andunabletoilluminate,thusenablingthestimulationofthe deludedconsciousness.Bygatheringinscatterednessandreturningtoquiescence,thetruemindwillbeunifiedandclear.Sincetheagitatedmotionofthedeluded consciousnesscanbeclarifiedbythewisdomofawakening,theconsciousmindisimmobilized,andquiescentwisdomisaroused.Fromhere,thebody,mindand objectivedefilementsarepermanentlyextinguishedandthepliancyofcessationandquiescenceisdirectlymanifested.Thedefilementsvanishandluminosityisborn, motionstops,andquiescenceismanifest:hence,oneattainsBuddhamindandmanifestsitinoneself.Itislikeasingledirtymirrorfacingamultitudeofclearmirrors. Becauseofitsdirt,themirrorcannotreceivethereflectionfromtheothermirrors.Oncethedirtiscompletelyremoved,thereflectionfromthismirrorcanreflectinall theothermirrors,andthereflectionsfromalltheothermirrorscanreflectinthisonemirror.Alltheimagesreflectbackandforth,perfectlyinterpenetratingwithout obstruction.Thisisthefirstmeditation,calledsamatha,whichmeans"quiescence."

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Samapatti [Sutra(#75)][T842.17.917c20HPC7.152a23]

Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,thenusingthepureenlightenedmind,completelyrealizethatthenatureofmindaswellasthefacultiesand objectsareallbasedonillusorytransformations.Heretheyproducevariousillusionsinordertoremoveillusion.Creating(transforming)4allillusions,theyenlightentheillusory multitude.Fromtheproductionofillusiontheyareabletoarousegreatcompassionatepliancywithin.Allbodhisattvaswhofollowthis"arisingpractice"graduallyadvancein practice.Sincethe"observationofillusion"isnotthesameasillusion,itisalsonotthesameas''illusoryobservation."Sincebothare[recognizedas]illusory,illusorymarksare permanentlyremoved.Thismarvelouspracticethatisperfectedbybodhisattvasislikeashootgrowingoutoftheground.Thisexpedientmethodiscalledsamapatti.

[Translator'snote:Samapattiisnormallyusedasatermsynonymouswithsamadhi,referringgenerallytoadeepstateofmeditativeabsorption.IntheSPEitis beingusedasasynonymforvipasyana(usuallyrenderedinSinoKoreanaskuan/kwan ),whichmeans"analyticalmeditation"or"observingmeditation."Whereas thepriorsamathameditationhasatendencytoignorethemyriadphenomena,vipasyanameditationacceptsthem,butseesthemaccordingtoacorrectdoctrinal principle,suchasdependentorigination.Vipasyanacanbeinterpretedthen,asa"properwayofseeingtheworldwhilenotclosingoneselfofftotheworld."While samathaisassociatedwiththeconcentrationaspectoftheBuddhistpath,vipasyanaisassociatedwiththewisdomaspect.IntheSPE,samapattirefersespecially totheexerciseofseeingtheillusorynatureofexistence,astaughtinchapterstwoandthree.Thereforetheterm"asillusionsamapatti(samadhi)."Since,inthe practiceofsamapatti,onedoesnotshutouttheworld,butextendsoneselfouttotheworld,itisalsotheformofmeditationthatisassociatedwiththepracticeof compassion.] [Kihwa][HPC7.152b7] Havingawakenedthepure,marvelousawarenessofPerfectEnlightenmentthatoriginallylacksconfusion,bodhisattvasnowproduceillusory

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wisdominordertoremovedeludederrors.Creatingillusoryexpedients,theyawakenthedeludedfollowers.Havingusedillusorywisdomtoremovetheirown delusions,theyalsouseillusoryexpedientstoawakenthemultitudesfromtheirdelusion.Hence,greatcompassionatepliancyisdirectlymanifested.Whydothosewho dothispracticeofproduction5 graduallyadvance?Ifthe"observationofillusion"werethesameastheillusion,eventhoughwantingtoadvance,onecouldnever consummatethepractice.Itisbecauseoneisnotthesameasillusionthatheisabletoadvance.Moreover,itisnotonlyerroranddelusionthatareillusory:sincethe observingwisdomisalsoultimatelyillusion,whenitisfinallyremoved,themarvelouspracticeisperfected. Thismarvelouspracticeofthebodhisattvashasalready,dependingonthequiescentmeditation,removedillusionandattainedquiescence.Nowagain,dependingon the"asillusory"observation,themarksofquiescencearealsoremoved.Thiskindofgradualadvancementislikeasproutofgrain,growingindependenceuponthe earth.Thismeditationiscalledsamapatti.Samapattimeans"creationthroughtransformation."Theabovediscussedsamathaobservesformtobethesameas emptiness,removingfalsityandreturningtothereal.Samapattiobservesemptinesstobethesameasform,producingcompassiontotransformsentientbeings.The sentenceinthesutrathatsays"theycompletelyrealizethatthenatureofmindaswellasthefacultiesandobjectsareallbasedonillusorytransformations.Herethey producevariousillusionsinordertoremoveillusion''actuallyrelatestothesentenceinthepassageonsamathathatsays"Then,bysettlingallthoughtstheybecome awareoftheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousness,andthusproducequiescentwisdom.Fromthis,themind,thebodyandexternalobjectsarepermanently extinguished."Onlythelinethatsays"Creating[transforming]allillusions,theyenlightentheillusorymultitude"specificallyappliestothismeditation.Thelinethatsays "Sincethe'observationonillusion'isnotthesameasillusion"isalsorelatedtothesamesentenceinthesectiononsamatha."Bysettlingallthoughtstheybecome completelyawareoftheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousness,andthusproducequiescentwisdom."Ifyoudonotsettlethethoughts,thensincebothbodyandmind arethesameasillusorytransformations,youcannotgainawarenessovertheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousness.Sincethesettlingofallthoughtsisnotthesameas illusorytransformation,awarenesscanbegainedovertheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousnesswithoutfollowingit.Whenitsaysbelowinthesutra"bodhisattvasdo notbecomeattachedtotransformations"6 itisreferringtothissentence.Thephrase"itisalsonotthesameas'illusoryobservation.'...Sincebothare[recognizedas] illusory,illusorymarksarepermanentlyremoved"alsoappliestothismeditation.Thismeans

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thateventhoughyouobservethebodyandmindtobeillusorytransformations,andattaintheconsummationofquiescentmeditation,sincequiescentmeditationsare ultimatelynothingbutillusion,themarksofquiescencearealsoremoved,whereuponyouconsummatethe"asillusion"observation.Whenthetextsays"illusorymarks arepermanentlyremoved"itmeansthatthemarksofquiescencearealsoremoved.Whenitsaysbelow''notattachedtothemarksofquiescence,"7 itisreferring exactlytothis.Sincethe"asillusion"observationisconsummatedbasedonquiescentmeditation,theflowofthetextislikethis. Dhyana [Sutra(#76)][T842.17.917c27HPC7.152c15]

Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,andusingthepureenlightenedmind,avoidattachmenttoillusorytransformationsandthemarksof quiescence,fullyrealizingbodyandmindbothtobeobstructions.Withoutawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment(ofsamatha)andwithoutdependingonallsortsof obstructions(theillusionsanalyzedinsamapatti),theyeternallytranscendrealmsofobstructionandnonobstruction,receivingandusingtheworldaswellasbodyandmind, whosemarksabideintheobjectiverealm.Itiscomparabletotheringingsoundinabellthatpenetratestotheoutside.Afflictionandnirvananothinderingeachother,the bodhisattvasaredirectlyenabledtoproducethepliancyofcessationextinctionfromwithin.Accordancewithmarvelousenlightenmentandtherealmofcessationandextinction issomethingthatselfandother,bodyandmindareunabletoreach.Sentientbeingsandlifearealljustfloatingconcepts.Thisexpedientmethodiscalleddhyana.

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[Translator'snote:Thetermdhyanainitselfdoesnotoriginallypossessthedistinctiveconnotationsbeingassignedtoitinthistext.Itisusuallyjustoneoftheterms formeditation,ordeepconcentration,synonymouswithsuchtermsassamapattiandsamadhi.IntheSPE,however,dhyanaisassignedaspecificmeaningasa formofmeditationthatsimultaneouslyincludesandtranscendsthepriortwoofsamathaandsamapatti:itisthe"middlepath"ofthetwoothermeditations.The Chineseideographswithwhichdhyanaiswrittenincludethewordch'an/son ,whichwillbecomethenameforthemovementinBuddhismwithwhichtheSPEis closelyassociated.] [Sutra]


Goodsons,thesethreepracticesareallcloseaccordancewithPerfectEnlightenmentthetathagatasinthetendirectionsachievebuddhahooddependinguponthese,andallthe variousandsundryexpedientmethodsofthebodhisattvasofthetendirections,withalltheirsimilaritiesanddifferencesarewithoutexceptionderivedfromthesethreeactivities. Ifyouperfectlyactualizethese,itisthesameasperfectlyactualizingenlightenment. Goodsons,iftherewereapersonwhocultivatedthesagelypathandelevatedaquadrillionpeopletothestageofarhatandpratyekabuddha,hewouldnotbeequaltothe personwhoheardthisunobstructedteaching("dharmagate")ofPerfectEnlightenmentandpracticeditforonlyaninstant.

[Kihwa][HPC7.153a6] HavingrealizedthatPerfectEnlightenmentisneitheremptynorprovisional,andyetisbothemptyandprovisional,theywillneitherbecomeattachedtonorcastaway natureandmarks,truthandfalsity,andallotherdichotomies.Sinceenlightenmentisnotprovisional,theydonotbecomeattachedtoillusorytransformation.Since enlightenmentisnotempty,theydonotbecomeattachedtothemarksofquiescence.Also,sinceenlightenmentisnotprovisional,theythoroughlyrealizebodyand mindtobeobstructions.Sinceenlightenmentisempty,thereisnoawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment.Thephrase"fullyrealizebodyandmindbothtobe obstructions"meansthatoneobservesbodyandmindtobeobstructionsandpenetratestotheemptinessoftheirnature.Thephrase"withoutawarenessof enlightenment"meansthathavingclearlypenetratedtotheiremptinessinnature,theydonotabideintheirawarenessofemptiness.Ifthiswerenotthecase,thenit wouldbelikebeingabletoseethemoonbutbeingunabletoforgetitsbrightness.Theline"donotattachtoillusorytransformation"isrelatedtothelinefromthe earlierpassagethatsays''removeillusion."

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"Fullyrealizebodyandmindbothtobeobstructions"isrelatedtotheearlierlinethatsays"theywillcompletelyrealizethatbodyandmindaswellasthefacultiesand objectsareallbasedonillusorytransformations.""Withoutawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment''referstotheearlierlinethatsays"illusorymarksare permanentlyremoved." Thewords"donotbecomeattachedtoillusorytransformationorthemarksofquiescence"areindicativeofadvancedpractice.Thewords"fullyrealizebodyandmind bothtobeobstructions"and"withoutawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment"areindicativeofadvancedknowledge.Intheearlierdiscussiontheorderwas knowledgefirstandpracticenext.Thereforeitsays"theywillcompletelyrealizethatthenatureoftheenlightenedmindaswellasthefacultiesandobjectsareallbased onillusorytransformations.Heretheyproducevariousillusionsinordertoremoveillusion."Italsosays"itisalsonotthesameastheillusoryobservation.'Sinceboth are[recognizedas]illusory,illusorymarksarepermanentlyremoved."Thisistheorderofadvancementthroughpractice. Butnowthetextsays"donotbecomeattachedtoillusorytransformationorthemarksofquiescence"andthenafterthis"fullyrealizebodyandmindbothtobe obstructions."Italsosays"withoutawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment."Theselinesallindicateanorderofpracticeprecedingknowledge.Thelatteris raisedtorefertotheformer.Butthisshouldbeunderstoodasnothingotherthanawayofreferringtotheformer.Itisnotanefforttolaystrictclaimsabouta differenceinorder.Tounderstandthatonefirstdetachesfromillusorytransformationsandthemarksofquiescence,andthenlaterfullyrealizesthebodyandmindto beobstructions,andthatthereisalsonoawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment,wouldnotmakesense.Asforthelinethatsays"withoutdependingonallsorts ofobstructions":itisnotsimplytheillusorytransformationsofbodyandmindthatareobstructions.Sincequiescentmeditationandtheviewofemptinessarealso obstructions,theyarenottobedependedupon.Asforthelinethatsays"theypermanentlytranscendrealmsofobstructionandnonobstruction,"the"obstructions"are theillusorytransformationsofbodyandmind.The"nonobstructions"arequiescentmeditationandtheviewofemptiness.Hence,whatispermanentlytranscendedare theillusorytransformationsofbodyandmindandtherealmsofquiescentmeditationandviewsofemptiness.Thephrase"withoutdependingonallobstructions" merelysumsupthepassagestartingfrom"donotattachtoillusorytransformations,"ithasnootherspecialsignificance. Nowsincetheyfullyrealizethattheenlightenednatureisoriginallynotprovisional,theyarenotboundbytheviewof[theobservationof]illusion,andtheyareableto consummatequiescentmeditation.Since

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theyfullyrealizethattheenlightenednatureisoriginallynotempty,theyarenotboundbyquiescentmeditationandareabletoconsummate"asillusion"observation. Butalso,sincetheyfullyrealizethatdespiteitsemptiness,thenatureofenlightenmentisalsoprovisional,unattachedtoquiescence,theysimultaneouslyreturnto illusorytransformation.Thisisthemeaningof"receivingandusingtheworldaswellasbodyandmind,whosemarksabideintheobjectiverealm."Sincetheyfully realizethatdespiteitsprovisionality,thenatureofenlightenmentisemptiness,unattachedtotheobservationofillusion,theysimultaneouslyreturntothemarksof quiescence.Thisiswhatisreferredtoby"Itiscomparabletotheringingsoundinabellthatpenetratestotheoutside." "Receivingandusingtheworld"appliestotheearliermeditation"withinillusiontransformingallillusion."Onlythewords"itiscomparabletotheringingsoundinabell thatpenetratestotheoutside"properlyapplytothiscontemplation.Sincethisthirdformofmeditationisunattachedtoquiescenceandsimultaneouslyutilizestheas illusory[observation],oneisnotobstructedbydefilement.Sinceitisunattachedto[theobservationof]illusionandutilizesquiescence,oneisnotobstructedby nirvana.Sincethedefilementsandnirvanadonothindereachother,thepliancyofcessationextinctiondirectlymanifestsitself. "Cessation"issomethingthatoccurswithinquiescence."Extinction"referstotheextinctionofillusion.Abovewesaid"oneconsummatesquiescence,yetisnot attachedtoquiescence."Herewesay"unattachedtothemarksofquiescence,onenonethelessreturnstothemarksofquiescence.''Abovewesaid"oneextinguishes illusionyetreturnstotheillusory."Nowwesay"althoughoneisidentifiedwithillusion,onenonethelessextinguishesillusion."Thisiswhywehavesaidthatthe "cessation"isnoneotherthanthecessationthatoccurswithinquiescence,andthatthe"extinction"isnoneotherthantheextinctioncontainedwithintheextinctionof illusion.8 Whyisitthateachofthethreemeditationsproduces"pliancy"?Ifillusionsarenotextinguished,thenwhentheyarestimulatedtheywillmovethebodyandmind becomecoarseandheavyandonecannotattainserenity.Whenillusionsarepermanentlyextinguished,thereiscompletestillness,bodyandmindareclearandlight thenonehasattainedserenity.Thisisthemeaningofthe"pliancyofcessationquiescence."Butevenifonehasremovedillusionandbecomestable,ifheshould becomeattachedtoquiescentmeditationandnotarousethecompassiontotransformthesufferingofothers,thenhisawarenesswillbelimitedandhisbodyandmind willnotreachpliancy.Butifhecanremoveillusionandbecomestable,andfurthermoredetachfromhisquiescenceandarousecompassiontotransformthesuffering of

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others,thenhisawarenesswillbecomeuniversalandhisbodyandmindwillattainpliancy.Thisisthemeaningof"greatcompassionatepliancy."Ifheisunattachedto quiescencebutdoesnotreturntothemarksofquiescenceorishehasreturnedto[contemplationof]illusionanddoesnotalsoextinguishillusion,thenhisawareness willnotattainnonhindranceandhisbodyandmindwillalsonotbepliant.Ifheisunattachedtoquiescenceyetreturnstothemarksofquiescenceifheidentifieswith illusionandalsoextinguishesthemarksofillusion,thenhisawarenesswillforthefirsttimeattainnonhindrance,andbodyandmindwillattainpliancy.Thisistherealm of"cessationextinctionpliancy"and"accordancewithmarvelousenlightenment."Inthisrealmtherearenomarksnotannihilatedandnodelusionsnotextinguished. Thiskindofserenequiescenceandmarvelousprofoundperfectilluminationarethingsthatareunattainablethroughthebodyandmindofselfandother,ortheFour Tracesofself,person,sentientbeing,andlife.9 Theviewoftheexistenceofselfandothersubmergesintoloveandhatred.Thenbodyandmindbecomecoarseandheavyandcannotattainpliancy.Thisiswhythe textsaysthat"therealmofcessationandextinctionissomethingthatselfandother,bodyandmindareunabletoreach."ThepositionoftheFourTraceswithinthis realmislikethatofthecloudsinthevastsky,whichcoalescewitheachotherwithoutdistinction. Thisisthedhyanameditation,anddhyanameans"cessationextinction."Amongthesethreemeditations,itcanbesaidthatthefirsttwodonotembracethesecond two,yetthesecondtwomustembracethefirsttwo.Sincethefirsttwodonotembracethesecondtwo,theteachingofthefirstmeditationcannotexplainthe implicationsofthesecond.Theteachingsofthesecondmeditationcannotexplaintheimplicationsofthethird.Sincethesecondtwomustembracethefirsttwo,the teachingofthesecondmeditationfirstreferstothecontextofthefirstmeditation,andthenproceedstoelucidateitsownimplications.Thetextconnectedwiththethird meditationalsofirstreferstothecontextofthetwomeditationsofquiescenceandillusionobservation,andthenproceedstoelucidateitsownimplications. ThesethreedharmagatesareallmethodsofaccordingwithPerfectEnlightenment.ThetathagatasofthetendirectionsaccomplishtheirWayonthebasisofthese. Thebodhisattvasofthetendirectionspracticeandactualizedependingonthese.Ifoneattachestotheexclusivepracticeofonlyoneofthethree,thenhewillnot accomplishtherealaccordance.Onemustpracticeunobstructedlyandactualizeunlimitedlythenitcanforthefirsttimebecalled"therealaccordance."Ifyouwant topenetratetothemarvelousrealmofPerfectEnlightenment,youmustenterthroughthesegates.Ifyouenterthroughthese,youwilladvancetothat

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marvelousrealmwithoutobstruction.Thereforehesays"unobstructeddharmagate."Ifsomeonehearsthisteachingandisbrieflyabletopracticeit,hismeritwill surpassthatoftheaccomplishmentsofatrillionsagesoftheTwoVehicles. TheGatha [Sutra(#77)][T842.17.918a11HPC7.154a23]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PowerVirtue,youshouldknow Eventhoughtheunsurpassedmindofgreatenlightenment Originallyhasnoteventwomarks. Theexpedientmethodsforaccordingwithit Arenumberless. WhenIexplainthemaccordingtogeneraltype, Therearethreekinds: Stablesamatha Islikeamirrorreflectingallimages A sillusionsamadhi Islikeashootgrowingoutoftheground Dhyanaisonlycessationextinction Likethesoundinthebell. Thesethreekindsofmarvelousdharmapractices Areallaccordancewithenlightenment. Thetathagatasinthetendirections Aswellasallthegreatbodhisattvas AreabletoattaintheWaybasedonthese. Thefullrealizationofthesethreeactivities Iscalled"absolutenirvana."

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[Kihwa][HPC7.154b7] Enlightenmentoriginallyhasnoduality,yetexpedientsarecountless.Thecountlessexpedientsaresummarizedinthree.Quiescenceislikeaclear,brightmirror. Illusioncontemplationislikeashootgrowingoutoftheground.Dhyanaislikethesoundwithinthebell.Althoughthesethreedharmagateshavedistinctionsofdeep andshallow,intheirrelationtoPerfectEnlightenment,theyareallcalled"accordance."ThebuddhasandbodhisattvasaccomplishtheWaybasedonthese.The completerealizationofthethreeiscalledGreatNirvana.

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8. VoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.154b13] Thewisdommirrorisperfectlyclear,andthereisnoconfusionbetween"yes"and"no."Thisiscalled"discernment."Soundarisesinthemindandvibratesoutintothe world.Thisiscalled"voice.''"VoiceofDiscernment"meansthatthedifferentteachingsexpoundedbytheSingleVoicearedirectlyunderstoodinasinglehearingand clearlydiscernedwithoutconfusion. [Translator'snote:"SingleVoice"(also"PerfectVoice")isanimportanttechnicalterminthedevelopmentofChinesedoctrinalBuddhism,referringtothefactthat fromanabsolutestandpoint,theBuddhaonlygaveasingleteaching,eventhoughthisteachingwouldendupbeinginterpretedvariously.Thecreditforthe establishmentofthisconceptisgiventoBodhiruci,who,whenhecametoChanganin502CE,explainedthattheexistenceofteachingsofsmall/greatvehicleand teachingsofemptiness/existenceisduetothevariationsinthepredilectionsofpeople.Theusageofthistermisclearlyrelatedtothethemeofthischapter,sinceherea multiplicityofteachingswillbegivenforpeopleofvariousdispositions.IntheAwakeningofFaith,seeT1666.32.575c10.] [Kihwa] WhydoesthisbodhisattvafollowPowerandVirtueUnhinderedwithanotherquestion?Thisbodhisattvawilltransformmentalagitationintosubtlediscernment.The meaningof"mentalagitation"isthatofthelargewavelikeformationsofcoarseapprehensionandfineanalysis1 andtheconsciousnessthatdependsonthe discriminationsofthefaculties.Whenitabidesinworldlings,itisinversionandillusion.Whenitabidesinthesage,itisadeptdiscriminationandsubtleintelligence.The reasonagitationisan"obscuration"isbecauseitpreventsthemind

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fromfocusingasitclambersamongtheobjectsoftheworld.Agitationregardsmeditationasitsenemyasithidesitselfinthedarkness,creatingconflictitgoesinand outthroughtheorgansamongtherealmsofobjects,form,andminditplayscarelesslybetweenyesandno,goodandevil.Enhancingthekarmicconsciousnessof ignorance,itobstructstheperson'snaturalspiritualluminosity.Sincethisbodhisattvausesmeditationalwisdomtoilluminateandobliterateconfusion,transformingit intoadeptdiscriminationandsubtleintelligence,thedifferentiatedteachingspossessedbytheBuddhaareclearlydistinguishedwithoutadoubt.PowerandVirtuehas alreadyusedthewisdomofmeditationtocausethesentientbeingstotransformtheirangerintopower.Nowthisbodhisattvawantstohavethesentientbeingsagain usethesemeditationstoclarifytheirconfusions,transformingtheseintoadeptdiscriminationandsubtleintelligence.Therefore,heaskstheBuddhatoteachthevarious practicesofexpedientmethodsthatliewithintheareaofmeditation.Withinthetextarethetwentyfiveapplicationsofsimple,compoundandperfectpractices.Itisby meansofthesethathewillcausethesentientbeingstotransformmentalagitationintosubtlediscernment. Concerningthedoctrineofthesimple,compoundandperfect:ifone'sfacultiesarenotequaltothatofVoiceofDiscernment,onecannotaskthequestion.Ifone's knowledgeisnotcorrectanduniversal,onecannotenlightenothers.TheteacherconnectsthemdirectlytotheWay,likeanarrowheadfittingtogetherwithitsshaft.Its gistislikethis.FromthechapterofVajragarbhauptonow,eachoneofthebodhisattvashasconvertedoneoftheFiveObscurationsintotheFiveVirtues.And althoughtheFiveObscurationsandFiveVirtuesarenotexplicitlynamedinthetext,theyareexpressedinthenamesoftheindividualbodhisattvas,andarealso implicitinthequestionsandanswersofthesutra.2 Thereadercannotbutseethis.Myverse: Thethreemeditationsprovisionallyestablishthepathofpractice. Thesimple,compound,andperfectaredividedintotwentyfive. Trappedintheanxietyofadream,thedawnhasnotyetarrived. Awakeningcomesrelyingontheancientsitishighnoon. VoiceofDiscernment'sQuestionontheApplicationoftheThreeMeditations [Sutra(#78)][T842.17.918a22HPC7.154c19]

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ThenthebodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernmentrosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.He thenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,thisteachingisquitewondrous!WorldHonoredOne,forallthebodhisattvasengagedintheteachingandpracticeofPerfect Enlightenment,howmanydifferentkindsoftheseexpedientmethodsarethere?Ibeseechyoutouseexpedientmethodstoteachthoseatthisgreatassemblyandsentientbeings ofthedegenerateage,andcausethemtoawakentothemarksofreality." Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.155a3] Sentientbeingsabandonenlightenment,andtetheredbythebondsofkarma,aresubmergedintheseaofpoison.Howcantheyresurface?!Returningtotheoriginis trulydifficult.TheTathagata,withhisspecialskills,revealsthethreemeditations,andencouragesthebeingstodependonthesetoaccordwiththenatureof enlightenment.Thisiswhythebodhisattvacallsit"wondrous."Again,onebeingnumberless,andthenumberlessbeinggroupedintothreethisisdifficulttoconceive. Eachoneiscompleteinitsaccordancewithenlightenment,andwhenallthreeareperfectlyactualized,itisalsocalled"complete."Thisistruly"wondrous,"andthisis whyhepraisesitsaying:"thisteachingisquitewondrous."Thisbodhisattvapraisedtheteachingbecauseherealizesjusthowwondrousitactuallyis.Thatiswhyheis saidtopossessdiscernment.Concerningthetimeofthepracticeofthethreemeditationsandthedoctrineofsimple,compoundandperfect:thewisdompenetrationof thoseofsuperiorcapacityexistsaprioritolinguisticexpression.Sincethoseofmiddlingandinferiorcapacityhavenotyetbeenawakened,andhavenotyetattained knowledge,heasksthequestionsaboutthenumberofkindsofpractice. [Sutra(#79)][T842.17.918a28HPC7.155a14]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernment,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodsonyouhave

Page185 questionedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthevariouspracticesoftheTathagata.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."The bodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernmentreceivedthisteachingwithreverenceandjoy.Allthoseinthegreatcrowdbecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.155a19] TheBuddhahasalreadytaughtthethreemeditations.Nowhewantstoteachtheirvariousapplicationsandthusgatherinalltypesofsentientbeings.Sincethe bodhisattva'srequestmatchesthisaim,theBuddhapraisesthequestion. TheBuddha'sAnswer:TheTwentyFiveApplications [Sutra(#80)][T842.17.918b3HPC7.155a21]

Goodsons,thePerfectEnlightenmentofalltathagatasispure,originallyhavingneitherpracticenorpractitioner.Whentheypractice,allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthe degenerateagedependuponthepowerofunenlightenedillusion.Atthattime(thetimeofpracticedependentuponillusion)therearetwentyfivekindsofpuremeditation applications.3

[Kihwa][HPC7.155b1] Sinceenlightenmentisoriginallydivorcedfromthought,itisnotapplicabletopractice.Itisonlybecauseofnonenlightenmentthatthereisthefalseexistenceofthe FourMarks4 thatobstructthespiritualluminosity.ItisinordertoeliminatetheFourMarksthatheestablishesthethreemeditations.The"enlightenment"of "nonenlightenment"isthelackofenlightenmentthatexistspriortoenlightenment.Subsequentenlightenmentimpliesfreedomfromthoughtandtheabandonmentof discriminations.IfeachoneoftheFourMarksisabandoned,thenyoucanbesaidtobe"enlightened."Ifyouclingtothemarksthroughtransmigration,youcannotbe calledenlightened.Ifyouwanttoabandondiscriminations,youmustusemeditationpractice.Sincemeditationpracticehasdifferencesaccordingtothedispositionof thepractitioner,twentyfivevariationsaretaught.Thisiscalled"practicewithinnopractice"and''variationwithinnonvariation."

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TheThreeSingleApplications [Sutra(#81)][T842.17.918b6HPC7.155b10]

Somebodhisattvasexclusivelygraspultimatequiescence,andthroughthepowerofquiescencepermanentlyseverafflictionabsolutelyandperfectly,anddirectlyenternirvana withoutrisingfromtheirseats.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathaonly. Somebodhisattvasexclusivelyobserveallasillusion,andbymeansofBuddhapowertransformtheworldandcarryoutvariousactivities,thoroughlyputtingintooperationall themarvelouspurebodhisattvapractices.Inallcontinuousconcentrationstheydonotfailincessationofthoughtandquiescentwisdom.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofsamapattionly. Somebodhisattvasexclusivelyextinguishallillusions,andwithoutactivityintheworldindividuallyseveraffliction.Afflictioncompletelysevered,theydirectlyactualizethe marksofreality.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyanaonly.

ApplicationsInitiatedwithSamatha

Page187 Somebodhisattvasfirstattainperfectquiescence,andthroughthemindofquiescentwisdomshedlightonallillusionsanddirectlywithintheseillusionsarisethebodhisattva practices.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirstandsamapattinext. Somebodhisattvasactualizetheperfectlyquiescentnaturethroughquiescentwisdom,andthendirectlyseverafflictionandpermanentlyescapefromlifeanddeath.These bodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirstanddhyananext. Somebodhisattvasusecessationquiescentwisdomtoremanifestillusionpowerandestablishallkindsoftransformationstosavesentientbeings.Subsequentlytheysever afflictionandentercessationextinction.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirst,samapattinext,anddhyanalast. Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofperfectquiescencetoseverallaffliction.Theythenproducethepure,marvelouspracticesofthebodhisattvasandsaveallsentientbeings. Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirst,dhyananextandsamapattilast. Somebodhisattvasusethemindempoweredbyperfectquiescencetoseverafflictionandthensavesentientbeingsandestablishobjectiverealms.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofsamathafirstandsubsequentsimultaneoussamapattianddhyana. Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofperfectquiescencetoaidintheinitiationoftransformations,thensubsequentlyseverafflictions.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofsimultaneoussamathaandsamapatti,followedbythepracticeofdhyana. Somebodhisattvasuseperfectquiescencetoaidinextinction,andsubsequentlycarryoutactivitiestotransformtheworld.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof simultaneoussamathaanddhyana,whosubsequentlypracticesamapatti.

ApplicationsInitiatedwithSamapatti

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Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertomakevariouskindsofaccordance,andtherebyattainperfectquiescence.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof samapattifirstandsamathanext. Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertocreatevariousrealms,andtherebyattaincessationextinction.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamapattifirstand dhyananext. SomebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertocarryoutBuddhaworks.Then,abidingincessationquiescence,theyseveraffliction.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofsamapattifirst,samathanext,anddhyanalast. Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpower'sunhinderedfunctiontoseveraffliction,andarethereforeabletoabideinperfectquiescence.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofsamapattifirst,dhyananext,andsamathalast. Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowerfortheactivityofexpedientteachingandthenpracticewithinbothperfectquiescenceandextinctiontogether.Thesebodhisattvas arecalledpractitionersofsamapattifirst,followedbysimultaneoussamathaanddhyana. Somebodhisattvasusethevariousgenerativefunctionsoftransformationpowertoaidintheattainmentofperfectquiescenceandsubsequentlyseveraffliction.These bodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsimultaneoussamypattiandsamatha,followedbydhyana. Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertoaidinextinction,andsubsequentlyabideinpureuncreatedquiescenceofthought.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof simultaneoussamapattianddhyanafollowedbysamatha.

ApplicationsInitiatedwithDhyana

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Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofextinctiontoariseperfectquiescenceandabideinpurity.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyanafirstandsamathanext. Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofextinction,yetenteractivity,andthisnegatingfunctionispracticedwithinallrealms.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyana firstandsamapattinext. Somebodhisattvasusethevariousselfnaturesofextinctionpower,andabidinginmentalquiescence,producetransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof dhyanafirst,samathanext,andsamapattilast. Somebodhisattvasusetheinactiveselfnatureofextinctionpowertoengageinactivity,thenpurifytheobjectiverealmandreturntoquiescence.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofdhyanafirst,samapattinext,andsamathalast. Somebodhisattvasusethevariouspurityofextinctionpower,then,abidinginmentalequipoise,producetransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyana first,followedbysimultaneoussamathaandsamapatti. Somebodhisattvasuseextinctionpowertoaidintheattainmentofquiescence,andthengiverisetotransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsimultaneous dhyanaandsamatha,followedbysamapatti. Somebodhisattvasuseextinctionpowertoaidintransformation,produceperfectquiescentpurityandilluminateobjectivewisdom.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledsimultaneous practitionersofdhyanaandsamapatti,followedbysamatha.

SimultaneousConsummationofAllThree

Somebodhisattvas,usingthewisdomofPerfectEnlightenment,harmoniouslyblendallofthese,andinconnectionwithallnaturesandcharacteristics,neverseparatefromthe enlightenednature.

Page190 Thesebodhisattvasarecalled"practitionersofthethreekindsofaccordancewiththepurityoftheselfnature."Goodsons,thesearecalled'thetwentyfiveapplications'ofthe bodhisattvas,andallbodhisattvaspracticelikethis.

[Kihwa][HPC7.156b8] ThepassageinthechapterofPureWisdomBodhisattvathatsays"Theteachingsofthesutrasarelikethefingerpointingtothemoon"5 belongshereafterthelinejust abovewhichsays"Goodsons,thesearecalled'thetwentyfiveapplications'( )."Here,itsays''Thesebodhisattvasarecalled 'practitionersofthethreekindsofaccordancewiththepurityoftheselfnature."'Becauseofthesimilarityofthelanguagewithsuchwordsas"accordance"and"These bodhisattvas"[someone]probablyendedupconfusingthetwopassages.Also,theconcludingsentenceheresays"Goodsons,thesearecalled'thetwentyfive applications"'Intheotherchaptersthewords"Goodsons"havecomeafterthiskindofconcludingremark.Why?Aftertreatingthetwentyfiveapplicationsinthis chapter,heconcludesbysayingthat"thesearethetwentyfiveapplications."[Basedonanobservationoftheotherchapters]wewouldexpecthimtomakeonemore statementstartingwith"Goodsons...".Forexample,inthechapterofMaitreya,afterfinishinghistreatmentoftheFiveNatures,heconcludesthatdiscussionby saying"Thisisthe'distinctionofthefivenatures'ofsentientbeings."8 Afterthisconclusionheinitiatesafurtherdiscussion,saying"Goodsons..."aswecanverifyfor ourselves.Ifweplacethatpassagehere,thetextissmoothandthemeaningmatchesthecontext.Itshouldsay:

Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofthethreekindsofaccordancewiththepurityoftheselfnature,andthesearecalledthebodhisattvas'twentyfiveapplications. Goodsons,theteachingofthesutrasislikethefingerpointingtothemoon.Ifyoualso

Page191 lookatthemoon,youwillfullyrealizethatthatwhichispointingisultimatelynotthemoon.AllthevariouswordsandexplanationsoftheTathagatathatareusedtoawaken bodhisattvasarealsolikethis.Allbodhisattvaspracticelikethis.

Thefingerisametaphorforthecontentofthesutrainstruction,andisalsoametaphorforthecontentofcontemplationpractice,whichisnoneotherthanthetwenty fiveapplications.Thetwentyfiveapplicationsarealsovariouskindsofrevelation,justlikethefingerpointingtothemoon.Themoonisametaphorfortheaimofsutra instructionandisalsoametaphorfortheaimofmeditationpractice,whichisnoneotherthanthesocalled"natureofpurePerfectEnlightenment"andthe"marvelous mindofnirvana."Thisisexpoundedinthesutrasandactualizedinmeditation.Itislikeusingone'sfingertopointtothemoonandthen,relyingonthefinger,seeingthe moon.Thisiswhyheteachesthiskindofpracticetothebodhisattvas.Onewhohasnotyetseenthemoonneedstodependonthefingertoseeit.Oncethemoonis seen,thefingercanbeforgotten.Onewhohasnotyetactualizedenlightenmentmustpracticemeditationinordertoattainrealization.Onceonehasattained realization,hecandiscardthemeditation.Themetaphorofusingarafttocrosstheriver,butoncetheriveriscrossed,discardingtheraft,isthesameasthis. ThereforewecanbesurethatthethreesentencesinthechapterofPureWisdomstartingwith"theteachingsofthesutras"9 belonghere,after"twentyfive applications''andhavebeenmistakenlyplacedinthemiddleofthesentencethatsays"accordingwiththenatureofPerfectEnlightenment."Whenthispassageis placedthere,itfitslikeatumoronthebody.Whenitisplacedhere,itfitsliketwopiecesofafuchieh.10SincetheBuddhahastaughtthetwentyfiveapplications, heisafraidthatthepeoplewillattachtothisteachingas"reality,"andattachtothemeditationas"realization"thereforehemakesthisexplanation.How,then,isone toproceed?ThetwentyfiveapplicationsareallexpedientmethodsforenteringtheWay.ToprovisionallyusethesemethodstoentertheWayisfine.Buttohold rigidlytoexpedientsandnotbepreparedtoreleasethemwillnotdo. Furthermore,inthegathaitsays"Therearenoneamongthetathagatasofthetendirections/Andthepractitionersofthethreeworlds/Whodonotrelyuponthese methods/Intheirattainmentofperfectionofbodhi."Butinthemaintextitonlysays"allbodhisattvas,"leavingoutthewords"alltathagatas,"whicharefoundinthe gatha.Howcanitbethatthemaintextlackssomethingthatappearsonlyinthegatha?Thuswecanseethatthewords"alltathagatas"aredefinitelyomittedfrom hereandmistakenlyplacedthere.Also,ifinthatpartofthetextthereisnophrase"extinctionofobstructions,"thenitfitstogetherwiththispassage"they

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arecalledbodhisattvas."Thenthetextandthethemeaccordwitheachother,andthemeaningcanflowlikebloodcirculatingthroughthebody.Itislikeaperson's recoveryafteratumorisremoved. TheMethodofChoosinganAppropriateApplication [Sutra(#82)][T842.17.919a15HPC7.157a9]


Ifyoubodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewanttoutilizetheseapplications,youmustmaintainpracticesofpurity,quiescence,contemplation...

[Kihwa][HPC7.157a11] "Practicesofpurity"issila."Quiescence"issamadhi."Contemplation"ispraja.Thesearealltaughtattheoutsetofpractice.Whyaretheytaught?Thedharmasof sila,samadhi,andprajaarethemeansbywhichthestudentofBuddhismstartsandfinisheshispractice.Therefore"strictmaintenanceofpracticesofpurity, quiescence,andcontemplation''canbeunderstoodasthepointofdeparture.ItislikethepassageinUniversalVisionthatsays"firstrelyingontheTathagata'spractice ofsamatha...andlivinginharmonywithlikemindedstudents,thenpracticingsilentsittinginaquietroom,theyshould...makethefollowinganalysis."11"Depending onmeditationtoconsummatebodhiandactualizenirvana"thisiswhythesethreearecalledthefullgamutofpractice.Thismeaningisreflectedbysuchsayingsas "onlytheBuddhahimselfkeptthepureprecepts"the"oceansealsamadhi"andthe"oceanlikewisdomoftherealityrealm."Anotherexampleis"TheTathagataputon hisrobesandcarryinghisbowl,enteredthecitytobegforfood.Finishedeating,helaidouthismatandsatinmeditation.Afterthishearosefrommeditationand expoundedthedharma."12Withinallofthestagesofpracticeandrealization,therearenonewhodonotusethesetoadornthepathofenlightenment.ThatiswhyI saythattheyareboththebeginningandcompletionofpractice.MinisterP'eisaid"thatwhichisexpoundedbytheTripitakaissila,samadhi,andprajanothing more."13Isn'titthetruth? [Sutra(#83)][T842.17.919a16HPC7.157b2]
...andsincerelyrepent.Thenpassingthroughthreeweeks,settleuponwhicheverofthetwentyfiveapplicationsisindicatedonyourlot.14Withyourwholemindanda repentantspirit,immedi

Page193 atelychooseone.Dependingonwhatisindicatedonthechosenlot,youwillimmediatelyknowwhetheryouaretopracticethesuddenorgradual.Ifthereisonemomentof doubtyouwillnotbeabletoaccomplishyourassignedapplication.

