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- Hydraulics of Spillways and Energy Dissipators - R.M.khatsuria
- EM25 Stilling Basins
- energy dissipator
- Structural Design of Energy Dissipators for Spillways
- Detailed Open Channel Hydraulics
- USBR Small Dams
- Stilling basins
- 2.2 Guidelines for Hydraulic Design of Small Hydro Plants
- Part 2H - Settling Basin.doc
- Design of Concrete Gravity Dam
- CVE471 Lecture Notes 4 - Spillways
- Hydraulic Flow Calcualtion
- Ogee spillway design
- Final Bulletin
- Hydraulic Design of Spillways
- CE404 03 Stilling Basins
- USBR Types Stilling Basins
- Hydraulic Design of Spillways - EM 1110-2-1603
- Spillway Design
- 51691375 Design Note on Surge Shaft

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CHAPTER 18

C. Y. Wei and James E. Lindell

Harza Engineering Company Chicago, Illinois.

18.1 INTRODUCTION

Stilling basins and energy dissipators are usually provided in conjunction with development of spillways, outlet works, and canal structures. It is often necessary to perform hydraulic model studies of individual structures to be certain that these energy dissipating devices will operate as anticipated. A relatively large volume of data is available from many laboratory and field studies performed in the past (Blaisdell, 1948; Bowers and Toso, 1988; Bowers and Tsai, 1969; Chadwick and Morfett, 1986; Chaudhry, 1993; Chow 1959; French, 1985; George, 1978; Hendreson, 1966; International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), 1987; Novak et al., 1990; Peterka, 1964; Robert son et al., 1988; Senturk, 1994; Toso and Boweis, 1988; U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), 1974, 1987; Vischer and Hager, 1995, 1998). Based on the results of many intensive studies, in 1958, A. J. Peterka (1964) of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published a summary report of USBRS studies entitled Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators, Engineering Monograph No. 25. Since then, this publication has been referenced widely within the hydraulic engineering community and still is one of the best references on this subject available today. Energy dissipators are used to dissipate excess kinetic energy possessed by flowing water. An effective energy dissipator must be able to retard the flow of fast moving water without damage to the structure or to the channel below the structure. Vischer (1995) classified various types of energy dissipators by their features as: (1) by sudden expansions, (2) by abrupt deflections, (3) by counterflows, (4) by rough walls, (5) by vortex devices, and (6) by spray inducing devices. The stilling basins and energy dissipators discussed in this chapter are related to energy dissipation by expansion and deflection. There are two basic types of energy dissipators. They are hydraulic jump-type dissipators and impact-type dissipators. The hydraulic jump type energy dissipators dissipate excess energy through formation of highly turbulent rollers within the jump. The impacttype dissipators direct the water into an obstruction that diverts the flow in all directions and generates high levels of turbulence and in this manner dissipates the energy in the flow. In other cases, the flow is directed to plunge into a pool of water where the energy

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18.2

Chapter Eighteen

(a)

(b) Exhibit 18.1: Wanapum project, Washington (a) General view of the spillway in operation. (b) Layout of the spillway and stilling basin.

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is diffused and dissipated. The impact-type energy dissipators include check drops and vertical drops, baffled outlets, baffled aprons, and vertical stilling wells. Generally, the use of an impact-type energy dissipator results in smaller and more economical structures.

Using six test flumes, USBR conducted model studies for five stilling basin designs. The results are summarized and presented in the Engineering Monograph No. 25 mentioned above (Peterka, 1964). In Basin I tests, all test flumes were used and the test data obtained provides basic hydraulic information concerning hydraulic jumps on a horizontal apron. The Type II basin was developed for high dam and earth dam spillways and large canal structures where the approach velocity is high and the corresponding Froude number exceeds 4.5. Type III stilling basin is suitable for general canal structures, small outlet works, and small spillways where the approach velocity is moderate or low and does not exceed 5060 ft/s (1518 m/s) and the unit discharge is less than 200 ft3/s/ft (18 m3/s). For smaller canal structures, outlet works, and diversion dams where the approach Froude number is relatively low (between 2.5 and 4.5) and the heads of the structures do not exceed 50 ft (15 m), Type IV stilling basin may be used. However, the jumps in the basin may be unstable and alternative design such as the modified Type IV basin may be considered. To achieve greater structure economy for high dam spillways, Type V stilling basin with sloping apron may be considered. Photos of several stilling basin in operation are given in Exhibits 17.2, 17.4, 18.1, and 18.2.

18.2.1 General Hydraulic Jump Basin (Basin I) The basic elements and characteristics of a hydraulic jump on horizontal aprons (Fig. 18.1) is provided to aid designers in selecting more practical basins such as Basins II, III, IV, V, and VI. Jump occurs on a flat floor with no chute blocks, baffled piers or end sill in the basin. Usually, it is not a practical basin because of its excessive length. For a highvelocity flow down a spillway chute with known terminal velocity (Fig. 18.1) and depth entering the basin, the required tail water depth, the length of jump, and loss of energy can be determined based on the curves provided in Fig. 18.2ae.

18.2.2 Stilling Basins for High Dam and Earth Dam Spillways and Large Canal Structures (Basin II) This stilling basin was developed for use on high spillways, large canal structures, and so forth for approach Froude numbers above 4.5. With chute blocks and dentated end sill, the jump and basin length can be reduced by about 33 percent. The basic design features of Basin II stilling basin are given in Fig. 18.3a. For preliminary designs, the curves for estimating required tailwater depth, and length of jump are given in Figures 18.3b and c. The water surface and pressure profiles can be determined based on Fig. 18.3d and e. The water surface profile in this basin can be closely approximated by a straight line making an angle a (jump angle) with the horizontal. This line can also be considered as a pressure profile. The USBR guidelines for designing this type of stilling basins are given as follows:

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18.4

Chapter Eighteen

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(a)

(b)

(c) Exhibit 18.2 Mayfield hydroelectric project, Washinton (a) Layout of the spillway including flip bucke. (b) General view of the spillway and the stilling pool (c) General view of the spillway and stilling pool.

18.6

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.1 Curves for velocity entering stilling basins from 0.8:1 to 0.6:1 steep slopes.(From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.2 Basic hydraulic jump basins on horizontal aprons. (Basin I) (From Peterka, 1964)

18.8

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.3 Stilling basins for high dam and earth dam spillways and large canal structures. (Basin II)(From Peterka, 1964)

1.