[Kihwa][HPC7.157b5] Throughthreeweeks,repentdiligentlyandsincerelyprayfortheBuddha'ssecretresponse,andthenchooseoneofthelots.Whethertheindicationonthelotisfor suddenorgradualpractice,itisthesecretguidancefromtheBuddha.Dependingonthisyouwillknowwhetheryoushouldpracticethesuddenorgradual.Evenifthe expedientindicatedisfarfromwhatyouhavebeenexpecting,thisistheBuddha'sgrant,whichyoushouldneitherdoubtnorregret.Ifyoudoubtorregretit,thenthe meditationcannotbeaccomplished. TheGatha [Sutra(#84)][T842.17.919a18HPC7.157b11]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: VoiceofDiscernment,youshouldknow, Allbodhisattvas' Unobstructedpurewisdom Iswithoutexception,producedfrommeditation. Thesocalledsamatha,samapatti,anddhyana Thethreemethodsofsuddenandgradualpractice Havetwentyfiveapplications. Therearenoneamongthetathagatasofthetendirections Andthepractitionersofthethreeworlds Whodonotrelyuponthesemethods Intheirattainmentofperfectionofbodhi Exceptforsuddenlyenlightenedpeople Andthosewhohavenothingtodowiththedharma.

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[Kihwa][HPC7.157b17] Thetwentyfiveapplicationsaremethodsofcultivation.Suddenlyenlightenedpeopledonotdependuponcultivation,butinasingleleapdirectlyenterthestageofthe Tathagata."Thosewhohavenothingtodowiththedharma"areicchantikaswhohaveseveredtherootsofgoodness.Notvaluingreligiouscultivationtheyharm themselvesandabandonthemselves.Thesuddenlyenlightenedseetheseexpedientmethodsaswornout"strawdogs."Icchantikaslookupontheseexpedientmeans thesamewaytheywouldviewadonkeydancinginthebranchesofamulberrytree.Eventhoughthewiseandfoolisharenotthesame,theyarethesameintheirnot valuingreligiouscultivation.Thisiswhythesutrasays"Exceptforimmediatelyenlightenedpeople/Andthosewhohavenothingtodowiththedharma." [Sutra(#85)][T842.17.919a27HPC7.157c1]

Allbodhisattvas Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage, Shouldalwaysembracetheseapplications, Followingthem,endeavoringtopracticethem. RelyingonthepoweroftheBuddha'sgreatcompassion, Beforelongtheywillactualizenirvana.

[Kihwa][HPC7.157c3] Above,itwassaid"[Therearenone]whodonotrelyuponthesemethods/Intheirattainmentofperfectionofbodhi."Hereitsays"Relyingonthepowerofthe Buddha'sgreatcompassion/Beforelongtheywillactualizenirvana."BodhiandnirvanaarethetwounsurpassedfruitsofallBuddhistpractitioners.Withinthe"purityof thePerfectEnlightenmentofalltathagatas"15theBuddhahasrevealedthetwentyfiveapplications.Hefinishesbymentioningthetwounsurpassedfruitsofbodhiand nirvana.Thereadershouldpaycloseattentiontothis. ExplicationoftheTwentyFiveApplications:TheParableoftheCastle Intherealmofrealityandpuritythereisnoprincipleofdisorder.TheTrueManofNoStatusalsodoesnotcomeandgo.16WithinthefirstmovementoftheTrue Manliestheoriginofcalamity.Oncethewombofcalamityhasbeencreated,thenarisingandceasingshowthemselves.

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Oncearisingandceasingshowthemselves,thewiseandthefoolishbecomedistancedfromeachother.Sincethewiseandfoolishtreaddifferentpaths,aboveand belowaredistinguished,rulerandsubjectaredetermined.Thewiseareaboveandarethatwhichthefoolishleanupon.Thefoolisharebelowandarethatwhichthe wisegathertogether.Sincethoseexistingbelowarethefoolishandthesmallmindedmen,theirworldcannotbutbeindisorder.Sincetheonesexistingabovearethe wiseandsuperiormen,therecannotbutbeskillfulmanagementofdisorder.Butwhenitcomestimetoforthemtodealwithrebellion,andtodistributethehalberds andshields,theyneedtotesttheworthofthemenandassignthemtotheappropriateposts. Inthehandlingofmen'sabilitiestherearemanyapproaches,andinthequellingofrebellionthereisnotjustonemethod.Establishingtheteachingaccordingtothe capacitiesofbeings[inBuddhism]islikeproperlyusingpeople'sabilities[ingoverningthestate].Adjustingtheremedyaccordingtothediseaseislikethemeasures forquellingrebellion."Quiescence(samatha)"islikethejobofbringingordertothevassalsoftherealm."Contemplationofasillusion(samapatti)"islikethetask offendingoffoutsidearmies."Cessation(dhyana)"islikethematterofhandlingaffairswithintheemperor'sprivatedomain.17Followingthedirectivesofthekingof enlightenment,atthebreakofdaythewisegeneraldoesnotallowthethievesofconsciousnesstoarise,andextinguishesobjectivedefilement,quietingthefacultiesand observingtheobjectiverealmwithdetachment.Thesearethecharacteristicsofquiescence.Thewiseministerandclevergeneralcarefullysurveyinnerandouterand arousethepowerofillusorytransformation,creatingvariousfunctions.Thesearethecharacteristicsof''asillusioncontemplation."Followingthemasterofthecastle, whogathersandpreparestheinfantry,theylistenforthecommandsoftheprince,andwithinthedomainthereissilencetheskyisvastandclear.Thesearethe characteristicsofcessationmeditation. Asforthedistributionintotwentyfiveapplications:Therearesomepeoplewhocandothejobofkeepingorderinsidethelargerrealm,butwhocannotfendoff outsidersorhandletheaffairsoftheemperor'scentraldomain.Therearesomewhocanassumetheroleofdefendingagainstoutsideattacks,butareunabletokeep orderwithintherealm,orhandletheaffairsofthecentraldomain.Therearesomewhocanhandletheaffairsofthecentraldomain,butwhocanneitherfendoff outsideattack,norkeeporderwithinthelargerrealm.Thesearecomparabletothesimplepracticeofthethreemeditations.Thosewhocanfirstdothejobofkeeping orderinsidetherealm,andnextfendoffexternalattackarelikethosewhopracticesamathafirstandsamapattinext.Thosewhocanfirstkeeporderinsidethe realmandthenafterhandletheaffairsofthecentraldomainarelikethosewhodosamatha

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firstanddhyananext.Thosewhocanfirstkeeporderwithintherealm,nextfendoffexternalattacks,andthenfinallyhandletheaffairsofthecentraldomainarelike thosewhopracticesamathafirst,samapattinext,anddhyanalast.Thosewhocanfirstkeeporderwithintherealm,nexthandletheaffairsofthecentraldomain,and finallyfendoffexternalattacksarelikethosewhopracticesamathafirstfollowedbydhyanaandthensamapatti.Thosewhocanfirstkeeporderwithintherealm andthennextsimultaneouslydefendthebordersandhandlethecentralaffairsarelikethosewhopracticesamathafirstfollowedbysimultaneoussamapattiand dhyana.Thosewhocanfirstsimultaneouslykeeporderwithintherealmandfendoffattack,andsubsequentlyhandletheaffairsofthecentraldomainarelikethose whopracticesimultaneoussamathaandsamapattifirst,followedbydhyana.Thosewhocanfirstsimultaneouslykeeporderwithintherealmandhandletheaffairs ofthecentraldomainandthenfendoffoutsideattacksarelikethosewhopracticesimultaneoussamathaanddhyanafollowedbysamapatti.Theserepresentthe firstsevenoftheapplications. Thesubsequentfourteencanbeunderstoodinthesameway.Itisjustthatinthefirstseven,samathatakesprecedenceoversamapattianddhyana.Thensome comebefore,someafterandsomesimultaneously.Inthenextseven,samapattihasprecedenceandsamathaanddhyanaeithercomebeforeeachother,aftereach other,orsimultaneously.Inthefinalseven,dhyanahasprecedence,andsamathaandsamapattieithercomebeforeoraftereachother,orsimultaneously,aswith theothers.Ifthereisapersonwhocanmovefromgeneralshiptoministership,handlingbothwithoutobstruction,stabilizingmovementandsilencingspeech,never missinginsamadhi,thenthisiscomparabletotheperfectpracticeofallthreemeditations.Ifyouutilizepeopleinthisway,thentherewillbenosuchthingasa "neglectedWorthy"18inyourcountry.Ifdisorderisquelledinthisway,thentherewillbenodisordernotquelled.TheBuddha's"nosentientbeingnotrespondedto" and''nodiseasenottreated"arethesameasthis.Thisisthesameas"straighteningthecrookedwithoutremainder."19Theskillfulhandlingofexpedientmeanscanbe seeninthis.Ifyoulackthewisdomeye,thecharacteristicsofthetwentyfiveapplicationsaresomewhatdifficulttoclearlydistinguish.Butiftheyarearrangedlikethis, doesnotthemeaningbecomeclear? Noweventhoughtheprincipleonlyhasasingletaste,theteachinghasathousandvariations.Settinguptheteachingwithmanypaths,theyallreturntoasingle destination.Itisthesamewiththecapacitiesofsentientbeings.Althoughthegatestheyenterarevarious,therealmtowhichtheyarriveisthesame.Whenyoufinally ascendtheroadofgreatenlightenmentandyouturnbacktoobservewhatyouhavedone

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uptothispoint,thenitwillseemjustlikeadream.Thesaying"comingandgoingandobservingtheworldisjustliketheaffairsofadream"isthesameasthis.The Buddhasays"theteachingofthesutrasisjustlikethefingerpointingtothemoon.Ifyoualsolookatthemoon,youwillfullyrealizethatthepointingfingerisultimately notthemoon."20Canwereallycallthisanerror?Itislikebringingordertothecountryoncetherealmisatpeacethenrulerandsubjectformasinglebody,innerand outermergeasone,andhallsoflitigationareturnedintoplacesforquietcontemplation.Halberdsandshieldsarereturnedforuseindiggingtheearthandcuttingtrees. Atthistimethenameofunpraisedgoodnessisexalted.Howcanthereeveragainexistthejobofquellingdisorder?Thisistrulythe"governanceofthesixstates"21 wherethereisalreadynodisorder. Onemanmovesonthebaseofgreatpeace AndknowingtheWay,theWayisgreatened. WithouttransmissionoftheordersfromtheSonofHeaven, Thetimesarecalmandbountiful, AndthesongofGreatPeaceissung.

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9. PurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattva
[Translator'snote:Themiddleportionofthischapter,whichcontainsadiscussionoftheFourTracesof"self,""person,""sentientbeing,"and''life"isoneofthemost difficultsectionstofollow.Itisnotthatitssentencesembodythedeepestdoctrinalprofunditiesofthesutrathefirstthreechapterscontainthemostprofound Buddhistdiscourse.Thedifficultyliesinthefactthatitisnoteasytograsptheintentofthediscussionanditsframeofreference.Furthermore,ifwecantrustthe judgmentofKihwaconcerningthecorrectnessofthesentencestructure,thisportionofthetexthasthehighestconcentrationofcopyisterrors. Thecentralportionofthischapterconsistsofanexplanationofthesubtleactionofmentalkarma,where"karmicity"isdefinedas"trace"or"remainder"fromaprior cognitiveactivity.KarmawillbedefinedbyKihwainhisprefatoryremarksas"alreadyness"(ijan/iyon ),whichIhavetranslatedelsewhereinthetextas"mark," andsometimesas"attribute"and"characteristic."Sincewealreadyhave"FourMarks"inanearlierchapter(arising,abiding,changing,andceasing),weshouldavoid confusionbyusingadifferentterm.Andsincethefourhsiangbeingdiscussedherehavedistinctly"residual"connotations,Ihaveusedtheword"trace." Theauthorofthesutrawilllabeleachoneofthetraceswithaspecialtermtodistinguishitsfunctionalawarenessfromtheothers.Allfourofthesearewordsthatare normallyusedtodescribeanaspectofenlightenment,whichisofsomesignificanceinthattheyareherebeingusedwithnegativeconnotations.Thisdistinctand separatenamingofeach

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ofthefourcanbeseenasameansofhelpingtodistinguishonelevelofactivityfromthenext.Iwillintroducethemheresothatsomeconfusioncanbeavoided.Tothe traceofself,hehasattachedthewordcheng/chung( ),whichIhaverenderedas"beaware."Itissignificantthateachoneofthese"awarenesswords"normallyhas connotationsofenlightenmentinonecontextoranother,andindeed,inthischapter,theyarereferredtoas"wisdoms."Butbythefactoftheirlingeringaskarmic traces,eachoneofthemtransformsintoahindrance,unlessthepractitioner,byperfectillumination,isabletodissolveallremainder,thewayhotwatermeltsanice cube.ForthepurposeofunderstandingtheparticularpassagethatelucidatestheFourTraces,Kihwa'scommentaryisprobablymoreindispensablethanithasbeen anywhereinthesutra.] [Kihwa][HPC7.159c7] Nondefilementispurity,"alreadyness( )."Whenasinglethoughtdoesnotarise,thereismerelybrightness,onlyillumination.Thisistheoriginofthe"notyet." Onceasinglethoughthasarisenandallthefacultiesunleashconsciousness,thisisthe"alreadyness"ofkarma.Whenthismindis"already"andhasbecomekarmic, thenthethreesubtleandsixcoarsedefilements1 strugglewitheachotherintheiractivitytheyhinderandconcealtheluminosityofthespirit.Becauseofthis, brightnessisrefractedasignorance,andpurityistransformedintodefilement.Themeaningof"purifyingallkarmichindrances"isgraduallyeliminatingallkarmic hindrancesfromthegrosstothesubtleuntiltherearenonelefttoeliminate.Purity,then,means"completelyundefiled." WhyisaquestionaskedafterthechapterofVoiceofDiscernment?FromthechapterofVajragarbhauptothechapterofVoiceofDiscernmenttherehasbeena continuousdiscussionoftheFiveObscurations,whicharetheafflictionsthatpollutethetruenature.Yettherehasnotyetbeenaclarificationofhowtheafflictions comeintobeing.Thereforethisbodhisattvacompletelygoestothesourceofthematterandasksthisquestion,andtheTathagatateachesthe"FourTraces"tobethe causeofthetroubles.Thequestionsays:"Ifthisenlightenedmindisoriginallypure,whatdefilementsmakeallsentientbeingssufferindelusionandbeunabletoenter?" ThispointstotheFiveObscurationsasthatfromwhencecometheafflictionsthatdefilethetruenature.Theanswersays:"[You]discernthesefourdelusionstobean actual

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selfessence,andbecauseofthisreadilycreatethetwostatesofhatredandlove.""Hatredandlove"arethesameasthe"angeranddesire''fromamongtheFive Obscurations.Ofcourse,includedalongwithdesireandangerareagitation,dullness,anddoubt.ButthisislikethecaseoftheFourTraces,whensometimesonlythe "selftrace"ismentioned,intendedtoexemplifyalltheothers.ThisshowsthattheFiveObscurations,whicharetheafflictionsthatpollutethetruenature,havetheir effectduetotheFourTraces.Thus,whentheFiveObscurationsareclearedaway,andyouareridoftheFourTraces,thenthecoarseandsubtlehindrancesare extirpated.Thereispuritywithoutremainderandenlightenmentisnaturallyapparenteverywhere.PurifierofKarmaBodhisattva'stakingupfromthepriorchapterand askingthisquestionisbasedonthis.Myverse: First,becauseofnonenlightenmentonerejectsthetrueeternal. Then,givingrisetoselfandperson,peopleencountergreatsuffering. ThecloudsoftheFourTracesareopened,thesinglerealityisdisclosed Thedepthoftheoceanandtheclarityoftheskyreflectthemyriadforms. [Sutra(#86)][T842.17.919b1HPC7.160a9

ThebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.He thenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveexplainedatlengthforallofusthisinconceivablematteroftheaspectsofthepracticeofthecausalstageofall Tathagatas,enablingallinthegreatassemblytogainthatwhichtheyhaveneverhad.HavinghadthischancetoseetheTamer,2alloftheirpassagethroughrealmsofsuffering forcountlesskalpasseemsasifitwerebutaninstantofthought.Webodhisattvashavebeengreatlyencouraged."

[Kihwa][HPC7.160a16] Withinthesingletaste3 ofnoncultivationhetaughtthreemeditativepractices.Sincetheseweredifficulttocomprehend,heagainrevealedthe[twentyfive] applications.Thesecompletelyembraceallkindsof

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sentientbeings,who,althoughtheymaynotbeabletofullymastertheseapplications,cancomprehendthem."Alltheeffectiveactivities"then,referstothetwentyfive applications,andtheseareused"passingthroughrealmsofsufferingincountlesskalpas."DependingontheBuddha'sinstruction,theyhavecometoknowallthis directlyinasinglethoughtmoment.Thereforetheyhavebeen"greatlyencouraged." TheQuestionofPurifierofKarmicHindrances:TheRemovalofObstructions [Sutra(#87)][T842.17.919b6HPC7.160a21]

WorldHonoredOne,ifthisenlightenedmindisoriginallypure,whatkindofdefilementscausesentientbeingstosufferindelusionandnotenter?Myonlyrequestisthatyou thoroughlyawakentothenatureofexistence,andcausethoseinthisgreatassemblyandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetocreatethe"futureeye."Afterfinishingthis speech,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.160b2] [Theintransitiveverb]kaiwu(

"awakenothers,""disclose,""reveal"),sincewiththewordkaiwu,thesentencedoesnotflowproperly.

[Translator'snote:IfwefollowKihwa'sassertion,thelinecanbetranslatedas"Myonlyrequestisthatyouthoroughlyrevealthenatureofreality,andcausethosein thisgreatassemblyandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetocreatethe'futureeye."'] [Kihwa] Thenext,"createthefutureeye"shouldbeunderstoodtomean"awaken"(kaiwu)."Natureofenlightenment"and"natureofexistence"aretermsthatrefertoessence andfunction."Natureofenlightenment''istheunmanifestsourceofdependentorigination,thetimewhenpracticeandrealizationhavenotbeenactivated."Natureof existence"referstoallofdependentoriginationthatallowsforthedistinctionbetweendelusionandenlightenmentandforthecarryingoutofpracticeandrealization. Nowheisaskingaboutthereasonsfordelusionandsuffering,andthemethodofpracticeandrealization.Thereforehesays"revealtousthenatureofexistence."Ifhe said"natureofenlightenment,"

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thatwouldmeanthatithasalreadybeenrevealedtothemtheyhavealreadyexperiencedawakening.Sincehesays"natureofexistence,"thentheyhavenotyet experiencedenlightenmentthereforethereisthepresentrequesttobeawakened.Iftheydonotreceivetheawakeningteaching,thentheywillnotbeabletoawaken, andwillbeunableto"createthefutureeye." [Sutra(#88)][T842.17.919b10HPC7.160b12]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrances,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforsentientbeingsofthe degenerateageabouttheexpedientmethodsoftheTathagata.Listenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesreverentlyandjoyfully receivedthisteachingthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.160b17] SincetheremovalofgrosshindrancesandsubtleafflictionsisalsotheBuddha'sbasicintention,hegladlyapprovesofthequestion. TheBuddha'sAnswer:TheFourTraces [Sutra(#89)][T842.17.919b14HPC7.160b19]

Goodsons,frombeginninglesstimeallsentientbeingsdeludedlyconceiveandattachtotheexistenceof"self,""person,"''sentientbeing,"and"life"4theydiscernthesefour distortionstobearealselfessence.Fromthistheydirectlygiverisetothetwostatesof

Page203 attractionandaversion.Inthisfalseessence,theyagainbecomeattachedtofalsehood.Thesetwodelusionsinteracttoproducethepathofdeludedkarma("activity"),andsince thereisdeludedkarma,theydeludedlyperceivetransmigration.Thosewhocometodislikesamsaradeludedlyperceivenirvana,andbecauseofthisareunabletoenterpure enlightenment.Itisnotthatenlightenmentrejectsthosewhoarecapableofentryrather,itisbecausethosecapableofentrydonotawakenandenter.Thereforewhetherone's thoughtsarejumpingaroundorsilencedbothconditionsultimatelyreverttodeludedanxiety.Why?Becausethereisbeginninglessoriginallyarisenignorancethatbecomes thesubjectiveegothusallsentientbeingsproducetheeyeofignorance.Thevariousnaturesofbody,mind,andsoon,arenothingbutignorance.Takeforexampletheperson whodoesnotwanttoendhisownlife.Therefore,youshouldknowthereisenjoymentof"selfhood"whenthingsgowell.Whenthingsdon'tgoasonelikes,thenhatredand angerarise.Sincethismindofattraction/aversionnourishesignorance,thosewhostrivetocultivatetheWayneverattainit.

[Kihwa][HPC7.160c8] Asinglethoughtincludesallthemyriaddharmasofthethreerealms.Withoutdeludedconceptualization,allthemyriaddharmasvanishtogether.Sincethenature originallylacksaself,imagination[ofaself]inthemidstofitsabsenceiscalled"deludedconceptualization."Noselfconceivingaselfthisisindeedfalsehood! Dependingonthisselfwefurtherarisethetwoviewsofattractionandaversionthereforehesays"againattachtofalsehood."Thesetwofalseviewsworkwitheach othertoproducekarmaandbringsufferingwepassthroughtheFourKindsofBirthandareimprisonedintheFiveDestinies.5 Yetevenifwegetsickofsuffering andcutoffitsorigination,cultivatethewayofrealizationandcessation,wearestillstuckintheunconditioned.Nottryingtotranscendthis,weremain[trapped]with themyriadsofbeingsinsamsara.Eventhoughrisingandfallingarenotthesame,andpurityanddefilementaredifferent,intermsofnonentryintoenlightenment,allare thesame.Sentientbeingsarestuckintheconditioned(samskrta)6 andthepractitionersoftheTwoVehiclesarestuckintheunconditioned(asamskrta).Inthepure oceanofenlightenment,essenceandattributesbotharesubmergedtogether.Thisisbecausebothsamskrtaandasamskrtagotoofar.Itislikeavoidingdrowningby jumpingintothefireorescapingthepeaksbyfallingintotheravinesneitherextremecanavoidsuffering. Howisitso?Thenatureisoriginallyperfectlyclear,lackinganydiscursivethought.Assoonasdiscursivethoughtmovesevenslightly,thisperfectclarityisobscured andthereistheappearanceofignorance.

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EventhoughthepractitionersoftheTwoVehicleshavealreadyseveredafflictionandarealreadyfreefromsamsara,theyhavestillnotforgottentheir"subjectivity." Thereforetheybothreturntodeludedafflictionanddonotentertheoceanofenlightenment.Itislikewhenthethiefhasnotyetbeenremovedfromthehousehold,ora countrythatisnotyetatpeace.Thesentientbeing'soriginalarisingofignoranceislikethefetusinthewomb.Eventhoughitlackseyes,itsinherentch'itakesshape andinitiatesthemovementofthought.Theseareallcharacteristicsofignorance.Itislikehumanbeingsandthelifefaculty.Peoplelivebybeingjoinedwithlife.Tocut offone'slifeistrulydifficulttodesiretoremoveignoranceisthisnotalsodifficult?Becausethechieftainhasnotyetbeenexpelled,hisfollowers,thoughsubdued, immediatelyrearise.Sincetherootsandtrunkstillremain,thebranchesandleaves,thoughgone,immediatelygrowagain.Sinceprimaryandsecondarydelusions exacerbateeachotherandhavenotbeenpermanentlysevered,eventhoughwepassthroughmanykalpascontinuallyseekingenlightenment,wedonotattainit. Theword"continually"refersto"momenttomomentcontinuation"withoutanyinterval.Itisnotthe"pervasivefunctionoftheseeds[inthealayavijtana]."7 The meaningof"continuingwithoutinterval"isasalaterlinesays:''Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotperceivetheirselfnatures.Althoughtheystrugglethrough manykalpasofdifficultpracticeincultivatingtheWay,itismerelycalledsamskrta.Theyareultimatelyincapableofconsummatingthefruitsofsagehood."8 Italso says:"Eventhoughtheystrugglewithgreateffort,theymerelyexacerbatetheirvariousafflictions,andthereforeareunabletoenterpureenlightenment."9 Themeanings of"strugglethroughdifficultpractice"and"diligentlyendeavor"areequivalentto"continuouslyseektheway." [Translator'snote:Kihwaisstressingthefactthatitisextremelydifficulttoremovedelusionbecausewhatistermedas"ignorance"beginswiththemostsubtle actionsofthehumanconsciousness,whicharedifficulttobeawareof.Aslongasthesesubtleactionsofthehumanconsciousnesscontinuetotakeplace,thenno matterwhatstrenuouseffortonemakesinpractice,ignorancewillcontinuetorearise.Thefourkindsofsubtlekarmicmentalactivitywillnowbeintroduced.] TheExplanationoftheFourTraces [Sutra(#90)][T842.17.919b25HPC7.161a15]

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Goodsons,whatisthe"traceofself"?10Itisthatwhichiswitnessed11bythemindofsentientbeings.Goodsons,whenyouareingoodhealth,younaturallyforgetaboutyour body.Butwhenthebodybecomessick,andyoumakeaneffortcorrecttheinfirmity,withtheslightestapplicationofmoxibustionandacupunctureyouareimmediatelyawareof yourexistenceasaself.Thus,itisonlyinreferencetothis"witnessing"thatyouperceiveandgrasptoanapparentselfessence.Goodsons,everykindofwitnessingfromthis leveluptotheTathagata'sperfectperceptionofpurenirvana,isallthe"traceofself."

Goodsons,whatisthe"traceofperson"?Itisthecognitionbysentientbeingsoftheprior"witnessing."Goodsons,oncetheselfiscognizeditisnotagainrecognizedinthe sameway.12Itisthesameinthecasewherethatwhichiscognizedisnonself.This"cognition,"whichhasgonebeyondeverykindof''witnessing,"isthe"traceofperson." Goodsons,if,fromthislevelofbasicrecognitionofselfuptotheperfectrecognitionofnirvanaasself,thereremainsinthemindeventhesmallestremainderofcognitionthat completelyincludesthewitnessingofprinciple,allarecalledthe"traceofperson."

Goodsons,whatisthe"traceofsentientbeing"?Itisthatwhichisbeyondtheselfwitnessingandcognitionofthemindsofallsentientbeings.Goodsons,takeforexamplethe personwhosays"Iamasentientbeing."Whatthispersonhascalled"sentientbeing,"isneitherselfnorother.13Whyisitnotself?Sinceselfis"sentientbeing,"itisnotself. Whyisitnot"other?"Since"self"issentientbeing,itcannotbeanotherself.Goodsons,whatsentientbeingsrealizeinwitnessingandrealizeincognitionisnothingmorethan thetracesofselfandperson.Thatwhichdoesnotreachthetraces

Page206 ofselfandsentientbeing,yetwhichremainsasrealized,isthetraceofsentientbeing.

Goodsons,whatisthe"traceoflife"?Itisthatwhichsentientbeingsrealizethroughthemind'spureilluminatingawareness.14Theinabilityofallofthepriorkarmicwisdomsto reflectonthemselvesisjustlikethelifefaculty.Goodsons,whenoneseeswiththemind'sillumination,allawarenessesarenothingbutdefilement.Sincethatofwhichthe awarenessesareawareisnotfreefromdefilement,itislikehotwatermeltingice:thereisneitherdiscriminationoftheexistenceoficenorknowledgeoftheice'smelting.The remainingexistenceofaselfandtheawarenessofaselfarejustlikethis.

[Kihwa][HPC7.161b15] InthediscussionoftheFourTracestherearefoursections.Eachofthesepassageshasthreeparts.Thebeginningofeachpartisindicatedbythephrase"Goodsons." Eachalsohasaconclusion.Ifyouunderstandthelineofthought,thethemeispenetratedbyasinglethread.Althoughitseemsextremelycomplexandconvoluted, onceyouperceivetheflowofthetext,itbecomesclearthattheproblemisthatinthethreesectionsofthetextthattreat"person,""sentientbeing,"and"life''thereare errorsofomission.Therearealsoplaceswhereentirephrasesareoutoftheirproperorder.Thereforethemeaningofonelinedoesnotfollowwiththenext,andthe themedoesnotflow.Forexample,thetwophrases"thereremainsinthemindeventhesmallestremainderofcognition( ),"thetextisprob

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ablymissingthephrase"Goodsons(

)."Thebeginningpartshouldbeinfront.Thusthetextshouldread:

Goodsons,whatisthe"traceoflife"?Thisreferstothatwhichsentientbeingsrealizethroughthemind'silluminatingpureawareness.Goodsons,thatwhichisnotperceivable bythetotalityofkarmicwisdomisjustlikethelifefaculty.Itislikehotwatermeltingice:thereisnodiscriminationoftheexistenceoficeorknowledgeoftheice'smelting.The nonexistenceofaselfandtheawarenessofaselfarejustlikethis.Goodsons,whenoneseeswiththemind'sillumination,alltheseawarenessesarenothingbutdefilement.Since thatofwhichtheawarenessesareawareisnotseparatefromdefilement,itiscalledthe"traceoflife."

From"Goodsons,whatisthe'traceofself'?"uptohere,heexplainstheFourTraces,andaccordingtothe"trace,"atermforthespecifictypeofawarenessis attached.Afterthis,hesays:"Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotperceivetheFourTraces,andthoughtheymaystrugglethroughmanykalpas ofdifficultpracticewhilecultivatingtheWay,itisstillnothingbutconditionedexistence.Theyareultimatelyincapableofconsummatingthefruitsofsagehood."Inthis case,themeaningsofthesentencesagreewitheachother,andthethemeisclearthereaderwillunderstandverywell.

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Inthesentencethatsays"itreferstothatwhichisperceivedbythemindofsentientbeings,""sentientbeing"isasynonymfor"worldling."Inthecaseof"worldling" thereare''innerworldlings"and"outerworldlings,"15whichisjustlikesaying"people"andhavingadifferencebetweenwisepeopleandfoolishpeople.The"sentient beings"mentionedherearethosewhoareabovetheleveloftheTwoVehiclesandbelowthelevelofEqualEnlightenment.Thereforethehindrancesthataretobe removedarethesubtledelusions,tobedistinguishedfromthegrossdelusionsthatbindthe"outerworldlings." AlthoughtheseFourTraceshavethesamenameastheFourMarksthataretaughtintheDiamondSutra,theirmeaningisdifferent.TheFourTracesinthistextare taughtinconnectionwiththesubtledelusionsthatappearincultivationandrealization.Those[intheDiamondSutra]arethosepossessedbysentientbeingsin general.Themind'spossessionofsomethingtowitness,andthewitnessingmind'sinabilitytoforgetthis,iscalledthe"TraceofSelf."Evenincluding[suchexalted statesas]witnessingtheTathagataandnirvana,ifonedoesnotletgoofwhatiswitnessed,itiscalledthe"traceofself."Notlettinggoofwhathasbeenwitnessed, oneimmediatelycognizesthismistake.Thenotlettinggoofthiscognizingmindiscalled"thetraceofperson."Thecognizancethat[allsuchgoodthingsas]even perceivingtheTathagataandnirvanaarenothingbut"self,"areallcognizanceofthismistake.Evenwhenthewitnessingmindiscompletelyexhausted,ifthecognizing mindstillremains,thenitisalsocalled"traceofperson." Cognizing"witnessing"asamistakeandthatthe"self"cannotbejustifiedknowing"cognition"isamistake,andthat"person"cannotbejustified,the"realizingmind" stillremains,andiscalledthe"traceofsentientbeing."Themind,luminousandpure,isawareofthis"realization"asamistakebutisnotabletoletgoofthe awareness.Thisiscalledthe"traceoflife."Asforthephrase"allkarmaandwisdom":"karma"istheoppositeof"nature"and"wisdom"istheoppositeof"delusion." Thetracesofwhathasalreadyhappenedarecalled"karma"notbeingconfusedaboutthecorrectandincorrectiscalled"wisdom." Themindhasanexperienceofwitnessingsomethingandthewitnessingmindisnotletgoofthereiscognitionofthewitnessingasamistake,andrealizationthatthe cognitionisalsoamistake,andthesestretchoutwithoutbeingletgoof.Theseare[whatIhavecalled]"thetracesofalreadyness."Onceyou"letgo,"theneverything heretoforeiserasedandyouaccordwiththenatureofenlightenment.Notlettinggo,youareconfusedandacthaphazardly"alreadiness"comestofruition,andthisis called"karma."Oncenotlettinggoofwitnessingiscognizedasamistake,andnotlettinggoofcognitionandnotlettinggoofrealizationareinturnknownas mistakes,thenthecorrectandincorrectarenotconfusedthereforeitiscalled"wisdom."

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Whenitsays"all,"[thethree]mistakesofwitnessing,cognition,andrealizingarethesame,andyet[intermsof]karmaandwisdomtherearedifferences.Thephrase "thatwhichisnotperceivable[bythetotalityofkarmic]wisdomisjustlikethelifefaculty,"meansthatthemindilluminatespurityandbecomesawareofknowingasa mistake.Allkarmicwisdomsundergoenlightenmentandaresuddenlyfused.Theydisappearfromview,selferased.Thereisnolongerasubjectivelyknowingmind capableofreflectiononthetracesofselferasure,orsubjectiveerasingawareness.Onlythisenlightenedmindexists,completelyalone,justlikethelifefaculty,which doesnothavean''other."Itislikeicebeingmeltedinhotwater:thereisnoseparateicesuchthatonecouldknowtheiceismelted.Onlythehotwaterremainsby itself:thereisno"otherthing."Theawarenessthatselfhoodisamistake,andthatthereisnoseparateselftobeknownasa"self,"isthesamesortofcase. FromheretotheconclusionofthediscussionoftheFourTraces,eventhoughthetextonlymentionsthisfactinregardstothetraceofself,theothertracesshouldbe consideredasincluded.Ifyouwanttomakethediscussioncomplete,itshouldsay:"Whenyouareawarethatselfhoodisamistake,thereisnoseparateselfthatcan beknownasselfwhenyouareawarethat'person'isamistake,thereisnoseparatepersonthatcanbeknownasperson.Whenyouareawarethat'sentientbeing'is amistake,thereisnoseparatesentientbeingthatcanbeknownassentientbeing.Onlythemindthatisawareofsomethinglikealifefacultysingularlyremains."This meaningisthesameastheabovetext. Above,theterms"witnessing,""cognition,"and"realization"areappliedrespectivelyto"self,""person,"and"sentientbeing."Itisonlywhenwegettothispointthatit says"awareness/enlightenment."16Thisisbecauseallthekarmicwisdomsofwitnessing,cognition,andrealizationaresuddenlyfusedontheexperienceof enlightenment.Ithasalreadybeendeterminedthatwitnessing,cognition,andrealizationaremistakes,sointheconcludingsentencestheyarecalled"traces,"and dependinguponthemindofenlightenmenttheycanbeextinguished.TheBuddhawouldalsoliketocategorizethemindofenlightenmentasamistake,andsointhe conclusionitisalsocalleda"trace."Thetextsays:"Goodsons,ifthemindilluminatesallawarenesses,thenallaredefilement.Sincethatwhichisknownbyawareness isnotseparatefromdefilement,itiscalled'traceoflife."'"Allawarenesses"referstoallthekarmicwisdomsofwitnessing,cognition,andrealization.Asfor"thatwhich isknownbyawareness,"awareness(chiao/kak,"enlightenment" )is"illumination.""Thatwhichisknown"are"alltheawarenesses."Thismeansthateventhoughone isawarethatalltheawarenessesofwitnessing,cognition,andrealizationaredefilement,

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sincethismindofawarenessisalsodefilement,itiscalled"traceoflife." Self,person,sentientbeingandlifearealsocalled"traces,"arealsocalled"karma"andarealsocalled"wisdom.''"Wisdom"isasynonymfor"nature.""Karma"isa synonymfor"trace."Therelationshipbetween"trace"and"karma"andbetween"wisdom"and"nature"isjustlikethatbetweenthewordsyenandmu( synonymouslogographsthatmean"eye").Whennaturearises,itis"trace,"whenitis"already"itiscalled"karma."The"alreadyness"ofkarmaisnoneotherthanthe "trace"ofthearisingofnature."Luminousstillness"isnature,"perfectclarity"iswisdom.The"perfectclarity"thatis"wisdom"isnoneotherthanthe"luminousstillness" thatisnature.Intermsofselftheauthorsays"witness"intermsof"person"hesays"cognize"intermsofsentientbeinghesays"realize"andintermsoflifehesays "awareness."Intermsofwitnessing,cognition,realization,andawareness,wecanknowthemistakesoneaftertheother,butstillbeunabletoletgoofour discriminationsandseverourbonds.Thereforetheyarecalled"karma"and"trace."If,onebyone,weletgoofourdiscriminationsandseverourbonds,thentheso calledwitnessing,cognition,realization,andawarenesswillbeperfectlyclearintheiressence.Severingexpectationanddependenceisonlycalledwisdomitisnot called"karma."Itisonlycallednatureitisnotcalled"trace." TheErrorsthatResultfromNotPerceivingtheActionoftheFourTraces [Sutra(#91)][T842.17.919c17HPC7.162c16]
Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotperceivetheFourTraces,andthoughtheymaystrugglethroughmanykalpasofdifficultpracticewhilecultivatingthe Way,itisstillnothingbutconditionedexistence.Theyareultimatelyincapableofconsummatingthefruitsofsagehood.Thereforeitiscalledtheageofdegenerationofthetrue dharma.

[Translator'snote:Ifwetranslatethislineinthiscontext,itshouldberenderedasitis:"ageofthedegenerationofthetruedharma."AsKihwawillexplaininhis commentaryjustbelow,hethinksthislineisoutofplacehere.Lateron,hewillalsoexplainwhyheunderstandsittomeansomethinglike"thetruedharmainthe degenerateage."Inhisamendedversionofthetext,Kihwahasmovedthislinedowntosutrapassage#95.]

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[Kihwa][HPC7.162c19] Thelastsentence,whichstartswith"Therefore( )." TheSubtletyoftheTraces [Sutra(#92)][T842.17.919c19HPC7.162c21]

)."17Ifitistakenout,thenthesentence"theyarefinallyincapableofconsummatingthefruitsofsagehood(

Why?Becausetheyregardthesetracesofselftobenirvana,andtheyregardtheirwitnessingandcognitiontobeconsummation[ofenlightenment].Itislikeamanwhomistakes athiefforhisson.Hisfamily'sholdingscanneverbesecure.Why?Becausetheloverofselfalsolovesnirvana,andtakesthesuppressionoftherootofselfloveasthe characteristicofnirvana.Thehaterofselfalsohatessamsara,andnotknowingthatitistheattachedloveitselfthatisactuallysamsara,hediscriminatessamsaraandhatesit. Thisiscalled"nonliberation."

[Translator'snote:WithinthestructureoftheoriginalChinese,itwouldbequitepossibletorenderthislastlineas"hesinglesoutsamsarafordisdain,callingit 'nonliberation,"'withtheimplicationthatthehaterofsamsaraisdisparagingsamsarainparticular.ButinKihwa'ssubsequentcommentary,hetakesthephrase "nonliberation"asakindofsummarydescriptionofboththeloveofnirvanaandthehateofsamsarathataredescribedinthispassage.IamnotsureifIagreewith Kihwa'sinterpretationhere,butinordertohavehiscommentarymakesense,Ihavetranslateditthewaythatheseesit,andhavealsopunctuatedtheChinese sentenceaccordingtothisinterpretation.] [Kihwa][HPC7.163c4] Thewords"haterofself"inthiscontextareusedincontrasttotheabove"loverofself."Asforthewords"nonliberation:"thereisfirmattachmenttotraceofselfinside, andthecomplementarymanifestationofloveandhatredoutside.Theinternalandexternal[delusions]exacerbateeachotherandtheybringaboutnonliberation.We donot

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evenneedtodiscusstrueandfalse,goodandevil,sacredandprofane,sufferingandpleasure.Themeresentimentsofattractionandaversionandselectingand rejecting,arenothingbutthepairofloveandhatred.Itisthispairthatispermeatedbyignorance,embracedbythetraceofself,andthatresultsintheinabilityforself liberation. [Sutra(#93)][T842.17.919c23HPC7.163a10]

Howcanyouknowthisdharmaas"nonliberation?"18Goodsons,thesesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticingbodhiregardtheego'sinfinitesimalperception astheirownpurity,andarethereforeunabletopenetratetotherootoftheselftrace.Ifsomeonepraisestheir[mistaken]dharma,thentheywillbeoverjoyedandimmediatelytry tosavehim.Butifsomeonecriticizestheirattainments,theywillbefilledwithangerandresentment.Hence,youcanknowthatthetraceofselfisbeingfirmlyheldtoitis concealedinthestoreconsciousnessandisplayingfreelythroughoutthefacultieswithoutinterruption.Goodsons,ifthesepractionersoftheWaydonotremovethetraceof self,theywillbeunabletoenterpureenlightenment.Goodsons,iftheemptinessofselfisknown,therecanbeno"eliminatorofself."If,holdingtoself,youexpoundthis dharma,itisbecauseyouhavenotyeteliminatedself.Itisthesamewith"sentientbeing"and"life."