Determine velocity V1 of flow entering the jump. Figure 18.1 may be used. This chart represents a composite of experience, computation, and a limited amount of experimental information obtained from prototype tests on Shasta and Grand Coulee Dams. The chart provides a fair degree of accuracy for chute having slopes of 0.8:1 or steeper, where computation is a difficult and arduous procedure. The asymptotic nature of the terminal velocity curves is also depicted in Fig. 18.1. For a constant head of 2.5 ft (0.8m) on the spillway crest, the terminal velocity does not increase significantly (from 51 ft/s or 15.5 m/s to 53 ft/s or 16.2 m/s) as the vertical distance (fall) from the reservoir level to stilling basin floor increases from 200 to 600 ft (61183 m). Set apron elevation to utilize full conjugate tail water depth. Add a factor of safety if needed. A minimum margin of safety of 5 percent of tailwater depth (D2) is recommended. Exercise caution with effectiveness of the basin at lower values of the Froude number (V1 / (gD1)1/2) of 4 or lower. D1 is the depth of the flow entering the basin. V Determine the length of basin using the curve shown in Fig. 18.3c. Use the depth of flow entering the basin, D1 as the height of chute blocks. The width and spacing should be equal to approximately D1 but can be varied to avoid fractional blocks. A space equal to D1/2 is preferable along each side of wall to reduce spray and maintain desirable pressures. As shown in Fig. 18.3a, set the height of the dentated sill equal to 0.2D2 and the maximum spacing approximately 0.15D2. For narrow basins, the width and spacing may be reduced but they should remain equal. It is not necessary to stagger the chute blocks with respect to the sill dentates. It is recommended that the sharp intersection between chute and basin apron be replace with a curve of reasonable radius of at least 4D1 when the chute slope is 1:1 or greater. Chute blocks can be incorporated on the curve surface as readily as on the plane surfaces. The chute slope (0.6:12:1) does not have significant effect on the stilling basin action unless it is nearly horizontal. Following the above rules should result in a safe, conservative stilling basin for spillways up to 200 ft (60 ms) high and for flows up to about 500 (ft3/s/ft) [46.5 (m3/s/m)] basin width, provided that jet entering the basin is reasonably uniform both as to velocity and depth. For greater falls, larger unit discharges, or possible asymmetry, a model study of the specific design is recommended.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8.

18.2.3 Short Stilling Basins for Canal Structures, Small Outlet Works, and Small Spillways [Basin III and the St. Anthony (SAF) Basin] For structures carrying relatively small discharges at moderate velocities, a shorter basin having a simpler end sill may be used if baffled piers are placed downstream from the chute blocks (Fig. 18.4). In this section, stilling basins for smaller structures in which velocity at the entrance to the basin are moderate or low ( up to 5060 ft/s or 1518 m/s) and discharges of up to 200 ft3/s/ft of width or 18 m3/s/m of width are discussed. The stilling basin action is very stable for this design. It has a large factor of safety against sweepout of the jump and operates equally well for all values of the Froude number above 4.0.

18.10

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.4 Short stilling basins for canal structures, small outlet works and small spillways.(Basin III) (From Peterka, 1964)

This basin should not be used for velocities above 50 ft/s or 15 m/s to avoid potential cavitation damages aginst baffle piers. Instead, Basin II type stilling basin should be considered or hydraulic model studies should be performed. The following USBR guidelines pertain to the design of the Basin III type stilling basin: 1. The stilling basin operates best at full conjugate tail water depth, D2. A reasonable factor of safety is inherent in the conjugate depth for all values of the Froude number and it is recommended that this margin of safety not be reduced. 2. Determine the length of basin using the design curve given in Fig. 18.4c. It is less than one-half the length of the natural jump. It should be noted that an excess of tail water depth does not substitute for basin length or vice versa. 3. Exercise caution with effectiveness of the basin at lower values of the approach Froude number [V1 / (gD1)1/2] of 4.5 or lower. V 4. Height, width, and spacing of chute blocks should equal the average depth of flow entering the basin, or D1. Width of blocks may be decreased, provide spacing is reduced a like amount. Should D1 proved to be less than 8 in or 20 cm, the blocks should be made 8 in or 20 cm high. 5. The height of the baffle piers (Fig. 18.4a) varies with the Froude number and is given in Fig. 18.4d. In narrow structures, block width and spacing may be reduced, provided both are reduced a like amount. A half space is recommended adjacent to the walls. 6. The upstream face of the baffle piers should be set at a distance of 0.8D2 from the downstream face of the chute blocks. This dimension is important. 7. The height of the solid end sill is given in Fig. 18.4d. The slope is 2:1 upward in the direction of flow. 8. It is undesirable to round or streamline the edges of the chute blocks, end sill, or baffle piers. It reduces the effectiveness of the energy dissipation. However, small chamfers on the block edges to prevent chipping of the edges and to reduce cavitation erosion may be used. 9. It is recommended that a radius of reasonable length greater than 4D1 be used at the intersection of the chute and basin apron for slopes of 45 or greater. 10. As a general rule, the slope of the chute has little effect on the stilling basin action unless long flat slopes are involved. 11. Experience indicates that the Type III basin works well for flow less than 200 ft3/s/ft or 18 m3/s/m based on basin width and approach velocity at the entrance of up to 5060 ft/s or 1518 m/s. The St. Anthony Falls (SAF) Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Minnesota had also developed a similar basin for small spillways, outlet works, and small canal structures for approach Froude numbers ranging from 1.7 to 17 (Blaisdell, 1948; Chow, 1959). This basin was developed to achieve about 70 to 90 percent reduction of the jump lengths. This basin is commonly known as the SAF stilling basin (Fig. 18.5). Since the basin is relatively short so that a significant amount of residual energy can still exist downstream from the end sill, the channel reach downstream from the stilling basin should be allowed to erode until a stable scour depth is reached. Otherwise riprap protection should be provided to minimize scour (Sec. 18.7). The guidelines for designing this basin are summarized as follows (Blaisdell, 1948; Chow, 1959):

18.12

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.5

1.

4.5y2 F10.76 where y2 is the theoretical sequent depth of the jump corresponding to the approach flow depth y1 and F1 is the approach Froude number. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The height of the chute blocks and floor blocks is y1, and the width and spacing are approximately 0.75y1. The distance from the upstream end of the stilling basin to the floor blocks is L/3. L No floor blocks should be placed closer to the side-wall than 3y1/8. The floor blocks should be placed downstream from openings between the chute blocks. The total width of the floor blocks should occupies about 40 to 55 percent of the stilling basin width. The widths and spacings of the floor blocks for diverging stilling basins should be increased in proportion to the increase in stilling basin width at the floor block location. The height of end sill is given by c

1.10

8. 9.

0.07y2.

The depth of tailwater above the stilling basin floor is given by y'2 y'2 y'2 F12 y 120 2 for F1 for F1 F12 y 800 2 for F1 1.7 to 5.5 5.5 to 11.0 11 to 17

0.85y2

1.00

10. The top of the side-wall above the maximum tailwater level to be expected during the life of the structure is given by z y2/3. 11. Wing-walls should be equal in height to the stilling basin side-walls. The top of the wing-wall should have a slope of 1H:1V. V 12. The wing-wall should be placed at an angle of 45 to the outlet center line. 13. The stilling basin side-walls may be parallel for a rectangular stilling basin or they may diverge as an extension of the transition side-walls for a trapezoidal stilling basin as shown in Fig. 18.5. 14. A cutoff wall of nominal depth should be used at the end of the stilling basin. 15. The effect of entrained air should be neglected in the design of the stilling basin.

18.2.4 Low Froude Number Stilling Basins (Basin IV and Modified Basin IV) This stilling basin was developed for canal structures, outlet works, and diversion dams where the approach Froude number of the basin is relatively low (between 2.5 and 4.5)

18.14

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.6 Low Froude number (2.54.5) stilling basin design (Basin IV).(From Peterka, 1964)

and the heads of the structures are about 50 ft (or 15 m). In this case, the jump is not fully developed and unstable and the methods of design discussed previously do not apply. Alternative design and/or wave suppressors or Basin VI type stilling basin with a hanging baffle for energy dissipation may be considered. Guidelines for developing a low Froude number stilling basin (Basin IV) as depicted in Fig. 18.6 are given as follows (Peterka, 1964): 1. A model study of the stilling basin is imperative. 2. Reduction of excessive waves created in the unstable jump is the main problem concerning the design of the stilling basin. 3. A tailwater depth of 10 percent greater than the conjugate depth is strongly recommended. 4. Place as few appurtenances as possible in the path of the flow, as volume occupied by appurtenances helps to create a backwater problem, thus requiring higher training walls. 5. Use Fig. 18.6 to develop the design of the stilling basin. The number of deflector blocks shown in the figure is a minimum requirement. 6. The length of basin can be obtained from Fig. 18.2c. No baffle piers are needed in the basin. 7. The recommended maximum width of the deflector blocks is equal to D1 but 0.75D1 is preferable from a hydraulic standpoint. The ratio of block width to spacing should be maintained as 1:2.5. 8. The extreme tops of the deflector blocks are 2D1 above the floor of the stilling basin. 9. To accommodate the various slopes of chutes and ogee shapes encountered, the horizontal top length of the deflector blocks should be at least 2D1. The upper surface of each block is sloped at 5 in a downstream direction for better operation especially at lower discharges.

10. The addition of a small triangular sill placed at the end of the apron for scour control is desirable. An end sill of the type developed for short stilling basins (Basin III) can be used. The slope of the upstream face of the sill is 2:1 and the height of the sill can be determined based on Fig. 18.4d. 11. Basin IV stilling basin is applicable to rectangular cross sections only to minimize potential waverelated problems. Type IV stilling basin performs effectively in dissipating the energy at low Froude number flows for small canals and for structures with small unit discharges. It is also effective in minimizing wave problems. Based on additional model tests, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) has developed a modified stilling basin for low Froude number approach flows (George, 1978). This stilling basin is suitable for approach flows with Froude numbers ranging from 2.5 to 5.0. The basin is relatively short and is provided with chute blocks, baffle piers, and a dentated end sill as shown in Fig. 18.7a. The guidelines for designing Modified Type IV stilling basin are given as follows (George, 1978):

FIGURE 18.7(a) Low Froude number stilling basin (Modified Basin IV).(From George, 1978)

18.16

Chapter Eighteen

1.

A hydraulic model study is recommended to confirm the design. Erosion tests should be included. Such tests should be made over a full range of discharges to determine erosion potential downstream from the basin and to determine the potential for the abrasive bed materials to move upstream into the basin. Determine the theoretical D2 based on the known unit discharge and the approach flow depth D1.

2.

FIGURE 18.7(b) Design curves for modified Basin IV stilling basin.(From Georges, 1978)

3. 4. 5. 6.

1.05 D2.

3D2 (approximately).

Use Fig. 18.7a to develop the basic dimensions of the basin. Determine the distance X from the chute blocks to the baffle piers. X varies from 1.3 to 0.7 times D2 as the approach Froude number varies from 2.5 to 5.6 as shown in Fig. 18.7b. Determine the distance L1 from the toe of the chute to the upstream face of the end sill from Fig. 18.7b. If (L1 the length of the end sill) is longer than L then the stilling basin should be extended to include the end sill. Set the widths of the baffle piers equal to 0.7D1 and heights equal to 1.0D1. The total number of chute blocks and spaces N = (width 2kW)/W W where k W fractional width of block equal to side clearance, 0.375 total width of stilling basin 0.70D1 k 0.50 width

7. 8. 9.

10. Determine the number of chute blocks and baffle piers by the following equations.

The N value obtained should be rounded to the nearest odd number and then adjust values of W and k should be adjusted. 11. Use 0.2D1 as the top length of the baffle piers. 12. Determine end sill dimensions. height width, W 0.2D2 0.15D2 0.2 height (basin width)/W

(N should be rounded to the nearest odd number and then the value of W should be adjusted)

18.2.5 Stilling Basin with Sloping Apron To achieve greater structural economy, a stilling basin with a sloping apron can be considered. This type of stilling basin is usually used on high dam spillways. It needs greater tail water depth than horizontal apron. The energy dissipation is as effective as occurs in the true hydraulic jump on a horizontal apron. The primary concern in sloping apron design is the tail water depth which is required to move the front of the jump up the slope to the location where the jump is expected to start. It may not be economically feasible to design the basin to confine the entire jump, especially when sloping aprons are used in

18.18

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.8 Stilling basins with sloping aprons. (From Peterka, 1964)

conjunction with medium or high overfall spillways where the rock foundation is in fairly good condition. When shorter aprons are used, the riverbed downstream must act as part of the stilling basin. On the other hand, when the quality of foundation material is questionable, it is desirable to make the apron sufficiently long to confine the entire jump. The total apron length may range from about 40 to 80 percent of the length of jump. The hydraulic jump may occur in several ways on a sloping apron, as depicted in Fig. 18.8. The jump may have its toe form on the slope and the jump itself ends over the horizontal apron (Case B), or ends at the junction of the slope and the horizontal apron (Case C), or the entire jumps forms on the slope (Case D). For practical purposes the action in Cases C and D is the same. Guidelines for the design of sloping aprons are given below: 1. 2. Determine an apron arrangement that will give the best economy for the maximum discharge condition. The first consideration should be to determine the apron slope that will require the minimum amount of excavation, the minimum amount of concrete, or both, for the maximum discharge and tailwater condition. Position the slope so that the front of the jump will form at the upstream end of the slope for the maximum discharge and tailwater condition (Fig. 18.9). It may be necessary to raise or lower the apron, or change the slope entirely. Data obtained from 13 existing spillways are also shown in Fig. 18.9. Each point in the figure has been connected with an arrow to the tan() curve corresponding to the apron slope. The adequacy of the tailwater depth of these spillways can then be evaluated. Use Fig. 18.10 to determine the length of the jump for maximum or other flows. Shorter basins may be used where a solid bed exists. For most installations, an apron length of about 60 percent of the length of jump for the maximum discharge condition should be sufficient. Longer basins are needed only when the downstream riverbed is in very poor condition.

3.

4.

5.

Ascertain that the tailwater and length of basin available for energy dissipation are sufficient for, say 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 capacity. If the tailwater depth is deficient, a different slope or a new position of the sloping portion of the apron should be considered. Horizontal and sloping aprons will perform equally well for high values of the Froude number if the proper tail water depth is provided. The slope of the chute upstream from a stilling basin has no significant effect on the hydraulic jump when the velocity distribution and depth of flow are reasonably uniform on entering the jump. A small solid triangular sill should be provided at the end of the apron to lift the flow as it leaves the apron for scour protection. The most effective height is between 0.05D2 and 0.10D2 and a slope of 3:12:1. Several existing stilling basins with sloping aprons are shown in Fig. 18.11. All stilling basins shown were designed with the aid of model studies.

6. 7.

8.

9. The stilling basin should be designed to operate with as nearly symmetrical flow in the stilling basin as possible to avoid formation of large circulating eddies and transport of riverbed material into the apron area, and the potential undermining of the wing walls and riprap. 10. A model study is advisable where the discharge over high spillways exceeds 500 ft3/s/ft or 46.5 m3/s/m based on the apron width, where there is any form of asymmetry involved, and for the high values of the Froude number where stilling basins become more costly and the performance becomes less acceptable.