[Kihwa][HPC7.163a19] Thesetwoseparatesentenceshavebeenplacedtogether:"Iftheemptinessofselfisknown,therecanbenoeliminatorofself.If,holdingtoself,youexpoundthis dharma,itisbecauseyouhavenotyeteliminatedself."Ifwefilledinthewholepassage,itshouldsay:"Iftheemptinessofselfisknown,therecanbenoeliminatorof self.Ifthereissomeonewhowouldeliminateself,itisbecausetheselfisnotyetempty.Ifyoueliminatethetraceofself,thereisnoselftoteachthedharma.Ifthereis aselftoteachthedharma,itmeansthattheselfhasnotbeeneliminated."Now,thefirstparthasbeenputuptothebeginningbutalsoleftattheend.Thelasthasbeen movedtotheendbutalsoleftatthebeginning.Inthematchingofthetwophrasestogetherinthisway,wecanseetheauthor'sskillinmakingapointconcise.

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DelusioninRegardtoOne'sOwnAttainment [Sutra(#94)][T842.17.920a2HPC7.163b2]

Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage[mistakenly]understandtheseafflictionstobethedharma.Thereforetheyarecalled"thepitiable."Eventhoughtheystruggle withgreateffort,theymerelyexacerbatetheirvariousafflictions,andthereforeareunabletoenterpureenlightenment.Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonot discerntheFourTraces,anderroneouslytakingtheunderstandingandpracticeoftheTathagatatobetheirownpractice,theyultimatelydonotaccomplishenlightenment.Thus therearesentientbeingswhounderstandnonattainmenttobeattainmentandregardnonrealizationasrealization.Whentheyseeanadeptpractitioner,theyarefilledwith jealousy.Itisexactlybecausethesesentientbeingsdonotsevertheirloveofselfthattheyareunabletoenterpureenlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.163b9] Fromthebeginningofthischapterupuntilthispoint,theauthorhasexplainedindepththedefilementoftheviewofself.Hehasrepeatedlydiscusseditasthe hindrancetoenlightenment.Inthesectionbelow,heexplainsthemarvelousmethodofcompletelyeliminatingthehindrancesofdelusion. OvercomingTheseHindrancesandFindingaTeacher [Sutra(#95)][T842.17.920a8HPC7.163b12]

Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehopeforbuddhahoodbutdonotexertthemselvestoachieveawakeningtheymerelyextendtheirintellectualknowledge, furtherenhancingtheviewofself.Whattheyshoulddoisjustendeavortosubduetheafflictionsandarousegreatcourage:attainwhattheyhavenotattained,severwhatthey havenotsevered.Notallowingthe

Page214 greed,anger,love,pride,flattery,perversion,jealousy,andenvythataredirectedattheobjectiverealmtoarise,andextinguishingallloveandattachmenttoselfandotherIcall thesepeople"graduallyconsummated."FindingaGenuineTeacher,19youwillnotfallintomistakenviews.

[Kihwa][HPC7.163b18] Thesentencementionedearlier,"Thereforeitiscalledtheageofthedegenerationofthetruedharma(

).''

Whatthen,isthemeaningof"truedharma"?Thisisthetimewhenthetruedharmaisproliferated."Degenerateage"isthetimewhenwrongteachingsflourish.Yet, evenifthisweretheageofthetruedharma,ifyoufallintomistakenviews,thenitiscalled"thedegenerateageofthetruedharma."Andevenifthisisthedegenerate age,ifyoudonotfallintomistakenviews,thenitiscalled"thetruedharmainthedegenerateage."Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotseekenlightenment, theyonlyseektoextendtheirknowledge,whichfurtherdevelopstheviewofselfnamely,"fallingintomistakenviews." Getridofprideandinsolenceandseekagenuineteacher.Ifyoudependuponwhathesetsupforyouandstrugglecourageously,desireandrepugnancewillnot cometolifeloveandattachmentwillvanish.Thisiswhatismeantby"notfallingintomistakenviews."Thereforeitiscalledthe"truedharmainthedegenerateage." Thisishowonemay"graduallyaccomplishenlightenment." [Sutra(#96)][T842.17.920a12HPC7.163c9]

Butifyoudiscriminate,andhaveaspecialfeelingofattractionoraversionregardingthe[teacher]youareseeking,youwillbeunabletoentertheoceanofpureenlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.163c11] Ifyouseekagenuineteacherandstrugglecourageously,thenyouarealreadyfreefromthemistakesofexcessiveintellectualityandheightenedego.Yetifyou discriminateanddistinguishattractionand

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aversionwhileyouarelookingforthegenuineteacher,thenyouwillnotbeabletoavoidthehindrancesthatcomefromtheviewofself,andyouwillbeunableto enterenlightenment.Fromearlierinthetextwhereitsays"notabletoenter,""notabletoaccomplish,""notabletoconsummate,"and"notabletobeliberated,"down tohere,theword"not''( )"appearsonce.Tothebodhisattva'ssinglequestionaboutdelusion,affliction,andnotentering,theBuddhaexplainsoverandoverlike thisaboutthetracesofself,hindrancestoenlightenment,andmistakenthinking.Whenhesays"consummated,"heonlysaysitonce,andalsosays"gradually."From thiswecanseethatthetracesofself,hindrancestoenlightenmentandwrongthinkingaretenaciousanddifficulttoremove.Asforthe"oceanofenlightenment,"ifyou donotstrugglecourageouslytocompletelyeliminatethetracesofself,youwillbeunabletoenter. TheGatha [Sutra(#97)][T842.17.920a13HPC7.163c22]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PurifierofKarma,youshouldknow Thatbecauseofattachmenttoandloveofself Allsentientbeings Deludedlytransmigratewithoutbeginning. Notremovingfourkindsoftraces Theycannotaccomplishbodhi. Sinceloveandhatredariseinthemind Andflatteryandperversionremaininallthoughts Thereismuchdelusionandgrief

Page216 Youareunabletoenterthecitadelofenlightenment. Ifyouareabletoreturntotheenlightenedrealm, Firstleavealldesire,hatred,andignorance. Whenthedharmaofattractiondoesnotremaininthemind Youcangraduallyaccomplishenlightenment. Theselfandbodyoriginallydonotexist: Howcanattractionandaversionarise? IfthispersonseeksaGenuineTeacher Hewillneverfallintoevilviews. Butif"somethingseparatetobesought"arisesinhismind Therewillultimatelybenoconsummationofenlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.164a7] Itisduetoattachmenttothetraceofselfthatwearedeludedandunabletoenterenlightenment.Ifyourealizethereisnosinglethingtolove,youcangradually accomplishenlightenment.Ifyoudonotarisesentimentsinregardstotheteacher,thenyouareabletoreachPeerlessCorrectEqualEnlightenment.

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10. UniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.164a12] Whenlightisgreatandilluminatingeverywhereitiscalled"universal."Havingbeenawakenedandshininguniversallyiscalled"enlightenment."Thus"Universal Enlightenment"impliesthelustrousshiningofthemoonofwisdom,andtheradiantopeningoftheflowerofcompassion,whichilluminesdarkbywaysandawakensthe deludedmasses.WhydoesthisbodhisattvafollowupPurifierofHindranceswithanotherquestion?FromVajragarbhadowntoVoiceofDiscernmentthediscussions haveworkedonebyonetowardthedissolutionofthecoarsehindrancesthataretheFiveObscurations.ThechapterofPurifierofKarmafullyexhauststhesourceof affliction,severingcompletelythesubtledelusionsthatconstitutetheFourTraces.Oncethecoarseandsubtledefilementsareeliminated,thegreatwisdomofPerfect Enlightenmentshinesbrightly,suchthatitisabletoarousegreatcompassioninordertouniversallyenlightenthedeludedmultitude. Thisbodhisattvateachesthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagebyaskingaboutthemethodsforguidingothers.TheTathagatahasthemseeksomeonewithcorrect insightsothattheydonotfallintomistakenviews,andthiswillbethemethodforguidingthebeingsofthedegenerateage.Theearlierbodhisattvashaveallraised questionsforthewholeassemblyinquiringaboutthemethodsofadvancementthroughpractice.ButnowUniversalEnlightenmentonlyaskstohavethe consciousnessesofthebodhisattvasevanesceandattaingreattranquillity,anddoesnotaskaboutthemethodsforadvancementthroughpractice.Heonlyasksforthe sakeofthesentientbeingsregardingthemethodbywhichtheyshouldbeguided.Theattainmentof"greattranquillity"isthroughtheextinctionofhindrancesandthe manifestationofenlightenment.Hequestionsaboutthemethodsforawakeningbeingsin

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ordertouniversallyenlightenthedeludedmultitude.ThisiswhyhefollowsPurifierofKarmawithanotherquestion.Myverse: TheRightViewseekstobecreatedaswellastocreate, Theequalizationofenmityandaffection,neither"yes"nor"no." AttheplaceofthearousaloftheFourMinds,thelightofwisdomisrenewed TheblindmassesoftheGreatEarth,togetherhavetheveilsremoved. TheQuestionofUniversalEnlightenment:TheCuringofMaladies [Sutra(#98)][T842.17.920a25HPC7.164b6]

ThenthebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenmentarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedthreetimestotheright.Hethen kneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying:"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Youhaveclearlyexplainedthemeditationmaladies,allowing thebodhisattvastoattainthatwhichtheyhadnotyetexperienced.Theirconsciousnesseshavebeencompletelystilledandtheyhaveattainedgreattranquillity."

[Kihwa][HPC7.164b10] TheBuddhaislikethekingofdoctors,andthesentientbeingsarelikesickchildren.Thechildrentaketheirmedicine,butitcausesabadreaction.Theirmindsarestill congestedandtheirenergiesarestillunstable.Thekingdevisesnumerousmethodsthatheappliesaccordingtothesituation.Thesicknessesnowremoved,they experiencerelease.Theirmindsareopenedwideandtheirbodiesaresettled.Theycanforthefirsttimebecalled"greatmen"andhandletheirpartofthefamily business.FromVajragarbhaondown,allthebodhisattvashaveaddressedtheBuddhawithwordsofpraise.Butnonethelesstheirspeechhasbornewithitanelement ofdoubt,sinceeachofthemhashadsomethingregardingwhichhewasnotsatisfied.Buthere,UniversalEnlightenmentusespraisingwordsonly.Thisisbecauseallof thebodhisattva'sdoubtshavebeencompletelyremovedandtheyhaveenteredenlightenment.Theywillnotagainconjectureinadoubtfulway.

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[Sutra(#99)][T842.17.920a28HPC7.164b17]

"WorldHonoredOne,asthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagebecomeincreasinglyremovedfromtheBuddha,thesagesandworthiesconcealthemselves,whilethe mistakendharmagrowsandspreads.Whatkindofpersonshouldthesentientbeingsseek?Onwhatkindofteachingsshouldtheyrely?Whatkindofpracticeshouldtheycarry out?Whatkindofmaladiesshouldweremove,andwhatkindofresolutionshouldwemake,soastopreventtheblindmultitudefromfallingintomistakenviews?"Havingsaid this,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.164b22] Havingremediedonesickness,theywillnowtreatanothersickness.Whilethedoctorkingisstillintheworld,hecanusethemethodsthathehaswelltestedin applicationtootherillnesses.Butwhenthedoctorkingisgone,mistakenteachingsgrowandspread,andthediseasesofthebeingstransformandmultiply.Onecannot treatallofthemwithasingleremedy.Thereforehemustteachmultiplemethodsfortreatment,andsothebodhisattvaasksthisquestionforthesentientbeingsofthe degenerateage. [Sutra(#100)][T842.17.920b4HPC7.164c3]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenment,said:"Excellent,excellent!GoodSon,youhavebeenabletoquestiontheTathagataonthis kindpracticethatisabletoimparttoallsentientbeingsthefearlessEyeoftheWayandcausethemtoattainthesagelyPath.Nowlistenwell,andIshallteachyou."The bodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenmentreceivedthisteachingwithgreatjoy.Thoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.164c9] SincethefurtherclarificationofexpedientmeansforthesentientbeingsofthedegeneratedageisalsotheBuddha'soriginalintent,hepraisesthisquestion.

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FindingaGenuineTeacher [Sutra(#101)][T842.17.920b9HPC7.164c1]

Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagemustarouse"greatmind"andseekGenuineTeachers.Thosewhowanttopracticeshouldseekoutonlysomeonewithcorrect insight,whosethoughtsdonotabideincharacteristics,whoisnotattachedtotherealmsofthearhatsandpratyekabuddhas,andwhosemindisconstantlypureevenwhile manifestingtheworld'safflictions.Evenwhilepointingoutyourvariousfaults,hepraisesyourbrahmacarya1andpreventsyoufrombreakingtheprecepts.Ifyoufindthiskind ofperson,youcanattainanuttarasamyaksambodhi.

[Kihwa][HPC7.164c171 TocleavetotheWayandcultivatetherealyoumustfirstestablishyourwill.Youmustvowtoattaingreatenlightenmentandtosaveallsentientbeings.Thearousalof thiskindofresolutioniscalled"greatmind."Onewhopracticeshimselfandteachesothers,whoisskillfulatknowingwhattoencourageandwhattoadmonish,and whohasnoconfusionaboutwhatistherightorwrongcourse,iscalleda"GenuineTeacher."Whendoubtsarecompletelyclearedaway,theeyeofrighttransmission isclearandbright.Thiskindofinsightthatdoesnotslipintonihilismoreternalismiscalled"correctinsight."Whenthevariousdharmasofconditionedand unconditioned,worldlingandsage,arecontainedtogetherwithoutattachment,itiscalled''notabidingincharacteristics."Notabidingintheunconditioned,onedoes notslipintotheviewofnihilism.Notabidingintheconditioned,onedoesnotslipintotheviewofeternalism.Thisiswhyitiscalled"correctinsight."Ifyouseekthis kindofpersonandengageinthiskindofpractice,thenyouwillnotstrayontootherpaths,andyouwillaccordwiththenatureofenlightenment.Thus,youwill accomplishbodhi. [Sutra(#102)][T842.17.920b13HPC7.165a4]

Page221 Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhomeetthiskindofperson,shouldmakeofferingstohim,notsparingbodyorlife.ThisGenuineTeacherconstantlymanifestspurity throughoutthefourpostures.2Althoughheshowsyouyourvariouserrorsandafflictions,hismindlackspride,evenasfarasholdingontoproperty,wife,childrenand retainers.3GoodSons,ifyoudonotarouseanynegativefeelingstowardthisGoodFriend,youwillultimatelybeabletoaccomplishCorrectEnlightenment.Yourmindflowerwill blossom,illuminatingtheworldsofthetendirections.

[Kihwa][HPC7.165a10] Thepartofthesentencestartingwith"evenasfaras(

)."

[Translator'snote:Therefore,thepassageshouldreadasfollows:
Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhomeetthiskindofperson,shouldmakeofferingstohim,notsparingbodyorlife,evenasfarasholdingontoproperty,wife,children, andretainers.ThisGenuineTeacherconstantlymanifestspuritythroughoutthefourpostures.Althoughheshowsyouyourvariouserrorsandafflictions,hismindlackspride. Goodsons,ifyoudonotarouseanynegativefeelingstowardthisGoodFriend,youwillultimatelybeabletoaccomplishcorrectenlightenment.Yourmindflowerwillblossom, illuminatingtheworldsofthetendirections.]

[Kihwa] Sincethereisnoplacewherethesagelynaturedoesnotpenetrate,hefullyknowsalltheexpedientmeans,boththepleasantandtheunpleasantonesthatworldly discriminationcannotfathom.Thatiswhyhehasnoreasontobeproud.Theseedsofbodhitakerootinthemindground.Nourishedbytherainofthedharma,they bearforthflowerandfruit,whosefragrancepermeatesnumberlessrealmsandwhoseradianceilluminatesthetendirections.Hencehesays"Yourmindflowerwill blossom,illuminatingtheworldsofthetendirections."Thisanswersthefirstquestion.

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TheFourMaladies [Sutra(#103)][T842.17.920b19HPC7.165a17] TheContrivanceMalady

GoodSons,thesubtledharmathatisactualizedbythisGenuineTeachershouldbefreefromtheFourMaladies.WhataretheFourMaladies?Thefirstisthemaladyof "contrivance."Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays"basedonmyoriginalmindIshallcarryoutvariouspractices"andwantstoachievePerfectEnlightenment.Sincethe natureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotsomethingthatcanbeattainedbycontrivance,itiscalleda"malady."

[Translator'snote:"Contrivance"constitutesmyrenderingoftso/chak inthepresentcontext.Otherpossiblerenderingsmightbe"creation"or"production,"but Kihwaspecificallydefinesthemeaningbelowas"doingwithintention."Itisinordertoincludethe"intentional''aspectofthemeaningthatIhavechosen"contrivance." Someonethinksthatbyhisownspecialabilitiesandefforts(study,meditation,ritual,specialtechniques,associatingwithspiritualpeople,doinggooddeeds,etc.)that hecanattainenlightenment.Whileaperson'seffortscannotbesaidtobemeaningless,oneshouldnotexpectthatanyarbitraryprogramofpracticewillnecessarily leadtoenlightenment.Luktranslatesas"theillnessofaction."] TheNaturalistMalady [Sutra(#104)]

Thesecondisthe"naturalist"malady.Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays,"Weshouldpresentlyneithercutoffsamsaranorseeknirvana.Samsaraandnirvana actuallylackanyconceptionofarisingandceasing.Weshouldjustnaturallygoalongwiththevariousnaturesofreality,"andwantstoachievePerfectEnlightenment.Sincethe natureofPerfectEnlightenmentdoesnotcomeaboutthrough"acceptingthingsastheyare,"thisiscalleda"malady."

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[Translator'snote:Itranslatejen/im( )as"naturalism"butonlyafterstronglyconsideringtheusageoftheterm"acceptance"asitisinterpretedinmany modern/Westernmentaltherapyandtwelvestepprogramstoimply"acceptinglifeonlife'sterms"or"acceptingthingsastheyare."Thisapproachcanbecomparedto acaricaturized''Taoist"viewofLaotzuorChuangtzu.Beingnatural,justgoingalongwiththingsastheyare,nottryingtomanipulateeventswuwei.Thecultivation ofsuchanattitudecouldcertainlybeseenasapraiseworthylevelofspiritualattainment.ButtheBuddhasaysthathisenlightenmentisnottobemetinthisway.Luk translatesas"theillnessoflettingalone."] TheStoppingMalady [Sutra(#105)]


Thethirdisthe"stopping"malady.Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays"frommypresentthought,Ishallpermanentlystopallthoughtandthusapprehendthecessation andequanimityofallnatures"andwantstoachievePerfectEnlightenment.SincethenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotmetthroughthestoppingofthoughts,itiscalleda "malady."

TheAnnihilationMalady [Sutra(#106)]

Thefourthisthe"annihilation"malady.Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays"Iwillnowpermanentlyannihilatealldefilements.Bodyandmindareultimatelyempty, lackinganything.Howmuchmoreshouldallthefalserealmsofthesenseorgansandtheirobjectsbepermanentlyerased?"andseeksPerfectEnlightenment.Sincethe characteristicofthenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotannihilation,itiscalleda"malady."WhenyouarefreefromtheFourMaladies,youwillbeawareofpurity.Themaking ofthisobservationiscalled"correctunderstanding."Anyotherobservationiscalled"mistakenunderstanding."

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[Translator'snote:TheannihilationmaladyisrepresentativeofacommontendencyinBuddhism,especiallyZenBuddhism.Onemightalsocallitthe"emptiness" sickness.Holdinginappropriatelytoanattitudeofnonexistenceofselfandworldcanresultinadangerousnihilisticattitude.Luktranslatesas"theillnessof elimination."] [Kihwa][HPC7.165b10] "Contrivance"means"doingwithintention"andimpliesthecreationofallgooddharmas."Stopping"means"stoppingofthought''andimpliesthecessationofall mistakenthoughts."Naturalism"means"lettingthingsfollowtheircourse"andimpliesgoingalongwithallthatthemindcreates,withoutgraspingto"contrivance"or "stopping.""Annihilation"means"extinction"andimpliesthedestructionofdefilementsthroughthetwoemptinessesofmindandobjects.Contrivance,stopping, naturalism,andannihilationareattitudesinwhichthepractitionershouldnotgetstuck.Assoonasthereissomethingtowhichthemindgetsattached,thenthereisan obstructiontoenlightenment,andsoitiscalledamalady. Nowtheword"should"of"shouldbefreefrom..."4 isatermindicatinguncertainexpectation.TheinsightsoftheGenuineTeacher,alreadybeingcorrect,shouldbe freefromtheFourMaladies.Butifhestillhassomeattachmenttooneofthefourviews,hecannotbecompletelyreliedupon.Thereforethetextsays"should."The wordsneartheendofthispassagethatsay"whenyouarefreeoftheFourMaladiesyouwillbeawareofpurity"alsocarrythenuancethattherearesomewhoare notyetfree. WithinthenatureofPerfectEnlightenmenttherearenotraceswhatsoeveroftheFourMaladies.Oncethereisattachmenttoevenoneofthem,purityisdenied.One methodcanbetrusted,buttheothercannot.Theabilitytoclearlydiscernwhatisacceptableandwhatisnot,iscalled"correctinsight."Ifitisnot,thenitis"mistaken." Thisanswersthesecondquestion. InteractingwiththeGenuineTeacher [Sutra(#107)][T842.17.920c4HPC7.165b24]

Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldexhausttheirlifeenergiesinmakingofferingstoGoodFriendsandservingGenuineTeachers.IftheGenuineTeacher becomescloseand

Page225 familiarwithyou,youshouldnotbeproud.Ifheisdistant,youshouldnotberesentful.Thestatesofunpleasantnessandpleasantnessarejustliketheemptysky.Fullyrealize thatbodyandmindareultimatelyequalizedandthatyousharethesameessencewithallsentientbeingswithoutdifference.IfyoupracticeinthiswayyouwillenterPerfect Enlightenment.

[Kihwa][HPC7.165c6] Whenthemindhasattachmentandaversion,itcannotharmonizewithenlightenment.Ifyouwanttoexperiencethisenlightenment,thenyoumustdiscardthese sentiments.Sometimesagreeable,sometimesdisagreeable,amindwithoutattractionoraversionapprehendsselfandothertobeofthesamebodywithoutdifference. IfyoupracticelikethisthenyouwillenterPerfectEnlightenment.Thisanswersthethirdquestion. [Sutra(#108)][T842.17.920c8HPC7.165c10]

Goodsons,whensentientbeingsofthedegenerateageareunabletoaccomplishtheWay,itisbecauseofthepresenceofbeginninglessseedsofselfandother,attractionand aversion.Thereforetheyarenotliberated.Ifthereissomeonewholooksuponhisenemyasthesameashisfatherandmotherwhosemindcompletelylacksduality,thenhewill eliminateallmaladies.Thenwithinalldharmas,selfandother,attractionandaversionwillalsobeeliminatedinthesameway.

[Kihwa][HPC7.165c15] Allmaladiesoriginateinviewssuchasthoseofattractionandaversion,affectionandresentment.Whenselfandotherarebothforgottenandthemindlacksduality, thenthemaladiesareremoved.Thisanswersthefourthquestion. [Sutra(#109)][T842.17.920c11HPC7.165c17]

Goodsons,allsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhowanttoseekPerfectEnlightenmentshouldmaketheirresolution,sayingthefollowing:"Ivowtocauseeverysentient beingthroughouttheuniversetoentertheultimatePerfectEnlightenment."WithinthatPerfectEnlightenmentthereisnoattachmentto"enlightenment"

Page226 norarethereanyofthetracesofself,person,andsoon.Ifyoumakethiskindofresolve,youwillnotfallintomistakenviews.

[Kihwa][HPC7.165c21] Savingallbeingsiscalled"vast,greatmind."Causingthemtoenterenlightenmentiscalled"foremostmind."Notattachingtoenlightenmentiscalled"constantmind." Removingthetracesofself,andsoon,iscalled''normal('notinverted')mind."Whentheybegintomaketheirresolve,theirmindsareuncertain,andiftheydonot encountertheTathagata'spathofcorrectcultivation,theycannotavoidfallingintothepitofmistakenviews.Theyshouldtranscendthefourmindsandthusavoid slippingintomistakenviews.Thisanswersthefifthquestion. TheGatha [Sutra(#110)][T842.17.920c15HPC7.166a2]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,deliveredaverse,saying: UniversalEnlightenment,youshouldknow Thatsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage WhodesiretofindaGenuineTeacher MustlookforonewiththeRightView WhosemindisfarremovedfromtheTwoVehicles AndinregardtotheDharmahasremovedtheFourMaladies, Whicharecalledcontrivance,stopping,naturalism,andannihilation. Ifhebecomesintimatewithyou,don'tbeproud Andifheisdistant,don'tberesentful. Observingvariousrealms,yourmindwillthenproducethemiraculous.

Page227 AndifyouleavehomeliketheBuddha Donotdowhatiscontrarytotheprecepts. Withtherootofthepreceptsconstantlypure, Yousaveallsentientbeings SothattheyultimatelyenterPerfectEnlightenment. Freefromthetracessuchas"self"and"person" Youconstantlyrestinwisdom. Youarenaturallyabletotranscendofmistakenviews Actualizingenlightenmentandparinirvana.

[Kihwa][HPC7.166a10] Thetwophrasesstartingfrom"Donotdo( )"areoriginallyconnectedinthemaintextaspartoftheanswertothefirstquestion.5 Buthereinthegathatheyare attachedtothepartthatconstitutestheanswerregardingtheremovalofthemaladies,andthusdonotfit.Theyshouldbeplacedrightafterthelinewhichsays"whose mindisfarremovedfromtheTwoVehicles( )."Thusthegathashouldread:

MustlookforonewiththeRightView WhosemindisfarremovedfromtheTwoVehicles Whodoesnotbreaktheprecepts Andwhoserootofthepreceptsisconstantlypure.

Thisseemsrightifwecheckitagainstthemaintext,whichsays:"andwhoisnotattachedtotherealmsofthearhatsandpratyekabuddhas,andwhosemindis constantlypureevenwhilemanifestingtheworld'safflictions.Evenwhilepointingoutyourvariousfaults,hepraisesyourbrahmacarya,andpreventsyoufrom breakingtheprecepts." Thephrases"whosemindsisfarremovedfromtheTwoVehicles,""doesnotbreaktheprecepts,"and"preceptspure,removingsickness"describeonewhohasthe RightView."Makingtheresolve"meansthatoneshouldseekthiskindofteacherwhopossessestheRightView,submittohim,andpracticeasheinstructs.Justlook atyourselfandseewhetherornotyouaresincere.ServethatGoodFriendwhetheritbeintheconditionofintimacyordistance.Ifhekeepshisdistance,donotget angry.Ifheiscordial,donotbeoverjoyed.Whenyourmindlacks"agreeable''and"disagreeable,"bothcomeassurprises.ArousingBuddhalikethoughts,practice likethis,savingsentientbeings.Withyourmindremovedfrom"self"and"person,"constantlyrestinginwisdom,youeasilyleapovermistakenviewsandactualize nirvana.

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11. PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.166b1] Theconditionofvirtuebeingrepleteandtransformationbeingcarriedoutvirtuallyeverywhereiscalled"Perfect."Knowledgeilluminatingvirtuallyeverythingand virtuallyeverydharmabeingrealizediscalled"Enlightenment."''PerfectEnlightenment"meansthattheenlightenmentofselfandotherarecompletedsuchthattheyare identicalwithinnateenlightenmentthatthereisnoplacethatenlightenmenthasnotfullypermeated.WhydoesthisbodhisattvaaskanotherquestionafterUniversal EnlightenmentBodhisattva?EventhoughthequestionsaskedbyUniversalEnlightenmenthaveresultedinthetransformationofbeings,thistransformationhasnotbeen pervasive.Sincethetransformationhasnotbeenpervasive,weknowthattheirrealizationhasalsonotbeencomplete.Therefore,thebodhisattvaasksagainforthe sakeofthesentientbeingsaboutthemethodsoftransformation.TheTathagatarespondswithaspecialteachingofexpedientmeans,introducingthethreeretreat periodsinordertofinallybringallofthebeingsbacktogethertoPerfectEnlightenment.Afterthis,therewillbenorealizationnotcompletedandnotransformationthat isnotpervasive.Actualizationandtransformationbothreachtheirfullestextent,withnoplacewheretheyarenotcompleted.ThisiswhyUniversalEnlightenmenthas followedwithanotherquestion.Myverse: Whenthewindstops,thewavesarestilled:themeditationhasbeenconsummated. Theretreatiscompleted:thenandtherethepersonisnaturallyatpeace. Thespecificandtheuniversal1 arepracticedtogether,andalthoughtheyaredifferentpaths, WhentheBuddhastateismanifested,therearenottwokinds.

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[Sutra(#111)][T842.17.920c27HPC7.166b15]

ThebodhisattvaPerfectEnlightenmentarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly,bowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Heknelt downwithhishandsclasped,andaddressedtheBuddha,saying:"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveextensivelyexplainedpureenlightenmentforus,as wellasvariousexpedientmethods.Youhaveallowedsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetoprospergreatlyintheirpractice."

[Kihwa][HPC7.166b191 Insaying"variousexpedientmethods"heisreferringtothethreemeditationsandtheirvariousimplementations,aswellasthefivequestionsandanswerspursuedin thechapterofUniversalEnlightenment,practicingbymeansofwhichonewillnotslipintomistakenviews.Itisbecausetherehasbeenanenhancementofwisdomand life,2 thathesays"prospergreatly." PerfectEnlightenment'sQuestionforThoseHavingDifficultyinAccording [Sutra(#112)][T842.17.921a1HPC7.166b23]

"WorldHonoredOne,thoseofuspresentherehavealreadyawakened.Butif,afteryourpassingaway,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehavenotyetbeenabletoawaken, howshouldtheyconductmeditationretreatstocultivatethispurerealmofPerfectEnlightenment?AndinthepracticeofthethreekindsofpuremeditationwithinPerfect Enlightenment,whataretheinitialsteps?Ionlybegforyourgreatcompassionsothatyouwillconfergreatbenefitonthemembersofthisgreatassemblyandthesentientbeings ofthedegenerateage."Aftersayingthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

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[Kihwa][HPC7.166c5] Hestartsoffbysaying,"Thoseofuspresentherehavealreadyawakened."Theyarerestingontheoceanofenlightenmentwithnothingtofear.Thesewords constitute,full,unarguableselfapproval.Becausethebodhisattvasarealreadyenlightened,hedoesnotquestionanyfurtheraboutthematterofadvancementthrough cultivationforthoseattheassembly.Heonlyasksaboutthemethodsforawakeningthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage.Thisisthesameasthequestionasked justbeforebyUniversalEnlightenment,exceptthathegoesabitfurther.Thewords"confergreatbenefit"meanheaskstheBuddhatoexplaintothoseatthegreat assemblythemeansofsavingsentientbeings,andthustheyaregreatlybenefited.Hisnotaskingformethodsofadvancementthroughcultivationforthemembersof thegreatassembly,is,again,becausethoseattheassemblyhavealreadybeenawakened"theyhavecompletelystilledtheirconsciousnessesandattainedgreat tranquillity."3 Thatiswhythereisnoquestionaboutcultivationandadvancementforthoseintheassemblythereisonlythequestionforthesentientbeingsofthe degenerateage.Butsincethewords"confergreatbenefit"actuallyimplyarequesttoexplainmethodsofgradualadvancementforthedegenerateage,thephrase "greatbenefit''containstwomeanings. TheBuddha'sAnswer:FurtherExpedients [Sutra(#113)][T842.17.921a6HPC7.166c16]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPerfectEnlightenment,said:"Excellent!Excellent!GoodSon,youhavequestionedwelltotheTathagataaboutthese kindofexpedientmeansinordertoconfergreatbenefitonthesentientbeings.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaPerfectEnlightenmentreceivedthis teachingwithgreatjoy.Allthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.166c21] Goingfurthernowforthoseofinferiorcapacity,thebodhisattvarequestsanexplanationofthepreparatorypracticesforthesiteofenlightenment.Sincethisisalsothe Buddha'soriginalintention,heismorethanhappytoteach.

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Retreats,RitualandRepentance [Sutra(#114)][T842.17.921a10HPC7.166c23]

GoodSons,amongallsentientbeings,whetheritiswhentheBuddhaisalive,orafterhehaspassedaway,orevenduringtheperiodofthedegenerationofthedharma,thereare anumberwhohavetheaptitudeforMahayanaandwhohavefaithintheBuddha'smysteriousmindofgreatPerfectEnlightenment,andwhowanttopracticeit.Iftheyareliving inthetemplewithmanyotherfollowers,thentheyhavenumerouscommitments4andsotheyshouldjustanalyzeaccordingtothesituation,asIhavealreadytaught. Ontheotherhand,iftheyarenotboundbycommitmentsthentheyshoulderectasiteofenlightenmentandinstituteanintensiveretreat.Alongtermretreatshouldbe120days. Amediumlengthretreatshouldbe100days.Ashortone,80days,sittingquietlyinapureenvironment.IftheBuddhaispresent,thenyoucandirectlycorrectyourthoughts.If hehasalreadypassedaway,thensetupanimageofhim,andlettingyourmindabideinthementalpictureofthisimage,youcanbringaboutcorrectmindfulness,justthesame aswhenhewashere.Afterhangingupthebannersandflowers,5gothroughaperiodofthreeweeks,makingobeisancetothenamesofalltheBuddhasinthetendirections, repentingandconfessingallofyoursins.Encounteringexcellentstatesofconsciousness,yourmindattainspliancyandyoupassthroughthreeweekswithyourthoughts focused. Ifyoupassthroughtothebeginningoftheretreat,thenforthreemonthsyouwillabideinstillness,andcarryoutthepurequiet

Page232 sittingofthebodhisattvas,withyourmindfreefromthedesignsofthesravakasandfrominvolvementswithotherpractitioners. Whenyoucometothedayoftheretreat,in frontoftheBuddha,saythis:"I,bhiksu/bhiksuni/upnsaka/upasika7soandso,wouldboardthevehicleofthebodhisattvas,cultivatetheirpracticesofcessationextinction,and enterwiththemintotheirabidinginthepuremarksofthereal.ItakegreatPerfectEnlightenmentasmytemple,withbodyandminddwellingpeacefullyinthewisdomofthe equalityofthenature.Sincetheselfnatureofnirvanaisnotrestrictedinanyway,InowrespectfullypraythatImaynotabideintheviewsofthesravakas.AndIwillabidefor threemonthsofquietretreatwiththetathagatasandgreatbodhisattvasofthetendirections.SinceIwillbecultivatingthebodhisattva'sgreatcausesandconditionsof unsurpassedmarvelousenlightenment,Iwillnotbeconstrainedbythelimitationsoftheotherpractitioners.8 GoodSons,thisiscalled"thebodhisattvas'exemplifyingsilentretreat."Afterpassingthroughthethreeterms,youcanpracticeanywherewithoutobstruction.


6

[Kihwa][HPC7.167a21] Thepassagethatsays"youpassthroughthreeweekswithyourthoughtsfocused( )."Tryingtofocusone'sthoughtsafterattainingpliancyjustdoesn'tmakesense. Ifthose"whowanttopractice"arepresentlycommittedtotheworkofteachingandenlighteningthosepeoplewhocometothemonastery,thentheyshouldjustkeep upthemeditationstaughtearlier,utilizingthemaccordingtotheirsituation.Butifyouarenotpresentlyengagedinsomesuchcommitment,youshouldinauguratea meditationretreatinordertocultivatethesecontemplations.Forthefirstthreeweeksyoushouldpayobeisancetothebuddhasandpracticepenance.Afterthis,fully concentrateyourmindandpracticelikethisuntilyouencountertheexcellentstatesofconsciousnessandattainpliancyofmind.Ifyoupracticewithoutrepentance, thendefilementwillbeconditionedintoyourmeditation.Ifyoutrytopracticelikethis,itisdifficulttoattainpliancy. Itiscomparabletoapersondyeingclothes:ifhewashestheclothesthoroughlyandthenaddsthedye,thenthecolorwillcomeoutpure.Butifhedoesn'twashthem thecolorwillnotbepure.Sointhecaseofencounteringexcellentstatesofconsciousnessandattainingpliancyofmind,thepowertostrivefortheseisbasedinthe threeweeksofrepentance.Itdoesnotcomefromconcentratingthemindinsamatha.Themeaningofthesentence"passthroughthreeweekswithyourthoughts focused"isthatonegoesforthreeweeksinafocusedstateofselfreflectionandrepentance.Afterthreeweeksofconcentratedrepentance,

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youabideincorrectmindfulness.Youshouldnotthinkthatyouattainpliancyofmind,thenconcentrateyourmindandabideincorrectmindfulness.Itshouldnowbe clearthatthepassagethatsays"youpassthroughthreeweekswithyourthoughtsfocused"shouldbeafter"confessingsins." Below,intheelucidationofthethreekindsofmeditation,eachoneconcludeswiththelinethatsays"ifitisreallynotoneofthestatesofmindaboutwhichyouwere previouslyinstructed,thenafterwardsyoushouldnotattachtoit."Youshouldunderstandthe"excellentstatesofmind"justmentionedabovetobethesameasthese latermentioned"statesofmind."InthechapterofthebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhindered,inthepassageswherehetaughtthethreekindsofmeditation,he concludedeachbysaying"generatepliancyfromwithin."The''pliancyofmind"taughtinthischapteristhesameasthat"pliancygeneratedfromwithin.""Pliancy"is thesameas"excellentstatesofmind."Thereisnothingelsenewbeingexpressedhere.The"stateofcessationextinction"expressedinchapter7inthelinesthatsay "theyaredirectlyenabledtoproducethepliancyofcessationextinctionfromwithin"9 andtheconnectedline"accordancewithmarvelousenlightenmentandtherealm ofcessationandextinction"areboththesameasthe"excellentstates"mentionedhere. "Ifyoupassthroughtothebeginningoftheretreat"butyouarenotsatisfiedwithyourcondition,theneventhoughthestartoftheretreatisathand,youshouldnotjust entertheretreatalongwiththecrowd.Whatisrequiredisjustthateachofthewouldbeentrantsstateshisnameandfreelyexpresseswhatisinhismind,openingup thetruthabouthiscondition.IfIhavealready"takenPerfectEnlightenmentasmytemple"thenanyplaceIchoosetogoisa"siteofenlightenment."Whyshoulditbe necessarytofollowthescheduleoftheotherpractitionersinordertohaveitconsideredavalidretreat?Afterall,thebodyofPerfectEnlightenmentisvast,boundless withoutexterior,suchthatyinandyangstillcannotembraceit.Howcouldevenallofspacecontainit?Thisbeingthecase,thenSouth,North,East,andWestareall sitesofenlightenment.Throughthehighwaysandthroughthebyways,wherecanitnotgo?Thisiscalledthebodhisattvas'exemplificationofthemeditationretreat. Onceyourretreatiscompleted,thenevenifthesummertermisnotover,10youcangoanywherewithoutobstruction. ExpedientsforEntryintoSamatha [Sutra(#115)][T842.17.921a28HPC7.167c7]

Page234 GoodSons,if,whenthesepracticingsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseektheWayofthebodhisattvasenterthethreemeditationterms,theyexperiencemeditative statesthataredifferentfromthoseoutlined[inthissutra],theyshouldnotbecomeattachedtothem.

[Kihwa][HPC7.167c10] Intheshortphrase"enterthethreeterms"heisinferring"asIinstructedyou,forthefirstthreeweekspayobeisancetothebuddhasanddopenance.Havingpassed throughthreeweekswithyourthoughtsconcentrated,youwillmeetwithexcellentmentalstates,andattainpliancy"then,"iftheyexperiencemeditativestatesthatare differentfromthoseoutlinedinthissutra,theyshouldnotattachtothem.''Itseemsobviousthatbetweenthephrases"enterthethreeterms"and"iftheyexperience differentmeditativestates"heintendstoimplyalltheotherteachingshesuggestedabove.Atthispointheisjustmakingageneralreference.Hegivesspecific examplesbelow. [Sutra(#116)][T842.17.921b2HPC7.167c16]

Goodsons,thosesentientbeingswhowillpracticesamathamustfirstgraspperfectquiescence,notallowinganycogitationtoarise.Quiescencetakentoitsfurthestlimitresults directlyinenlightenment.Ifyoucanhavethiskindofinitialquiescence,thenproceedingfromonebody,enlightenmentwillextendlikethisthroughoutawholeworld.Goodsons, whenenlightenmentfullypervadesawholeworld,ifthereisonesentientbeingwithinthatworldwhoallowsasinglethoughttoarise,all,withoutexception,willknowit.The sameistrueinthecaseofahundredthousandworlds.Ifitisnotoneofthemeditativestatesaboutwhichyouwerepreviouslyinstructed,youshouldnotbeattachedtoit.