FIGURE 18.9 Comparison of existing sloping apron designs with experimental results. (From Peterka, 1964)

18.20

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.10 Jump length in terms of conjugate depth, D2 for stilling basins with sloping aprons.(From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.11(a) Existing stilling basins with sloping aprons.(From Peterka, 1964)

18.22

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.11(b) Existing stilling basins with sloping aprons.(From Peterka, 1964)

18.2.6 Other Types of Stilling Basins Other types of stilling basins that may be considered include: (1) positive step basin, (2) negative step basin, (3) bafflesill basin, (4) baffle-block basin, (5) expanding stilling basin, and (6) bucket stilling basin. Detailed discussions of these basins have been provided by Vischer and Hager (1995). These basins are briefly discussed as follows: 1. Positivestep basin. An upward step of a given height is provided in a prismatic channel. No end sills are included. The required basin length is significantly longer than that of a classical jump basin. 2 Negativestep basin. A downward step is provided. No end sills are included. It requires a slightly longer basin length than the positive step basin. Basins with steps have not been popular because it is easier to use sills or blocks in a horizontal apron than to change the apron elevation at the step section. 3 Bafflesill basin. A weir-type sill is provided to form a basin. The flow over the sill may be submerged or free. The sill is capable of stabilizing the jump in a shorter basin and with lower tailwater than is the classical jump basin. Sills can be economical and effective devices for energy dissipation even without additional appurtenance included. 4. Baffleblock basin. Baffle blocks are normally arranged in one or several rows that are oriented perpendicular to the direction of approach flow. Standard baffle blocks such as the USBR blocks should be used. Baffle blocks are prone to cavitation damage and should not be used for approach velocities above 20 m/s. For velocities between 20 and 30 m/s, a chamfer on the block edges should be provided to reduce the cavitation potential. 5. Expanding stilling basin. There are two types of expanding basins, namely gradually expanding basin and abruptly expanding basin. The gradually expanding basin requires less tailwater depth and can be used for highly variable tailwater. This type of basin is suitable for approach flow with Froude numbers less than 4. Very few basins of this type have been built. An abruptly expanding basin has been studied and reported by Vischer and Hager (Novak et al., 1990). No practical applications have been reported.

18.2.7 Fluctuating Pressures on Stilling Basin Floors When designing a stilling basin to achieve highest possible hydraulic efficiency in terms of energy dissipation, one should also consider the structural aspects of the stilling basin. The effect of transient pressures caused by turbulence in the jump can be significant and should be considered in the design of the structure. Extensive discussions of this subject have been provided by International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD, 1987), Toso and Bowers (1988), and Visher and Hager (1995), and so on. The hydromechanic characteristics and the turbulence level of the jump in a stilling basin depends not only on the relative tailwater level but also on the geometry and the concrete finish conditions of the basin floor and training walls. The pressure fluctuations resulting from intense macro-scale turbulence in the jump must be carefully considered during the design of the structure. The pressure fluctuations vary widely in amplitude at all locations within the jump. The maximum halfamplitude of the fluctuation has been determined to be approximately 40 percent of the mean approach velocity head with a frequency of about 1 Hz. The dominant pulsating components have frequencies between 0 and 10 Hz. When the pressure becomes negative

18.24

Chapter Eighteen

at a point on the apron surface, a dangerous local instability may develop with respect to the uplift pressure at the bottom of the concrete slab. Some projects have experienced high uplift pressures under large areas of the basin floor and resulted in complete floor concrete slabs being torn up (Bowers and Toso, 1988; ICOLD, 1987; Toso and Bowers, 1988). In addition, cavitation, abrasion, and vibration due to intense turbulence and pressure fluctuations can also contribute significantly to the damage of a stilling basin. Based on the model studies of USBR Type II and Type III stilling basins, Toso and Bowers (1988) obtained the following useful conclusions: 1. The pressure fluctuations in the jump tend to approach a definite limit, on the order of 80 to 100 percent of the approach velocity head. This is on the order of 1020 times the root-mean square (rms) of the pressure fluctuation. 2. Addition of chute blocks, intermediate blocks, and end sills did not result in significantly higher maximum negative and positive deviations than those for basins without blocks and sills. The energy dissipation was quicker. 3. Side-wall pressure fluctuations are very significant, and peak at one to two inflow depths above the floor. 4. The longitudinal extent of extreme pressure pulsation in the zone of maximum turbulence is on the order of eight times the inlet flow depth. The lateral extent of a characteristic pulse is approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal extent or 13 times the inlet flow-depth. ICOLD (1987) recommended, as a minimum precaution, that the following two conditions be considered when designing the stilling basin apron: 1. Full downstream uplift pressure applied over the entire area of the floor with basin empty. 2. Full uplift pressure equals 12 percent of the approach velocity head applied under the whole basin, with the basin full. If necessary, the basin floor can be strengthened by providing anchors or using thicker slabs which may be held in place by the side walls. ICOLD (1987) also recommended following structural arrangements to minimize potential uplift damages due to undesirable turbulent flow induced pressure fluctuations. 1. All contraction joints should be fitted with properly located and embedded seals. 2. There should be no drain openings in the training wall inside the basin. However, drain outlets in a dentated sill at the beginning of a stilling basin have performed satisfactorily. 3. Keep the areas of the floor slabs as large as possible. 4. Connect slabs by means of dowels, shear keys, and reinforcement across the joints. 5. Keep horizontal construction joints to a minimum, with dowels across them. 6. If drainage is necessary, keep it well away (11.5 m at least) from the wetted surfaces so that abrasion or cavitation erosion will not make it accessible to the turbulent flow.

For small drops in canals with values of the Froude number between 2.5 and 4.5, a droptype energy dissipator which is in the form of a grating is particularly applicable to reduce wave actions and dissipating energy. The device causes the over falling water jet to separate into a number of long, thin sheets of water which falls nearly vertical into the canal below. It has excellent capability in dissipating energy and eliminating wave problems. Guidelines for developing a drop-type energy dissipator are given as follows (Peterka, 1964):

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1. The device is highly recommended for approach flow with the Froude number below 3.0. 2. The Froude number is computed at the top of the drop. 3. The dissipator consists of a series of steel rails, channel irons, or timber beams in the form of grating installed at the drop (Fig. 18.12). 4. The spacing beams may vary from 2/3 to the full width of the beams. The narrower spacing is more effective. Use the following expression to compute the length of beams: Q L CSN 2gy where Q total discharge (ft3/s or m3/s, C experimental coefficient (dimensionless), S width of a space in feet or meters, N the number of spaces, g the acceleration of gravity (ft/s2 or m/sec2), and y the depth of flow in the canal upstream (ft or m). The value of C is about 0.245. 5. The length of the beams varies from about 2.9 to 3.6 times the depth of the approach flow. 6. The rails or beams may be tilted downward at an angle of 3 or more to provide some self-cleaning capability. It may also be made adjustable and tilted upward to act as a check to maintain a certain level in the canal upstream. However, more frequent cleaning of the device may be required.

A wave suppressor is used to provide greater wave reduction to a proposed structure or an existing waterway. Two types of wave suppressors may be considered. They are raft-type and underpass-type wave suppressors. Both are applicable to most open-channel waterways having rectangular, trapezoidal, or other cross-sectional shapes. Both types may be used without regard to the Froude number. The underpass-type suppressor provides greater degrees of wave reduction but may be less economical than the raft-type.