[Kihwa][HPC7.167c23] Frombeginningtoend,theworkisneverseparatefromthetwoconceptsofquiescenceandpurity.Whenquiescenceisbroughttoitsabsolute,thenthereispurity. Whenpurityisbroughttoitsabsolute,one'sluminositypenetrateseverywhere.Inthiscase,themeaningof"enlightenment"isthewisdomthatisfreefromthoughts. Wesay"luminosity"becausewisdomislikeaclearmirror,andthoughtsarelikefilth.Ifthemirrorhasfilth,thennomatterhowcloseyoucometo

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it,itwon'treflectanything.Butifthemirrorlacksfilth,itreflectsanything,whetheritbefarornear.Whenwisdomisnotseparatedfromthought,yourunintoawall witheverythingyouattempt.Whenwisdomisseparatedfromthought,themyriaddharmasilluminateeachother,andthebodyisthelampofwisdom,asarecountries andlands.Thisisbecausewhenwisdomispurified,andclearlyreflecting,thereisnoobstructionbetweenindividualphenomena.Thefunctionofsamathameditation liesintheinternalproductionofcessationquiescentpliancy.Ifthestatethatyouexperienceisnotthisone,youshouldnotbecomeattachedtoit. ExpedientsforEntryintoSamapatti [Sutra(#117)][T842.17.921b8HPC7.168a8]

Goodsons,thosesentientbeingswhowanttopracticesamapattishouldfirstbecomemindfulofallthetathagatasofthetendirectionsandallthebodhisattvasofalltheworlds inthetendirections.Dependingontheirvariousmethodstheyshouldgrowbydegreesthoughpractice,strugglingagainstsufferingtowardssamatha,broadlymanifestingthe greatvow[tosavesentientbeings],whichinturninfuses[thestoreconsciousness]resultingin[theproductionof]seeds.Butifitisnotoneofthestatesaboutwhichyouwere previouslyinstructed,youshouldnotbecomeattachedtoit.

[Kihwa][HPC7.168a13] "Variousmethods"isareferenceto"correctingoneselfandthentransformingothers."Moreprecisely"variousmethodsofpractice.""Strugglingagainstsuffering towardsamadhi"meansthattherelianceonthetwogeneralaspectsofselfandthenotherimprovementtoapplyoneselftowardtheovercomingofsufferingand delusionishowoneattainssamadhi.Thepractitionerofthecontemplationofillusion,rememberingthatthebuddhasandbodhisattvashavepracticedlikethisintheir ownattainmentofsamadhi,shouldmakehisvow,saying"Iwillalsopracticeliketheminordertoconsummatesamadhi.''Thiskindofmindfulnesswillinfuse[thestore consciousness]andbecomeseeds.Thefunctionofthecontemplationofillusionistheinternalgenerationofgreatcompassionatepliancy.Ifthisisnotthestatethatyou haveattainedto,youshouldnotattachtoit.

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ExpedientsforEntryintoDhyana [Sutra(#118)][T842.17.921b12HPC7.168a20]

GoodSons,ifthesesentientbeingswanttopracticedhyana,theymustfirstutilizethetechniqueofbreathobservance,andinthedepthsoftheirmindbecomefullyawareofthe arising,abiding,andcessationofeachthought.Theymustbeclearintheirdiscriminationofthebreathcountandpracticeitpervasivelyduringeachofthefourpostures.Thereis nolimittohowfarthismindfulnessofthediscriminationofbreathscanpenetrate,asonecangraduallyadvancetothepointwherehecanbeaware,withinthespaceofone hundredthousandworlds,ofthefallingofasingledropofrain,asifitwereanobjectpresenteddirectlytohim.Butifitisreallynotoneofthestatesofmindaboutwhichyou werepreviouslyinstructed,thenafterwardsyoushouldnotbeattachedtoit.

[Kihwa][HPC7.168b2] Themindisoriginallyperfectlybrightitsradiancepervadestherealityrealm.Butobstructedbyconceptualization,itcannotfunctionthewayitshould.If,evenwhen practicingquiescentmediation,theconceptofquiescencestillremains,andevenwhenpracticingthecontemplationofillusion,theillusoryisalsonotforgotten,then youmustrelyoncessationmeditationinordertoextinguishtheseconceptions.Itislikethesuninthesky:thereisnodarknessthatitdoesnotilluminatenodistanceto whichitdoesnotshine.Itisalsolikeawisekingwhohasnotonlysubduedtheoutlawsoftheland,butwhoalsoknowsthelairoftheirchieftain.Sincethechieftain cannotremaininhiding,hecannolongerlayhisplansforlawlessness.Heisevenconvertedintoaloyalretainer,andservesintimatelyatcourt.Thecountrybecomesa placeoftranquillity,andthepeopleareforeverafterwithoutanxiety.Intheinteriorandexterior,fromfarandnear,allfollowoneman.Thevariousmattersofthe countryareallknowntothisruler. Cessationmeditationisthesame.Asthemeritofitspracticetakeseffect,theobservingwisdomclearlydiscerns.Thefaculties,thebody,andthecontainerworld togetherbecometherealmofwisdom.Thecoarseandsubtlemarksofthoughthavenothingthattheydonotfullyrealize.Discriminationsofthemyriaddharmasall attainknowledge.Thefunctionofcessationmeditationconsistsininternallyproducing

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cessationextinctionpliancy.Ifthisisnottherealmthatyouhaveattained,youshouldnotbeattachedtoit. [Sutra(#119)][T842.17.921b16HPC7.168b15]

Thesearecalledtheintroductoryexpedientsofthethreemeditations.

[Kihwa][HPC7.168b16] Eventhoughthethreemeditationsweretaughtearlier,theexplanationherehasgonefurtherinordertofurtherinstructthoseofmiddlingandinferiorcapacities.Evenif oneisafool,buthelistenscarefullytoadetailedexplanation,hetoocanunderstand.Butifhedoesn'tmaketheeffort,he'llnevergetit. [Sutra(#120)][T842.17.921b17HPC7.168b19]


Ifsentientbeingspervasivelypracticethesethreekindsofmeditation,andkeepworkingdiligentlytoadvance,theywillbecalled"tathagatasappearingintheworld."

[Kihwa][HPC7.168b21] Withthethreemeditationsfullycultivated,omniscientwisdomismatured,andamyriadvirtuesareembodied.Thisiscalled"Buddhaappearing." TheCaseofFurtherInabilitytoPractice [Sutra(#121)][T842.17.921b18HPC7.168b23]

IfsubsequentsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageofdullfacultiesdesireintheirheartstoattaintheWay,butsomehowalwaysfallshortoftheirgoal,itisbecauseofkarmic hindrancesfromthepast.Theymuststriveforrepentanceandconfessionandcontinuouslyrearousetheirhopes.Theymustfirstseverloveandhatred,jealousy,envy,flattery, andcalumnyandstrivefortheunsurpassedstateofmind.Sincethethreetypesofmeditationarealltheinvestigationofthesamesinglematter,ifonemeditationdoesn'twork,try againwithoneoftheothers.Don'tletyourminddissipate,andgraduallystriveforrealization.

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[Kihwa][HPC7.168c4] Ifthoseofdullfacultiesdonotstrivediligently,theirmeritwillnotsufficeforconsummation.Theymustfirstrepentoftheirfaultsandcutofftheirhindrancesandthen theycanapplytheirstrengthtowardpractice,strivingenergeticallywithoutlaziness,inordertoactualizeentry. TheGatha [Sutra(#122)][T842.17.921b22HPC7.168c7]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PerfectEnlightenment,youshouldknow Thatallsentientbeings Whowanttoseektheunsurpassed Must,attheoutsetofthethreeretreats, Repentofandadmittheirbeginninglessactions Foraperiodofthreeweeks. Thereupontheywillhavecorrectthought. Butiftheydonotexperiencethestatesastheyhavebeentaught Theyshouldnotgraspthem. Insamathaperfectquiescence Insamapatticorrectmindfulness Indhyanaclearobservanceofthebreath. Thesearecalled"thethreepurifyingmeditations." Thosewhodiligentlypractice Arecalled"Buddhasappearingintheworld." Thoseofdullfacultieswhocannotbringthisintoeffect Mustcontinuouslystriveatrepentance

Page239 Oftheirbeginninglesscrimes. Whenallhindrancesareextinguished TheBuddhastateappearsbeforeyoureyes.

[Kihwa][HPC7.168c15] Sincesinglemindedconcentrationofthewillresultsdirectlyintheattainmentofyourgoals,youmuststrivetodotheretreat,repentingofyouractsandrectifyingyour thoughts.Repentingofyourkarma,thekarmaisextinguishedwiththoughtsrectifiedanddiscriminationssevered,youattainpliancyineachmeditation.Butifthisstate isnotequaltotheoneyouheardaboutinthechapterofPowerandVirtueUnhindered,youshouldnotbecomeattachedtoit.Thethreekindsofpliancyarethestate oftheBuddha.Ifyouareabletointimatelyexperiencethiskindofstate,thensincethereisnohindrancenotextinguished,andnovirtuenotmanifested,youarecalled an"appearingBuddha."EachpersonoriginallysharesintheexactsameBuddharealm,butbecauseofkarmichindrancestheycannotattainto[theBuddha's]level.If themountainofhindrancesistoppled,theBuddhastateisdirectlymanifested.TheBuddhahasexplainedthecoordinatedpracticeofthethreemeditationsseparately andpervasivelyforthoseofsuperior,middling,andinferiorcapacities.Hisvastcompassionanduniversaleffortatsalvation"straighteningthecrookedwithout remainder"isevidenthere.

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12. MostExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva
[Kihwa][HPC7.169a1] Onewhoseextraordinaryendowmentsallowhimtohandleanyresponsibilityiscalleda"Worthy."1 Theabilitytoclearlydistinguishrightandwrongandtocrushevil anddisclosethecorrectiscalled"excellence."Thename''mostexcellentofworthies"isappliedtoonewhohasbecomeatrue"vesselofthedharma"2 andisreadyfor Buddhahood.HeisonewhohasattainedtheTrueEye,hasconquereddemons,andhasturnedthewheelofthedharma.Beingtheleaderintheproductionofall kindsofgoodness,heisregardedbyalloftheotherworthiesasthebest.WhydoesheraiseaquestionfollowingPerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva?Thechapterby chapterelucidationofthegistoftheteachingfromMajusridowntoPerfectEnlightenmenthasbeencompletelyexecutedtheCorrectDoctrineiscomplete.Sinceit isnowfittobehandeddowntofuturegenerationsandawakentheirunderstanding,thisbodhisattvarequeststheBuddhatoassignthesutraanamebywhichitcanbe pervasivelytransmitted.ThisiswhyExcellentoftheWorthiesiscall"Most"excellent,andthisiswhyheasksthisquestionfollowingPerfectEnlightenment Bodhisattva. MostExcellentofWorthies'askingthequestionfollowingPerfectEnlightenmentislikeSamantabhadra'squestioningafterMajusri.MajusriandPerfect Enlightenmentarethesameinrank.SamantabhadraandMostExcellentofWorthiespossessthesamevirtue.Possessingthesamerankandthesamevirtue,they beginandendthesutrainsimilarways.Majusrihasproducedfaithintheworldofhwaom,3 anddealtwiththestageofrealization.4 Thechaptersfrom SamantabhadratoPerfectEnlightenmentdealtwiththeinitiationofpracticesdependingonawakening,andconcerningthis,alldealwithcontinuouspracticeafter enlightenment.ThetreatmentbyPerfectEnlightenmentof"totalrealization"andhisbeingfollowedupbyMostExcellentofWorthiescanbeunderstoodinthesame way.

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Concerningthestructureofthesutra:thepresentationoftheteacherandhisaudienceatthesermoniscalledthe"Introduction.""Awakeningpracticerealization transformation"togetherconstitutethe"CorrectDoctrine.''Thislastchapterisdistinguishedasthe"Dissemination"section.Havingreachedthispoint,thebodyofthe sutraiscomplete.Theexcellentworkofallbuddhasisconsummated.Myverse: Dependingonitsname,theteachingisreceived,believedandputintopractice. Accordingtothesituationitiselucidatedtothepeopletoremovetheirblindness. Theirseedsinfused[bytheteaching],myriadbeingsattaintothelevelofrealization. Thisiswhysupernaturalbeingsendeavortoprotectit. TheQuestionsofMostExcellentofWorthies:TransmissionoftheTeaching [Sutra(#123)][T842.17.921c4HPC7.169b1]

ThebodhisattvaMostExcellentofWorthiesarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestothe right.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Youhaveenlightenedextensivelyforwe[bodhisattvas]andthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthisinconceivable matter.5WorldHonoredOne:WhatnamesareappliedtothisMahayanateaching?Howshoulditbecleavedtoandpracticed?Whatkindsofmeritswillbeobtainedbysentient beingswhopracticeaccordingtoit?Howshallthosewhocleavetoandpracticeitbeprotected?Andtowhatlandsshouldthisteachingbepropagated?" Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Herepeatedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession.

[Kihwa][HPC7.169b9] Thephrase"Youhaveenlightened(

)."Sincehehassaid"extensivelyforus,"howcan[the

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intransitiveverb]"enlighten"makesenseinthissentence?Whathehas"revealed"fromthebeginningofthesutrauptothispointarethedharmapracticesofthecausal stageoftheTathagata,therealmofthemostintimaterealizationofenlightenment,thevirtuousfunctionshiddeninthesecretstore,andthedharmainstructionthathas neveryetbeenheard.Sincetheseareallthingsthatareoutsidethereachoftheordinaryconceptualizingconsciousness,thismatteriscalled''inconceivable." TheBuddha'sAnswer:GuidelinesandNames [Sutra(#124)][T842.17.921c11HPC7.169b15]

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaMostExcellentofWorthies,said:"Excellent!Excellent!GoodSon,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasand sentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthemeritsandnamesofthissutrateaching.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaMostExcellentofWorthies receivedthisinstructionwithgreatjoy.Thoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened.

[Kihwa][HPC7.169b20] Sincetheinstallationofthesutra'snames,thedisclosureofitsvirtues,theencouragementofitspracticeanditscontinuedtransmissionarealltheBuddha'soriginal intention,heacknowledgesthequestionwithpraise. TheNamesoftheSutra [Sutra(#125)][T842.17.921c16HPC7.169b22]

Page243 Goodsons,thisscriptureisthatwhichistaughtbybillionsuponbillionsofcountlessbuddhasitisthatwhichisprotectedbythetathagatasofthethreetimesitisthatwhichis relieduponbythebodhisattvasofthetendirectionsitisthepureeyeofthetwelvedivisionsofthescriptures.ThisscriptureiscalledTheGreatCurativeExtensivePerfect EnlightenmentDharaniitisalsocalledTheSutraoftheFullyRevealedMeaningitisalsocalledTheMysteriousRoyalSamadhiitisalsocalledtheTathagata'sRealmofFull DecisivenessitisalsocalledTheDistinctionoftheSelfNatureoftheTathagatagarbha.Youshouldcleavetoitandpracticeaccordingtoit. GoodSons,thisscriptureexpressesnothingbutthestateofthetathagatas,andonlythebuddhatathagatasareabletofullyexplainit.Ifthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsof thedegenerateagepracticeaccordingtothissutra,theywillgraduallyadvancetoBuddhahood.

PurviewoftheSutra

GoodSons,thisscriptureiscalledtheSuddenTeachingoftheMahayana,andsentientbeingswiththecapacityforthesuddenwillawakenthroughit.Butitalsoembracesthe gradualpracticeofallsentientbeings.Itislikeagreatoceanthatdoesnotdenytheentranceofanysmallstreamandmosquitoesandhorseflies,aswellasAsuras,maydrinkits waterandtaketheirfill.

MeritsofStudyingandPracticingtheSutra

GoodSons,sayforinstancetherewereamanwho,withthepurestofmotivations,gatheredthesevenjewelsinaquantitysufficienttofillatrichiliocosm(abillionworlds),and thengavethemall

Page244 awayforcharity.Thisman'smeritwouldnotbeequaltothatofamanwhoheardthenameofthisscriptureandunderstoodthemeaningofasinglepassage. GoodSons,sayforexampletherewasamanwhotaughtsentientbeingsasmanyasahundredtimestheamountofthegrainsofsandintheGangesRiversuchthattheyall attainedthelevelofarhat.Thisman'smeritwouldnotbeequaltosomeonewhoexplicatedahalfofagathaofthisscripture.Ifthereisanypersonwhohearsthenameofthis sutraandbelievesinitfullywithoutashadowofadoubt,thenyoucanknowthatthispersonhasnotonlysowntheseedsofblessingsandwisdomwithonebuddhaortwo buddhas,buthascultivatedhisrootsofgoodnesswithcountlessmyriadsofbuddhas,listeningtothissutrateaching. GoodSons,youshouldprotectsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticingthis,andnotletevilspiritsandhereticsupsettheirthoughtsorcausethemtoloseheart.

TheGatha

ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: MostExcellentofWorthies,youshouldknow Thisscriptureisthatwhichallbuddhasteach Andthatwhichalltathagataswellprotect Itistheeyeofthetwelvedivisions. Itiscalled TheGreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenmentDharani. ItistheexpressionoftherealmoftheTathagata. Thosewhopracticeaccordingtoit

Page245 GraduallyadvancetoBuddhahood. Itislikeanoceanthatacceptsallrivers Andgivesallofthethirstytheirfill. Iftherewereapersonwhodonatedthesevenjewels Enoughtofillatrichiliocosm Itwouldnotbeequaltohearingthissutra. Ifsomeonetransformedcountlessbeings Suchthattheyallreachedarhatship Itwouldnotbeequaltotheexplicationofhalfagatha. Youmustall,forthelatergenerations, Protectthosewhogiveandreceivethisteaching Andnotallowthemtobackslide.

GuaranteesofProtectionbySupernaturalBeings

Then,fromthemidstofthegreatassembly,therearoseFieryhairedVajrawarriors,PulverizingVajrawarriors,BlueVajrawarriorsaltogethereightythousandVajrawarriors withtheirretinues.Theygotupfromtheirseats,bowedtheirheadstothefeetoftheBuddha,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.ThentheyaddressedtheBuddha, saying"WorldHonoredOne,ifsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageareabletocleavetothisScriptureofMahayanaDecisiveness,weshallprotectthemasifprotectingour owneyes,andweshallalsoprotecttheplaceswheretheycarryouttheirpractices.WeVajrawarriorsshallguidethesepeople,protectingthemmorningandnight,suchthatthey donotretrogress.Theirhouseholdsshallneversufferfromcalamitysickness

Page246 shallbeeradicatedtheirmaterialpossessionsshallbeabundantandtheyshallneversufferfrompoverty. ThentheGreatBrahmaKings,theKingsoftheTwentyEightHeavens,togetherwiththeKingsofMt.SumeruandtheNationProtectingKings,arosefromtheirseats.They bowedtheirheadstotheBuddha'sfeet,circumambulatedhimtotheright,andaddressedhim,saying:"WorldHonoredOne,weshallalsoprotectthosewhocleavetothis scripture.Weshallbringthemtranquillityandnotallowthemtoretrogress." ThenaGreatMightyDemonKing,whosenamewasKumbhanda,togetherwithahundredthousandDemonKings,arosefromhisseat.HebowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.HeaddressedtheBuddha,saying:"Ishallalsoprotectthosewhocleavetothisscripturebyguardingthemmorningandnight andnotlettingthemretrogress.Ifanevilspiritshoulddaretoapproachwithintheareaofoneyojana6totheplaceofthepractitioner'sabode,Ishallsmashhimintoatoms." TheBuddhahavingfinishedhispreachingofthisscripture,thebodhisattvas,thedevas,nagas,yaksasandtherestoftheeightkindsofspiritualbeings7alongwiththeir retinues,aswellastheHeavenlyKings,BrahmaKings,andtherestofthegreatassembly,havingheardwhattheBuddhataught,wereallfilledwithgreatjoy.Theybelieved, embodied,andpracticedthisteaching.

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APPENDIX: RETRANSLATIONOFTHESUTRAOFPERFECTENLIGHTENMENTACCORDINGTOTHEAMENDMENTSBY KIHWA

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Preface
ThusIhaveheard.Onetime,theBhagavanenteredthesupramundanegreatradiantbrightgarbha,intheexactlyattainedsamadhi,wherealltathagatasabidein radiantsplendor.Thisisthegroundofpureenlightenmentofsentientbeings,theequaloriginalrealitywherebodyandmindarecompletelyerased.Hecompletelyfilled thetendirectionswiththeaccordancewithnonduality,andinthisnondualstatemanifestedallpurelands. Hewaswithonehundredthousandgreatbodhisattvamahasattvas.Thosewhoservedasleadersoftheassemblywere:MajusriBodhisattva,Samantabhadra Bodhisattva,UniversalVisionBodhisattva,VajragarbhaBodhisattva,MaitreyaBodhisattva,PureWisdomBodhisattva,PowerandVirtueUnhinderedBodhisattva, VoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattva,PurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattva,UniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattva,PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva,andMost ExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva.Withtheirretinues,allenteredintothesamesamadhiastheTathagataatthisassemblyoftheequaldharma.

1.MajusriBodhisattva
MajusriBodhisattvaarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Hethen kneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Please,forallmembersofthisassemblywhohavecomeforyourdharma,teachusaboutthedharmapracticeofthe Tathagata'soriginallyarisenpurecausalstage.Also,pleaseteachthebodhisattvastoarousepuremindinthegreatvehicleandbecomedistantlyremovedfromall afflictions,suchthatthey

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canpreventthefuturesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseekthegreatvehiclefromfallingintomistakenviews."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtotheground. Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtoMajusriBodhisattva,said:"Excellent!Excellent!Goodson,youhavebeenabletoaskforthebodhisattvasaboutthe dharmapracticeofthecausalstageoftheTathagata,andhavecausedallthebodhisattvastoarousethepuremindinthegreatvehicle.Youhavealsocausedall sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseekthegreatvehicletogaincorrectabidingsuchthattheydonotfallintoerroneousviews.Nowlistenwell,andIshall explainforyou."MajusriBodhisattvareceivedtheteachingwithreverenceandjoyallthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,theunsurpassedKingoftheDharmapossessesthegreatdharanientrance.Itiscalled'PerfectEnlightenment.'Fromitismanifestedallpurity:suchness, bodhi,nirvana,andtheparamitaswithwhichheteachesbodhisattvas.AllTathagatasintheiroriginallyarisencausalstagerelyontheperfectilluminationofthe attributesofpureenlightenmenttopermanentlyseverignoranceanddirectlyaccomplishtheBuddhaWay. "Whatisignorance?Goodsons,allsentientbeingsfallintovariousinvertedviewswithoutbeginning.Justlikeadisorientedpersonwhoconfusesthefourdirections, theymistakenlytaketheFourElementsastheattributesoftheirbodiesandtheconditionedshadowsoftheSixObjectsastheattributesoftheirmind.Itisjustlike whenoureyesarediseasedandweseeflowersinthesky,orasecondmoon. "Goodsons,theskyactuallyhasnoflowerstheyarethefalseattachmentofthediseasedperson.Andbecauseofthisfalseattachment,notonlyareweconfused abouttheselfnatureoftheskywearealsomixedupabouttheplacewhererealflowerscomefrom.Fromthisthereisthefalselyexistenttransmigrationthroughlife anddeath.Thereforeitiscalled'ignorance.' "Goodsons,this'ignorance'actuallylackssubstance.Itislikeamanwhoisdreaming.Atthetimeofthedream,thereisnononexistence,untilheawakensandfinds thatthereisnothingforhimtoholdonto.Similarly,whentheskyflowersdisappearfromthesky,youcannotsaythatthereisadefinitepointoftheirdisappearance. Why?Becausethereisnopointatwhichtheyarise.Allsentientbeingsfalselyperceivearisingandceasingwithinthisconditionofnonarising.Thereforetheysaythat thereis'transmigrationthroughlifeanddeath.' "Goodsons,thepracticeofPerfectEnlightenmentinthecausalstageoftheTathagataistoknowthattheseare'skyflowers,'whichisthesameasknowingthatthere isnotransmigration,andthatthereisnobody/mindtoundergolifeanddeath.Buttheyarenotcausedtobenonexistent.Itisbecausetheylackoriginalnature.

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"Now,this[prior]awarenessisjustlikeemptyspace.Yetsincetheknowledgethatitislikeemptyspaceisnoneotherthantheappearanceofskyflowers,youalso cannotsaythatthereisnonatureofawareness.Whenexistenceandnonexistencearebothdispelled,itiscalled'accordingwithpureenlightenment.' "Why?BecauseitsnatureiscompletelyemptybecauseitiseternallychangelessbecausethereisneitherarisingnorceasingwithintheMatrixoftheTathagata,and becausetherearenofixedpointsofview.Likethenatureoftherealityrealm,itistotallycompleteandperfect,pervadingthetendirections.Thereforeitiscalledthe 'dharmapracticeofthecausalstage.'Bodhisattvas,relyinguponit,arousetheirpuremindwithintheMahayana.Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhopractice relyingonthiswillnotfallintoerroneousviews." Then,theWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: Majusri,youshouldknow AllTathagatas Fromtheiroriginallyarisencausalstage Penetrateignorance Withenlightenedwisdom. Knowingittobelikeskyflowers Theyareabletoescapetransmigration. Itislikethemaninthedream Whohasnothingtograspuponawakening. Awarenessislikespace Equal,changeless. Enlightenmentpervadingtheworldsofthetendirections IsnoneotherthantheattainmentoftheBuddhaway. Allillusionsceaseatnoplace AndinaccomplishingtheWaythereisnothingattained. That'sbecausetheoriginalnatureiscomplete,perfect. Init,bodhisattvas Areabletoproducebodhicitta. Allsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Practicingthis,willavoiderroneousviews.

2.SamantabhadraBodhisattva
ThenSamantabhadraBodhisattvarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Heknelt downwithhishandsclasped,andsaidtotheBuddha:

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"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.IwouldliketoaskforalltheBodhisattvasatthisassemblyandforthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoare practicingMahayana:Pleaserevealtheexpedientstagesofpracticeandletthemhearofthispurerealmofperfectenlightenment.Howshouldwepractice? "WorldHonoredOne,ifthesesentientbeingsknowabout'illusion,'andthatbodyandmindarealsoillusion,howcantheyremedyillusionusingillusion?Ifallillusory naturesarecompletelyannihilated,thenthereisnomind.Whoisgoingtocarryoutthepractice?Moreover,basedonthis,howcanyouteachthepracticeof'illusion'? Ifallsentientbeingsoriginallydonotpractice,thentheywillremainforevertrappedwithintheillusionoflifeanddeath.Nothavingpenetratedtherealmoftheillusory, howwilltheyliberatethemindthatistrappedinfalseconceptualization?"Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesin succession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtoSamantabhadraBodhisattva,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavewellaskedtheTathagataonbehalfofthe bodhisattvasandthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateageabouttheexpedientstagesofthepracticeofthebodhisattva's'asillusionsamadhi.'Thispracticeenables allthesentientbeingstogainfreedomfromillusion.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainitforyou."Samantabhadrareceivedthisteachingwithgreatjoyandreverence allinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,allsentientbeings'variousillusionsarebornfromtheperfectlyenlightenedmarvelousmindoftheTathagata,justliketheskyflowerscometoexistinthe sky.Eventhoughtheillusoryflowersvanish,thenatureoftheskyisindestructible.Theillusorymindofsentientbeingsalsovanishesbasedonillusion,andwhileall illusionsareutterlyerased,theenlightenedmindisunchanged.Theuseofillusiontospeakofenlightenmentisalsocalledillusion.Ifyousaythereisenlightenment,you arenotyetfreefromillusion.Ifyousaythereisnoenlightenment,thisisthesamething.Therefore,thecessationofillusioniscalled'unchanging.' "Goodsons,allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldseparatefromallillusoryandfalserealms.Byfirmlyabidinginseparationfromthought, youalsoseparatefromthethoughtof'illusion.'Asthisseparationbecomesillusion,youagainseparatefromit.Youagainseparatefromthisseparationfromseparation fromillusion,untilyoureach'nothingtobeseparatedfrom,'whichistheremovalofallillusion.Itislikemakingafirewithtwosticks.Thefireblazesandthewoodis consumedtheashesflyawayandthesmokevanishes.Usingillusiontoremedyillusionisexactlylikethis.Yeteventhoughallillusionsareextinguished,youdonot enterintonothingness.

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''Goodsons,whenyouknowillusion,youareimmediatelyfree,withoutdevisingexpedientmeans.Freedomfromillusionisinitselfenlightenment,andthereareno stages.Allbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhodependuponthispracticewillaccordinglybeabletofreethemselvesfromallillusion." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: Samantabhadra,youshouldknow Thebeginninglessillusoryignorance Ofallsentientbeings Isallcreatedfrom TheperfectlyenlightenedmindofallTathagatas. Itisjustliketheskyflowers Whichhavetheirappearanceinrelationtothesky Thoughtheskyflowersvanish Theskyhasneverchanged. Illusionisbornfromenlightenment Inthecessationofillusion,enlightenmentremainsperfectlycomplete. Thisisbecausetheenlightenedmindischangeless. Ifthesebodhisattvas Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Alwaysappropriatelyseparatefromillusion, Theywillcompletelyfreethemselvesfromit. Liketheflamethatspringsfromwood: Thewoodisconsumedandtheflameagaindisappears. Ifyouareenlightened,thentherearenostagesofpractice Noristheresuchathingasexpedientmeans.

3.UniversalVisionBodhisattva
ThenthebodhisattvaUniversalVisionarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.He thenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying:"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,Ibegofyouonbehalfofthebodhisattvas ofthisassemblyandthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,toexpoundonthebodhisattvas'stagesandpractice.Howshouldtheythink?Howshouldtheyabide? Forsentientbeingswhohavenotyetawakened,whatkindsofexpedientmeansshouldbedevisedtocausethemalltoawaken? WorldHonoredOne,ifthesesentientbeingslackthecorrectexpedientsandcorrectthought,then,whentheyhearyouexplainthis

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samadhi,confusionwillariseintheirmindsandtheywillbeunabletoawakenandenter.Pleasearouseyourcompassionforusandforthesentientbeingsofthe degenerateage,andprovisionallyexplaintheseexpedientmethods."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Hemadethisrequestthreetimesin succession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaUniversalVision,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasand sentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthestagesoftheTathagata'spracticeabouthisthoughtandabiding,andabouttheexplanationofallthevariousexpedient means.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."UniversalVisionBodhisattvareceivedthisinstructionwithgreatjoy.Thegreatassemblybecamesilentand listened. "Goodsons,thesenewlyawakenedbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoyearnforthepureenlightenedmindoftheTathagatamustcorrect theirthoughtsandridthemselvesofallillusions,firstrelyingontheTathagata'spracticeofsamatha.Firmlyestablishedinmoraldisciplineandlivinginharmonywith likemindedstudents,thenpracticingsilentsittinginaquietroom,theyshoulduninterruptedlybemindfulofthefollowing: "ThispresentbodyisasynthesisoftheFourElements.Hair,nails,teeth,skin,flesh,bones,marrow,brains,andpigmentallreturntoEarth.Saliva,mucus,pus,blood, sputum,scum,phlegm,tears,semen,urine,andfecesallreturntoWater.HeatreturnstoFire,andmovementreturnstoWind.WhentheFourElementshavebeen separated,wherecanthefalsebodyexist?Nowyouknowthatthisbodyultimatelyhasnosubstance.Asasynthesisitappears,butinrealityitislikeanillusion conjuredbyamagician.Whenthesefourfactorstemporarilycombine,theSixFacultiesfalselyappearthroughtheinternalandexternalmatchingoftheSixFaculties andFourElements,thereisthedeludedapprehensionofconditionedenergy.Withinthisconglomeration,thereseemtobemarksofthisconditionedenergy,whichis provisionallycalled'mind.' "Goodsons,ifthisfalseminddoesnothaveitsSixObjects,itcannotexist.IftheFourElementsareseparated,therearenoobjectstobeexperienced.Atthispoint, thecognizedobjectseachdisperseandvanish,andultimatelythereisnodependentlyarisenmindtobeseen. "Goodsons,sincetheillusorybodyofthissentientbeingvanishes,theillusorymindalsovanishes.Sincetheillusorymindvanishes,illusoryobjectsalsovanish.Since illusoryobjectsvanish,illusoryvanishingalsovanishes.Sinceillusoryvanishingvanishes,nonillusiondoesnotvanish.Itislikepolishingamirror:whenthefilthisgone, itsbrightnessnaturallyappears. "Goodsons,youshouldunderstandbothbodyandmindtobeillusoryfilth.Whenthedefiledaspectsarepermanentlyextinguished,theentireuniversebecomespure."

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"Goodsons,itislikeapuremanipearlthatreflectsthefivecolors,dependinguponitssurroundings.Thefoolishseethatpearlasreallyhavingthesecolors. "Goodsons,itisthesamewiththepurenatureofPerfectEnlightenment:itappearsinpeople'sbodiesandminds,accordingtotheirindividualtype.Yetthesefoolssay thatpurePerfectEnlightenmentreallyhasbodyandmind.ItisonlybecausethesepeopleareunabletofreethemselvesfromillusoryappearancesthatIcallbodyand mind'illusoryfilth.'Theonewhoopposesandremovesillusoryfilthiscalledthe'bodhisattva.'Whenfilthisgone,itsoppositionisremovedthenthereisnoopposition, nofilth,noranythingtobenamed. "Goodsons,becausethesebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagefullyrealize[thenatureof]allillusionanddispelall[illusory]images,theydirectly experiencelimitlesspurity. "Goodsons,Enlightenmentrevealslimitlessspace.Sinceenlightenmentisperfectlyclear,themanifestmindispure.Sincethemindispure,theobjectsofvisionare pure.Sincevisionispure,theeyefacultyispure.Sincetheeyefacultyispure,thevisualconsciousnessispure.Sincethisconsciousnessispure,hearingispure.Since hearingispure,theearfacultyispure.Sincethefacultyispure,theauditoryconsciousnessispure.Sincetheconsciousnessispure,allperceptionispure,andsoitis trueforsmell,taste,touch,andconceptualizationaswell. "Goodsons,sincetheeyefacultyispure,thecolorspectrumispure.Sincecolorispure,thefieldofsoundisalsopure.Thesameistrueofthefieldsofsmell,taste, touch,andconceptualization. "Goodsons,sincetheSixObjectsarepure,theEarthelementispure.SinceEarthispure,Waterispure,andsoareFireandWind. "Goodsons,sincetheFourElementsarepure,theTwelveLoci,theEighteenRealms,andtheTwentyFiveKindsofExistencearepure.Sincethesearepure,theTen Powers,theFourKindsofFearlessness,theFourTypesofUnobstructedWisdom,theBuddha'sEighteenDistinctiveCharacteristics,andtheThirtySevenAidsto Enlightenmentarepure,andsoonuptotheeightyfourthousanddharanientrances,everythingispure. "Goodsons,sincealltruemarksarepureintheirnature,onebodyispure.Sinceonebodyispure,manybodiesarepure.Sincemanybodiesarepurethesameistrue ofallsentientbeingsinthetendirections,whoareperfectlyenlightenedandpure. "Goodsons,sinceoneworldispure,manyworldsarepure.Sincemanyworldsarepure,wecanseethatthroughoutallofspace,completelyincludingthethreetimes, allthingsareequal,pure,andchangeless. "Goodsons,sincespaceisequalandchangeless,youshouldknowthatthenatureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless.SincetheFourElementsarechangeless, youshouldknowthatthenatureof

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enlightenmentisequalandchangeless.Thesameholdstrueallthewayupthroughtheeightyfourthousanddharanientrancesthatareequalandchangeless. Thereforeyoushouldknowthatthenatureofenlightenmentisequalandchangeless. "Goodsons,theunchangingpurityofthenatureofenlightenmentcompletelypervadesitincludeseverythingwithoutrestriction.Thereforeyoushouldknowthatthe sixfacultiescompletelypervadetherealityrealm.Sincethefacultiescompletelypervade,youshouldknowthatthesixsensoryfieldscompletelypervadethereality realm.Sincethesensoryfieldscompletelypervade,youshouldknowthattheFourElementscompletelypervadetherealityrealm.Itisthesamewaywithallthings, includingthedharanientrances,whichcompletelypervadetherealityrealm. "Goodsons,sincethismarvelousnatureofenlightenmentcompletelypervades,thereisneitherconflictnorconfusionbetweenthenaturesofthefacultiesandtheir objects.Sincethefacultiesandobjectshavenoconflict,itislikethisthroughallofexistence,includinginthedharanientrances,whichhaveneitherconflictnor confusion.Itislikeonehundredthousandlampsshininginoneroom.Theirlightcompletelypervadeswithoutconflictorconfusion. "Goodsons,sincetheirenlightenmentisfullyperfected,youshouldknowthatbodhisattvasarenotattachedtodharmas,anddonotseekliberationfromdharmas. Theydonothatesamsaraanddonotlovenirvana.Theydonotvenerateoneforkeepingtheprecepts,nordespisethepersonwhobreaksthem.Theyarenotinawe oftheadeptpractitioneranddonotlookdownonthebeginner.Why?Becausetheyareallenlightened.Itislikevisionseeinganobject.Thevisioncompletely pervadeswithoutexperiencingattractionoraversion.Why?Vision,inessence,hasnoduality,thereforeithasneitherattractionnoraversion. "Goodsons,thesebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhocultivatethismindandareabletofullyconsummateit,haveneithercultivationnor consummation.TheirPerfectEnlightenmentilluminateseverywhere,andisperfectlystill,withoutduality.Here,Buddhaworldsaquintilliontimesasmanyasthe incalculableamountofgrainsofsandintheGangesRiverhaphazardlyariseandceaselikeflowersinthesky.Thereisneithersamenessnordifference,neither bondagenorfreedom.Nowyouknowforthefirsttimethatallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhasthatsamsaraandnirvanaarelikelastnight'sdream. "Goodsons,sincetheyarelikelastnight'sdream,youshouldknowthatsamsaraandnirvanahaveneitherarisingnorceasing,neithercomingnorgoing.Inthe realizationofthisthereisneithergainnor

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loss,neitherselectingnorrejecting.Intheonewhorealizes,thereisno'contrivance,''stopping,''naturalism,'or'annihilation.'Inthisrealizationthereisneithersubject norobject,andultimatelyneitherrealizationnorrealizedone.Thenatureofalldharmasisequalandindestructible. "Goodsons,thesebodhisattvasusethiskindofpractice,graduallyadvancelikethis,thinkinthisway,abideinthisway,usethesekindsofexpedientmeans,and awakeninthisway.Ifyouseekthiskindofdharma,youwillnotagainbevexed." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: UniversalVision,youshouldknow Thebodiesandmindsofallsentientbeings Areonlyillusion. ThebodyiscomposedoftheFourElements TheminddependsupontheSixObjects. WhentheFourElementsdisperse, Whowillbethereasasynthesis? Inthiskindofgradualpractice Alliscompletelypure, Unchanging,pervadingtherealityrealm. Withoutcontrivance,stopping,naturalismorannihilation Andalsowithoutanysubjective"realizer," AllBuddhaworldsare Justlikeskyflowers. Thethreetimesareallthesame Ultimatelywithoutcomingorgoing. Bodhisattvaswhohaverecentlyarisentheirminds Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage WhowanttoentertheBuddhaWay Shouldpracticelikethis.

4.VajragarbhaBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaVajragarbharosefromhisseatinthegreatassemblyandbowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet.Hecircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright,and thenhekneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandsaidtotheBuddha: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhavelecturedsuperblyforallthesebodhisattvasaboutthepurityofPerfectEnlightenment,thegreatdharani,the realitypracticeofthecausalstageandgradualpracticesaccordingtoprovisionalexplanations.Youhave

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clearedawaythesentientbeings'cloudsofdarknessallthoseatthisdharmaassembly,havingreceivedyourcompassionateinstruction,haveclarifiedtheiroptical illusionsandpurifiedtheirwisdomeye. "WorldHonoredOneifallsentientbeingsareoriginallyperfectbuddhas,thenhowcantheyalsopossessignorance?Ifsentientbeingsareoriginallyignorant,howcan yousaythattheyhavealwaysbeenperfectbuddhas?Ifalltheworldlingsinthetendirectionsareoriginallyperfectlyenlightened,butlatergiverisetoignorance,at whatpointdoalltheseTathagatasregeneratetheseafflictions?Myonlyrequestisthatyounotdiscardyourlimitlessgreatcompassionandthatyourevealthe concealedtreasuretothebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage.Thiswillcausebodhisattvastogainunshakablefaith,andallowallsentientbeingsof thedegenerateagetogainaccesstothisteaching,whichisasutrainstructionofthecompletedoctrine,suchthattheycanpermanentlyseverdoubtandregret."Having saidthis,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,speakingtothebodhisattvaVajragarbha,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentient beingsofthedegenerateageabouttheTathagata'sextremelydeepandreconditefinalexpedientmeans.Thisisthehighestteachinggivenbythebodhisattvas,thefully revealeddoctrineoftheGreatVehicle,whichisabletocausetheenlighteningbodhisattvasofthetendirections,aswellasthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateageto gainunshakablefaithandpermanentlyseverdoubtandremorse.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainthisforyou."VajragarbhaBodhisattvareceivedthisinstruction withreverenceandgreatjoyandthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,allworldsbeginandend,arebornanddie,havingpriorandafter.Theyexistanddonotexist,gatherandscatter,ariseandcease.Thiscyclicalmotionof goingandreturningwithoutamoment'slapse,variouslybeingselectedandrejected,isallcyclicexistence.ThenatureofthePerfectEnlightenmentthatisdiscerned withouthavingleftcyclicexistenceissimplysamsaric.Ifyouthinkyoucanescapecyclicexistenceinthisway,youarecompletelyoffthemark.Itiscomparabletothe wayinwhichshakingtheeyescanmakestillwaterappeartomove,orthewaythatatransfixedgazecanenabletheappearanceofafirewheel.Inthesameway, cloudsflyingpastthemoonmakeitseemtomove,andwhenyouareinamovingboat,theshoreappearstomove. "Goodsons,allthesethingsareinmotionwithoutcease,andeventhoughtheobjectsarealreadystill,youcan'tgetafixonthem.Howcanyoupossiblyexpecttoget aglimpseoftheBuddha'sPerfectEnlightenmentwiththetransmigratory,samsaric,stainedmindthathasnever

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beenclear?Becauseofthis,youarepronetogiverisetothesethreedoubts. "Goodsons,itislikeanillusoryeyediseasefalselyengenderingavisionofskyflowers.Iftheillusoryeyediseaseisremoved,youcannotask:'Nowthatthiseye diseaseisclearedaway,whenwillothereyediseasesreappear?'Why?Becausethesetwothingsflowersandeyedisease,arenotinterdependent.Itisalsolike whentheskyflowersvanishfromthesky.Youcan'task,'Whenwilltheskyagainproduceskyflowers?'Why?Sincetheskyoriginallyhasnoflowers,theydonot ariseandcease.Samsaraandnirvanaarethesameasarisingandceasingmarvelousenlightenmentilluminatesperfectly,andisfreefromflowersoreyedisease. "Goodsons,youshouldknowthattheskydoesnotexistforaninstantnordoesitnotexistforaninstant.HowmuchmoresoitisintheTathagata'scloselyaccording withPerfectEnlightenmentandbecomingthesky'sequaloriginalnature. "Goodsons,itislikesmeltinggoldore.Thegolddoesnotcomeintobeingbecauseofsmeltingonceitisperfected,itwillneveragainbecomeore.Eventhoughit passesthroughendlesstime,thenatureofthegoldisnevercorrupted.Itiswrongtosaythatitisnotoriginallyperfect.ThePerfectEnlightenmentoftheTathagatais alsolikethis. "Goodsons,themarvelousperfectlyenlightenedmindoftheTathagatasoriginallyhasneitherbodhinornirvanaithasneitheraccomplishmentofbuddhahoodnor nonaccomplishmentofbuddhahoodnofalsecyclicexistenceandnononcyclicexistence. "Goodsons,inthefinalstageofthesravakapath,thereiscompleteseveranceofthekarmicactivitiesofword,thought,andaction.Yetsravakasarestillincapable ofattainingtheirownactualizedandmanifestnirvana.HowcanyoupossiblyexpecttofathomtheTathagata'sstateofPerfectEnlightenmentusingdiscursivethought? ItisliketryingtoburnMt.Sumeruwiththefirefromafireflyitisimpossible!Usingthecyclicmind,youproducecyclicviewsandyouwillneverbeabletoenterthe Tathagata'soceanofperfecttranquillity.Therefore,Isaythatallbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldfirstseverthebeginninglessrootof cyclicexistence. "Goodsons,habituateddiscursivethoughtarisesfromtheconditionedmind.Thesixdatafields,falseconceptualization,andconditionedenergiesarenotthetrue essenceofmindindeed,theyarelikeskyflowers.ButusingdiscursivethoughttodiscerntheBuddhastateisliketheskyflowers'furtherproducing'skyfruits.' Circularfalsethoughtsareuselesshere. "Goodsons,false,floatingthoughtsandnumerouscleverviewsareincapableofperfectingtheexpedientmeansofPerfectEnlightenment.

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Usingthiskindofdiscrimination,youcannotevenformulateaproperquestion." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse,saying: Vajragarbha,youshouldknow TheTathagata'sperfectlytranquilnature Hasneverhadabeginningorend. Ifyouusethecyclicmind Discursivethoughtjustrevolves, Atmost,reachingthelimitsofcyclicexistence, AndyouareunabletoentertheBuddhaocean. Itislikesmeltinggoldore: Thegolddoesnotexistbecauseofsmelting, Yetcrudegold,fromsmelting Oncesubsequentlyperfected, Neverreturnstothestateofore. Samsaraandnirvana, WorldlingsandBuddhas Likeskyflowers,areappearances. Discursivethoughtisjustanillusoryphenomenon: Howcanitpenetratefalsity? Onlyafteryoufullyknowthismind CanyouseekPerfectEnlightenment.

5.MaitreyaBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaMaitreyaarosefromhisseatinthegreatassemblyandbowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet.Hecircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright,and thenkneltdownwithhishandsclasped.HeaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveopenedwidethesecrettreasureforthebodhisattvasandhavemadeallinthegreatassemblydeeplyawaken totransmigrationanddistinguishbetweenthecorrectandmistaken.YouhavebeenabletoimparttheFearlessEyeoftheWayandunshakablefaithinGreatNirvana tothesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetheywillnotagainchaseaftercyclicexistenceorgiverisetocyclicviews. "WorldHonoredOneifthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaspiretofloatontheTathagata'sgreattranquilocean,howshouldtheyseverthe rootofcyclicexistence?Inthevariouskindsofcyclicexistence,howmanytypesofbeingsarethere?Howmanydifferencesarethereintypesofpracticeofthe Buddha'sbodhi?Whenwereenterthedirtyanddifficultworld,whatkindsofteachingdevices

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shouldweestablishtosaveallsentientbeings?Iimploreyounottorelaxinyourworldsavinggreatcompassionandthatyouclarifythewisdomeyeofallpracticing bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,illuminatetheirmindmirror,andcompletelyawakenthemtotheTathagata'sunsurpassedinsight."Aftersaying this,heprostratedfullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaMaitreya,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwellonbehalfofthebodhisattvasand sentientbeingsofthedegenerateageabouttheTathagata'smysterious,secret,subtledoctrine.Youhaveenabledthebodhisattvastopurifytheirwisdomeye,and allowedallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetopermanentlyseverthemselvesfromcyclicexistence.Theirmindswillawakentotheirtruecharacteristicandthey willpossesstheequipoisethatcomeswiththeawarenessofthenonarisingcharacteristicofexistence.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainthisforyou."Maitreya receivedthisinstructionwithjoyandgreatreverence.Allthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,allsentientbeingsareincyclicalexistencebecauseoftheirpossession,frombeginninglesstime,ofaffection,attachedlove,craving,anddesire.Sinceall thedifferenttypesofbeingsthosebornfromeggs,thosebornfromwombs,thosebornfrommoisture,andthosebornbytransformationallreceivetheirbirthandlife fromsexualdesire,youshouldrealizethatcyclicexistencehasattachedloveasitsbasis.Thistendencytobegrippedbyattachedloveisabettedbytheexistenceofall desires,andthereforeitisabletoempowerthecontinuityofsamsara.Desirearisesdependinguponattachedlovelifepowerexistsdependingupondesire. Furthermore,theattachedloveandlifeofsentientbeingshavedesireastheirroot.Attachedloveanddesirearecausesattachedloveandlifeareresults. "Itisinreferencetotheobjectsofdesirethatyouproduceallvarietiesofcomfortanddiscomfort.Whentheobjectiscontrarytotheattachedmind,yougiveriseto aversionandjealousyandgoaroundcreatingallsortsofkarma.Itisbecauseofthisthatyouarerebornasahellbeingorahungryghost.Butthen,knowingthat desireshouldbeabandonedandadheringtothepathofabandonmentofkarmicactivity,youcastoffevilandenjoygoodnesshence,youarerebornasagodorman. Again,knowingthatyoushoulddislikeallformsofattachment,youletgoofattachmentandenjoydetachment.Thisgreatlynourishestherootofattachmentandyou automaticallyproduceconditionallyenhancedpositivestates.ButsinceallofthisiscyclicexistenceyoustilldonotattaintothesagelyWay.Therefore,sentientbeings whodesiretobefreefromlifeanddeathandwanttoescapecyclicexistence,firsthavetoseverdesireandridthemselvesofattachedlove.

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"Goodsons,whenbodhisattvasappearintheworldtoteach,itisnotbasedonattachment.Itisonlybecauseoftheircompassionateintentiontohavethesentient beingsdiscardattachmentthattheyprovisionallytakeonallkindsofdesireandenterlifeanddeath.Ifallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagecancastofftheir desiresandremoveloveandhate,theywillpermanentlyendtheircyclicexistence.SeekingtheperfectlyenlightenedstateoftheTathagataintheirpureminds,theywill directlyattainawakening. "Goodsons,duetotheirinherentdesire,sentientbeingsgenerateignoranceandmanifestthedistinctionsandinequalitiesoftheFiveNatures.DuetotheTwo Hindrancestheymanifestdeepandshallow[afflictions].WhataretheTwoHindrances?Thefirstisthenoetichindrance,whichobstructscorrectawarenessthe secondisthephenomenalhindrance,whichenablesthecontinuationofsamsara. "Whatarethe'FiveNatures'?Goodsons,ifsentientbeingshavenotyetbeenabletodestroytheTwoHindrances,thisiscalled"nonconsummationofone's Buddhahood."Ifsentientbeingspermanentlydiscarddesire,thentheyhavesucceededinremovingthephenomenalhindrance,buthavenotyetseveredthenoetic hindrance.Theyareabletoawakeninthewayofsravakasandpratyekabuddhasbutarenotabletomanifestanddwellinthestateofthebodhisattva. "Goodsons,ifallsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedesiretofloatonthegreatoceanoftheTathagata'sPerfectEnlightenment,theyshouldfirstarousethe determinationtodoawaywiththeTwoHindrances.OncetheTwoHindrancesaresubdued,onecanawakenandenterthestateofthebodhisattva.After permanentlydestroyingthenoeticandphenomenalhindrances,oneisabletoenterthesublimePerfectEnlightenmentoftheTathagata,andabletofullyaccomplish bodhiandgreatnirvana. "Goodsons,allsentientbeingswithoutexceptionactualizePerfectEnlightenment.WhenyoumeetaGenuineTeacher,relyonthedharmapracticeofthecausalstage thathesetsupforyou.Whenyoufollowthispractice,bothsuddenandgradualwillbecontained.Ifyoucomeuponthecorrectpathofpracticeoftheunsurpassed bodhioftheTathagatas,thenthereareno'superior'or'inferior'abilitiesofpeople:allaccomplishbuddhahood. "If,whileseekingaGenuineTeacher,sentientbeingsmeetonewithmistakenviews,theywillnotgainthecorrectawakening.Althoughthisiscalledthe'heterodox nature,'thefaultlieswiththeteacher,notwiththesentientbeings.Thisisthe'distinctionoftheFiveNatures'ofsentientbeings. "Goodsons,itisonlythroughtheirGreatlyCompassionateexpedientmeansthatbodhisattvasenterthesecularworld,awakeningtheunenlightened,manifesting variousformsandshapes,functioninginagree

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ableanddisagreeablecircumstances.Itisonlyrelyingonthebeginninglesspurepoweroftheirvowtosaveallbeingsthattheyphysicallyworktogetherwiththese peopleandcausethemtoaccomplishbuddhahood.AnysentientbeingofthedegenerateagewhowouldarousethemindintensifiedtowardgreatPerfect Enlightenmentmustarousethepuregreatdeterminationofthebodhisattvas.Heshouldsay,'IherebyvowtodwellinthePerfectEnlightenmentoftheBuddha,toseek GenuineTeachersandnottoplantrootswithheterodoxpathsorpractitionersoftheTwoVehicles.'Practicingbasedonthisvow,youseverthehindrancesoneby one.Whenthehindrancesaregone,thevowisfulfilled.YouwillautomaticallyascendtothePureDharmaPalaceofLiberation,andactualizethemarvelouslyadorned realmofGreatPerfectEnlightenment.'' ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaversehesaid: Maitreya,youshouldknow Thatthenonattainmentofgreatliberation Byallsentientbeings Isonlyduetodesire Thereforetheyaredrawnintolifeanddeath. Ifyoucanseparateyourselffromlikeanddislike, Aswellasdesire,hatred,andignorance YouwillallperfecttheBuddha'sway AndpermanentlydestroytheTwoHindrances, Withoutneedingany"distinctionsinnature." Seekateacherwhohasthecorrectawakening, Practicethevowtoarousethebodhimind RelyonGreatNirvana. Thebodhisattvasinthetendirections Allappearintheworldofsamsara RelyingontheGreatlyCompassionatevow. Presentpractitioners Aswellassentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Shouldstrivetoeliminateallattachedviews AnddirectlyreturntoGreatPerfectEnlightenment.

6.PureWisdomBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaPureWisdomrosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.He thenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying:

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"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOneyouhavemagnanimouslyexplainedforallofourgroupthisinconceivablematter,whichwasoriginallynotseenand originallynotheard.Wewhoarepresentlyhereandhavereceivedyoursuperbinstructionhavegainedcomposureofbodyandmind,andreceivedgreatbenefit.I wouldliketorequestthis: WouldyoureexplainthenatureofthePerfectFulfillingEnlightenmentoftheKingoftheDharmaforthosewhohavecomeforyourteaching?Whatdifferencesare therebetweenthatwhichisgraspedandactualizedbysentientbeings,bodhisattvas,andWorldHonoredTathagatas?Pleaseletsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage hearthissagelyteachingsothattheymayconformtoit,awakenthroughit,andgraduallybecomecapableofentering."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytothe ground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPureWisdom,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthebodhisattvasandsentient beingsofthedegenerateageaboutthedistinctionsthattheTathagatamakes[between]thelevels[ofattainmentbypractioners].Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplain theseforyou."ThebodhisattvaPureWisdomreceivedthisinstructionwithreverenceandgreatjoy.Allthemembersofthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,althoughtheselfnatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotanature[likethepreviouslydescribednatures],nonetheless,anatureexiststhatisconcomitant withthearisingofallnatures.Butthereisneitheracquisitionnorrealizationofit.Fromthepointofviewofreality,thereareactuallyneitherbodhisattvasnorsentient beings.Why?Bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsarenothingbutillusoryappearances,andsinceillusoryappearancesareerased,thereisneither'acquirer'nor'realizer.' Itisliketheeyenotbeingabletoseeitself:inthenature'sownequality,thereisnothingthatis'equal.'Sentientbeingsarethoroughlyconfusedandareunabletorid themselvesofallillusoryappearances.Sincetheyhavenotextinguished[themarkof]cessationinillusoryactivity,theyautomaticallymakediscriminations.Ifthey attainaccordancewiththeextinctionoftheTathagata,thereisreallyneitherextinctionnorpersonwhobringsextinctionabout. "Goodsons,allsentientbeings,becauseofadeludedlyconceived'self'andattachmenttothatself,havebeginninglesslyneverknownmomenttomomentarisingand cessationforthemselvesthereforetheygiverisetoattractionandaversion,andbecomeaddictedtotheobjectsinthefivesensefields.IftheymeetaGenuineTeacher hewillawakenthemtotheessenceofpurePerfectEnlightenment.Discoveringarisingandcessation,theywilldirectlyknowthatthismind'sverynature

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isthatofanxiety.Ifthereisapersonwhopermanentlyseversthatanxietyandexperiencesthepurityoftherealityrealm,butwhoallowshisunderstandingofclarityin turntobecomeahindrance,thispersonistendingtowardPerfectEnlightenmentbutisnotperfectlyfree.Heiscalleda'worldlingwhoisaccordingwiththenatureof enlightenment.' "Goodsons,allbodhisattvasseetheirunderstandingasanobstruction.Buteveniftheyeliminatethe'understandingobstruction'theystillabideinaviewof enlightenment.This'enlightenmentobstruction'becomesahindranceandtheyarenotperfectlyfree.Theyarecalled'bodhisattvaswhohavenotyetenteredthe bhumiswhoareaccordingwiththenatureofenlightenment.' "Goodsons,sincethepossessionofilluminationandenlightenmentaretermedtogetheras'hindrance'and'obstruction,'thebodhisattvaisalwaysenlightenedwithout abiding.Illuminationandilluminatorsimultaneouslyvanish.Itislikethecaseofapersonwhocutsoffhisownheadwhentheheadiscutoff,thereisnolongerany 'cutter.'Hencetheuseoftheobstructingmindtoeliminateallobstructions:whenobstructionshavebeeneliminated,thereisnoonetoeliminateobstructions.Theyare called'bodhisattvaswhohaveenteredthebhumisandwhoareaccordingwiththenatureofenlightenment.' "Goodsons,allhindrancesarenoneotherthanultimateenlightenment.Whetheryouattainmindfulnessorlosemindfulness,thereisnononliberation.Establishingthe dharmaandrefutingthedharmaarebothcallednirvanawisdomandfollyareequallyprajathemethodthatisperfectedbybodhisattvasandfalseteachersisthe samebodhiignoranceandsuchnessarenotdifferentrealmsmorality,concentration,andwisdom,aswellasdesire,hatred,andignorance,arealldivinepractices sentientbeingsandlandssharethesamedharmanaturehellandheavenareboththePureLandthosehavingBuddhanatureandthosenothavingitequally accomplishtheBuddha'senlightenment.Alldefilementsareultimatelyliberation.Therealityrealms'soceanlikewisdomcompletelyilluminesallmarkstobejustlike emptyspace.Thisiscalled'theTathagata'saccordancewiththenatureofenlightenment.' "Goodsons,ifallbodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewouldmerelydothis:atalltimes,notgiverisetofalsethoughtsinfalsestatesofmind,not striveforcessationwhenabidinginfalseconceptualrealms,nottrytoimposeacompleteunderstandingwhilelackingcompleteunderstanding,nottrytoanalyzetrue reality.Ifthesesentientbeings,hearingthisteaching,believe,understand,assimilate,andrememberitwithoutbeingshockedorfrightenedbyit,theyaresaidtobe 'accordingwiththenatureofenlightenment."' "Goodsons,youshouldallbeawarethatthesesentientbeingshavealreadymadeofferingstomyriadsofBuddhasaquintilliontimesas

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numerousasthegrainsofsandintheGangesRiver,andhavecultivatedtheirrootsofvirtuewithasmanygreatbodhisattvas.Icallthesepeople'fullydevelopedin omniscience."' ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,composedaverse.Hesaid: PureWisdom,youshouldknow Thenatureofperfectbodhi Hasnoacquisition,norealization Neitherbodhisattvanorsentientbeing. Yetbetweenthetimesofenlightenmentandnonenlightenment Therearedifferencesinlevel. Sentientbeingsareobstructedbytheirunderstanding Bodhisattvasarenotfreefromenlightenment. Enteringthebhumistheyareforevertranquil Anddonotabideinanymark. Greatenlightenmentfullyincludeseverything Andiscalled"pervasivelyaccording." Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage Whosemindsdonotgiverisetofalsity Icall"appearingintheworldasbodhisattvas." Theyhavemadeofferingstocountlessbuddhas Andarealreadyrepletewithvirtuousmerit. Eventhoughtherearemanyexpedientteachingmethods Asasum,theyarecalled"thewisdomthatapprehendseverything.''

7.PowerandVirtueUnhinderedBodhisattva
ThenthebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhinderedarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthree timestotheright.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveanalyzedforusatlengththisaccordancewiththeenlightenednature,causingtheenlightenedmindsofthe bodhisattvastoeffloresceandreceivetheBuddha'sPerfectVoice,andcausingthemtoreceiveexcellentbenefitthatisnotcausedbyreligiouspractice. "WorldHonoredOne,itislikeagreatcitythathasfourgatesonitsexterior:thosewhocomefromvariousdirectionsarenotlimitedtoonepath.Similarly,all bodhisattvaswhoadornBuddhalandsandwho

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perfectenlightenedwisdomarenotlimitedtoasingleexpedientmethod.WorldHonoredOne,myonlywishisthatyouexplainindetailforusthegradationsofallthe expedientmethods.Ingeneral,howmanykindsofreligiouspractitionersarethere?Pleaseallowthebodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoare seekingthegreatvehicletoquicklyattainawakeningandtosportaboutintheTathagata'sgreatoceanofcessationextinction."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtothe ground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhindered,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwellforthe bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageabouttheseexpedientmethodsoftheTathagata.Listenwellnow,andIshallexplainthemforyou."The bodhisattvaPowerandVirtueUnhinderedreceivedthisteachingwithaweandjoyallthoseinthegreatcrowdbecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,unsurpassedmarvelousenlightenmentpervadesallthetendirections.ItgivesbirthtoallTathagatas,whosharethesameequalessencewithalldharmas. Thus,asfarasthevariouspracticesareconcerned,thereisinreality,noduality.Nonetheless,theexpedientmethodsthatconformtoPerfectEnlightenmentare numberless.Amongthese,therearethreegeneraltypesthatallpractitionersrelyon,accordingtothedifferencesintheirinclination. "Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,andusingthemindofpureenlightenmenttakequiescenceastheirpractice.Then,bysettlingall thoughtstheybecomeawareoftheagitatedmotionoftheconsciousness,andthusproducequiescentwisdom.Fromthis,themind,thebody,andexternalobjectsare permanentlyextinguishedandtheydirectlygeneratequiescentpliancyfromwithinthemselves.Becauseofthiscessationandquiescence,themindsofalltheTathagatas inalltheworldsinthetendirectionsaremademanifest,justliketheimagesinamirror.Thisexpedientmethodiscalledsamatha. "Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,thenusingthepureenlightenedmind,completelyrealizethatthenatureofmindaswellasthe facultiesandobjectsareallbasedonillusorytransformations.Thenheretheyproducevariousillusionsinordertoremoveillusion.Creatingallillusions,theyenlighten theillusorymultitude.Fromtheproductionofillusiontheyareabletoarousegreatcompassionatepliancywithin.Allbodhisattvaswhofollowthis'arisingpractice' graduallyadvanceinpractice.Sincethe'observationofillusion'isnotthesameasillusion,itisalsonotthesameas'illusoryobservation.'Sincebothare[recognized as]illusory,illusorymarksarepermanentlyremoved.Thismarvelouspracticethatisperfectedbybodhisattvasis

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likeashootgrowingoutoftheground.Thisexpedientmethodiscalledsamapatti. "Goodsons,somebodhisattvasawakenpurePerfectEnlightenment,andusingthepureenlightenedmind,avoidattachmenttoillusorytransformationsandthemarks ofquiescence,fullyrealizingbodyandmindbothtobeobstructions.Withoutawarenessoftheilluminationofenlightenment(ofsamatha)andwithoutdependingonall sortsofobstructions(theillusionsanalyzedinsamapatti),theyeternallytranscendrealmsofobstructionandnonobstruction,receivingandusingtheworldaswellas bodyandmind,whosemarksabideintheobjectiverealm.Itiscomparabletotheringingsoundinabellthatpenetratestotheoutside.Afflictionandnirvananot hinderingeachother,thebodhisattvasaredirectlyenabledtoproducethepliancyofcessationextinctionfromwithin.Accordancewithmarvelousenlightenmentand therealmofcessationandextinctionissomethingthatselfandother,bodyandmindareunabletoreach.Sentientbeingsandlifearealljustfloatingconcepts.This expedientmethodiscalleddhyana. "Goodsons,thesethreepracticesareallcloseaccordancewithPerfectEnlightenmenttheTathagatasinthetendirectionsachievebuddhahooddependinguponthese, andallthevariousandsundryexpedientmethodsofthebodhisattvasofthetendirections,withalltheirsimilaritiesanddifferencesarewithoutexceptionderivedfrom thesethreeactivities.Ifyouperfectlyactualizethese,itisthesameasperfectlyactualizingenlightenment. "Goodsons,iftherewereapersonwhocultivatedthesagelypathandelevatedaquadrillionpeopletothestageofarhatandpratyekabuddha,hewouldnotbe equaltothepersonwhoheardthisunobstructedteachingofPerfectEnlightenmentandpracticeditforonlyaninstant." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PowerVirtue,youshouldknow Eventhoughtheunsurpassedmindofgreatenlightenment Originallyhasnoteventwomarks. Theexpedientmethodsforaccordingwithit Arenumberless. WhenIexplainthemaccordingtogeneraltype, Therearethreekinds: Stablesamatha Islikeamirrorreflectingallimages Samadhi Islikeashootgrowingoutoftheground Dhyanaisonlycessationextinction Likethesoundinthebell.

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Thesethreekindsofmarvelousdharmapractices Areallaccordancewithenlightenment. TheTathagatasinthetendirections Aswellasallthegreatbodhisattvas AreabletoattaintheWaybasedonthese. Thefullrealizationofthesethreeactivities Iscalled"absolutenirvana."

8.VoiceofDiscernmentBodhisattva
ThenthebodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernmentrosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestothe right.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddhasaying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,thisteachingisquitewondrous!WorldHonoredOne,forallthebodhisattvasengagedintheteachingandpracticeof PerfectEnlightenment,howmanydifferentkindsoftheseexpedientmethodsarethere?Ibeseechyoutouseexpedientmethodstoteachthoseatthisgreatassembly andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage,andcausethemtoawakentothemarksofreality."Havingsaidthis,heprostratedtotheground.Heaskedthisquestion threetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaVoiceofDiscernment,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwellforthebodhisattvas andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthevariouspracticesoftheTathagata.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaVoiceof Discernmentreceivedthisteachingwithreverenceandjoy.Allthoseinthegreatcrowdbecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,thePerfectEnlightenmentofalltathagatasispure,originallyhavingneitherpracticenorpractitioner.Whentheypractice,allbodhisattvasandsentient beingsofthedegenerateagedependuponthepowerofunenlightenedillusion.Atthattime(thetimeofpracticedependentuponillusion)therearetwentyfivekindsof puremeditationapplications. "Somebodhisattvasexclusivelygraspultimatequiescence,andthroughthepowerofquiescencepermanentlyseverafflictionabsolutelyandperfectly,anddirectly enternirvanawithoutrisingfromtheirseats.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathaonly. "Somebodhisattvasexclusivelycontemplateallasillusion,andbymeansofBuddhapowertransformtheworldandcarryoutvariousactivities,thoroughlyputtinginto operationallthemarvelouspure

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bodhisattvapractices.Inallcontinuousconcentrationstheydonotfailincessationofthoughtandquiescentwisdom.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof samapattionly. "Somebodhisattvasexclusivelyextinguishallillusions,andwithoutactivityintheworldindividuallyseveraffliction.Afflictioncompletelysevered,theydirectlyactualize themarksofreality.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyanaonly. "Somebodhisattvasfirstattainperfectquiescence,andthroughthemindofquiescentwisdomshedlightonallillusionsanddirectlywithintheseillusionsproducethe bodhisattvapractices.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirstandsamapattinext. "Somebodhisattvasactualizetheperfectlyquiescentnaturethroughquiescentwisdom,andthendirectlyseverafflictionandpermanentlyescapefromlifeanddeath. Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirstanddhyananext. "Somebodhisattvasusecessationquiescentwisdomtoremanifestillusionpowerandestablishallkindsoftransformationstosavesentientbeings.Subsequentlythey severafflictionandentercessationextinction.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirst,samapattinext,anddhyanalast. "Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofperfectquiescencetoseverallaffliction.Theythenproducethepure,marvelouspracticesofthebodhisattvasandsaveall sentientbeings.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamathafirst,dhyananext,andsamapattilast. "Somebodhisattvasusethemindempoweredbyperfectquiescencetoseverafflictionandthensavesentientbeingsandestablishobjectiverealms.Thesebodhisattvas arecalledpractitionersofsamathafirstandsubsequentsimultaneoussamapattianddhyana. "Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofperfectquiescencetoaidintheinitiationoftransformations,thensubsequentlyseverafflictions.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofsimultaneoussamathaandsamapatti,followedbythepracticeofdhyana. "Somebodhisattvasuseperfectquiescencetoaidinextinction,andsubsequentlycarryoutactivitiestotransformtheworld.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofsimultaneoussamathaanddhyana,whosubsequentlypracticesamapatti. "Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertomakevariouskindsofaccordance,andtherebyattainperfectquiescence.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofsamapattifirstandsamathanext. "Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertocreatevariousrealms,andtherebyattaincessationextinction.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof samapattifirstanddhyananext. "SomebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertocarryoutBuddhaworks.Then,abidingincessationquiescence,theyseveraffliction.These

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bodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamapattifirst,samathanext,anddhyanalast. "Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpower'sunhinderedfunctiontoseveraffliction,andarethereforeabletoabideinperfectquiescence.Thesebodhisattvasare calledpractitionersofsamapattifirst,dhyananext,andsamathalast. "Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowerfortheactivityofexpedientteachingandthenpracticewithinbothperfectquiescenceandextinctiontogether.These bodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsamapattifirst,followedbysimultaneoussamathaanddhyana. "Somebodhisattvasusethevariousgenerativefunctionsoftransformationpowertoaidintheattainmentofperfectquiescenceandsubsequentlyseveraffliction.These bodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofsimultaneoussamapattiandsamatha,followedbydhyana. "Somebodhisattvasusetransformationpowertoaidinextinction,andsubsequentlyabideinpureuncreatedquiescenceofthought.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofsimultaneoussamapattianddhyanafollowedbysamatha. "Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofextinctiontoproduceperfectquiescenceandabideinpurity.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersofdhyanafirstand aamathanext. "Somebodhisattvasusethepowerofextinction,yetenteractivity,andthisnegatingfunctionispracticedwithinallrealms.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofdhyanafirstandsamapattinext. "Somebodhisattvasusethevariousselfnaturesofextinctionpower,andabidinginmentalquiescence,producetransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled practitionersofdhyanafirst,samathanext,andsamapattilast. "Somebodhisattvasusetheinactiveselfnatureofextinctionpowertoengageinactivity,thenpurifytheobjectiverealmandreturntoquiescence.Thesebodhisattvas arecalledpractitionersofdhyanafirst,samapattinext,andsamathalast. "Somebodhisattvasusethevariouspurityofextinctionpower,then,abidinginmentalequipoise,producetransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitioners ofdhyanafirst,followedbysimultaneoussamathaandsamapatti. "Somebodhisattvasuseextinctionpowertoaidintheattainmentofquiescence,andthengiverisetotransformations.Thesebodhisattvasarecalledpractitionersof simultaneousdhyanaandamatha,followedbysamapatti. "Somebodhisattvasuseextinctionpowertoaidintransformation,produceperfectquiescenctpurityandilluminateobjectivewisdom.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled simultaneouspractitionersofdhyanaandsamapatti,followedbysamatha.

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"Somebodhisattvas,usingthewisdomofPerfectEnlightenment,harmoniouslycombineallofthese,andinconnectionwithallnaturesandcharacteristics,never separatefromtheenlightenednature.Thesebodhisattvasarecalled'practitionersofthethreekindsofaccordancewiththepurityoftheselfnature,'andtheseare calledthebodhisattvas'twentyfiveapplications. "Goodsons,theteachingofthesutrasislikethefingerpointingtothemoon.Ifyoualsolookatthemoon,youwillfullyrealizethatthatwhichispointingisultimately notthemoon.AllthevariouswordsandexplanationsoftheTathagatathatareusedtoawakenbodhisattvasarealsolikethis.Allbodhisattvaspracticelikethis. "Ifyoubodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewanttoutilizetheseapplications,youmustmaintainpracticesofpurity,quiescence,contemplation,and sincerelyrepent.Thenpassingthroughthreeweeks,settleuponwhicheverofthetwentyfiveapplicationsisindicatedonyourlot.Withyourwholemindanda repentantspirit,immediatelychooseone.Dependingonwhatisindicatedonthechosenlot,youwillimmediatelyknowwhetheryouaretopracticethesuddenor gradual.Ifthereisonemomentofdoubtyouwillnotbeabletoaccomplishyourassignedapplication." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: VoiceofDiscernment,youshouldknow, Allbodhisattvas' Unobstructedpurewisdom Iswithoutexception,producedfrommeditation. Thesocalledsamatha,samapattianddhyana Thethreemethodsofsuddenandgradualpractice Havetwentyfiveapplications. Therearenoneamongthetathagatasofthetendirections Andthepractitionersofthethreeworlds Whodonotrelyuponthesemethods Intheirattainmentofperfectionofbodhi Exceptforsuddenlyenlightenedpeople Andthosewhohavenothingtodowiththedharma. Allbodhisattvas Andsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage, Shouldalwaysembracetheseapplications, Followingthem,endeavoringtopracticethem. RelyingonthepoweroftheBuddha'sgreatcompassion, Beforelongtheywillactualizenirvana.

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9.PurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrancesarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimesto theright.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveexplainedatlengthforallofusthisinconceivablematteroftheaspectsofthepracticeofthecausalstageof alltathagatas,enablingallinthegreatassemblytogainthatwhichtheyhaveneverhad.HavinghadthischancetoseetheTamer,alloftheirpassagethroughrealmsof sufferingforcountlesskalpasseemsasifitwerebutaninstantofthought.Webodhisattvashavebeengreatlyencouraged. "WorldHonoredOne,ifthisenlightenedmindisoriginallypure,whatkindofdefilementscausesentientbeingstosufferindelusionandnotenter?Myonlyrequestis thatyouthoroughlyrevealtousthenatureofexistence,andcausethoseinthisgreatassemblyandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetocreatethe'futureeye."' Afterfinishingthisspeech,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrances,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforsentient beingsofthedegenerateageabouttheexpedientmethodsoftheTathagata.Listenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaPurifierofAllKarmicHindrances reverentlyandjoyfullyreceivedthisteachingthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,frombeginninglesstimeallsentientbeingsdeludedlyconceiveandattachtotheexistenceof'self,''person,''sentientbeing,'and'life.'Theydiscernthese fourdistortionstobearealselfessence.Fromthistheydirectlygiverisetothetwostatesofattractionandaversion.Inthisfalseessence,theyagainbecomeattached tofalsehood.Thesetwodelusionsinteracttoproducethepathofdeludedkarma,andsincethereisdeludedkarma,theydeludedlyperceivetransmigration.Those whocometodislikesamsaradeludedlyperceivenirvana,andbecauseofthisareunabletoenterpureenlightenment.Itisnotthatenlightenmentrejectsthosewhoare capableofentryrather,itisbecausethosecapableofentrydonotawakenandenter.Therefore,whetherone'sthoughtsarejumpingaroundorsilenced,both conditionsultimatelyreverttodeludedanxiety.Why?Becausethereisbeginninglessoriginallyarisenignorancethatbecomesthesubjective

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ego.Thusallsentientbeingsproducetheeyeofignorance.Thevariousnaturesofbody,mind,andsoon,arenothingbutignorance.Takeforexamplethepersonwho doesnotwanttoendhisownlife.Therefore,youshouldknowthereisenjoymentof'selfhood'whenthingsgowell.Whenthingsdon'tgoasonelikes,thenhatredand angerarise.Sincethismindofattraction/aversionnourishesignorance,thosewhostrivetocultivatetheWayneverattainit. "Goodsons,whatisthe'traceofself?'Itisthatwhichiswitnessedbythemindofsentientbeings.Goodsons,whenyouareingoodhealthyounaturallyforgetabout yourbody.Butwhenthebodybecomessick,andyoumakeaneffortcorrecttheinfirmity,withtheslightestapplicationofmoxibustionandacupunctureyou immediatelybecomeawareofyourexistenceasaself.Thus,itisonlyinreferencetothis'witnessing'thatyouperceiveandgrasptoanapparentselfessence.Good sons,everykindofwitnessingfromthisleveluptotheTathagata'sperfectperceptionofpurenirvana,isallthe'traceofself.' "Goodsons,whatisthe'traceofperson'?Itisthecognitionbysentientbeingsoftheprior'witnessing.'Goodsons,oncetheselfiscognizeditisnotagainrecognized inthesameway.Itisthesameinthecasewherethatwhichiscognizedisnonself.This'cognition,'whichhasgonebeyondeverykindof'witnessing,'isthe'traceof person.'Goodsons,if,fromthislevelofbasicrecognitionofselfuptotheperfectrecognitionofnirvanaasself,completelyincludingthewitnessingofprinciple,there remainsinthemindeventhesmallestremainderofcognition,allarecalledthe'traceofperson.' "Goodsons,whatisthe'traceofsentientbeing'?Itisthatwhichisbeyondtheselfwitnessingandcognitionofthemindsofallsentientbeings.Goodsons,takefor examplethepersonwhosays'Iamasentientbeing.'Whatthispersonhascalled'sentientbeing,'isneitherselfnorother.Whyisitnotself?Sinceselfis'sentient being,'itisnotself.Whyisitnotother?Sincetheselfissentientbeing,thereforeitisnotother.Goodsons,whatsentientbeingsrealizeinwitnessingandrealizein cognitionisnothingmorethanthetracesofselfandperson.Thatwhichdoesnotreachthetracesofselfandsentientbeing,yetwhichremainsasrealized,isthetrace ofsentientbeing. "Goodsons,whatisthe'traceoflife'?Thisreferstothatwhichsentientbeingsrealizethroughthemind'silluminatingpureawareness.Goodsons,thatwhichisnot perceivablebythetotalityofkarmicwisdomisjustlikethelifefaculty.Itislikehotwatermeltingice:thereisnodiscriminationoftheexistenceoficeorknowledgeof theice'smelting.Thenonexistenceofaselfandtheawarenessofaselfarejustlikethis.Goodsons,whenoneseeswiththemind'sillumination,alltheseawarenesses arenothingbutdefilement.Sincethatofwhichtheaware

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nessesareawareisnotseparatefromdefilement,itiscalledthe'traceoflife.' "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotperceivetheFourTraces,andthoughtheymaystrugglethroughmanykalpasofdifficultpracticewhile cultivatingtheWay,itisstillnothingbutconditionedexistence.Theyareultimatelyincapableofconsummatingthefruitsofsagehood.Why?Becausetheyregardthese tracesofselftobenirvana,andtheyregardtheirwitnessingandcognitiontobeconsummation[ofenlightenment].Itislikeamanwhomistakesathiefforhisson.His family'sholdingscanneverbesecure.Why?Becausetheloverofselfalsolovesnirvana,andtakesthesuppressionoftherootofselfloveasthecharacteristicof nirvana.Thehaterofselfalsohatessamsara,andnotknowingthatitistheattachedloveitselfthatisactuallysamsara,hesinglesoutsamsarafordisdain,callingit 'nonliberation.' "Howcanyouknowthisdharmaas'nonliberation'?Goodsons,thesesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticingbodhiregardtheego'sinfinitesimal perceptionastheirownpurity,andarethereforeunabletopenetratetotherootoftheselftrace.Ifsomeonepraisestheir[mistaken]dharma,thentheywillbe overjoyedandimmediatelytrytosavehim.Butifsomeonecriticizestheirattainments,theywillbefilledwithangerandresentment.Hence,youcanknowthatthe traceofselfisbeingfirmlyheldtoitisconcealedinthestoreconsciousnessandisplayingfreelythroughoutthefacultieswithoutinterruption. "Goodsons,ifthesepractionersoftheWaydonotremovethetraceofself,theywillbeunabletoenterpureenlightenment.Goodsons,iftheemptinessofselfis known,therecanbeno'eliminatorofself.'If,holdingtoself,youexpoundthisdharma,itisbecauseyouhavenotyeteliminatedself.Itisthesamewith'sentientbeing' and'life.' "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateage[mistakenly]understandtheseafflictionstobethedharma.Thereforetheyarecalled'thepitiable.'Eventhoughthey strugglewithgreateffort,theymerelyexacerbatetheirvariousafflictions,andthereforeareunabletoenterpureenlightenment. "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagedonotdiscerntheFourTraces,anderroneouslytakingtheunderstandingandpracticeoftheTathagatatobetheir ownpractice,theyultimatelydonotaccomplishenlightenment.Thustherearesentientbeingswhounderstandnonattainmenttobeattainmentandregard nonrealizationasrealization.Whentheyseeanadeptpractitioner,theyarefilledwithjealousy.Itisexactlybecausethesesentientbeingsdonotsevertheirloveofself thattheyareunabletoenterpureenlightenment. "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehopeforbuddhahoodbutdonotexertthemselvestoachieveawakeningtheymerely

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extendtheirintellectualknowledge,furtherenhancingtheviewofself.Whattheyshoulddoisjustendeavortosubduetheafflictionsandarousegreatcourage:attain whattheyhavenotattained,severwhattheyhavenotsevered.Notallowingthegreed,anger,love,pride,flattery,perversion,jealousy,andenvythataredirectedat theobjectiverealmtoarise,andextinguishingallloveandattachmenttoselfandotherIcallthesepeople'graduallyconsummated.'FindingaGenuineTeacher,you willnotfallintomistakenviews.Thereforeitiscalledthetruedharmainthedegenerateage.Butifyoudiscriminate,andhaveaspecialfeelingofattractionoraversion regardingthe[teacher]youareseeking,youwillbeunabletoentertheoceanofpureenlightenment.'' ThentheWorldHonoredOne,desiringtoreiteratethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PurifierofKarma,youshouldknow Thatbecauseofattachmenttoandloveofself Allsentientbeings Deludedlytransmigratewithoutbeginning. Notremovingfourkindsoftraces Theycannotaccomplishbodhi. Sinceloveandhatredariseinthemind Andflatteryandperversionremaininallthoughts Thereismuchdelusionandgrief Youareunabletoenterthecitadelofenlightenment. Ifyouareabletoreturntotheenlightenedrealm, Firstleavealldesire,hatred,andignorance. Whenthedharmaofattractiondoesnotremaininthemind Youcangraduallyaccomplishenlightenment. Theselfandbodyoriginallydonotexist: Howcanattractionandaversionarise? IfthispersonseeksaGenuineTeacher Hewillneverfallintoevilviews. Butif'somethingseparatetobesought'arisesinhismind Therewillultimatelybenoconsummationofenlightenment.