FIGURE 18.12 Drop-type energy dissipator for small drop canals.(From Pterka, 1964)

18.26

Chapter Eighteen

18.4.1 Raft-Type Wave Suppressors A number of rafts of different designs were tested by USBR (Peterka, 1964). The most effective raft arrangement was found to consist of two rigid stationary rafts 20 ft (6.10 m) long by 8 ft (2.45 m) wide, made from 6- by 8-in timbers, placed in the canal downstream from the stilling basin as shown in Fig. 18.13. The arrangement is also applicable for suppressing waves having a regular period such as wind waves or waves produced by operation of pumps. Guidelines for designing a rafttype wave suppressor are provided as follows: 1. A space should be left between timbers and lighter crosspieces are placed on the rafts parallel to the flow. It creates many open spaces resembling rectangular holes. 2. The rafts should be perforated in a regular pattern and there should be some depth to these holes. 3. The ratio of hole area to total area of the raft may vary from 1:6 to 1:8. 4. The 8 ft (2.5 m) width, W, as shown in Fig. 18.13, is a minimum dimension. W 5. The raft must have sufficient thickness so that the troughs of the waves do not break free from the underside. 6. At least two rafts should be used, and the rafts should be rigid and held stationary. 7. The top surfaces of the rafts are set at the mean water surface in a fixed position so that they cannot move. 8. Spacing between rafts should be at least three times the raft dimension, measured parallel to the flow. Each raft can decrease the wave height about 50 percent.

9. For suppressing waves having regular periods, the second raft should be placed downstream at some fraction of the wave length to maintain its effectiveness. It may be necessary to make the second raft portable for narrow canals.

18.4.2 Underpass-Type Wave Suppressors Based on numerous studies conducted, USBR determined that the most effective wave dissipator to be located downstream from a stilling basin is the short-tube type underpass wave suppressor (Peterka, 1964). When it becomes necessary to make the raft-type wave suppressors adjustable or portable, or a moderate increase in depth in the stilling basin can be tolerated, consideration should be given to the underpass-type wave suppressors. It may be added to an existing structure or included in the original construction. It can be used to prevent wave overtopping of the canal lining or bank erosion due to waves. The structure consists of a horizontal roof placed in the flow channel with a headwall sufficiently high to cause all flow to pass beneath the roof as shown in Fig. 18.14a. Three main factors should be considered when designing an underpass-type suppressor. They are the submergence of the roof, the length of the underpass, and the increase in flow depth upstream of the underpass. The following guidelines may be used to design an underpasstype suppressor: 1. The height of the roof above the channel floor may be set to reduce wave heights effectively for a considerable range of flows or channel stages. 2. The maximum wave reduction occurs when the roof is set 33 percent of the flow depth below the water surface for maximum discharge. The submergence and the percent reduction in wave height becomes less, in general, for smaller-than-maximum discharges. 3. Fig. 18.14c can be used to estimate the wave reduction. The upper curve shown in the figure was obtained from the study conducted for the short tube underpass wave suppressor of the Carter Lake Dam No.1 Outlet Works. The lower curve shows the model test results of the Friant-Kern Canal (Fresno, California) underpass type suppressor for less than maximum discharges with smaller wave heights and shorter periods. The wave period greatly affects the performance of a given underpass. The suppressor provides a greater percentage reduction on short period waves. The wave action below a stilling basin usually has no measurable period and the water surface is choppy and consists of generated and reflected waves. The waves found downstream from hydraulic jumps or energy dissipators usually have a period of not more than 5 s. There is a tendency for the wave period to become less with decreasing discharge. 4. The underpass is most effective when the velocity beneath the underpass is less than about 10 ft/s or 3 m/s and the channel length downstream from the underpass is three to four times the length of the underpass. 5. The minimum length of underpass required depends on the amount of wave reduction considered necessary. For nominal wave reduction to prevent canal lining overtopping or bank erosion due to waves, a length 1.01.5D2 will provide about 60 to 75 percent wave height reduction. For greater wave reduction, a longer underpass is necessary.

18.28

Chapter Eighteen

For wave periods up to about 5 s, an underpass 2.02.5D2 long may provide up to 88 percent wave reduction. Up to about 93 percent of wave height reduction can be achieved by using an underpass 3.54.0D2 long. This length includes a 4:1 sloping roof extending from the underpass roof elevation to the tail water surface. The sloping portion should not exceed one-quarter of the total underpass length and slopes flatter than 4:1 provide better draft tube action and are more desirable. 6. The greatest wave reduction occurs in the first D2 of underpass length, the construction of two short underpasses rather than one may be considered. An additional wave reduc-

tion of 10 percent may be achieved but the extra cost of an additional headwall should be considered. 7. The backwater effect of the underpass can be determined based on Fig. 18.14b. 8. For design purposes, pressures along the underside of the roof may be considered to be atmospheric. The average pressures on the headwall and the downstream vertical wall may be considered as hydrostatic.

This is an impact-type energy dissipator equipped with a hanging-type -shaped baffle, contained in a relatively small boxlike structure, which requires no tail water for successful performance (Fig. 18.15). The energy dissipation is accomplished by flow striking the vertical hanging baffle and being turned upstream by the horizontal portion of the baffle and by the floor, in vertical eddies, and is greater than in a hydraulic jump of the same Froude number. It may be used to substitute Basin IV-type stilling basin for low Froude

FIGURE 18.15 Basic design of an impact-type stilling basin (From Peterka, 1964)

18.30

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.16 Selection of width for an impact-type stilling basin. (From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.17 Comparison of energy losses impact basin and hydraulic jump.(From Peterka, 1964)

number applications as discussed in Sec. 18.2.4. The impact-type stilling basin generally provides greater efficiency than that of a jump on horizontal floor (Fig. 18.17). Based on hydraulic model test results, generalized design rules and procedures have been developed by USBR (Peterka, 1964) and are given below to allow determination of the proper basin size and all critical dimensions for a range of discharges up to 339 ft3/s (9.6 m3/s) and velocities up to about 30 ft/s (9.1 m/s). 1. The use of the impact-type stilling basin discussed in this section is limited to installation where the velocity at the entrance to the stilling basin does not greatly exceed 30 ft/s (9.1 m/s). 2. The basin operates as well whether a small pipe flows full or a larger pipe flows partially full is used. An open channel having a width less than the basin width will perform equally well. 3. Determine the stilling basin dimensions using Figs. 18.15 and 18.16 and Table 18.1, Columns 313 for the maximum expected discharge. For discharges exceeding 339 ft3/s (or 10 m3/s), it may be more economical to consider multiple units side by side. 4. Compute the necessary pipe area from the velocity and discharge. The values in Table 18.1, Columns 1 and 2, are suggested sizes based on a velocity of 12 ft/s (3.7 m/s) and the desire that the pipe run full at the discharge given in Column 3. The relationship between discharge and basin size given in the table should be maintained regardless of the pipe size chosen. An openchannel entrance may be used in place of a pipe. The approach channel should be narrower than the basin with invert elevation the same as the pipe. 5. A moderate depth of tail water will improve the performance although tail water is not a key factor for successful operation. For best operation, set the basin so that maximum tail water does not exceed d g/2. 6. Recommended thickness of various parts of the basin are given in Columns 14-18, Table 18.1. 7. Determine the minimum size of individual riprap protective stones which will resist movement when critical velocity occurs over the end sill. Most of the riprap should consist of the sizes given in Table 18.1, Column 19 or larger. The following empirical equation, which was developed based on studies performed by Marvis and Laushey, and Berry as reported by USBR (Peterka, 1964), may also be used to determine the stone size with reasonable accuracy. Vb 2.6 d

where Vb bottom velocity (ft/s), and d diameter of rock (in). The rock is assumed to have a specific gravity of about 2.65. The accuracy of the equation for velocities above 16 ft/s (4.9 m/s) is not known. 8. The entrance pipe or channel may be tilted downward about 15 without affecting performance adversely. For greater slopes use a horizontal or sloping pipe (up to 15) two or more diameters long just upstream from the stilling basin. Proper elevation of the invert at entrance is maintained as shown in Fig. 18.15.