10.UniversalEnlightenmentBodhisattva
ThenthebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenmentarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedtotheBuddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedthreetimestotheright. HethenkneltdownwithhandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Youhaveclearlyexplainedthemeditationmaladies,allowingthebodhisattvastoattain

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thatwhichtheyhadnotyetexperienced.Theirconsciousnesseshavebeencompletelystilledandtheyhaveattainedgreattranquillity. "WorldHonoredOne,asthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateagebecomeincreasinglyremovedfromtheBuddha,thesagesandworthiesconcealthemselves,while themistakendharmagrowsandspreads.Whatkindofpersonshouldthesentientbeingsseek?Onwhatkindofteachingsshouldtheyrely?Whatkindofpractice shouldtheycarryout?Whatkindofmaladiesshouldweremove,andwhatkindofresolutionshouldwemake,soastopreventtheblindmultitudefromfallinginto mistakenviews?"Havingsaidthis,heprostratedhimselftotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenment,said:"Excellent,excellent!Goodson,youhavebeenabletoquestionthe TathagataonthiskindpracticethatisabletoimparttoallsentientbeingsthefearlessEyeoftheWayandcausethemtoattainthesagelyWay.Nowlistenwell,andI shallteachyou."ThebodhisattvaUniversalEnlightenmentreceivedthisteachingwithgreatjoy.Thoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagemustarouse'greatmind'andseekGenuineTeachers.Thosewhowanttopracticeshouldseekoutonlysomeone withcorrectinsight,whosethoughtsdonotabideincharacteristics,whoisnotattachedtotherealmsofthearhatsandpratyekabuddhas,andwhosemindis constantlypureevenwhilemanifestingtheworld'safflictions.Evenwhilepointingoutyourvariousfaults,hepraisesyourbrahmacarya,andpreventsyoufrom breakingtheprecepts.Ifyoufindthiskindofperson,youcanattainanuttarasamyaksambodhi. "Sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhomeetthiskindofperson,shouldmakeofferingstohim,notsparingbodyorlife,orevenholdingontoproperty,wife, childrenandretainers.ThisGenuineTeacherconstantlymanifestspuritythroughoutthefourpostures.Althoughheshowsyouyourvariouserrorsandafflictions,his mindlackspride. "Goodsons,ifyoudonotarouseanynegativefeelingstowardthisGoodFriend,youwillultimatelybeabletoaccomplishcorrectenlightenment.Yourmindflower willblossom,illuminatingtheworldsofthetendirections. "Goodsons,thesubtledharmathatisactualizedbythisGenuineTeachershouldbefreefromtheFourMaladies.WhataretheFourMaladies?Thefirstisthemalady of'contrivance.'Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays'basedonmyoriginalmindIshallcarryoutvariouspractices'andwantstoachievePerfect Enlightenment.SincethenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotsomethingthatcanbeattainedbycontrivance,itiscalleda'malady.'

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"Thesecondisthe'naturalist'malady.Say,forexamplethereissomeonewhosays,'Weshouldpresentlyneithercutoffsamsaranorseeknirvana.Samsaraand nirvanaactuallylackanyconceptionofarisingandceasing.Weshouldjustnaturallygoalongwiththevariousnaturesofreality'andwantstoachievePerfect Enlightenment.SincethenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentdoesnotcomeaboutthroughacceptingthingsastheyare,thisiscalleda'malady.' "Thethirdisthe'stopping'malady.Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays'frommypresentthought,Ishallpermanentlystopallthoughtandthusapprehendthe cessationandequanimityofallnatures'andwantstoachievePerfectEnlightenment.SincethenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotmetthroughthestoppingof thoughts,itiscalleda'malady.' "Thefourthisthe'annihilation'malady.Say,forexample,thereissomeonewhosays'Iwillnowpermanentlyannihilatealldefilements.Bodyandmindareultimately empty,lackinganything.Howmuchmoreshouldallthefalserealmsofthesenseorgansandtheirobjectsbepermanentlyerased,'andseeksPerfectEnlightenment. SincethecharacteristicofthenatureofPerfectEnlightenmentisnotannihilation,itiscalleda'malady.' "WhenyouarefreefromtheFourMaladiesyouwillbeawareofpurity.Themakingofthisobservationiscalled'correctinsight.'Anyotherinsightiscalled'mistaken insight.' "Goodsons,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateageshouldexhausttheirlifeenergiesinmakingofferingstoGoodFriendsandservingGenuineTeachers.IftheGenuine Teacherbecomescloseandfamiliarwithyou,youshouldnotbeproud.Ifheisdistant,youshouldnotberesentful.Thestatesofunpleasantnessandpleasantnessare justliketheemptysky.Fullyrealizethatbodyandmindareultimatelyequalizedandthatyousharethesameessencewithallsentientbeingswithoutdifference.Ifyou practiceinthiswayyouwillenterPerfectEnlightenment. "Goodsons,whensentientbeingsofthedegenerateageareunabletoaccomplishtheWay,itisbecauseofthepresenceofbeginninglessseedsofselfandother, attractionandaversion.Thereforetheyarenotliberated.Ifthereissomeonewholooksuponhisenemyasthesameashisfatherandmotherwhosemindcompletely lacksduality,thenhewilleliminateallmaladies.Thenwithinalldharmas,selfandother,attractionandaversionwillalsobeeliminatedinthesameway. "Goodsons,allsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhowanttoseekPerfectEnlightenmentshouldmaketheirresolution,sayingthefollowing:'Ivowtocauseevery sentientbeingthroughouttheuniversetoentertheultimatePerfectEnlightenment.'WithinthatPerfectEnlightenmentthereisnoattachmentto'enlightenment'norare there

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anyofthetracesofself,personetc.Ifyoumakethiskindofresolve,youwillnotfallintomistakenviews." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,deliveredaverse,saying: UniversalEnlightenment,youshouldknow Thatsentientbeingsofthedegenerateage WhodesiretofindaGenuineTeacher MustlookforonewiththeRightView WhosemindisfarremovedfromtheTwoVehicles Whodoesnotbreaktheprecepts Andwhoserootofthepreceptsisconstantlypure. WhoinregardtotheDharmahasremovedtheFourMaladies, Whicharecalledcontrivance,stopping,naturalism,andannihilation. Ifhebecomesintimatewithyou,don'tbeproud Andifheisdistant,don'tberesentful. Observingvariousrealms,yourmindwillthenproducethemiraculous. AndifyouleavehomeliketheBuddha, Yousaveallsentientbeings SothattheyultimatelyenterPerfectEnlightenment. Freefromthetracessuchas"self"and"person," Youconstantlyrestinwisdom Younaturallyattaintranscendenceofmistakenviews Actualizingenlightenmentandparinirvana.

11.PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaPerfectEnlightenmentarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly,bowedhisheadtotheBuddha'sfeet,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestothe right.Hekneltdownwithhishandsclasped,andaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne,youhaveextensivelyexplainedpureenlightenmentforus,aswellasvariousexpedientmethods.Youhaveallowed sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagetoprospergreatlyintheirpractice. "WorldHonoredOne,thoseofuspresentherehavealreadyawakened.Butif,afteryourpassingaway,sentientbeingsofthedegenerateagehavenotyetbeenable toawaken,howshouldtheyconductmeditationretreatstocultivatethispurerealmofPerfectEnlightenment?Andinthepracticeofthethreekindsofpuremeditation withinPerfectEnlightenment,whataretheinitialsteps?Ionlybegforyourgreat

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compassionsothatyouwillconfergreatbenefitonthemembersofthisgreatassemblyandthesentientbeingsofthedegenerateage."Aftersayingthis,heprostrated fullytotheground.Heaskedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaPerfectEnlightenment,said:"Excellent!Excellent!Goodson,youhavequestionedwelltotheTathagata aboutthesekindsofexpedientmeansinordertoconfergreatbenefitonsentientbeings.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."ThebodhisattvaPerfect Enlightenmentreceivedthisteachingwithgreatjoy.Allthoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "Goodsons,amongallsentientbeings,whetheritiswhentheBuddhaisalive,orafterhehaspassedaway,orevenduringtheperiodofthedegenerationofthe dharma,thereareanumberwhohavetheaptitudeforMahayanaandwhohavefaithintheBuddha'smysteriousmindofgreatPerfectEnlightenment,andwhowantto practiceit.Iftheyarelivinginthetemplewithmanyotherfollowers,thentheyhavenumerouscommitmentsandsotheyshouldjustanalyzeaccordingtothesituation, asIhavealreadytaught. "Ontheotherhand,iftheyarenotboundbycommitmentsthentheyshoulderectasiteofenlightenmentandinstituteanintensiveretreat.Alongtermretreatshouldbe 120days.Amediumlengthretreatshouldbe100days.Ashortone,80days,sittingquietlyinapureenvironment.IftheBuddhaispresent,thenyoucandirectly correctyourthoughts.Ifhehasalreadypassedaway,thensetupanimageofhim,andlettingyourmindabideinthementalpictureofthisimage,youcanbringabout correctmindfulness,justthesameaswhenhewashere.Afterhangingupthebannersandflowers,gothroughaperiodofthreeweeks,makingobeisancetothe namesofalltheBuddhasinthetendirections.Repentingandconfessingallofyoursins,youpassthroughthreeweekswithyourthoughtsfocused.Encountering excellentstatesofconsciousness,yourmindattainspliancy. "Ifyoupassthroughtothebeginningoftheretreat,thenforthreemonthsyouwillabideinstillness,andcarryoutthepurequietsittingofthebodhisattvas,withyour mindfreefromthedesignsofthesravakasandfrominvolvementswithotherpractitioners.Whenyoucometothedayoftheretreat,infrontoftheBuddha,saythis: "I,bhiksu/bhiksuni/upasaka/upasikasoandso,wouldboardthevehicleofthebodhisattvas,cultivatetheirpracticesofcessationextinction,andenterwiththem intotheirabidinginthepuremarksofthereal.ItakegreatPerfectEnlightenmentasmytemple,withbodyandminddwellingpeacefullyinthewisdomoftheequality ofthenature.Sincetheselfnatureofnirvanaisnotrestrictedinanyway,InowrespectfullypraythatImaynotabideintheviewsofthesravakas.Iwillabidefor threemonthsof

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quietretreatwiththeTathagatasandgreatbodhisattvasofthetendirections.SinceIwillbecultivatingthebodhisattva'sgreatcausesandconditionsofunsurpassed marvelousenlightenment,Iwillnotbeconstrainedbythelimitationsoftheotherpractitioners. "Goodsons,thisiscalled'thebodhisattvas'exemplifyingsilentretreat.Afterpassingthroughthethreeterms,youcanpracticeanywherewithoutobstruction. "Goodsons,if,whenthesepracticingsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoseektheWayofthebodhisattvasenterthethreemeditationterms,theyexperience meditativestatesthataredifferentfromthoseoutlinedinthissutra,theyshouldnotbecomeattachedtothem. "Goodsons,thosesentientbeingswhowillpracticesamathamustfirstgraspperfectquiescence,notallowinganycogitationtoarise.Quiescencetakentoitsfurthest limitresultsdirectlyinenlightenment.Ifyoucanhavethiskindofinitialquiescence,thenproceedingfromonebody,enlightenmentwillextendlikethisthroughouta wholeworld. "Goodsons,whenenlightenmentfullypervadesawholeworld,ifthereisonesentientbeingwithinthatworldwhoallowsasinglethoughttoarise,all,without exception,willknowit.Thesameistrueinthecaseofahundredthousandworlds.Ifitisnotoneofthemeditativestatesaboutwhichyouwerepreviouslyinstructed, youshouldnotbeattachedtoit. "Goodsons,thosesentientbeingswhowanttopracticesamapattishouldfirstbecomemindfulofalltheTathagatasofthetendirectionsandallthebodhisattvasofall theworldsinthetendirections.Dependingontheirvariousmethodstheyshouldgrowbydegreesthoughpractice,strugglingagainstsufferingtowardssamadhi, broadlymanifestingthegreatvow[tosavesentientbeings],whichinturninfuses[thestoreconsciousness]resultingin[theproductionof]seeds.Butifitisnotoneof thestatesaboutwhichyouwerepreviouslyinstructed,youshouldnotbecomeattachedtoit. "Goodsons,ifthesesentientbeingswanttopracticedhyana,theymustfirstutilizethetechniqueofbreathobservance,andinthedepthsoftheirmindbecomefully awareofthearising,abiding,andcessationofeachthought.Theymustbeclearintheirdiscriminationofthebreathcountandpracticeitpervasivelyduringeachofthe fourpostures.Thereisnolimittohowfarthismindfulnessofthediscriminationofbreathscanpenetrate,asonecangraduallyadvancetothepointwherehecanbe aware,withinthespaceofonehundredthousandworlds,ofthefallingofasingledropofrain,asifitwereanobjectpresenteddirectlytohim.Butifitisreallynotone ofthestatesofmindaboutwhichyouwerepreviouslyinstructed,thenafterwardsyoushouldnotbeattachedtoit.Thesearecalledtheintroductoryexpedientsofthe threemeditations.

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"Ifsentientbeingspervasivelypracticethesethreekindsofmeditation,andkeepworkingdiligentlytoadvance,theywillbecalled'tathagatasappearingintheworld.'If subsequentsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageofdullfacultiesdesireintheirheartstoattaintheWay,butsomehowalwaysfallshortoftheirgoal,itisbecauseof karmichindrancesfromthepast.Theymuststriveforpenanceandconfessionandcontinuouslyrearousetheirhopes.Theymustfirstseverloveandhatred,jealousy, envy,flattery,andcalumnyandstrivefortheunsurpassedstateofmind.Sincethethreetypesofmeditationarealltheinvestigationofthesamesinglematter,ifone meditationdoesn'twork,tryagainwithoneoftheothers.Don'tletyourminddissipate,andgraduallystriveforrealization." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthisdoctrine,spokeaverse.Hesaid: PerfectEnlightenment,youshouldknow Thatallsentientbeings Whowanttoseektheunsurpassed Must,attheoutsetofthethreeretreats, Repentofandadmittheirbeginninglessactions Foraperiodofthreeweeks. Thereupontheywillhavecorrectthought. Butiftheydonotexperiencethestatesastheyhavebeentaught Theyshouldnotgraspthem. Insamathaperfectquiescence Insamapatticorrectmindfulness Indhyanaclearobservanceofthebreath. Thesearecalled"thethreepurifyingmeditations." Thosewhodiligentlypractice Arecalled"Buddhasappearingintheworld." Thoseofdullfacultieswhocannotbringthisintoeffect Mustcontinuouslystriveatrepentance Oftheirbeginninglesscrimes. Whenallhindrancesareextinguished TheBuddhastateappearsbeforeyoureyes.

12.MostExcellentofWorthiesBodhisattva
ThebodhisattvaMostExcellentofWorthiesarosefromhisseatinthegreatassembly.HebowedhisheadtothefeetoftheBuddhaandcircumambulatedhimthree timestotheright.HethenkneltdownwithhishandsclaspedandaddressedtheBuddha,saying:

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"GreatlyCompassionateWorldHonoredOne.Youhaveextensivelyrevealedthisinconceivablematterfor[webodhisattvas]andthesentientbeingsofthe degenerateage.WorldHonoredOne:WhatnamesareappliedtothisMahayanateaching?Howshoulditbecleavedtoandpracticed?Whatkindsofmeritswillbe obtainedbysentientbeingswhopracticeaccordingtoit?Howshallthosewhocleavetoandpracticeitbeprotected?Andtowhatlandsshouldthisteachingbe propagated?"Havingsaidthis,heprostratedfullytotheground.Herepeatedthisquestionthreetimesinsuccession. ThentheWorldHonoredOne,addressingthebodhisattvaMostExcellentofWorthiessaid:"Excellent!Excellent!Goodson,youhaveaskedwellforthe bodhisattvasandsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageaboutthemeritsandnamesofthissutrateaching.Nowlistenwell,andIshallexplainforyou."Thebodhisattva MostExcellentofWorthiesreceivedthisinstructionwithgreatjoy.Thoseinthegreatassemblybecamesilentandlistened. "GoodSons,thisscriptureisthatwhichistaughtbybillionsuponbillionsofcountlessbuddhasitisthatwhichisprotectedbytheTathagatasofthethreetimesitis thatwhichisrelieduponbythebodhisattvasofthetendirectionsitisthepureeyeofthetwelvedivisionsofthescriptures.ThisscriptureiscalledTheGreatCurative ExtensivePerfectEnlightenmentDharaniitisalsocalledTheSutraoftheFullyRevealedMeaningitisalsocalledTheMysteriousRoyalSamadhiitisalsocalled theTathagata'sRealmofFullDecisivenessitisalsocalledTheDistinctionoftheSelfNatureoftheTathagatagarbha.Youshouldcleavetoitandpracticeaccording toit. "Goodsons,thisscriptureexpressesnothingbutthestateofthetathagatas,andonlythebuddhatathagatasareabletofullyexplainit.Ifthebodhisattvasandsentient beingsofthedegenerateagepracticeaccordingtothissutra,theywillgraduallyadvancetoBuddhahood. "GoodSons,thisscriptureiscalledtheSuddenTeachingoftheMahayana,andsentientbeingswiththecapacityforthesuddenwillawakenthroughit.Butitalso embracesthegradualpracticeofallsentientbeings.Itislikeagreatoceanthatdoesnotdenytheentranceofanysmallstreamandmosquitoesandhorseflies,aswell asAsuras,maydrinkitswaterandtaketheirfill. "Goodsons,sayforinstancetherewereamanwho,withthepurestofmotivations,gatheredthesevenjewelsinaquantitysufficienttofillatrichiliocosm,andthen gavethemallawayforcharity.Thisman'smeritwouldnotbeequaltothatofamanwhoheardthenameofthisscriptureandunderstoodthemeaningofasingle passage. "Goodsons,sayforexampletherewasamanwhotaughtsentientbeingsasmanyasahundredtimestheamountofthegrainsofsandin

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theGangesRiversuchthattheyallattainedthelevelofarhat.Thisman'smeritwouldnotbeequaltosomeonewhoexplicatedahalfofagathaofthisscripture.If thereisanypersonwhohearsthenameofthissutraandbelievesinitfullywithoutashadowofadoubt,thenyoucanknowthatthispersonhasnotonlysownthe seedsofblessingsandwisdomwithonebuddhaortwobuddhas,buthascultivatedhisrootsofgoodnesswithcountlessmyriadsofbuddhas,listeningtothissutra teaching. "Goodsons,youshouldprotectsentientbeingsofthedegenerateagewhoarepracticingthis,andnotletevilspiritsandhereticsupsettheirthoughtsorcausethemto loseheart." ThentheWorldHonoredOne,wantingtorestatethegistofthis,spokeaverse.Hesaid: MostExcellentofWorthies,youshouldknow Thisscriptureisthatwhichallbuddhasteach AndthatwhichallTathagataswellprotect. Itistheeyeofthetwelvedivisions. Itiscalled TheGreatCurativeExtensivePerfectEnlightenmentDharani ItistheexpressionoftherealmoftheTathagata. Thosewhopracticeaccordingtoit GraduallyadvancetoBuddhahood. Itislikeanoceanthatacceptsallrivers Andgivesallofthethirstytheirfill. Iftherewereapersonwhodonatedthesevenjewels Enoughtofillatrichiliocosm Itwouldnotbeequaltohearingthissutra. Ifsomeonetransformedcountlessbeings Suchthattheyallreachedarhatship Itwouldnotbeequaltotheexplicationofhalfagatha. Youmustall,forthelatergenerations Protectthosewhogiveandreceivethisteaching Andnotallowthemtobackslide. Then,fromthemidstofthegreatassembly,aroseFieryhairedVajrawarriors,PulverizingVajrawarriors,BlueVajrawarriorsaltogethereightythousandVajra warriorswiththeirretinues.Theygotupfromtheirseats,bowedtheirheadstothefeetoftheBuddha,andcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.Thenthey addressedtheBuddha,saying: "WorldHonoredOne,ifsentientbeingsofthedegenerateageareabletocleavetothisScriptureofMahayanaDecisiveness,weshallprotectthem,asifprotecting ourowneyes,andweshallalsoprotecttheplaceswheretheycarryouttheirpractices.WeVajrawarriorsshall

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guidethesepeople,protectingthemmorningandnight,suchthattheydonotretrogress.Theirhouseholdsshallneversufferfromcalamitysicknessshallbeeradicated theirmaterialpossessionsshallbeabundantandtheyshallneversufferfrompoverty. ThentheGreatBrahmaKings,theKingsoftheTwentyEightHeavens,togetherwiththeKingsofMt.SumeruandtheNationProtectingKings,arosefromtheir seats.TheybowedtheirheadstotheBuddha'sfeet,circumambulatedhimtotheright,andaddressedhim,saying: "WorldHonoredOne,weshallalsoprotectthosewhocleavetothisscripture.Weshallbringthemtranquillityandnotallowthemtoretrogress." ThenaGreatMightyDemonKing,whosenamewasKumbhanda,togetherwithahundredthousandDemonKings,arosefromhisseat.Hebowedhisheadtothe Buddha'sfeetandcircumambulatedhimthreetimestotheright.HeaddressedtheBuddha,saying: "Ishallalsoprotectthosewhocleavetothisscripturebyguardingthemmorningandnightandnotlettingthemretrogress.Ifanevilspiritshoulddaretoapproach withintheareaofoneyojanatotheplaceofthepractitioner'sabode,Ishallsmashhimintoatoms." TheBuddhahavingfinishedhispreachingofthisscripture,thebodhisattvas,thedevas,nagas,yaksasandtherestoftheeightkindsofspiritualbeingsalongwiththeir retinues,aswellastheHeavenlyKings,BrahmaKings,andtherestofthegreatassembly,havingheardwhattheBuddhataught,wereallfilledwithgreatjoy.They believed,embodied,andpracticedthisteaching.

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NOTES

Introduction
1.ThefullChinesetitleofthetextisTafangkuangyanchehhsiutololiaoiching( CorrectiveExtensivePerfectEnlightenment). CompleteExplanationSutraofGreat

2.TheCh'engbrothersarethetwoSungNeoConfucianthinkersCh'engi( 11301200),laidmuchofthegroundworkforwhatendedupbecomingorthodox NeoConfucianism,whichinturnbecamepredominantinChosondynastyKorea. 3.ModernhistoricalphilologicalresearchhasyieldedtheconclusionthatthePlatformSutraismostlikelyaneighthcenturytext,andthuscouldnothavebeen writtenbyHuineng. 4.InthestrictestmeaningoforiginalusageinAbrahamicscholarlytraditions,theapocryphaarethefourteenbooksofscripturalstyleandoflatecompositionthat wereexcludedfromthecanonoftheOldTestament.ForacompletetreatmentofthephenomenonofAbrahamicapocrypha,seeWillisBarnestone'sTheOther Bible:AncientEsotericTexts.AlsoseeRobertBuswell'sdiscussionofthetermonpages37ofhisintroductiontoChineseBuddhistApocrypha. 5.RobertBuswell,inhisintroductoryessaytothevolumeChineseBuddhistApocrypha,givesaconciseexplanationoftheinterplayofthemultiplicityoffactorsthat playedapartintheattainmentofcanonicitybyatext.Otherarticlesinthesamevolumealsotreatthesamequestionindetailfromavarietyofperspectives.Fora perspicaciousliterarycriticalanalysisofthevariousfactorsinvolvedintheattainmentornonattainmentofcanonicitybyatext,seeBarbaraHerrnsteinSmith'sessay ''ContingenciesofValue."Smithclarifiesthedynamicsoftheinterplayofthewiderangeof"valuejudgments"involvedincanonformation.Althoughheranalysisis directlyconcernedwiththeformationofthemodern/Westernliterarycanon,herobservationscanwellbeappliedtotheformationofothercanons,includingthatof EastAsianBuddhism. 6.WelldefinedpositionsexpressingabeliefinthefundamentalpurityorgoodnessofthehumanmindcanbediscernedinChinesephilosophicalwritings

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asearlyastheIChing,LiChi,andLuny.Mencius,whostronglysupportedthesameconviction,wasmotivatedtoarticulatehisreasonswithforceintheface ofoppositionexpressedbysomeofhiscontemporaries.ThecoreofMencius'argumentonthispositioncanbefoundinbook6A,sections16oftheMencius, wherehedisputesthepositiontakenbyhiscolleagueKaotzu (thirdcenturyBCE),whoarguedinhiswritings(collectedunderthesamenametheHsn tzu)thatthehumannatureisoriginallyevil,andthereforehumanbeingsneedtraininganddisciplineinordertoformsocieties.DespitetherationalclarityofHsn tzu'sargument,hisviewsregardingtheoriginallyevilcharacterofthehumanminddidnotreceivestrongacknowledgmentfromthesubsequentEastAsian philosophicaltradition. 7.Forarevealingexpositionoftheproblemofthecoexistenceofthepositionsoforiginalenlightenment(orpurity)andoriginalignorance(ordefilement),seePeter Gregory'sarticle,"TheProblemofTheodicyintheAwakeningofFaith." 8.Themostthoroughdiscussionoftheimplicationsofthesudden/gradualproblematicastheyconcernthereligiouspractitioneriscontainedinthebookbySungBae Park,BuddhistFaithandSuddenEnlightenment. 9.T'ioriginallymeansbodyorsubstance,andreferstothemoreinternal,moreessential,hidden,importantaspectsofathing.Yungreferstothemoreexternal, superficial,obvious,functionalaspectsofsomething.Throughthet'iyungview,anyaspectofexistencecanbeseenashavingbothdimensions.Buttheconstructionis alwaysrelativeinitsusage,andshouldnotbeequatedwithsuchreifiedWesternoppositesasspirit/matter,signified/signifier,andsoon.Foramorecomplete explanationofthemeaningandusageofthisframework,seemyarticlesentitled"TheCompositionofSelfTransformationThoughtinClassicalEastAsianPhilosophy andReligion"and"EastAsia'sUnexploredPivotofMetaphysicsandHermeneutics:EssenceFunction/Interpenetration." 10.Avitalpointtobegraspedconcerningtheessencefunctionmodelofthehumanbeingisthatalthoughthesetwoaspectsarecalled"inner"and"outer,"or "fundamental"and"superficial,"thepersonisnevertobeconceivedasbeingdividedintoseparateparts.Thesearetwowaysoflookingatthesingularhumanbeing theyareexpedienttoolsthatserveforaneffective,buteternallyfluidanalysis.Inner/outer,fundamental/superficialareone,andaredefinedintermsofmutual interpenetration.ItisthisaspectoftheessencefunctionrelationshipthatdistinguishesitfrompossibleWesternanalogssuchasspirit/matter,creator/creature, signified/signifier,andsoon. 11.Themeaningofthistermisexplainedinmyarticle"EastAsia'sUnexploredPivotofMetaphysicsandHermeneutics:EssenceFunction/Interpenetration." 12.Thefirstusageofthet'iyungconstructionistraditionallyattributedtoWangpi,inhiscommentarytotheTaoTeChing,especiallytochapter38.Thereisno clearevidence,however,toprovethathewasthefirsttoutilizethisconcept. 13.RobertBuswelloffersanexcellentsummaryexplaininghowEastAsianBuddhistscholarswerecompelledtogivespecialtreatmenttotheconflicting

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theoriesofalayavijnanaandtathagatagarbha,correspondingtotheconceptsofinnateenlightenmentandoriginalignorancethattheyreceivedintheIndian texts.SeeFormationofCh'anIdeology,pp.78104. 14.ThefirstlistingoftheSPEinacatalogofBuddhistscripturesisfoundinChihsheng'sKaiyanshihchiaolu,whichwaspublishedin726. 15.ThefirstthreepatriarchsoftheHuayenschool,Tushun( 643712)alllivedpriortothetimeoftheprobablewritingoftheSPE.

16.IntheAwakeningofFaith,seeT1666.32.577a.26.IntheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment,seeT842.17.915a.2021. 17.T842.17.915b.1518. 18.T1666.32.578b.2526trans.SungBaePark,Wonhyo'sCommentaries. 19.T842.17.913b2228. 20.T1666.32.576b27c1 21.T1666.32.576c.10 22.T842.17.914a.1012. 23.TheCYCalsoreceivedcommentarialtreatmentfromKihwa:theSonchongyonggajipkwajusorui(AnnotatedRedactionoftheTextandCommentariestothe CompilationofYungchiaoftheCh'anSchool)HPC7.170216. 24.IntheCYCheoutlinesthecourseofpracticeintenchaptersintermsofincreasingdepthandsubtlety.Thecontentofthesechaptersisarrangedinarationalorder fortheguidanceofpractitioners,theaimbeingtoexplainclearlytothepractitionertheproperwaytoprepareforthecombinedpracticeofsamathaandvipasyana howtodevelopthem,consummatethemandthentransmitthemtoothers.Thecontent,style,andlanguageoftheSPEandCYCaresoclosethatonemightevenbe giventowonderifthetwoauthorswerenotinsomewaypersonallyassociated(oreventhesameperson?).Agooddealofhistoricalandtextualanalysiswouldbe necessarytodevelopaviableargument,butgiventhetimeperiodinwhichhelived,thecirclesinwhichhetraveled,andthegreatlysimilarcontentandstyleofhistwo knownworkswiththeSPE,ifIweretobeginlookingfortheauthoroftheSPE,IwouldstartwithsomeonelikeYungchia. 25.T2154.55.565a14.Buddhatrataisnotlistedasthetranslatorofanyothertext,norisanybiographicalinformationavailable. 26.Theseworks,whicharenolongerextant,arethosebyWeich'eh,Wushih,Chienchih,andTaoch'an.Tsungmidiscussesthecommentariesbyhisfour predecessorsinhisprefacetotheGreatCommentary.SeeZ243.9.335a. 27.ThepivotalroleplayedbyTsungmiinthetransformationofBuddhisminEastAsianiselaboratedmasterfullybyPeterGregoryinhisbookTsungmiandthe SinificationofBuddhism. 28.IntheappendixtohisTsungmi,PeterGregorylistssevenextantandnonextantworksinapproximatelyseventyeightfasciclesbyTsungmirelatedtotheSPE. SeeTsungmi,pp.32025. 29.TranslationbyPeterGregory,TsungmiandtheSinificationofBuddhism,p.54.

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30.HsiaotsungwrotetheYchuyanchehching(TheImperialCommentarytotheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment).Z251.10.15166. 31.Tech'ingwrotetheYanchehchingchihchieh(DirectExplanationoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment).Z258.10.480509.TranslatedintoEnglishby CharlesLuktogetherwithhisrenditionofthesutra. 32.BesidesTsungmi'swork,thereareaboutsixteenextantChinesepremoderncommentariesontheSPEcontainedinvolumes9and10oftheZokuzokyo.Asone readsthroughthese,theirrelianceonTsungmi'sinitialworkisquitenoticeable. 33.Wonhyocomposedeightysixworksinovertwohundredfascicles.Ofthesetwentyoneareextant.InformationregardingWonhyoandprogressonalargescale efforttotranslatehisworksintoEnglishisavailableontheWWWathttp://www.human.toyogakuenu.ac.jp/~acmuller/budkor/wonhyotranslation.htm. 34.SeeFormationofCh'anIdeology,pp.12325. 35.ForEnglishtranslationsofexcerptsfromthetreatisesofthesetwofigures,seeTheKoreanApproachtoZen,pp.1214. 36.ThefactthatIhavelocatedmentionoftheSPEfirstinUich'ondoesnotmeanthatthetextwasnotpresentinKoreaatanearlierdate.Nonetheless,itslackof citationinothermaterialsdoesindicatealackofwidespreadcurrency. 37.Todate,threereliablefulllengthstudiesonChinulhavebeenpublishedinEnglish:HeeSungKeel'sChinul:TheFounderoftheKoreanSonTraditionRobert Buswell'sTheKoreanApproachtoZen(reprintedasTracingBacktheRadiance)andJaeRyongShim'sPh.D.dissertation,"ThePhilosophicalFoundationof KoreanZenBuddhism:TheIntegrationofSonandKyobyChinul(11581210)." 38.InthedevelopmentofChinul'smainpositions,otherscripturesthatplayedanimportantroleincludedtheAMF,HYC,andPlatformSutra,whileotherimportant mentorsincludedTahui( 635730). 39.TheHsinhuayenchinglunisaninfluentialcommentaryontheHuayenchingwrittenbytheT'angscholarLiT'unghsan.Chinul'slongestworkisa subcommentarytothiswork,entitledHwaomnonchoryo.HPC4.767869. 40.ThesutrapassageisfromT842.17.914c6.Chinul'scitationintheChinsimchiksolisatHPC4.718a27.Seesutrapassage#29inthesubsequenttranslation. 41.HPC4.718a1720.CitationfromSPEisatT842.17.914c26 42.HPC4.720b1623.ThiscitationspanstwosectionsintheSPE,T842.17.913b2224andT842.17.913b28c2. 43.ThenumberofquotesfromtheSPEinChinul'swritingsareaboutthesameasthosefromtheAMF,withthetwooftheseformingthelargestsinglesegmentofhis scripturalcitations. 44.ThisisamassivecollectionofancientprecedentsfromCh'anandpreCh'anBuddhistliteraturethatcomprisestheentirefifthvolumeoftheHPC. 45.TheChogyechingakkuksaorok. 46.ForthesesimilesinHyesim'steachingrecord,see,forexample,HPC6.20a,6.31a,6.32b,6.33b,andsoon. 47.HPC6.57c.

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48.HPC6.6768. 49.ThePaeg'unhwasangorok,HPC6.637a668c. 50.HPC6.696a2125.ThecitationoftheSPEisnotexact,beingderivedfromthepassageatT842.17.914a1214. 51.AreferencetoChoukungtan ,twoworthieswhocooperatedtogetherintheestablishmentoftheChoudynasty.ThistranslationisfromtheHamhotang tukt'onghwasanghaengjang,HPC7.250c611. 52.WhiletheHaengjangdoesnotspecifytheexactamountoftimethatKihwaspentwithMuhakpriortohistravels,itdoesindicatethatthecombinedlengthof studyandtravelwassevenyears. 53."Droppingthewashbucket"isacommonCh'anmetaphorforasuddenandunexpectedawakeningtorealityandaconcomitantreleaseofallkindsofself imposedanxieties. 54.HPC7.251a.49. 55.ThematerialresultingfromtheselectureswouldlaterbepublishedastheKumgangpanyaparamilgyongokahaesorui. 56.ThetitleofthefirstchapteroftheChuangTzu. 57.HPC7.251a.1822. 58.HPC7.251b.15. 59.AlinefromtheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment.SeeT842.17.913c.45chapter1,sutrapassage#11inthistranslation. 60.FormoredetailontheHyonchongnon,seechapter7ofmyPh.D.dissertation,ormyarticle"TheBuddhistConfucianConflictintheEarlyChosonandKihwa's SyncreticResponse:TheHyonchongnon." 61.LiwroteafamouscommentarytotheHuayenchingentitledHsinHuayenchinglun. 62.HPC4.768a. 63.ThisissueistreatedbyChinulmostexplicitlyinhisChinsimchiksol(StraightTalkontheTrueMind)andtheWondonsongpullon(ThePerfectandSudden AttainmentofBuddhahood). 64.ThegeneralinfluenceofChinul'sSonKyothoughtcanbeseeninthenatureoftheworkofhismostimportantdiscipleHyesim,whocompiledthelargest anthologyofscripturalandSonwritingscollectionsinKoreanBuddhism,theSonmunyomsongjip(CompilationofExaminationsofandVersesonAncient Precedents),whichoccupiestheentirefifthvolumeoftheHPC.Nonetheless,HyesimdidnotdirectlyaddresstheSon/Kyoproblemintheconfrontationalmannerof histeacher. 65.Kihwa'sdiscussionintheOkahaeoftherelationshipofthewordedandwordlessteaching,whichisintroducedinthepresentcontext,isexaminedinfurther depthinmyarticle"Kihwa'sAnalysisoftheRelationshipbetweentheWordedandWordlessTeachings:TheOkahaesorui." 66."Ts'aochiofHuangmei"ismorecommonlyknownasHuineng,theSixthPatriarch.ThusKihwaisreferringtothecontentofthePlatformSutraoftheSixth Patriarch. 67.HPC7.12.c510.

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68.ThelengthofSakyamuni'steachingcareer. 69.IntheabovetwosentencesKihwaisalludingtothefamousdictumfromtheHeartSutra,"formisemptiness,emptinessisform." 70.HPC7.42c2143a5. 71.Thatis,alogicthatisbasedonanunderstandingofemptiness,whichoftenproducessemanticrelationshipsthatareoppositefromordinarylogic. 72.HPC7.13b38. 73.HPC7.13b1112. 74.HPC7.13b1617 75.HPC7.13c1624. 76.Theseamendmentsarecarefullyexplainedinthecourseofthefollowingtranslation.IhavealsodoneafullretranslationoftheSPEaccordingtotheamendments ofKihwathatisincludedasanappendixtothepresentwork. 77.Thereisoneexceptiontothisrule.Kihwa,onceduringhiscommentarytotheSPEcitesapassagedirectlyfromtheSurangamasutra. 78.ThefirstfivecharactersofthefulltitleoftheSPEare ExtensivePerfectEnlightenment." ,whichItranslateinthemaintext,inaccordwithKihwa'sexplanation,as"GreatCurative

79.ThefirstfourcharactersofthefulltitleoftheHuayenchingare ,which,accordingtoKihwa'sinterpretation,canbetranslatedas"GreatCurativeExtensive Buddha." 80.HPC7.126a1824. 81.AlthoughKihwa'swritingsaremuchmoreextensivethanthoseofHyujong,Hyujongseemstohavehadgreaterpersonalimpactintermsofnumberofdisciples. Hisroleasleaderofthemonk'smilitiathatwasinstrumentalintheexpulsionoftheinvadingJapanesearmyhasservedtomakehimanationalfolkhero. 82.T842.17.914a1920. 83.HPC7.639a29. 84.See,forexample,HPC7.685b,710b,714a. 85.HPC8.191c. 86.SeeBuswell,TheZenMonasticExperience,pp.9697. 87.HPC10.49. 88.SeeKankokubusshokaidaijiten,pp.19596. 89.Foradescriptionofthismoderncurriculum,seeBuswell,TheZenMonasticExperience,pp.9899,andKeel,Chinul,pp.17578. 90.TheplacesinwhichmytranslationdiffersfromLuk'sareoftenduetotheinfluencesofthetwodifferentcommentatorswearefollowing.Alsorelatedtothe influenceofthetwodifferentcommentatorsaremineandLuk'sdivergentperspectivesinthecomparisonoftheSPEwithrelatedscriptures.Luk,followingthe commentaryofTech'ing,tendstocitetheSurangamasutrawhentryingtoconnectdoctrinalthemestoothersutras.Mytranslation,takingintoaccounttheusageof AMFhermeneuticsandimagerybyKihwa,tendstocitetheAwakeningofFaith. 91.Yanagida,Engakukyo,p.283. 92.Mostprominentinthisregardarethepassagesonthe"dharmaprac

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tice"(sutrapassages#11and#12below)the"separationfromillusion"(sutrapassage#22)andthelongguidedmeditationinthechapterofUniversalVision (sutrapassages#2735).