18.32 Feet and Inches Inches a (7) 33 311 47 53 60 69 74 80 93 129 611 29 13` 110 511 25 10 30 30 100 55 22 10 30 811 411 20 010 30 45 411 54 62 80 45 19 010 30 311 8 9 10 11 12 71 310 17 08 30 36 7 61 34 14 08 26 30 6 51 210 12 06 20 26 6 61/2 61/2 71/2 81/2 91/2 101/2 111/2 41 24 011 06 16 21 6 61/2 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 121/2 121/2 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) b c d e f g tw tf tb tp (17) 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 K Suggested Riprap Size (18) (19) 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 6 4.0 7.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.0 14.0 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF STILLING BASINS AND ENERGY DISSIPATORS

TABLE 18.1

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

18

1.77

21

56

43

74

24

3.14

38

69

53

90

30

4.91

59

80

63

108

36

7.07

85

93

73

124

42

9.62

115

106

80

140

48

12.57

151

119

90

158

54

15.90

191

130

99

174

60

19.63

236

143

109

190

72

28.27

339

166

123

220

Source: From Peterka (1964). Abbreviation: a, ;b, ;c, ;d, ;e, ;f, ;g, ;k, ;tb, ;tf, ;tp, ;tw,. (see Fig. 18.15) ;f t t t *Suggested pipe will run full when velocity is 12 ft/sec or half full when velocity is 24 ft/s. Size be modified for other velocities by Q AV, but relation between Q and basin dimensions shown must be manteined. V For discharge less than 21 ft/s, obtain width from curve of Fig. 18.14. Other dimensions proportional to W; H 3W/4, L 4W/3, d W/6, etc. W W W Use curve of Fig. 18.21 to determine riprap size.

9. The invert of the entrance pipe, or open channel, should be held at the elevation in line with the bottom of the baffle and the top of the end sill, regardless of the size of the pipe selected. 10. If a hydraulic jump is expected to form in the downstream end of the pipe and the pipe is sealed by the incoming flow, install a vent about one-sixth the pipe diameter at any convenient location upstream from the jump. 11. For the best possible operation of basin, use an alternative end sill and 45 wall design as shown in Fig. 18.15. Erosion tendencies will be reduced.

Baffled aprons or chutes have been used in many irrigation projects for being practical and economical. The chute is constructed on an excavated slope, 2:1 or flatter, extending to below the channel bottom. The multiple rows of baffle piers on the chute prevent excessive acceleration of the flow and provide a reasonable terminal velocity. Initial tailwater is not a prerequisite for the structure to be effective. Backfill is placed over one or more rows of baffles to restore the original streambed elevation. It prevents excessive acceleration of the flow entering the channel when scour or downstream channel degradation occur. Through extensive model studies, the hydraulic design of the energy dissipators

18.34

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.19 Recommended baffle pier heights and allowable velocities for baffled chutes (From

Peterka, 1964)

with baffled aprons have been generalized (Peterka, 1964). Basic proportions of a baffled chute are given in Fig. 18.18 and a simplified design procedure has been developed and is outlined as follows: 1. The baffled apron should be designed for the maximum expected discharge, Q. 2. The unit discharge q chute width, W. W Q/W may be as high as 60 ft3/s/ft [or 5.6 m3/s/m] based on

3. Approach velocity, V1, should as low as practical. Use recommended approach velocity (Curve D) shown in Fig. 18.19. 4. The vertical offsets between the approach channel floor and the chute is used to create a stilling pool or desirable V1 and will vary in individual installations. See Fig. 18.20 for examples of approach pool arrangements. Use a short-radius curve to provide a crest on the sloping chute. Place the first row of baffle piers close to the top of the chute no more than 12 inches or 30 cm in elevation below the crest. 5. 6. Use the recommended height for baffled pier Curve B, Fig. 18.19. Baffle pier widths and spaces should be equal and about 1.5 H but not less than H. Partial blocks, width 1/3 H to 2/3 H, should be placed against the training walls in Rows 1, 3, 5, 7, and so forth, alternating with spaces of the same width in Rows 2, 4, 6, and so on. The slope distance (along a 2:1 slope) between rows of baffle piers should be 2H, twice the baffle height H. When the baffle height is less than 3 ft (or 91.5 cm), the row spacing may be greater than 2 H but should not exceed 6 ft or 183 cm. The baffle piers may be constructed with their upstream faces normal to the chute surface.

7.

8.

FIGURE 18.20a Examples of existing baffled chute designs (From Peterka, 1964)

18.36

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.20a Examples of existing baffled chute designs (From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.20b Examples of existing baffled chute designs (From Peterka, 1964)

18.38

Chapter Eighteen

9.

Four rows of baffle piers are required to establish full control of flow. The chute should be extended to below the normal downstream channel elevation and at least one row of baffles should be buried in the backfill.

10. The chute training wall should be three times as high as the baffle piers to contain the main flow and splash. 11. Riprap consisting of (6 to 12-in) (15 to 38-cm) stone should be placed at the downstream ends of the training walls to prevent eddies from working behind the chute. The riprap should not extend appreciably into the flow area.

Riprap stones are placed on the channel bottom and bank downstream of a stilling basin to prevent bank erosion caused by surges and residual energy from the stilling basin to reduce the possible undermining of the structure by the erosive currents. Factors affecting design of the riprap include size or weight of the individual stones, the shape of the large stones, the gradation of the entire mass of riprap, the thickness of the layer, the type of filter or bedding material placed beneath the riprap, the slope of the riprap layer, velocity and direction of currents, and eddy action and waves, etc. Based on published material, laboratory observations and field experience, a design curve (Fig. 18.21) was developed for the determination of the individual stone size to resist a range of velocities (Reference 3). Use the estimated bottom velocity or the average velocity at the end sill of the stilling basin to find the maximum stone size in Fig. 18.21. Specify riprap so that most of the graded mixture consists of this size. Place the riprap in a layer at least 1.5 times as thick as the maximum stone size. It is recommended that the riprap be placed over a filter, or bedding, composed of gravel or graded gravel having the larger particles on the surface.

There are occasions that it is desirable to deliver the spillway discharge directly to the river without additional streambed protection works, the jet may be projected beyond the structure by a deflector bucket which acts as an energy dissipator at the base of a steep open chute spillway. USBR had developed both slotted and solid deflector buckets (Fig. 18.25) for high, medium, and low dam spillways. Both types require a greater depth of tailwater than a hydraulic jump stilling basin. However, the hydraulic action and the resulting performance of the two buckets are different. In general, the slotted bucket is an improvement over the solid type, particularly for lower ranges of tail water depths. USBR (Peterka, 1964) developed a simplified seven-step design procedure for the slotted bucket as follows: 1. Determine Q, q (per foot or meter of bucket width), V1, D1; compute Froude number from F V1/(g D1)1/2 for maximum flow and intermediate flows. 2. Enter Fig. 18.22 with F to find bucket radius parameter R/(D1 minimum allowable bucket radius, R, may be computed. V12/2g) from which

FIGURE 18.21 Curve to determine maximum stone size in riprap mixture. (From Peterka, 1964)

18.40

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.22 Minimum allowable bucket radius for slotted and solid buckets. .(From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.23 Minimum tail waterlimit for slotted and solid buckets..(From Peterka, 1964)

18.42

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.24 Maximum tail water limit for slotted and solid buckets. .(From Peterka, 1964)

FIGURE 18.26 Average water surface profiles for submerged buckets. (From Peterka, 1964)

18.44

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.27 Water surface profile characteristics for slotted buckets (From Peterka, 1964).

3. Enter Fig. 18.23 with R/(D1 V12/2g) and F to find Tmin/D1 from which minimum tail/ water depth limit Tmin, may be computed. 4. Enter Fig. 18.24 as in Step 3 above to find maximum tailwater depth limit, Tmax. 5. Set bucket invert elevation so that tail water curve elevations are between tailwater depth limits determined by Tmin and Tmax. Keep apron lip and bucket invert above riverbed, if possible. For best performance, set bucket so that the tailwater depth is near Tmin. Check factor of safety against sweep out. 6. Complete the design of the bucket, using Fig. 18.25 to obtain tooth size, spacing, dimensions, and so on. 7. Use Figs. 18.26 and 18.27 to estimate the water surface profile in and downstream from the bucket.

Flip bucket or ski-jump energy dissipators are often used in association with high overflow dams to reduce the project cost when spray from the jet can be tolerated and the erosion by the plunging jet can be controlled. Most of the energy is dissipated when the jet plunges into the tailwater. Factors affecting the horizontal throw distance from the bucket lip to the point of jet impact are the exit velocity of the jet at the bucket lip, the bucket lip

angle, and the difference in elevation between the lip and the tailwater. With the origin of the coordinates taken at the lip of the bucket, the trajectory of the jet may be expressed by the following equation:

(a)

(b)

18.46

Chapter Eighteen

(c) Exhibit 18.3: Strontia springs project, Colorado (Courtesy Denver Water Department, Denver, Colorado) (a) General view of the spillway with low-level-outlet-work in operation. (b) General view of the spillway with low-level-outlet-work in operation. (c) Close-up view of the spillway in operation showing free trajectory and impact at the plunge pool.

(a)

Exhibit 18.4 Mossyrock Hydroelectric Project, Mossyrock, Washington (a) A view of the spillway in operation showing free tajectory and imact at the plunge pool. (b) Layout of the dam showing spillway, plunge pool, power intakes, power house and diversion tunnels.

(b)

18.48

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.28 Flip bucket and toe curve pressures. (From USACE, 1998)

x tan

where angle of edge of lip with horizontal, K factor usually assumed as 0.9 to compensate for loss of energy, d depth of water on bucket, hv velocity head of jet at the lip of the bucket In general, the exit angle at the lip should not exceed 30 and the minimum radius of curvature should not be less than 5 times the depth of water on the bucket. The pressure distribution on spillway flip buckets associated with highoverflow dams can be estimated based on the Corps of Engineers test data (USACE, 1988) as shown in Fig. 18.28. For design purposes, allowance for spillway energy losses should be included in the computation of the energy head, HT at the invert of the bucket. A discussion of the plunge pool hydrulics including scour depth and jet diffusion is given in section 17.3. Photos of several flip bucket type energy dissipators are given in Exhibits 17.2, 17.3, 17.11, 18.3, and 18.4

18.9.3 Gas Supersaturation Gas supersaturation problems occur at dams with spillways designed with deep plunge pools and with deep stilling basins that operate submerged hydraulic jumps. When spilled water with entrained air plunges to depths where the pressures can significantly exceed one atmosphere, the flow becomes supersaturated with gasses. Fish exposed to these gas supersaturated conditions develop gas emboli in the tissues. This condition known as gas bubble disease, cause injury to the fish, and can result in death.. When considering the selection and design of an energy dissipator for use in a dam project, gas supersaturation must be considered. Deflectors that direct discharges along the surface and energy dissipating devices that disperse the flow to reduce the depth of the plunge, such as Howell-Bunger valves, are considerations. Stilling basins that are designed for high unit discharges, but primarily operate for lower discharges often have deep basins and excess tailwater depths for the lower discharges. In this condition the hydraulic jump is submerged, with the flow plunging to the bottom of a deep pool in the stilling basin. In large spillways these conditions can cause supersaturation. In situations where it is not practical to use alternative energy dissipators or design the spillway and stilling basin with lower unit discharges, it may be necessary to divide the spillway and stilling basin with walls. This permits operation of a portion of the structure at higher unit discharge for lower releases, thus effectively reducing the tailwater excess.

18.9.4 Abrasion in Stilling Basins Many stilling basins are subject to at least some wear due to abrasion from material that gets washed into the basin and circulates in contact with the concrete surfaces with the flow. To minimize problems due to abrasion, stilling basins should be operated with uniform discharge. Spillways with crest gates should be operated with all gates opened equally to avoid recirculation in the stilling basin. When only one or a few gates are opened on a spillway with a wide stilling basin, circulation patterns develop in the spillway which can transport streambed material from downstream into the stilling basin. It is necessary for the designer to consider all conditions under which the spillway and energy

18.50

Chapter Eighteen

dissipator will operate. If nonuniform operation of gates is expected to be required to pass low discharges, consideration should be given to dividing the spillway and stilling basin with guide walls to provide a portion that could be used to pass low discharges without creating recirculation patterns in the stilling basin.

18.10.1 Design Example 1 The crest of an overfall spillway is 200 ft (61 m) above the horizontal floor of the stilling basin and the slope of the spillway chute is 0.7:1. The head (H) on the spillway crest H is 30 ft (9.14 m) and the maximum unit discharge (q) is 480 (ft3/s/ft) [44.6 (m3/s/m] based on the the stilling basin width. Design a Type II stilling basin for these conditions (Peterka, 1964). Step 1. Determine approach conditions including velocity (V1) of flow entering the basin. V a. Compute the total distance from the reservoir level to the basin floor (total fall) Z. Z head on the crest (H) + vertical distance from crest to basin floor H 30 200 230 ft (70.1 m)

b. Entering Fig. 18.1 with Z ( 230 ft) and H ( 30 ft) and determine the ratio of V actual velocity (VA) versus theoretical velocity (VT) that is, V VA 0.92 VT c. Compute the theoretical velocity based on the equation given in Fig. 18.2. VT 2g 230

30 2

d. Compute the actual velocity VA ( V1 of the jump) and the corresponding depth D1 and the approach Froude number F1. V1 VA D1 F1 117.6 q V1 0.92 480 108.2 108.2 ft/s (33.0 m/s) 4.44 ft (1.35 m) 108.2 32.2 4.44 9.04

V1 g D1

Step 2. Set basin apron elevation: a. Determine tailwater depths. Entering Fig. 18.3b with the Froude number (F1) of 9.04, the heavy dashed line for TW/D2 1.0 gives W/