Kihwa'sIntroductiontoHisCommentary
1.InopeninguphisintroductiontotheSPEbyplacingitintheframeworkoftheThreeGreatnessesofEssence,Attributes,andFunction,Kihwaismakingastrong allusiontotheAwakeningofFaith,thetextinwhichthesethreeconceptsaredeveloped. 2.SeethechapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#13. 3.Dharma (principle).ThusdharmawasinitiallyassimilatedintoearlyIndianBuddhismwiththeconnotationsof"theorderoftheuniverse,''"law,""principle,"and "reality."Withtheseimplications,dharmacametorefertotheBuddha'steachingitself.Itispreciselyitsinclusionofthisbroadrangeofmeaningsthatmakesitso attractiveforusebyBuddhistwriterssuchasKihwa.Intranslation,wecanrenderitas"element,""objectivesituation,""reality,""principle,"or"teaching,"accordingto thesituation(asIsometimesdo)butanytimewerendertheterminthisway,weeliminatethesimultaneousimplicationofalltheothermeanings.ThereforeIoften leaveituntranslated. 4.ChapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#7T842.17.913b.19. 5.ChapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#7T842.17.913b.2021. 6.ChapterofSamantabhadra,sutrapassage#21T842.17.914a.1011. 7.Ihavechosen"curative"asmytranslationforpangbasedonKihwa'sinterpretationofitsmeaninginthisintroduction.Anotherpossibilitywouldbe"remedial"asan adjectivederivedfrom"remedy,"butincolloquialusagetheterm"remedial"hasinappropriatenegativeconnotations. 8.ChapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#6. 9.ChapterofSamantabhadra,sutrapassage#22. 10.Theterm"forget"(wang/mang )isusedthroughoutKihwa'scommentaryinapositivesenseof"beingfreefrom." 11.ChapterofUniversalVision,sutrapassage#36. 12.InBuddhismitisunderstoodthattherearecertainsituationswherethepractitionermustbeforcedtobreaktheprecepts.

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13.Theterm"selfimprovementandimprovementofothers" 14.Forexample,chapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#5.

isdiscussedintheAwakeningofFaithatT1666.32.581c13ff.

15.Thisreferstoageneralthemeinthesutrathisphraseisnotfoundintheactualtext. 16.Asummaryofsutrapassage#31inthechapterofSamantabhadra.SeeT842.17.914c.1619. 17.Thatis,fromthestandpointofemptiness. 18.ChapterofUniversalVision,sutrapassage#35T842.17.915a12. 19.Threecapacitiesofsentientbeings( .Thisrecognitionofthedifferencesbetweenpeopleintermsoflevelofreligioussensitivityisanimportantcomponentof MahayanaBuddhistdoctrine,andisdirectlyrelatedtotheconceptofexpedientmeans.Kihwawill,throughoutthiscommentary,specifywhichportionsofthetextare applicabletowhichlevelsofcapacity. 20.Innate(original)enlightenment )isthefirstphenomenalexperienceofenlightenmentthatappearsincontrasttohabituatedignorance.Fortheexplanationof thesetwointheAwakeningofFaith,seeT1666.32.576b15ff.andHakeda,pp.3740. 21.Asinthecaseoftheabovethreequotes,KihwaisfondofcitingpassagesderivedfromhisextensivefamiliaritywithEastAsianphilosophicalliterature,Buddhist, Confucian,andTaoist,withoutnaminghissources.Ihavelocatedsomeofthese,butunfortunatelymanymustbeleftunidentified. 22.IChing,Hsitz'uchuan,section1. 23.SeeLegge,IChing,p.420. 24.IChing,Hsitz'uchuan,section1. 25."Apprehensionanddiscarding"referstotheexerciseofappropriatingthevirtuesthatonecurrentlylacks,whileatthesametimefindingone'smistakesand eliminatingthem. 26.IChing,Hsitz'uchuan,section1. 27.Theline"penetratedbyonethreadfrombeginningtoend( ).

28.ThesecitationsfromtheIChingareallfromthesamediscussioncontainedinsection1oftheHsitz'uchuan.Inthissection"great"(whichisassociatedwith heaven)hasaverticalconnotationreferringtothe"height"ofone'sownwisdom."Extensive"(associatedwiththeearth)hasahorizontalconnotationandreferstothe practiceofcompassioninreachingouttoothers. 29.Hsitz'uchuan,section1.

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30.A"worldling"(fanfu/pombu )intheSPEisapractitionerofthehigheststagepriortoBuddhahoodabodhisattva. 31.ChapterofPureWisdom,sutrapassage#69T842.17.917b2HPC7.150a7. 32.IhavenotbeenabletolocatethispassageintheConfuciancorpus. 33.Hsitz'uchuan,section1.Inthissection,heaven(nondelimitation)isnowassociatedwith"perfect"andearth(delimitation)isassociatedwiththe"cure." 34.Thethreepowers(santsai/samjae 35.IChing,Hsitz'uchuan,section1. 36.EachofthechaptersoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenmentarenamedaftertheparticularbodhisattvawhoactsasinterlocutorfortheBuddhainthatchapter. 37.Thatis,chapters2through9.Therearetwelvechaptersaltogether. 38.T842.17.913b.1920.ChapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#7. 39.T842.17.913b.21HPC7.129a2.ChapterofMajusri,sutrapassage#8. 40.ChapterofUniversalEnlightenment,sutrapassage#100T842.17.920a.29b.1. 41.ChapterofPerfectEnlightenment,sutrapassage#113T842.17.921al. 42.Thisisnotanactualphrasefromthatchapter. 43.Sutrapassage#22T842.17.914a.21. 44.Sutrapassage#28T842.17.914c.4HPC7.135c23.. 45.T842.17.915a2324.ChapterofUniversalVision,sutrapassage#36.Contrivance,stopping,naturalism,andannihilation(tso/chak,chih/chi,jen/im,mieh/ myol "isreversedhereascomparedtothelinecitedinsutrapassage#36,butaccordswiththeorderinwhichthefouraretreatedinchapter10. 46.(chengtsung/chongjong 47.(liut'ungfen/yut'ongbun ,thatis,themainexpositorybodyofthesutra. ),whichtraditionallyclosessutrasandsastras. )areheaven,man,andearth.

48.Suramgamasutra,T945.19.130a21.Kihwaalsocitesthislineinhiscommentarytosutrapassage#22inthechapterofSamantabhadra. 49.T842.17.913b.19.Sutrapassage#7ofthechapterofMajusri. 50.T842.17.917c.12HPC7.151c18.Sutrapassage#74inthechapterofPowerandVirtueUnhindered. 51."Cultivation"hereisatranslationofhsiu .

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52.ThefirstfourwordsofthetitleoftheHwaomgyongare"GreatCurativeExtensiveBuddha."(Kor.:taepangkwangpul and279inTaishovols.9and10. 53.Hwaom(Ch.huayen )literallymeans"adornedbyflowers."

).SeethetitlepagesofT278

54.FromUisang'sOceanSealSamadhi.SeeHan'gukpulgyochonso,vol.2,p.1.Hwaomilsungpopkyeto( SingleVehicleoftheHuayen),T1887A.45.711a716a.

ChartoftheDharmaworldofthe

55.A"fullyrevealed"( )doctrinescriptureinEastAsianMahayanaBuddhismisunderstoodtobeatextthatdoesnotattachitselftooneaspectofthe Buddhadharma.Thatis,itisnotmerelyasimple,elementarydoctrine,relyingprimarilyontherelativetruth,andneitherisitastrictly"sudden"text,apprehensibleonly tothosepractitionerswhoarealreadyinpossessionofthemostprofoundreligiousinsights.TheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment,thoughrelativelyshort,embracesa varietyofBuddhistperspectives,rangingfromthemostelementarytothemostadvanced. 56.Kihwaisherereferringtoapointabouttheetymologyofthetermsutra,whichhasanetymologysimilartothatoftheEnglishterm"text,"isrelatedinmeaningto "textile." 57.Fortheexplanationofthemeaningofthistechnicalterm,seeKihwa'sopeningstatementtothechapterofMajusri. 58.Doubtingoneself,doubtingtheteacher,anddoubtingthedharma. 59.Inthe"ReceptionofPredictionbytheFiveHundredDisciples"chapteroftheLotusSutra,AnandaandRahulabegtheBuddhatogivepredictionsforthem,since hehasgivenpredictionsofBuddhahoodforothers.TheBuddharespondsbytellingAnandathathewilldefinitelybecomeaBuddhainafutureage,withthename "TathagataKingMountainSeaWisdomOmnipotentPenetration."SeeLeonHurvitz'translationoftheSutraoftheLotusBlossomoftheFineDharma,p.166, andT262.9.29b21c15. 60.Bhagavan,atermcommonlyusedtorefertoSakyamuniBuddha,wasusedinancientIndianreligionusedtonamesages.AccordingtoTsungmi,theterm containssixmeanings:authority(aisvarya)correctmeaning(dharma)freedomfromworldlydesires(vairagya)auspiciousness(sri)excellentreputation(yasas), andliberation(moksa).ThePrajnaparamitsatraattributesfourkindsofqualitiestothebhagavan:possessionofvirtuepossessionofdiscrimination praiseworthinessandtheabilitytoeradicatedefilements.Othertextsgiveothersetsofmeanings.SeeBukkyogodaijiten,p.1091a.

1.Majusri
1.Below,sutrapassage#13,lastline. 2.TheSanskrittermdharaniismostcommonlyusedtorefertoalongmantrathatcontainsoccultpowerastheessenceoftheBuddhistteachings.Itisalsotranslated intoChineseas"totalretention,"thatis,memorykeepingtheteachinginthemindwithoutforgetting.Italsoindicatestheretentionofmanifoldvirtues. 3.FortheusageofthissimileofdisorientationintheAwakeningofFaith,see

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T1666.38.577a3ff.and579c23.IntheSutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhi,seeT945.19.120b2123. 4.Thatis,theyareillusory. 5.Theterm"counteractiveawareness"usedhereissimilartotheconceptsof"corrective"and"curative"definedinKihwa'sintroduction.

2.Samantabhadra
1.Above,chapterofMajusrisutrapassage#12. 2.Thatis,theyareillusory. 3.Above,chapterofMajusrisutrapassage#11. 4.Inthispassage,theadditionofthesefourwordschangesthegrammaticalstructureofthequestion,makingitreadmuchmoresmoothly.Thegeneralpointremains thesame. 5.Ignorance,desire,andhatred. 6.TheTenFettersare:desire,hatred,ignorance,pride,doubt,viewofself,extremeview,evilview,viewofattachmenttoviews,viewofmorality.Thefirstfive hinderthoseoflesserspiritualdevelopmentwhilethesecondfivehinderthoseofgreaterspiritualdevelopment. 7.ThesimileofwaterandwavesisoneofthemoreprominentutilizedintheAwakeningofFaith.SeeT1666.32.578a712andHakeda,pp.41and45. 8.Here,theideographli takesonstrongconnotationsof"freedom"(fromdefilement,delusion,etc.).AtfirstIattemptedtotranslatethetermconsistentlyinone way,andthentheother.ButinbothcasesIfelttheEnglishtobetoounnatural.Therefore,inthisfinalversion,Ihaveusedboth"free"and''separate."Intheearlier partofthispassage,Ihaveused"separate"totranslatethecompoundyanliwithaprogressiveverbalnuance,andattheendofthepassage,haverenderedthe singleideographlias"beingfree"witharesultant,"stateofbeing"connotation. 9.T945.19.130a21. 10.T945.19.117c26.

3.UniversalVision
1.MostofthetimeIhavetranslatedjuhuansanmei/yohwansammae( )as"asillusionsamadhi,"whichmeanstoperceivetheillusorynatureofexistenceina stateofheightenedconsciousness.Thistermwillbeusedthroughouttherestofthesutra.ButasKihwawillpointoutinthischapter,thesamadhiitselfisalsoillusory, andthusIoccasionallyrenderitas"illusorysamadhi,"accordingtothecontext. 2.FromtheTaoTeChing,chapter64.

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3.Thesixsensoryfacultiesassociatedwiththesixorgansofsight,smell,taste,hearing,touch,andthesymbolicfunctionofconceptualization. 4.Thethreepracticesare:moraldisciplineor"precepts"(sila, ). 5.HPC7.157a9.Sutrapassage#83. 6.MyrenderingofthispassagefollowsRobertBuswell'searliertranslationofitinTheKoreanApproachtoZen,p.169. 7.FiveColorsisaclassicalChinesetermequivalentto"thewholespectrum,"andthusmeans"allcolors"or"anycolor." 8.TheTwelveLociandtheEighteenRealmsarecloselyrelatedconceptsdevelopedinBuddhistepistemology.TheTwelveLociarethesixsenseorgansandtheir objects.TheEighteenRealmsarethesixsensefaculties,theirsixobjects,andthesixconsciousnessesthatlinkthefacultiesandtheobjects. 9.TheTwentyFiveKindsofExistenceareasubdivisionofthethreerealmsthatsentientbeingstransmigratethroughintotwentyfivefurtherspecificstatesofbeing. TherearefourteenoftheseexistencesintheDesirerealm,sevenintheFormrealm,andfourintheFormlessrealm.Thesearegroupedinto:theFourEvilDestinies, theFourContinents,theSixHeavensofDesire,theFourMeditationHeavens,theHeavensoftheFivePureAbodes,andtheFourSpheresoftheFormlessRealm. 10.TheTenPowersaretenkindsofpowersofawarenessspeciallypossessedbytheBuddha,whichareperfectknowledgeofthefollowing:(1)distinguishingright andwrong(2)knowingthekarmasofallsentientbeingsofthepast,present,andfuture(3)knowledgeofallformsofmeditation(4)knowledgeoftherelative capacitiesofsentientbeings(5)knowledgeofwhatsentientbeingsdesireandthink(6)knowledgeofthedifferentlevelsoftheirexistence(7)knowledgeofthe resultsofvariousmethodsofpractice(8)knowledgeofthetransmigratorystatesofallsentientbeingsandthecoursesofkarmatheywillfollow(9)knowledgeofthe pastlivesofallsentientbeingsandthenirvanicstateofnondefilement(10)knowledgeofthemethodsofdestroyingallevilpassions. 11.TheFourKindsofFearlessness,orutterconvictioninpreachingthedharma,thatarepossessedbyabuddhaare:(1)fearlessnessinassertingthathehas attainedPerfectEnlightenment(2)fearlessnessinassertingthathehasdestroyedalldefilements(3)fearlessnessinshowingpeoplethoseelementsthathinderthe realizationofthedharma,and(4)fearlessnessinexpoundingthemethodofliberation. 12.TheFourTypesofUnobstructedWisdomare:(1)nomistakeinteaching(2)nolackinregardtounderstandingtheinternalmeaningoftheteaching(3) "unhinderedspeech,"thatis,theunderstandingofalllanguagesand(4)"unhinderedeaseinexplanation,"whichisthefreeuseoftheabovethreeintheeffortofsaving allsentientbeings. 13.TheEighteenDistinctiveCharacteristicsoftheBuddhainEastAsianBuddhismare(13)unmistakenthought,word,anddeed(4)mindofequalitytowardall beings(5)stablemindinmeditation(6)allembracingmindthatrejectsnothing(711)thepowerofnotbackslidingintermsoftheaspiration,

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diligence,mindfulness,concentration,andwisdomtowardthesalvationofallbeings(12)thepowerofnotfallingbackfromfreedomintobondage(1315)the manifestationofwisdompowerinthought,word,anddeedforthepurposeofsavingallbeings(1618)immediatetotalknowledgeofallaffairsofpast,present, andfuture. 14.TheThirtysevenAidstoEnlightenmentarethirtysevenkindsofpracticesfortheattainmentofenlightenment.Theyare:theFourBasesofMindfulness,the FourRightEfforts,theFourOccultPowers,theFiveRootsofGoodness,theFivePowers,theSevenFactorsofEnlightenment,andtheEightfoldHolyPath. 15.The84,000DharaniEntrances,means"alltheBuddhistteachings."Eightyfourthousandshouldbeunderstoodtomeananinfinitelylargeamount,duetothe limitlesspossibilitiesofexplanationofrealitytosentientbeings. 16.Or"naturalworld." 17.ThemanoconsciousnessisthesixthoftheeightlayersofconsciousnessaccordingtotheframeworkdevelopedbytheschoolofConsciousnessonly.Itsfunction isinsymbolformationandconceptualization,anditisthelocusfordiscriminativeandrationalthought.Italsoservesastherulerofthefivesensoryconsciousnesses, asitgathersandorganizestheirperceptions. 18.Thesefourreificationsoftendenciesinreligiouspracticearethemaintopicofdiscussioninchapter10,startingfromsutrapassage#104.

4.Vajragarbha
1.Mentionedinsutrapassage#2. 2.Sutrapassage#8. 3.Sutrapassage#24. 4.Sutrapassage#36. 5." "ThisisawellknownlinethatiscitedregularlythroughoutKoreanBuddhistwritings,fromtheearlyunifiedSillatothelate Choson.ItoriginallycomesfromBuddhabhadra'stranslationoftheTafangkuangfohuayenching,fascicle6(T278.9.433b67).ItsfrequentcitationinKorean worksisprobablyduetoitsappearanceinWonhyo'sCommentaryontheAwakeningofFaith(Kisillonso)T1844.44.203a2829. 6.Imagineaneveningcampfirewhensomeonepullsaburningropeoutofthefirethatnowhasaglowingtip.Whenyourfriendwhirlstherope,andyourgazeremains fixed,itlookslikeaspinningwheel. 7.Acontemporaryversionofthismetaphoristhefeelingonegetswhensittinginastoppedtrainwithanothertrainontheadjacenttrack.Whenoneofthetrains beginstomove,itissometimesdifficulttotellwhichoneisactuallymoving. 8.TheclassicalChinesetermfor"world"( ).Kihwatreatsthetermbybreakingintoitstwocomponentpartsandanalyzingeachforitsphilosophicalconnotations.

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9.Thesimileofpurifyinggoldwillbetoldbelowinpassage#45. 10.Kihwahasreplaced"closelyaccording"afterthewords"PerfectEnlightenment"with"marvelousmind." 11.Thepresentrenderingofthislinerepresentsagradualistic,goalorientedinterpretation.Itcouldalsobetranslatedas"Thegolddoesnotcomeintobeingbecause ofsmeltingitisalreadyperfectgold,andwillneveragainbecomeore,"whichwouldreflectasuddenisticunderstanding. 12.Thefoursagesarethesravaka,pratyekabuddha,bodhisattva,andbuddha. 13.Althoughtheterm"love"(ai )usuallyhasstrongpositiveconnotations,inthistextithasnegativeconnotationsofclingingandattachment. 14.Above,sutrapassage#41. 15.TheFiveObscurations[wukai/ogae ]arefivekindsofdefilementsthathamperthefunctionofthetruemind.AsinterpretedbyKihwa,theyare:doubt, attachedlove,ignorance,anger,andagitation.

5.Maitreya
1.Sutrapassage#36. 2.Sutrapassage#47. 3."Being"and"becoming"arealsothetenthandeleventhofthetwelvelimbsofdependentorigination. 4.Animal,hellbeing,andhungryghost. 5.Luktranslatesthislineas"completeenlightenmentisattainablebyallsentientbeings."Seehistranslation,p.211. 6. )sectionoftheShihching(BookofOdes).Thismetaphorreferstoasituationwheredespitesomethingbeinghiddeninafarawayplace,itisknownto everyone.Thus,ametaphorfortheinterpenetratednatureofexistence. 7.SeetheTaoTeChing,chapter64. 8.Ignorance,attraction,andrevulsion.

6.PureWisdom
1.ThedoctrineofthemutualpermeationofsuchnessandignoranceisdevelopedintheAwakeningofFaith.SeeT1666.32.578a18b25,andHakeda,p.56ff. 2.ThelocusclassicusofthedoctrineofthesixcoarsedefilementsandthreesubtledefilementsisintheAwakeningofFaith.SeeT1666.32.577c26578a3and Hakeda,pp.5152. 3.Thatis,ofarisingofcyclicexistencewithinnoncyclicexistenceandofpracticeandactualizationwithinnonpracticeandactualization. 4.Thebhumisarethefortyfirstthroughfiftiethstagesinthebodhisattva'scourseofpractice. 5.Thegrammaticalstructureofthislinewouldalsoallowforittoberendered

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inEnglishas"Butifyoulookagainatthemoonandcompletelyunderstand,thenwhatisbeingpointedtoisultimatelynotthemoon."Thisinterpretationgoesone leveldeeperthanthecurrenttranslationandisworthconsidering.Thepresenttranslation,however,accordswiththeinterpretationgiventothislinebyKihwain thechapterofVoiceofDiscernmentbelow(sutrapassage#81). 6.Theendofsutrapassage#81inchapter8.Kihwawilldiscussthereasonsforthistextualcorrectionindetailwhenhegetstothatpointinthetext.

7.PowerandVirtueUnhindered
1.Desire,anger,andignorance. 2.Theguaranteeofsentientbeingseventuallybecomingable"toheartheBuddha'snameandseehisform"isoneofthevowsofAmitabhaBuddha. 3.Thebinomechimieh/chongmyol couldnormallyberenderedintoEnglishwithasinglewordsuchas"quiescence,""cessation,""extinction,""annihilation,"or ''erasure."Butsinceinthiscommentary,andespeciallyinchapters7and8,Kihwadeliberatelybreaksthecompoundintoitstwocomponentparts,weareforcedto renderthetwowordsseparately.Therefore"cessationextinction." 4.Thetermpienhua/pyonhwa ,renderedhereas"creation"literallymeans"transformation."Thereis(fromthestandpointofEnglish)anoverlapinmeaningthat isreflectiveoftheBuddhistontology,whereinthereisnosuchthingascreationoutof"nothing"everythingthatappearsintheworldisnothingotherthana transformationofwhatexistedinthepriormoment,throughdependentorigination.Thisbeingso,wheneverthereadermeetstheterm"illusorytransformations"he/she maybeawarethattheauthorisreferringtonothingotherthanthe"createdphenomena"ofexistence. 5.Ascontrastedtoa"ceasing"practice,suchassamatha. 6.HPC7.152c16nextsutrapassage. 7.Seethenextsutrapassagebelow. 8.Therefore,Kihwaissayingthateachofthetwologographiccomponentsofthebinomechimieh/chongmyol 9.TheFourTracesarediscussedbelow,inchapter9. refersbacktooneoftheearliermeditations.

8.VoiceofDiscernment
1."Coarseapprehensionandfineanalysis"isatranslationoftheChinesechehkuan( ).Vitarkaisthecoarsementalfunctionofmakingasuppositionor inference,whilevicaraisthefunctionoffineanalysis.IntheCh'anschoolbothareultimatelyconsideredtobehindrancestomeditation.

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2.VajragarbhahasconverteddoubtintofaithMaitreyahasconvertedattachedloveintocompassionPureWisdomhasconvertedignoranceintowisdomPower andVirtueUnhinderedhasconvertedangerintopowerandVoiceofDiscernmentwillnowconvertagitationintocorrectdiscriminationor"discernment."What KihwaiscallingtheFiveVirtuesaremorecommonlytermedtheFiveRootsofGoodness. 3.TheChinesetermtranslatedhereas"application"islun( ),meaning"wheel"or''ring." 4.Anintralinearnoteheresays"arising,abiding,changing,andcessation"tomakeitclearthatitistheseFourMarksthatarebeingreferredtohere,ratherthanthe FourTracesofself,person,sentientbeing,andlifethatarethetopicofthenextchapter. 5. 6.Sutrapassage#67. 7.Sutrapassage#67. 8.Thelastlineofsutrapassage#57inthechapterofMaitreya. 9.Sutrapassage#67.Insteadof"threesentences"theoriginaltextsays"thethirtysixwords"(Chinesecharacters). 10. .Twomatchingslipsofwoodonwhichamessageorcontractwaswritten.Sincethetwowereoriginallyonepieceuntiltheywerebrokenapartfromeach other,whenfittedtogethertheywouldmatchperfectly.Thiswasacustomarymethodforkeepingagreementsandcontracts,witheachofthetwopartieskeepingone oftheslipsofwood. 11.ChapterofUniversalVision,sutrapassage#27. 12.ThisistheopeningpassagefromtheDiamondSutra.SeeT235.8.748c2123. 13."MinisterP'ei"isP'eihsiu( 797870),ahighofficialintheT'anggovernment.HewasadevoutpractitionerofBuddhism,whodevelopedcloserelationships withsuchmajorBuddhistfiguresasTsungmiandHuangpo.HeisalsointimatelyconnectedwiththeearlydisseminationoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment, havingwrittenaprefacetoTsungmi'smajorcommentaryonthesutra.ThisquoteisaparaphraseofZ243.9.323b2122. 14.Herethepractitionersarefollowingasystembywhichtheydrawlotsonwhicharewrittentheinstructionsforthetypeofmeditationtheyaretopursueduringa meditationretreat. 15.ThefirstlineoftheBuddha'steachinginthischapter. 16.TheTrueManofNoStatus(wouishenjen )wasoneofLinchi'screations.IntheLinchiluweread:"BeyondtheredfleshgroupthereisoneTrue ManofNoStatuswhoconstantlygoesinandoutofthefrontgates(senseorgans)ofallofyoupeople."T1985.47.496c910. 17.Adistinctionisbeingmadehereinafeudallikesystemwheretherealmatlargeconsistsoftwomainparts:thedomainsoftheemperor'sownfamily,andthe surroundinglandsthatarecontrolledbyvassals. 18.InConfucianpoliticalthought,itisapoorreflectiononthegovernmentifthereisapersonofoutstandingabilitiesamongthepopulacewhois,forsome PureWisdom,sutrapassage#67.

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reasonorother,notworkinginsomecapacityfortheadministrationoftherealm.Thisisa"neglectedWorthy." 19. .SeetheIChing,Hsitz'uchuan,section1.Uich'onusesthesamephraseinhisessayontheSPE.SeeHPC4.532a10.

20.HereKihwahasgivenhisinterpretationofthispassagebyalteringitsformsomewhatfromthewayitappearsinthesutra. 21.The"sixstates"arethesixcompetingkingdomsoftheChinese"warringstates"period(403221BCE):theHan,Wei .

9.PurifierofAllKarmicHindrances
1.ThedoctrineofthesubtleandcoarsemarksisdevelopedintheAwakeningofFaith.SeeT1666.32.577c26ff. 2."Tamer"isoneofthetenepithetsoftheBuddha. 3.Thatis,withinnonduality. 4.Thedoctrineofthese"fourtraces( )"predatestheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment,beingaprominentcomponentofthediscourseoftheDiamondSutra. Despitethefactthatinhiscommentary,KihwastatesthattheFourTracesoftheSPEhaveadifferentconnotationfromthoseoftheDiamondSutra,somebasic introductiontotheconceptsinthecontextoftheDiamondSutraisstillhelpfulinfollowingthisdiscussion.Inprovidingthisbackground,Iquotealucidandconcise portionofthecommentarydoneontheDiamondSutrabythecontemporaryVietnameseZenmasterThichNhatHanh(TheDiamondThatCutsThroughIllusion, pp.3840),whichreadsasfollows:
"Self( )"referstoapermanent,changelessidentity,butsince,accordingtoBuddhism,nothingispermanentandwhatwenormallycallaselfismadeentirelyofnonself elements,thereisreallynosuchentityasaself.Ourconceptofselfariseswhenwehaveconceptsaboutthingsthatarenotself....Theconceptof"person( )"liketheconcept ofself,ismadeonlyofnonpersonelementssun,clouds,wheat,space,andsoon.Thankstotheseelements,thereissomethingwecallaperson.Buterectingabarrierbetweenthe ideaofpersonandtheideaofnonpersoniserroneous....Theconceptof"livingbeing( ),"sattvainSanskrit,arisesthemomentweseparatelivingfromnonlivingbeings..but whatwecallnonlivingmakeswhatwecalllivingbeingspossible.Ifwedestroythenonliving,wedestroytheliving....Weusuallythinkof"lifespan( )''asthelengthofour life,beginningthemomentwearebornandendingwhenwedie.Webelievethatwearealiveduringthatperiod,nobeforeorafter.Andwhilewearealive,wethinkthat everythinginusislife,notdeath.

5.Thefivegati:thehells,hungryghosts,animals,humanbeings,devas. 6.Samskrta( )istranslatedintoEnglishas"conditioned,""compounded,"or"created."Itstworootcomponentsaresam,whichmeans

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together,compounded,gathered(asinsamsara,samutpada,samgha,etc.),andkr,whichmeans"creation"(asinkarma).Thusitreferstoallofexistencethat iscontinuallyrecreatedthroughthejoiningofcausesandconditions.Asamskrta( )or"unconditioned"isitsantonym,createdbytheadditionofanaprivative, meaning"un"or"non." 7.KihwamakesthispointbecausetheBuddhisttechnicaltermhsianghs hasaspecialtechnicalconnotationinFahsiang(Consciousnessonly)discourse,that shouldnotbereadintothepresentdiscussion.Herethetermrefersmerelytotheunbrokencontinuityofstrugglethroughsamsara. 8.Sutrapassage#91. 9.Sutrapassage#94. 10.Here,Luktranslateswu( "self")as"ego." 11.AtthispointLuktranslatescheng/chung as"experience"whereIhavetranslateditas"witness."Insomerespects,histranslationissmooth,andreflectsclearly andsimplythegistofthepassage.TheproblemthatIseeinhistranslation,however,isthathedoesnotrenderthetermconsistently,andinsteadofmaintaininga uniformtranslationofchengas"experience,"switchesbackandforthtosuchtermsas"realize"and"evidencing''withinthesamesection,whichmakesitdifficultfor thereadertounderstandthestructureofthediscourse.Heisalsoinconsistentinthesamewaywithhistranslationoftheotherfourterms.Mysomewhatrigidusageof "witness"isdoneinordertoclearlydistinguishchengasatechnicalterminthischapter.Iwillalsoholdstrcitlytoasinglerenderingofthecognitiveoperations associatedwiththeothertracesinsimilarfashion. 12.Thatis,doesnotrepeatthesamementalfunctionofwitnessing"selfhood." 13.Thecognitionof"self"and"other"isthecognitionoftheprior"traceofperson." 14.HereIfollowKihwa'sreadingofthepassage,whichlinksthephrasechiaosuoliaoche thesubsequentpassage. tothepassagebeforeit.LukandYanagidalinkthisphraseto

15.Themeaningsof"innerworldling"and"outerworldling"arediscussedinthecommentarytosutrapassage#21inthechapterofSamantabhadra. 16.Here,thewordbeingtranslatedas"awareness"ischeh ,whichhasbeenrenderedintherestofthetextas"enlightenment."Ihaverendereditdifferentlyinthis sectionofthischaptertoreflectadifferentusage.Buthere,bothmeaningsarebeingmergedintoone,andthus,fromthispoint,themeaningof"enlightenment"isalso included. 17.Below,lastlineofsutrapassage#95. 18.InYanagidaSeizan'stranslationoftheEngakukyo(p.195),thissentenceiskepttogetherwiththepriorparagraph,servingasitsconcludingpassagearhetorical questionwhichdecriestheimpossibilityofconsideringanydharmaas"nonliberation."ThismeansthathehasalsounderstoodthestructureofthepriorlinetobeasI havementionedinnote14,ratherthanasKihwaseesit. 19.GenuineTeacherisatranslationofshanchihshih/sonjisik( literally"goodconsciousness"),whichisinturntheChinesetranslationoftheSanskrit

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kalyanamitra.ThispersonisareliableteacherwiththecorrectinsightwhocanproperlyhelponealongtheBuddhistpath. 20.Sutrapassage#91above.

10.UniversalEnlightenment
1."Practicesofpurity."Aperfectlypuremorality:literally,"thepracticesofBrahma." 2.Walking,standing,sitting,andlyingdown. 3.Thislastlinereadsabitstrangely.IfitwerenotthecasethatKihwadirectlytreatsthisoddstructurebelow,Iwouldreworkthetranslationtomakeitsmooth.But sinceKihwatreatsthislinejustbelow,IhavetranslatedtheChinesedirectlyasitappears. 4.Thefirstlineintheabovesutrapassage. 5.Above,sutrapassage#101.

11.PerfectEnlightenment
1.The"specific"(pieh/pyol )canbeunderstoodasthediscriminatedteaching,orrelativetruthandthenondiscriminatedteaching,orabsolutetruth.The"specific" canalsorefertoateachingforpeopleofspecificcapacities,with"universal''referringtoateachingthatisappropriateforallbeings. 2."Wisdom"(hye/hui )areconsideredtheessencesofmindandbody,respectively. 3. Fromthepriorchapter,lastlineofsutrapassage#91.

4.Mostimportantlyteachingandguidingothermonks,nuns,andlaybelievers. 5.Bannersandflowersareusedtodecoratethemonasteryduringspecialevents. 6.Themeaningofthephrasepuchiat'uchung ,whichIhavetranslatedas"free...frominvolvementswithotherpractitioners"isnotexplainedindetailby Kihwa.Tsungmiunderstandsitasinvolvementswithone'sfellowpractitioners.Yanagidarendersit"don'ttakeanyfollowers"Luksays,"avoidbeingservedby followersofHinayana." 7.ThesearetheSanskrittermsformonk,nun,malelaypractitioner,andfemalelaypractitioner. 8.Tsungmiidentifiesthe"otherpractitioners"asthoseconstrainedbythecustomsoftheHinayanaretreat. 9.Fromchapter7,sutrapassage#76. 10.ItseemsthatKihwaisfollowingtheinterpretationofTsungmihere,inthatthereareapparentlyanothergroupof(Hinayana?)practitionersfollowing

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astandardizedscheduleofafullsummerretreat.Onceonehascompletedhisownretreataccordingtotheguidelinesgiveninthissutra,heisfreetodoashe pleases.

12.MostExcellentofWorthies
1.Thetermhsien ),atermusuallyreservedforfoundersofentirethoughtsystems:mensuchasConfucius,orlegendaryculturalheroessuchasYaoandShun.

2.OnewhoisfullycapableofunderstandingandtrustingintheBuddhistteachings. 3.InChinese,huayen ).

4.ThehigheststageintheHwaomscheme,whichKihwamentionsinhisintroduction. 5.TheawkwardwordingofthissutrapassageistreatedbyKihwainhiscommentarydirectlybelow. 6.AyojanaisanancientIndianmeasureofdistance.Dependinguponthesource,eithersevenorninemiles,thedistanceappropriateforoneday'stravelforan emperor. 7.EightkindsofbeingsfromIndianmythology.Formerlytheywereevil,butnowhavingbeenconvertedbytheBuddha,theyprotecthisdharma.Theyare:(1)devas [gods],(2)nagas[snakekings],(3)yaksas[spiritsofthedeadwhoflyaboutinthenight],(4)gandharvas[halfghostmusicmasters],(5)asuras[demigodsofevil disposition],(6)garudas[goldenwingedbirdsthateatdragons](7)kimnaras[neitherhumannornothuman],and(8)mahoragas[snakespirits].

Page307

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Lengchiaapatolopaoching Liutsut'anching Miaofalienhuaching Tachihtulun Tashengch'ihsinlun Tafangkuangfohuayenching

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Chinsimchiksol

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Kumgangsammaegyongnon Naonghwasangorok Paeg'unhwasangorok

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(ReconciliationofDisputesinTenAspects).ByWonhyo.HPC1.838841.[Fragments]. (CompilationofExaminationsofandVersesonAncientPrecedents).ByHyesim.HPC5.1925. (TeachingPrecedentsfromtheSonSchool).ByHyujong.HPC7.634c646a.

.HPC185a200b. (TheCollectedWritingsofUich'6n).HPC4.528567. (ExpositoryNotesontheAwakeningofFaith).ByWonhyo.HPC1.677697T1845.44.226a240c. (CombinedVersionofWonhyo'sCommentaryandExpositoryNotesontheAwakeningofFaith).

Taegakkuksamunjip Taesungkisillonpyolgi Taesungkisillonsopyolgihoebon HPC1.73388. Wondonsongpullon

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Page310

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TheYanchehchingandItsChineseandKoreanCommentaries
Yanchehching (SutraofPerfectEnlightenment).T842.17.913a922a.

ChineseCommentariesContainedinBuddhistCanonicalCollections Yanchehchingtashu Yanchehchingtashu Yanchehchingtashuch'ao 245.9.460757. Yanchehchingtashuch'aok'o Tsungmi.Z244.9.419459 Yanchehchinglehshu Yanchehchinglehshuk'o Yanchehchinglehshuch'ao (GreatCommentaryontheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment).Tsungmi.Z243.9.324a418b (GreatCommentaryontheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment),12fasc.Tsungmi.Z243.9.324a418b. (SubcommentarytotheGreatCommentaryontheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment),26fasc.Tsungmi.Z (OutlinetotheSubcommentaryoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment),3fasc.(firsttwofasciclesmissing). (AbridgedCommentarytotheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment).Tsungmi.T1795.39.523b576bZ247.9.789821. (OutlineoftheAbridgedCommentary).Tsungmi.Z246.9.75888. (AbridgedSubcommentarytotheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment).Tsungmi.Z248.9.821959.

Yanchehchingtaoch'anghsiuchengi (ManualofProceduresfortheCultivationofRealizationofRitualPracticeAccordingtotheSutraof PerfectEnlightenment),18fasc.Tsungmi.Z1475.74.375512. Yanchehchingtaoch'anglehpenhsiuchengi Yanchehchingch'aopieniwu .Z1476.74.51217. (TreatingDoubts

Page311

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,Tsungmi.Z257.10.43779. .Z255.10.43335. (NotesonthePrefacetoTsungmi'sAbridgedCommentarytotheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment),1fasc.

Yanchehchinglehshuhschu Jushan.Z256.10.43538. Yanchehchinghsinching

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Yanchehchingchiasungchichiangi Yanchehchingchinshih Yanchehchingchihchieh Yanchehchingyaochieh

.Z259.10.51042. .Z258.10.480509.TranslatedintoEnglishbyLuK'uanYtogetherwithhistranslationofthesutra. .Z260.10.54373. .Z261.10.57399. (CorrectExplanationoftheTextoftheSutraofPerfectEnlightenment),Hungli.Z262.10.599693.

Yanchehchingchingchiehhslin Yanchehchingchushihchengpai Yanchehchingcheishu

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Page312

ClassicalKoreanCommentaries Kangwon'gakkyongpalsa .HPC4.53132. ).HPC7.12269.

Taebangkwangwon'gaksutararyouikongsorui Won'gakkyongkyongch'anso

ByHyujong.HPC7.714a.