12.3

12.3

4.44

54.6 ft (16.6 m)

c. Check factor of safety (FS) with the minimum tailwater depth required as given in Fig. 18.3b. For F1 FS 9.04, TWmin/D1 W / TWmin)/D2 W / 11.85, TWmin W (54.6 11.85 4.44 52.6 ft (16.0 m)

(TW

52.6) / 54.6

4.0 percent

To satisfy 5 percent minimum margin of safety: Use TW TWmin W 0.05 D2 52.6 0.05 54.6 55.3 ft (16.9 m) Reposition the stilling basin apron accordingly. Step 3. Check the effectiveness of the stilling basin: F1 Step 4. Determine the basin length: a. Entering Fig. 18.3c with F1 of L/D2. L/ 9.04 and determine the corresponding value 9.04 4.0

b. LII

4.28

54.6

Step 5. Determine chute block height, width, and spacing. Referring to Fig. 18.3a, the recommended height, width, and spacing of the chute block is D1. Height 35 cm) width spacing D1 4.44 ft 4 ft 5.3 in (use 4 ft 6 in or 1 m

Step 6. Determine the height, width, and of the dentated sill based on the recommended dimensions shown in Fig. 18.3a. a. Height 0.2D2 0.2 54.6 10.92 ft (use 11 ft or 3 m 33 cm) 0.15D2 0.15 54.6 8.19 ft (2.50 m) (use b. Width spacing 0.15D2 8 ft 3 in or 2 m 50 cm)

18.10.2 Design Example 2 In this example (Peterka, 1964), the dimensions of the Type III stilling basin of a small dam are to be determined. The width of the basin is 50 ft (15.24 m) and the flow is symmetrical. Based on the design of the spillway, values of V1 and D1 for the range of discharges to be considered have been determined and are given as follows:

18.52

Chapter Eighteen

FIGURE 18.29 Tailwater and jump elevation curve for design example 2. (From peterka, 1964)

Q ft3/s (m3/s) t 3,900 (110.5) 3,090 ( 87.5) 2,022 ( 57.3) 662 ( 18.7)

q ft3/s/ft [(m3/s/m] t 78.00 (7.25) 61.80 (5.74) 40.45 (3.76) 13.25 (0.87)

V1 ft/s (m/s) 69.0 (21.0) 66.0 (20.1) 63.0 (19.2) 51.0 (15.5)

D1 ft/s (m/s) 1.130 (0.344) 0.936 (0.285) 0.642 (0.196) 0.260 (0.079)

Resulting from a backwater analysis of the downstream channel, the tailwater rating curve is also available as shown in Fig. 18.29. The tailwater elevation for 3900 ft3/s (110.5 m3/s) is at elevation 617.50 ft (188.22 m). Step 1. Compute the jump elevation curve. a. Compute F1 based on given V1 and D1 values. (computed F1 values are shown in the table below) b. Determine D2 by entering Fig. 18.4b with the computed values of F1. c. Assume the most adverse operating condition occurs at the maximum discharge of 3900 ft3/s (110.5 m3/s) and set the apron elevation accordingly. D2 17.8 ft (5.43 m)

Apron elev.

617.5 188.22

17.8 5.43

d. Compute jump elevations for the remaining three discharges as shown in the table below for jump elevation Curve a.

Q ft3/s t F1 D1 ft D2 / D1 D2 ft Jump Elev. Curve a, ft Jump Elev. Curve a', ft

Q m3/s 110.5 87.5 57.3 18.7

Step 2. Compare the jump elevation curve with the tailwater rating curve as shown in Fig. 18.29. It indicates tailwater depth deficiency for smaller discharges especially at approximately 2850 ft3/s (80.7 m3/s) where the curvature of the tailwater rating curve is concave upward. Step 3. Shift the apron elevation curve downward such that the full conjugate depth is realized at the most adverse 2850 ft3/s (80.7 m3/s) tailwater condition. A downward shift of 2.5 ft (0.76 m) is required as indicated by jump elevation Curve a' in Fig. 18.29 and the accompanying table. Step 4. Reset the apron elevation: Apron elev. 599.7 182.79 2.5 0.76 El. 597.20ft El. 182.03 m

Step 5. Determine the remaining stilling basin details based on the maximum discharge of 3900 ft3/s (110.5 m3/s). Step 6. Determine basin length based on conjugate depth: Entering Fig. 18.4c with F1 11.42.

18.54

Chapter Eighteen

LIII D2 LIII

Step 7. Determine the height, width, and spacing of chute blocks in accordance with Fig. 18.4a. h1 W1 S1 1.0D1 1.13 ft (use 13 or 14 in) (35 cm)

Step 8. Determine height of the baffle piers in accordance with Fig. 18.4d. h3 2.5D1 2.5 1.13 2.825 ft (use 34 in) (86 cm)

Step 9. Compute the spacing of the baffle piers as 0.75h3. Baffle pier spacing 0.75 34 25.5 in (65 cm)

Step 10.Compute the distance between the baffle piers and the chute blocks as 0.8D2. Distance 0.8 17.8 14.24 ft (4.34 m)

Step 11.Compute the height of the solid end sill h4 based on Fig. 18.4d. h4 1.60D1 1.60 1.13 1.81 ft (use 22 in) (55 cm)

The final dimensions of the Type III stilling basin are shown in Fig. 18.29.

REFERENCES

Blaisdell, F. W., Develop and Hydraulic DesignSaint Anthony Falls Stilling Basin, Transactions, ASCE, 113, P.334 1948. Bowers, C. E., and J. W. Toso, Karnafuli Project, Model Studies of Spillway Damage, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 114 (5), 1988. Bowers, C. E., and F. Y. Tsai, Fluctuating Pressures in Spillway Stilling Basins, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 95 (HY6), 1969. Chadwick, A. J., and J. C. Morfett, Hydraulics in Civil Engineering, Allen & Unwin, London, 1986. Chaudhry, M. H., Open-Channel Flow, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. Chow, V. T., Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959. French, R. H., Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985. George, R. L., Low Froude Number Stilling Basin Design, REC-ERC-78-8, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1978. Henderson, F. M., Open Channel Flow, Macmillan, New York, 1966. International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), Spillways for Dams, Bulletin 58, ICOLD, Paris, 1987. Novak, P., A. I. B. Moffat, C. Nalluri, and R. Narayanan, Hydraulic Structures, Unwin Hyman, London, 1990. Peterka, A. J., Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators, Engineering

Hydraulic Design of Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators 18.55 Monograph No. 25, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Co, 1964. Roberson, J. A., J. J. Cassidy, and M. H. Chaudhry, Hydraulic Engineering, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1988. Senturk, F., Hydraulics of Dams and Reservoirs, Water Resources Publications, Highlands Ranch, COl 1994. Toso, J. W., and C. E. Bowers, Extreme Pressures in Hydraulic-Jump Stilling Basins, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 114 (8), 1988. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Hydraulic Design Criteria, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 1988. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), Small Canal Structures, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO, 1974. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), Design of Small Dams, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO, 1987. Vischer D. L., and W. H. Hager, Energy DissipatorsHydraulic Design Considerations, IAHR Hydraulic Structures Design Manual No. 9, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1995. Vischer D. L., and W. H. Hager, Dam Hydraulics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998.

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