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Forte,Antonino."TheRelativityoftheConceptofOrthodoxyinChineseBuddhism:Chihsheng'sIndictmentofShihliandtheProscriptionoftheDharmaMirror Sutra."InBuswell,ChineseBuddhistApocrypha. Goulde,JohnIsaac."AntiBuddhistPolemicinFourteenthandFifteenthCenturyKorea:TheEmergenceofConfucianExclusivism."Ph.D.dissertation,Harvard University,1985. Gregory,PeterN."TheProblemofTheodicyintheAwakeningofFaith."ReligiousStudies22(1986):6378. .TsungmiandtheSinificationofBuddhism.Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1991. HakedaYoshito,trans.TheAwakeningofFaith.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1967. Hanh,ThichNhat.TheDiamondThatCutsThroughIllusion:CommentariesonthePrajnaparamitaDiamondSutra.Berkeley,Calif.:ParallaxPress,1992. Heo,Heungsik.Han'gukchungsepulgyosayon'gu(AStudyoftheHistoryofMedievalKoreanBuddhism).Seoul:Ilchogak,1994. Hirakawa,Akira.Daijokishinron.Tokyo:Daizoshuppan,1973. Kamata,Shigeo.ChugokuKegonshisoshinokenkyu.Tokyo,1965. Shamitsukyogakunoshisoshitekikenkyu.Tokyo,1975. Chosenbukkyoshi.Tokyo:TokyoUniversityPress,1987. Keel,HeeSung.Chinul:TheFounderoftheKoreanSonTradition.BerkeleyBuddhistStudiesSeries.Seoul:PoChinChai,1984. Kodera,TakashiJames.Dogen'sFormativeYearsinChina:AnHistoricalStudyandAnnotatedTranslationoftheHokyoki.Boulder,Colo.:PrajnaPress, 1980. Kwon,Kijong."Chosonchongiuisongyokwan"("TheSonKyoStandpointoftheEarlyChoson").InYi,ed.,Han'guksonsasangyongu(24582). Lancaster,LewisandSungBaePark.TheKoreanBuddhistCanon:ADescriptiveCatalog.Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1979. Lee,Kibaik.ANewHistoryofKorea.Trans.EdwardW.Wagner.Cambridge:HarvardUniversityPress,1984. Lee,PeterH,ed.SourcebookofKoreanCivilization.Vol.1.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1993. Legge,James.Analects,GreatLearningandDoctrineoftheMean.NewYork:DoverPublications,1971 Lu,K'uanY(CharlesLuk).Ch'anandZenTeaching.Berkeley,Calif.:ShambhalaPublications,1962.

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Mizuno,Kogen.BuddhistSutras:Origin,Development,Transmission.Tokyo:KoseiPublishing,1980. MochizukiShinko.Bukkyokyotenseiritsushiron.Kyoto:Hozokan,1946. Muller,A.Charles."HamhoKihwa:AStudyofHisMajorWorks."Ph.D.diss.SUNYStonyBrook,1993. ."TheCompositionofSelfTransformationThoughtinClassicalEastAsianPhilosophyandReligion."BulletinofToyoGakuenUniversity4(March1996): 14152. ."EastAsia'sUnexploredPivotofMetaphysicsandHermeneutics:EssenceFunction/Interpenetration."WWWebdocument:http://www.human.toyogakuen u.ac.jp/~acmuller/articles/indigenoushermeneutics.htm.1997. ."TheBuddhistConfucianConflictintheEarlyChosonandKihwa'sSyncreticResponse:TheHyonchongnon."PaperdeliveredattheAnnualMeetingof theAmericanAcademyofReligion,Chicago,November1822,1994.WWWebdocument:http://www.human.toyogakuenu.ac.jp/~acmuller/budkor/aarhcn.htm. ."Kihwa'sAnalysisoftheRelationshipbetweentheWordedandWordlessTeachings:The0kahaesorui."JournalofKoreanThought1(forthcoming). NakamuraHajime.Bukkyogodaijiten.Tokyo,1975. OnoGemmyo.Busshokaisetsudaijiten.13vols.Tokyo:Daitoshuppansha,1933. Park,ChongHong.Han'guksasangsa:Pulgyosasangp'yon.Seoul,1976. Park,SungBae.BuddhistFaithandSuddenEnlightenment.Albany:StateUniversityofNewYorkPressPress,1983. .Wonhyo'sCommentariesontheAwakeningofMahayanaFaith.StateUniversityofNewYorkPressPress,forthcoming Price,A.F.TheDiamondSutraandtheSutraofHuineng.Boston:ShambhalaPublications,1969. Rhi,Kiyong.Han'gukpulgyoyon'gu(StudiesinKoreanBuddhism).Seoul:Han'gukpulgyoyon'guwon,1982. SakainoKoyo.Engakukyo(JapanesetranslationoftheYanchehching).Kokuyakuissaikyo.Tokyo:Daitoshuppanshu,1988.Kyoshu(SutraCollection),vol. 5,pp.30941. Shim,JaeRyong."ThePhilosophicalFoundationofKoreanZenBuddhism:TheIntegrationofSonandKyobyChinul(11581210)."Ph.D.dissertation,Universityof Hawaii,1979. Smith,BarbaraHerrnstein."ContingenciesofValue."InvonHallberg,ed.,Canons,(pp.539).

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SongCh'onun.''Kihwauisasang"("Kihwa'sThought").InChoMyonggi,ed.,Han'gukpulgyosasangsa(PakKiljinFestschrift) Song,Hwangi."Hamhotukt'onghwasangyon'gu"(AStudyofTheReverendHamhoTukt'ong).Master'sthesis,DonggukUniversity,1974. TonggukTaehakkyoPulgyoMunhwaYonguso,ed.Kankokubusshokaidaijiten.Tokyo,Kokushokankokai,1972. Wilhelm,Richard.TheIChing.Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,1973. vonHallberg,Robert,ed.Canons.Chicago:ChicagoUniversityPress,1984. Wu,JoungSang.Chosonchongipulgyosasangsayon'gu(StudiesoftheBuddhistThoughtoftheEarlyChoson).Seoul:DonggukUniversityPress,1966. Yampolsky,Philip,trans.ThePlatformSutraoftheSixthPatriarch.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1967 Yanagida,Seizan.Engakukyo(JapanesetranslationoftheYanchehching).Chugokusenjutsukyoten,no.1.Tokyo:Chikumashobo,1987. Yi,Jaech'ang,ed.Han'guksonsasangyongu(StudiesinKoreanSonThought).Seoul:DonggukUniversityPress,1984.

Page317

INDEX

A
abiding,correct. correctabiding

abidingmark,157,158 accordancewithenlightenednature: atthestageoffaith,160 byadvancedbodhisattvas,160 bybeginnerbodhisattvas,160 bytheTathagata,162 byworldlings,158 direct,163 actualizedenlightenment,defined,294 acupuncture,205 adornment, ofcorrectlyenlightenedwisdom,151 ofthenaturalworld,150 oftherealmofsentiency,150. affection,asacauseoftransmigration,141 ageofthedegenerationofthetruedharma,210 agitation,182,200 akasa,108,129 alayavijnanaseealsostoreconsciousness,8,14,144,204,212 asillusionsamadhi,90,91,175 altruism,28 AMF, inthelaterChoson,37 SPEand,19 Wonhyoand,17 Analects,10,11,34,288 Ananda,65,66,296 anasrava,70 anger,166,167,168,183,200,203 incontrasttovirtueandpower,166 annihilation,46 maladyof,116,117,223,224 anuttarasamyaksambodhi, achievablethroughthehelpofGenuineTeacher,220 meaningof,56 apocrypha,7,8,38 Abrahamic,7,287 arhat,176 notqualifiedasGenuineTeacher,220 arisingmark,157,158 arousalofpuremind(bodhicitta),73,74 Asanga,144 asamskrta,203 asillusionmeditation, practicedsingly,186 asrava,70 attachedlove,44,136,140,141 asbasisofsamsara,136,141 conversionintocompassion,153 distinguishedfromcompassion,143 removalof,142 transformedintokindness,137 attachment,147,225 asimpure,110 severing,140 attraction,225 notinthenatureofvision,114 AvatamsakasutraseeHuayenching aversion,225 notinthenatureofvision,114 AwakeningofFaith,3,5,8,9,12,13,15,20,23,3438,288,289,290294,297,300,303 cited,289 essencefunctionin,46 fourmarksand,157 inKorea,17 SingleVoicedoctrinein,182 SPEand,13,14,34 Wonhyoand,18

Page318

awakeningpracticerealizationtransformation,64,76,241 awareness, corrective,83,84 likespace,85 natureof,83 originallyexistent,83

B
Barnestone,Willis,287 bhadra(defined),86 bhagavan,67,296 bhumi,160,161,190 defined,300 notyetentered,160 bijas,70,144,204 boatandshore(metaphorofsamsara),127 bodhi,51,54,61,75,76,101,146,147,151,152,162,191,192,194,212,215,220 accomplishmentineliminationoftheTwoHindrances,146 actuallyanillusion,130 asoppositefromdefilement,76 astransformedfromdefilement,54 asultimatefruit,194 establisheddependingonaffliction,130 lacksenlightenmentanddelusion,165 manifestedupontranscendenceofdistinctions,164 practicesencompassedby,138 seedsof,221 bodhicitta,73,84,85,97 Bodhiruci,182 bodhisattva, advanced,160 amongFiveNatures,145,147 amongthethreevehicles,93 beginner,160 compassionof,148,149 differingfromBuddhaintermsofconditioning,84 illusorylevelofreligiousawareness,156 livinginthesecularworld,143 newlyawakened,103 nonattachedcompassionof,143 notyetenteredthebhumis,160 removesdefilement,106,119 unattachedtopersonalviews,114 TwoHindrancesand,146 vehicleof,93 vowof,148,149,226 whohaveenteredthebhumis,161 wisdomof,93 body, asnonarisen,81 illusory,105 bodyandmind, asnonarisen,82 sameasskyflowers,83 BrahmaKings,246 brahmacarya,220 breathobservance,236 Buddha, assentientbeing,116 Buddhanature,39,145 Buddhatrata,14,289 Buddhism, assimilationinEastAsia,48 inconflictwithNeoConfucianism,28 Buswell,Robert,18,287,288,290,298

C
calmabiding. samatha

canonformation,287 capacitiesofpractitioners,294 dullfaculties,91,98,120,237,238 inrealitynotdifferent,152 inferiorfaculties,63,122,134,184,230 middlingfaculties,63,120,122,134,184 sharpfaculties,91,98,99,120,134 superior,62,91,122,184 three,62 castle(parableof),194,195 cataracts(simileof),110 causalstage,74 originallyarisen,84 ceasingmark,157,158 Chach'o. Muhak

chajae,167170,179 defined,166,167 Ch'an,5,6,7,8,22,33,34,36,38 attitudetowardattachmenttowords,31 developmentofideologyin,18 earlywritings,8 mindtomindtransmissionof,30 originsof,6 relationswithHuayen,6 schoolsdistinguishedbyTsungmi,22 transmissionintoKorea,19 seealsoSonandZen. changelessness,111,114 changingmark,157,158 Chaochou,24,39 chayon,166 Chegyonghoeyo,37 Ch'enghao,6,57,287 Ch'engi,6,57,287 Ch'engtaok'o(SongofEnlightenment),6 ch'i(materialforce),204 chi(stopping),52,61 Chian,37

Page319

chieh(realm,world)defined,127 Chienchih,289 Chihi,5 Chihsheng,289 Chihyen,289 ching(book,classic),40 Ch'ingt'u. PureLand Chinsimchiksol,21 Chinul,17,2022,29,34,36,290,291 LiT'unghsanand,29 modernscholarshipon,290 SonKyoconflictand,28 SPEand,2022 viewsonpractice,20 Ch'oenul,37 ChogyeChingakkuksaorok,290 Chogyeschool,3 chong(correction),52 Ch'onghak,37 Ch'ont'ae,19 Choukungtan,291 ChuHsi,6 andlich'ithought,57 ChuangTzu,11,34,291 cheh(enlightenment),40 seealsokak, chunghwa(realizationandtransformation),47 chiintzu,195 cleverviewsseealsoconceptualization,133,138 compassion,72,96,136,137,139,143,147,148,149,152 asconcomitantwithenlightenment,143 askindnessandpity,136 assymbolizedByMaitreya,136 developmentof,140 distinguishedfromattachedlove,143 ofthebodhisattva,143 oftheBuddha,97,138 wisdomand,96 CompilationofExaminationsofandVersesonAncientPrecedents(Sonmunyomsongjip),23 CompilationofYungchiaoftheCh'anSchool(Ch'antsungYungchiachi),8,14,89 completedoctrine,124 concentration,105, seealsosamadhi,samathaandquiescence conceptualization,132 ascauseofself,203 ascyclic,132 asobstacletoenlightenment,127 freedomfrom,83,90 liberatingthemindfrom,89 mistaken,83 conditionedexistence,210, seealsosamskrta, conditioning,84 removalof,73 confession,231,233,237 Confucianism,3,25,28,34,60 Confucius,60,294 consciousness,108,109 Consciousnessonly,17,18,144 containerworld(naturalworld),113 contrivance,46,116,117,222,224,226 correctabiding,52,74,75 correctcontemplation,102,104,122,125 obstructed,128 correctenlightenment,56, seealsoanuttarasamyaksambodhi correctinsight,224 correctthought,104 aspointofdepartureforpractice,101,102,104 seealsowisdomandcorrectcontemplation correctview,102 correctivepractices. curativepractices

craving,136,139,141144 severingof,142 curativepractices,5561 cyclicexistence,42,126,134,139143 actuallynonexistent,130 asconsequenceofFourMarks,157 avoidanceof,142 basedonattachedlove,141 cessationof,138,140,143 mistakenlyperceived,154 rootof,131 severanceofrootof,138

D
defilements, coarse,199,200 subtleandcoarse,199 threesubtleandsixcoarse,154,303 degenerateage,72,74,82 defined,72 truedharmain,214 delusioninregardtoone'sownattainment,213 DemonKings,246 desire,136147,151 abandonmentof,142 asacauseoftransmigration,141 causeofdiscomfort,142

Page320

dharani, defined,76 dharanientrance,75,76 dharma, defined,293 relationshipinmeaningtoli,57 stagesof,214 dharmabody(dharmakaya),73,78,79 dharmadhatu, four,57 dharmapracticeofthecausalstage,7179,82,86,123,146 dhyana,45,180,187189,196,238 applicationsinitiatedwith,188,189 defined,175,176,179 expedientsforremedialentryinto,236 inthesimileofthecastle,195,196 practicedsingly,186 usedinthetwentyfiveapplications,189 DiamondSutra,6,15,23,26,37,40 FourMarksin,208 FourTracesin,45 Kihwaand,29,30 discrimination, adept,183 futilityof,131 discursivethought,132 uselessforrealization,133 seealsoconceptualization, distinctionbetweenworldlingandsagebasedoncorrectness,106,110,111 doubt, asdeepesthindrancetopractice,133 asobstacletoenlightenment,122 characterof,125 removalof,125133 duality, asrelatedtoimpurity,111 dyeingclothes(simileof),232

E
EastAsiandefinitivetexts,8 EighteenDistinctiveCharacteristics,109 EighteenRealms,109,298 eightyfourthousanddharanientrances,109 emptiness,57,292 alsotobeforgotten,71 asacharacteristicofexistence,163 asessence,150 asnatureofenlightenment,178 notabidingin,176 ofdharmas,71 ofmindandbody,176 ofmindandobjects,224 ofself,212 thesameasform,174 viewofasobstruction,177 enlighteningothers,47,54,55 enlightenment,actualized,12,20,47,54,64,96,97,123 equalandchangeless,111 initial. actualized innate,9,10,12,13,20,47,54,55,56,64,97,117,123,130,228 manifestedascompassion,144 notapplicabletopractice,185 originallylacksthought,135 sudden,10,12 suddenvs.gradual,9 unchangingnatureof,93 unchangingpurityof,112 EqualCorrectEnlightenment,97 EqualEnlightenment,208 equality,111 essenceattributesfunction,51,54 essencefunction,1019,21,29,41,51,54,77,288 asmeaningandwords,32 asspringandstreams,31 DiamondSutraand,31 inChinul,20,21,29 inHyujong,35,36 intheAMF,34,293 intheHyonchongnon,28 intitleofSPE,47,51 inunenlightenedpeople,77 metaphorofmanipearland,21 rootsandbranches,113 simileoflamp,113 eternalism,94 avoidingviewof,220 ExcerptsfromtheDharmaCollection,22 expedientmeans,47,53,8790,91,95,99,101,102,118,119,125,133,138,140,168,170,172175,181,183,191,193,194,196,202,219,221,228, 229,237 abandonedafterachievingfreedom,95 defined,90 forthoseofdullfaculties,230 notneededafterenlightenment,97,99 ofbodhisattvas,148 extensivepractices,5462,76 EyeoftheWay,138 eyedisease,128,129

F
faculties. ,capacitiesofpractitioners

faith,67,71,73,124,125,133,134139,153,231,240 arousalof,54 asobjective,77 attainmentof,124,125,138 basisofenlightenment,125 basisofpractice,134 impededbydoubt,125 levelof,158,160

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perfectedasnirvana,138 taughtbyMajusri,86 faithunderstanding,56,61,71 levelof,58 meaningof,58 falseconceptualization,81,132 falseteachers,162 Fatsang,289 filialpiety(hsiao),10 fingerpointingtothemoon,190,191,197 fireandwood(simileof),95,96 firefly(simileof),131 fivecolors,113 fiveconsciousnesses,109 FiveDestinies,203 fivegati,303 FiveNatures,144148 defined,144 distinguishedthroughTwoHindrances,147 TABLE,148 FiveObscurations,133,183,199,200 ascoarsehindrances,217 fiveorgans,109 FiveRootsofGoodness,302 FiveVirtues,183 fixedviews,94 flowersinthesky. skyflowers fourdirections,simileofdisorientationof,78 FourElements,78,103,104,108,110,120 aschangeless,111 pervadingtherealityrealm,112 FourKindsofFearlessness,109 FourMaladies,116,117,220,222,223,224,226 FourMarks,157,165,170,185 eliminationof,157,158 FourNobleTruths,94 foursages,132 FourTeachingsCourse(sagyokwa),37 FourTraces,45,179,198213,217 accordingtoThichNhatHanh,303 ignoranceof,210 subtletyof,211 FourTypesofUnobstructedWisdom,109 fruition,158,161 levelof,158

G
GangesRiver,116,163 garbha,67,68,121 defined,68,121 GenuineTeacher,46,146,147,159,214,215,216,220,221,224,226 avoidingemotionalreactionstoward,215 careinseeking,149 defined,304 finding,220 freefromFourMaladies,222 interactingwith,224 meeting,146 needfor,214 showingrespectto,221 vowingtoseek,149 goingupstreamandreturningtothesource,113 goldore(simileof),43,130,135 gradualpractice,87,89,120 ascontrastedwithsudden,193 gradualteaching,99 forthoseofdullfaculties,98 gradualism,9 Samantabhadraand,58 greatness, ofattributes,75,76 ofessence,76 offunction,75,76 Gregory,Peter,38,288,289

H
HamhoTukt'ong. Kihwa

Hanh,ThichNhat,303 HeartSutra,292 hellbeing,142 heterodoxnature,147 Hinayana,93,305 hindrance, byFiveObscurations,133 bytheknown,44,131,144146 coarse,217 denseandlight,147 inregardtoprinciple,145 ofdefilement,44,131,145 ofdiscursivethought,133 ofintellectualunderstanding,145 phenomenal,144146 subtle,208 seealsoTwoHindrancesandnoetichindrance Hoeamsa,25,26 hornsonarabbit,151 hotwatermeltingice(simileof),206209 Hotsetsung,15 Hsitz'uchuan,294 hsiaojen,195 Hsiaotsung,16,290 Hsinhuayenchinglun,20 Hsancheh. Yungchia

Hsantsang,145 Hsntzu,288

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Huangpo,302 Huayen,3,58,13,18,57 andCh'an,6,8 Chinuland,29 earlydevelopmentof,5 intheSPE,22,33 Tsungmiand,15 Huayenching,5,6,15,19,23,35,41,64,290 andtheAMF,20 inKorea,17 inthelaterChoson,37 meaningoftitle,64 SPEand,33,35,64 Huineng,6,23,287,291 hungryghost,142 Hwansong. Chian

Hwaom,6,34,64,240 assimilationintoSon,6 relationtoandSon,17, influenceofinKorea,36 seealsoHuayen Hwaomgyong. Huayenching Hwaomnonchoryo,29 Hyegun(Naong),23,24,26 Hyesim,23,290,291 Hyonchongnon,28,162,291 Hyujong,17,35,36,292

I
IChing,10,34,288 cited,59,60 iching(scripturesofdoubtfulauthenticity),7 icchantika,145,194 assimilartosuddenpractitioner,194 ignorance,42,79,80 asbodyandmind,203 asdisorientation,78 asregardingtheselftobereal,79 beginningless,98 conversionintowisdom,153 defined,78 enhancedbyagitation,183 firstappearanceof,203 inoppositiontowisdom,153 innate,123 lackinginsubstance,80,81 notdifferentfromsuchness,162 original,13 penetratedbywisdom,84 illumination,77 marvelous,78 ofthecorrect,78 illusion,8894 arisingfromenlightenment,99 asbaseless,92 asfixationofviews,94 cessationof,42,9294,98,105 eliminationof,107 freedomfrom,90,101 reversionto,97 separationfrom,95,107 subjectiveandobjective,89 useoftospeakofenlightenment,92 usedtoremedyillusion,8895,97 vanishingof,92 illusoryfilth,105107,111,119 asunenlightenedcondition,109 becomingawareof,110 removalof,106,110 illusorysamadhi,100,102 Imje(Linchi),23,25 improvementofothers,52,56,58,61 impurity,111 indeterminatenature,147 initialenlightenment,56 innateenlightenment, defined,294 seealsoenlightenment innerworldling. insight,139 intelligence,183 interpenetration,28,53 ofbeginningandendofthepath,59 worldling

J
jen(altruism),10,162

K
Kaiyanshihchiaolu,289 kak(enlightenment),47,54,55 kalyanamitraseealsoGenuineTeacher,305 kanhwa,23 Kaotzu,288 karma,142,199,203,208210,239 creationof,142 defined,198,199 Kasyapa,66 Keel,HeeSung,290 Kihwa,17,2435,291 analysisoftherelationshipofthewordedandwordlessteachings,29,30,31 becomesroyalteacher,27 Chinuland,28 conversiontoBuddhism,25 death,27 defenseagainstNeoConfuciancriticisms,27,28 DiamondSutraand,30,31 earlylife,25 firstawakening,26 itinerantperiod,26 literarycharacterofhisworks,34 majorworks,27,2829 oncorrectingthescriptures,3133 pilgrimagetoOdaesan,26 receivesname,26 secondawakening,26 SonKyoconflictand,

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28 SPEand,33 thirdawakening,26 Tsungmiand,33 kindness,136,137 Kisillonso,157 klesa,76 koan. kong'an

kong'an,24,36,39 mu,39 Kumgangsammaegyong. Vajrasamadhisutra

Kumgangsammaegyongnon,17 kwang(extensive),47,53,56 kyo(doctrinalBuddhism),28 kyong(sutra)seealsoching,48 Kyonghan,23,24

L
lamp(simileof),86,110113 language,ontologicalstatusintheDiamondSutra,29 Lankavatarasutra,6,38 levels,distinctionsin,1579 distinctionsbetweensentientbeings,bodhisattvasandbuddhas,155 inrealitynodistinctionsin,156 li(principle),6,293 defined,57 LiChi,10,288 LiT'unghsan,28,290 liaoi/youi,65 life,asoneoftheFourTraces,202,206 lifeanddeath,80,81,126 asnonarisen,81,82 sameasskyflowers,83 seealsosamsara Linchi,302 LinchischoolinKorea,23 lishih(principlephenomena),12 lishihwuai,6 Liutsutanching. PlatformSutra

LotusSutra,5,93,296 Luk,Charles,37,38,223,290,292,304,305 LunY,seeAnalects

M
Mahaparinirvanasutra,16 Maitreya,chapteroverview,43 comparedtoSakyamuni,136 defined,136 maladies(ofmeditation). maju,70 Majusri,71 chapteroverview,42 defined,70 symbolofwisdom,58 teacherofsuddenenlightenment,41 manoconsciousness,115,299 manipearl,213,106,107,113 asessencefunctionmetaphor,21 defined,106 Kihwa'sexplanationof,107 MatrixoftheTathagata(tathagatagarbha),82,84 Matsu,19 meditation,analytical,173 asillusion,1745 maladies,218,2224 quiescent,171 retreats,229 threemaintypes,169179 threesingleapplications,186 twentyfiveapplications,185192 meditationseesamatha,samapatti,samadhi,dhyana Mencius,8,10,11,288 MercuryandOrion(simileof),117 mind, asnonarisen,81 cyclic,131 dependentonSixObjects,104 illusory,92,93,105 ofneitherselectingnorrejecting,116 ofnonduality,115 originalpurity/impurity,8 originallywithoutanxiety,159 purifiedbyenlightenment,108 samsaric,126 true,79 MindMirror,139 mindking,150 mirror, simileofmultiplereflections,172 simileofpolishing,94,105,106,172,234 mistakenconceptualization,83 mistakenteachers,147 mistakenviews,75 moon,mistakenlyperceivingtwo,42,79 moraldiscipline. sila MostExcellentofWorthies,chapteroverview,46 moxibustion,205 mukong'an,24 Muhak,24,25,291 FourMaladies

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mutualinterpenetration,288 Muyom,19

N
naturalism,46,117,223,224,226 maladyof,222 neglectedworthy,303 NeoConfucianism,6,27,28 riseinKoryoandChoson,28 NeoTaoism,11 newbornbabe,11 nihilism,82,94,224 avoidingviewof,220 NineMountainschools,19 nirmanakaya,73 nirvana,116,117,203,222 accomplishmentintheeliminationoftheTwoHindrances,146 asawarenessofnonarising,138 asultimatefruit,194 attachmentto,211 detachmentfrom,114 establishedbasedonsamsara,130 likelastnight'sdream,116 notdifferentfromsamsara,55,115,116 onlyperceivedthroughignorance,128 originallynonexistent,129 sameascessation,1289 noetichindrance,1447 subdued,147 nomindseealsonothought,115,135,147 nonabiding,114 nonarising,80 nonduality,114,117,153,163 actinginaccordancewith,115 equivalenttopurity,111 inthefacultyofvision,1145 ofthenatureofPerfectEnlightenment,114 resultantofnihilation,116 nonenlightenment,79 nonhindrance,168 attainmentof,179 nonillusion,105 nonobstructionbetweenindividualphenomena. shihshihwuai nonobstructionbetweenprincipleandphenomena. nothoughtseealsonomind,132 lishihwuai

O
Okahae,30,31,291 object, eliminatingtheviewof,107 freedomfromviewof,63 obstruction, byone'sunderstanding,160 toenlightenmentatthelevelofouterworldling,159 toenlightenmentatthelevelofsage,161 toenlightenmentatthelevelofworthy,160 OceanSealSamadhi,192 oilandflame,simileof,86 onelegraisedbythecraneinthedeepmarsh,149 originalbuddhahood,130 seealsoenlightenment:innate, originalenlightenment. enlightenment:innate originallyarisencausalstage,77,84 originallyexistentawareness,83 outerworldling. worldling

P
Paeg'un. Kyonghan

pang(curative),47,52,54,56 meaningof,52 seealsoexpedientmeans paramarthasatya,57 paramitas,51,61,75,76 paratantrasvabhava,80 parikalpitahsvabhava,80 parinispannasvabhava,80 Park,SungBae,59,288,289 P'eihsiu,302 penance,231,232,237 penetration(t'ong),32 pent'i,11 PerfectEnlightenmentBodhisattva,chapteroverview,46 PerfectVoice,169,182 permeation,ofsuchness,154 person,asoneoftheFourTraces,202,205,208 phenomenalhindrance,144,146 generationofsamsaraand,147 pity,136,137,143 PlatformSutra,6,8,9,12,20,36,40,287,290 andsudden/gradualenlightenment,22 andwordlessteaching,30 pliancy,168,174,179,2324,239 asproductofthreekindsofmeditation,178 attainedthroughconfession,231 compassionate,173,174,

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179,235 defined,167 producedbydhyana,175,178,237 producedbysamatha,171,172,235 producedfromsamapatti,173 Pongamsa,27 Popjippyorhaengnokchoryopyongipsagi. Pou. T'aego ExcerptsfromtheDharmaCollection

power(defined),166 PowerandVirtueUnhindered,chapteroverview,44 practice,295 sillusory,88 asrelatedtounderstanding,86 distinctionsinlevel,15463 originallyempty,89 taughtbySamantabhadra,86 praja,192,298 asoneoftheThreePractices,192 astransformedfromignorance,54 prajaparamita,41 prasrabdhiseealsopliancy,167 pratityasamutpada,301 pratyekabuddha,92,93,131,145,176 amongFiveNatures,145 andtheTwoHindrances,146 notqualifiedasGenuineTeacher,220 precepts. sila

propriety(li),10 provisionalstages,95,96 needfor,91 Pulgaksa,24 PureLand,5,17,72 notdifferentfromhell,55,162 spreadinEastAsia,5 puremind,75 PureWisdom,chapteroverview,44 PurifierofAllKarmicHindrances,chapteroverview,45 purity,110,113,114,192,199,234 aslackofattachment,110 permeatingtheobjectiverealm,108 permeatingtheuniverse,110 pervadingthesensefaculties,108 understandingofasobstruction,161

Q
quiescence,68,105,168,1715,178,1879,192,234,236,238 applicationsinitiatedwith,187 inthesimileofthecastle,195 nonattachmentto,177,178 practicedsingly,186 remedialentryinto,234 transcended,176 quiescenceseealsosamatha,172

R
raft(simileof),191 Rahula,296 realityrealm(dharmadhatu),6,60,64,74,82,84,85,100,1124,120,159,162,163,192,236 oceanlikewisdomof,163 realizationtransformation,58,61,62,64,241 meaningof,58 retreat,229,2313,238 abidinginforthreemonths,232 preparingfor,231 righteousness(i/ui),60 risamuae. lishihwuai

rollofthread,simileof,99 rootsandbranches,10

S
sage,60,110,114,153,161 consciousnessof,182 defined,295,306 differentfromworldling,68 functionofenlightenmentin,54 levelof,153,158 notdifferentfromworldling,100,106,114 sagyokwa,37 Sakyamuni,292 comparedtoMaitreya,137 samadhi,68,118,139,180,192,235,298 asequivalenttosamatha,104 asoneoftheThreePractices,192 defined,68 definedassamapatti,173 exactlyattained,67 samanta(defined),86 Samantabhadra,chapteroverview,42 symbolismof,58 teacherofgradualpractice,41 samapatti,45,174,175,1879,196,238 applicationsinitiatedwith,187,188 defined,173 expedientsforremedialentryinto,235 inthesimileofthecastle,195 nonattachmentto,177 practicedsingly,186 transcendedbydhyana,176

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samatha,5,14,45,103,104,105,118,1725,180,187,189,192,196,232,235,238,289 applicationsinitiatedwith,186,187 asinitialmeditationpractice,104 defined,103,172 exampleofpracticeof,103 expedientsforentryinto,233 inthesimileofthecastle,195 practicedsingly,186 remedialentryinto,234 sambhogakaya,73 SamgaKwigam,35,36 samyaksambodhi,59 Sanlun,4 sasamuae.(nonobstructionbetweenindividualphenomena) Satyasiddhi,4 samsara,44,92,116,117,127,129,130,203,204,222 andphenomenalhindrance,144 asactuallynonexistent,81 asoppositefromnirvana,76 asrelatedtocraving,143 characteristicsof,127 definedbytheBuddha,126 difficultyescaping,126 empoweredbyattachedlove,141 fragmentary,92 freedomfrom,85 hatredof,211 likelastnight'sdream,116 notdifferentfromnirvana,55,115,116 nothating,114 ofmiraculoustransformation,92 onlyperceivedthroughignorance,128 originallynonexistent,129 phenomenalhindranceand,147 sameasarising,128 sameasarisingofskyflowers,129 simileoffirewheel,126,127 seealsocyclicexistence, samskrta,203,204,207,210 defined,303 secondmoon,simileof,78,79 seeds. bijas shihshihwuai

selectingandrejecting,1157,1267 self, asoneoftheFourTraces,202,205,207 emptinessof,212 hatredof,211 loveof,211 nonexistentinthenature,203 selfimprovement,52,57,58,61 seealsoimprovementofothers selfenlightenment,47,54,55 sentientbeing, asanillusorystageofreligiousawareness,156 asdifferentfromBuddha,73,92 asequaltoBuddha,116,122 asoneoftheFourTraces,202,205,206,208 assynonymforworldling,208 levelof,156 ofdullfaculties,237 sameasBuddha,68 trappedinconditioning,203 sexualdesire,141 Shantao,5 Shaokung,291 shih(phenomena),6 shih(world,generation)defined,127 Shihching,300 shihshihwuai,6,113,114,235 Shim,JaeRyong,290 sila(morality,discipline),104,115,192,298 asinitialpractice,105 asoneoftheThreePractices,192 Simmunhwajaengnon,17 SingleVehicle,155 SingleVoice,182 sixcoarsedefilements,154 SixDestinies,92,93,96 afflictionsof,93 sixfaculties,103 pervadingtherealityrealm,112 SixObjects,78,104,108,120 defined,78 sixorgans,109 SixPerfections,94 skandhas,159 skyflowers,42,7885,88,93,98,116,117,128,132 causedbyeyedisease,129 simileusedbyChinul,21 Smith,BarbaraHerrnstein,287 Son, asharmonizedwithKyo,32 earlyformationof,19 Hwaomand,17,29 Imjeinfluenceon,23 influencedbyTsungmi,20 literatureintheChoson,23 oppositionwithKyo,28,29 relationshipwithKyo,35 Yungchia'sinfluenceon,23 seealsoCh'anandZen SongofEnlightenment,6,8,14 Son'gaKwigam,36

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Songgyun'gwan,25 Sonmunyomsongjip,23 SosanTaesa,35 Soyodangjip,37 space, akasa SPE, alternativenamesfor,243 AMFand,13,14,19,34 andHuayen,22 ascorruptedtext,34 asinnateenlightenmenttext,34 aspartofthesagyokwa,37 asperformativediscourse,40 authorshipof,289 categorizationofchapters,42 Chinuland,202 Ch'oenuland,37 contentoverview,406 explanationoftitle,40,41 generalcontentof,3 Huayenchingand,15,19,64 Hyesimand,23 Hyujongand,35,36 inKorea,1635 inKoreaafterChinul,23,28,29,32,33,34 inKoreaduringtheChoson,35,36,37 inT'aego,24 intheWest,39,40 influenceinJapan,3 Kihwa'sevaluationof,33 meritsofstudyingandpracticing,244 modernscholarship,37,38 oninnateenlightenment,20 onsuddengradualenlightenment,22 protectionofbysupernaturalbeings,246 T'aegoand,24 Tsungmiand,1416 Uich'omand,37 sravaka,92,93,131,132,145 amongFiveNatures,145 andtheTwoHindrances,146 avoidanceofview,232 avoidanceofviews,232 meritsof,131 sri,70 Srimalasutra,93 stagesofpractice,87,101,118 stopping,maladyof,117,223,224,226 storeconsciousnessseealsoalayavijnana,145,212 subject,eliminatingtheviewof,107 freedomfromviewof,63 subject/object, eliminatingviewof,55,58 nonexistenceof,156 subtledefilements,199 suchness,51,61,75,76,116 astheoppositeofchange,76 notdifferentfromignorance,162 undergoespermeation,154 suddenenlightenment,9,10,12,20,22,33,34,40,164,194 capacityfor,41 suddenteaching,9,98,99,243 andtheHuayenching,65 ascontrastedwithgradual,193,194 asrelatedtoinnateenlightenment,9 Majusriand,41,58 peoplewithcapacityfor,95 withoutstages,91,95,97,99 sudden/gradual,99 enlightenmentinthePlatformSutra,22 Sumeru,131,132 sunyata,9,80,107 asrelatedtoakasa,108 relationshipinmeaningtoli(principle),57 Suramgamasutra(SutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhi),8,37,38292 cited,96, SPEand,14,15 sutra,296 defined,41,48,65 etymologyof,48 SutraofAdamantineAbsorptionseeVajrasamadhisutra SutraoftheHeroicMarchSamadhiseeSuramgamasutra sutras,ancienttransmissionof,31 moderncurriculuminKorea,37 potentialforerrorin,32 studiedbyChanandSonmasters,39

T
Tachihtulun,5 tae(great),51 Taegakkuksamunjip,19 T'aego,23,24 T'aejo,27 T'aenung,37 Tahui,290 tao,60 lackinginshape,58 relationshipinmeaningtoli,57 TaoTeChing,10,11,34,288,297 cited,300 Taoch'an,289 Taoism,3,10,34,46 Tashengch'ihsinlun. Tathagata,defined,68 seeAwakeningofFaith

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tathagatagarbha,9,11,18,82 Tech'ing,16,37 tendirections,defined,69 TenFetters,94 TenPowers,109,298 textualcorrectionsbyKihwa,74,87,89,91,109,124,126,129,159,162,190,191,192,201,206,207,211,214,221,227,232,233,241 thief(simileof),211 thirtysevenaidstoenlightenment,109 threecapacities,53,62,63,120,184 seealsocapacitiesofpractitioners,122 ThreeEvilDestinies,142 threegreatnesses,76,77,293 threekindsofadornment,150 threekindsofmeditation,expediententryinto,237 ThreePoisons,94,152,168 threepowers,60 threepractices(sila,samadhi,praja),10,104,192,298 threesubtledefilements,154 threetypesofmeditation,237 ThreeVehicles,92,96,155 T'ient'ai,3,5,8 Toui,19 transmigration,80,126 escapefrom,84 inrealitynonexistent,81 seealsosamsara, TreatiseonAwakeningMahayanaFaith. seeAwakeningofFaith trikaya,73 truebody,79 TrueManofNoStatus,194,302 Tsungmi,15,19,22,33,34,38,41,289,290,302,305 influenceonKoreanBuddhism,20 onfourmarks,157 onthreelevelsofcapacity,62 SPEand,15,16 t'ungta,10 Tushun,289 TusitaHeaven,136 TwelveLoci,108,298 TwelvefoldConditionedOrigination,94 TwentyfiveKindsofExistence,109 twentyfivemeditationapplications,18596 choosingthecorrectapplication,193 Kihwa'ssimileofthecastle,194,195 TwoHindrances,44,131,144,145,146,152 basedonignorance,147 permanentlyextinguished,147 subdued,146 twotruths,defined,90 TwoVehicles,93,149,150,208,226,227,232 amongFiveNatures,147 notyetfreefromsubjectivity,204 tobeavoidedbybodhisattvaaspirants,150 trappedintheunconditioned,203 wisdomof,93 tzujan,166 tzutsai,166

U
Uich'om,37 Uich'on,18,19,290 Uisang,17 uncarvedblock,11 understanding,86 understandingpracticerealizationtransformation,64 UniversalEnlightenment,chapteroverview,45 UniversalVision,chapteroverview,43 upayakausalya,seealsoexpedientmeans,47

V
vajra,defined,121 Vajracchedikasutra Vajragarbha, chapteroverview,43 defined,121 Vajrasamadhisutra,3,8,18,19 Vajrawarriors,245 Vasubandhu,144 Venus,metaphorofappearanceof,97 vicara,301 Vimalakirtinirdesasutra,38 vipasyanaseealsosamapatti,5,14,45,173,289 virtue(defined),166 vitarka,301 DiamondSutra,

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VoiceofDiscernment,chapteroverview,45 vow(ofthebodhisattva),148,149,225

W
Wangpi,288 waterwaves,simileof,14,94 weiching(spuriousscriptures),7 Weich'eh,289 wisdom,96,210 ascontrastedwithkarma,208 ascorrectthought,104 aspointofdepartureforpractice,88 assamapatti,173 assynonymouswithnature,210 compassionand,96 corrective,56 enhancedbykindness,136 illusory,174 inoppositiontoignorance,153 notbeingconfusedaboutwhatiscorrect,208 ofbodhisattva,93 relationtoconcentration,105 roleofinpractice,70,71 synonymouswithcontemplation,105 wisdomeye,139,140 Woljongsa,26 won(round,perfect),47,48,5662 meaningof,53 Wonhyo,17,18,290 fourmarksand,157 worldling,60,114 accordancewithenlightenednature,159 consciousnessof,182 defined,295 differentfromsage,68 functionofenlightenmentin,54 great,94,104,115 inner,92,208 notdifferentfromsage,100,106,114,115outer,92,158,160,208 worthy,60 defined,295,306 levelof,153,158,160,161 severanceofobstructions,153 specificobstructionstoenlightenment,160 Wumen,39 Wushih,289 wuwei,223

Y
YanagidaSeizan,38,304,305 YiSonggye,25 yinandyang,233 yo(penetrate,know),48 Yogacara,44,145 Yolban'gyongchong'yo,17 Yonbongsa,26 YongwoldangTaesamunjip,37 yan(round,perfect)seealsowon,40 Yuil,37 Yungchia,7,8,14,21,23 influenceonSon,23 Kyonghanand,24

Z
Zen,3,5,17,39 aspureexperience,39 Japanese,39 SPEand,38 Western,39 seealsoCh'anandSon