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List of antibiotics

Following is a list of antibiotics, sorted by class. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostaticantibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection. See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria. Antibiotics by class

Generic name

Brand names

Common uses

Possible side effects

Mechanism of action

Aminoglycosides Binding to the bacterial 30Sriboso mal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.

Amikacin Gentamicin Kanamycin Neomycin Netilmicin Tobramycin

Amikin Infections caused byGram-negative Kantrex bacteria, such Mycifradin as Escherichia Netromycin coliand Klebsiellaparticu larlyPseudomonas Nebcin aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes) andtularemia. Humatin Garamycin

Hearing loss Vertigo Kidney damage


Ansamycins Geldanamycin Herbimycin Experimental, asantitumor antibiotics Carbacephem Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued prevents bacterial cell division by

inhibiting cell wall synthesis. Carbapenems Ertapenem Doripenem Invanz Doribax Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broadspectrum antibacterial coverage. (Note MRSA resistance to this class.)

Imipenem/Cilastati Primaxin n

Gastrointes tinal upset and diarrhea Nausea Seizures Headache Rash and allergic reactions Inhibition of cell wall synthesis



Cephalosporins (First generation) Cefadroxil Cefazolin Duricef Ancef

Cefalotin or Cefalo Keflin thin Good coverage against Gram positive infections. Cefalexin Keflex

Gastrointes tinal upset and Same mode of diarrhea action as Nausea (if other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt alcohol the synthesis of taken the peptidoglycan l concurrentl ayer of bacterial cell walls. y) Allergic reactions

Cephalosporins (Second generation) Cefaclor Cefamandole Cefoxitin Cefprozil Ceclor Mandol Mefoxin Cefzil Ceftin, Zinnat Less gram positive cover, improved gram negative cover.

Gastrointes Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt Nausea (if the synthesis of the peptidoglycan l alcohol ayer of taken bacterial cell walls. concurrentl tinal upset and diarrhea



Allergic reactions

Cephalosporins (Third generation) Cefixime Cefdinir Cefditoren Cefoperazone Cefotaxime Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Ceftibuten Ceftizoxime Ceftriaxone Suprax Omnicef, Cefdiel Spectracef Cefobid Claforan Vantin Fortaz Cedax Cefizox Rocephin

Improved coverage of Gram negative organisms, exceptPseudomonas. Reduced Gram positive cover.

Gastrointes tinal upset and Same mode of diarrhea action as Nausea (if other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt alcohol the synthesis of taken the peptidoglycan l concurrentl ayer of bacterial cell walls. y) Allergic reactions

Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)

Gastrointes tinal upset and Same mode of diarrhea action as Nausea (if other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt alcohol the synthesis of taken the peptidoglycan l concurrentl ayer of bacterial cell walls. y) Allergic reactions Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan l Nausea (if ayer of Gastrointes tinal upset and diarrhea



Covers pseudomonal infections.

Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)



Used to treat MRSA

bacterial cell walls. alcohol taken concurrentl y)

Allergic reactions

Glycopeptides Teicoplanin Vancomycin Telavancin Clindamycin Targocid Vancocin Vibativ Lincosamides Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillinallergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically foracne Lipopeptide Bind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis Possible C. difficilerelatedpseudo membranous enterocolitis Bind to 50S subunit of bacterial RNAthere by inhibiting protein synthesis inhibiting peptidogl ycan synthesis






Macrolides Azithromycin Clarithromycin Dirithromycin Erythromycin Roxithromycin Zithromax,S umamed, Streptococcal Zitrocin infections, syphilis,upper respiratory tract Biaxin infections, lower Dynabac respiratory tract Erythocin,Er infections, mycoplasmal ythroped infections, Lyme disease Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses) inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterialribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of




peptidyl tRNA.

Telithromycin Spectinomycin

Ketek Trobicin

Pneumonia Gonorrhea Monobactams

Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity.[3]



Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan l ayer of bacterial cell walls. Nitrofurans Bacterial or protozoaldiarrhea or e nteritis

Furazolidone Nitrofurantoin


Macrodantin, Urinary tract infections Macrobid Penicillins Novamox,A moxil Principen Geocillin Tegopen Dynapen Floxapen Mezlin Staphcillin Unipen Prostaphlin Pentids Pen-Vee-K Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, andLyme disease

Amoxicillin Ampicillin Azlocillin Carbenicillin Cloxacillin Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin Mezlocillin Methicillin Nafcillin Oxacillin Penicillin G Penicillin V

Gastrointes tinal upset and diarrhea Same mode of action as Allergy other beta-lactam with antibiotics: disrupt seriousana the synthesis of phylactic the peptidoglycan l reactions ayer of bacterial cell walls. Brain and kidney damage (rare)

Piperacillin Temocillin Ticarcillin

Pipracil Negaban Ticar Penicillin combinations

Amoxicillin/clavul Augmentin anate Ampicillin/sulbact Unasyn am Piperacillin/tazoba Zosyn ctam Ticarcillin/clavula Timentin nate Polypeptides

The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component


Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan b acterialcell wall outside of the inner membrane [4] Coly-MycinS Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection) Interact with the gram negativebacterial outer membrane andcyto plasmic membrane. It displaces bacterial counter ions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. They act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an


Polymyxin B

isosmotic solution. Quinolones Ciprofloxacin Enoxacin Gatifloxacin Levofloxacin Lomefloxacin Moxifloxacin Nalidixic acid Norfloxacin Ofloxacin Trovafloxacin Grepafloxacin Sparfloxacin Temafloxacin Mafenide Cipro,Ciprox in, Ciprobay Penetrex Tequin Levaquin Maxaquin Avelox NegGram Noroxin Floxin, Ocuflox Trovan Raxar Zagam Omniflox Sulfamylon Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Sulfonamides

Urinary tract infections,bacterial prostatitis, communityacquiredpneumonia, bact erial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea

Nausea (rare), irreversible damage to central nervous system(uncom mon), tendinosis (rare)

inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase I V enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA rep lication and transcription.

Sulfonamidochrys Prontosil oidine(archaic) Sulfacetamide Sulfadiazine Sulamyd, Bleph-10 MicroSulfon Thiosulfil Forte Urinary tract infections(except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns)

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea Allergy(inc luding skin rashes) Crystals in urine Kidney failure Decrease inwhite blood cellcount Sensitivity

Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene Sulfamethizole

Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol Sulfanilimide (arch aic) Sulfasalazine Sulfisoxazole Trimethoprim Azulfidine Gantrisin Proloprim, Trimpex

Folate synthesis inhibition . They arecompetitive inhibitors of the enzymedihydropter oate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (paraaminobenzoate) todihydropteroate, a key step in folatesynthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids(nucleic acids are essential building blocks

to sunlight of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide. TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole( Bactrim, Co-trimoxazole) Septra (TMP-SMX) Tetracyclines Demeclocycline Doxycycline Minocycline Oxytetracycline Declomycin Vibramycin Minocin Terramycin

Gastrointes tinal upset Sensitivity to sunlight Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy inhibiting the binding of aminoacyltRNA to the mRNAribosomecomplex. They do so mainly Enamel by binding to hypoplasia the 30S ribosomal subunitin (staining of the mRNA teeth; translation complex potentially . permanent) transient depression of bone growth


Syphilis, chlamydialinfe ctions, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acnerickettsial infections , *malaria *Note: Sumycin,Ac Malaria is caused by a hromycin protist and not a V, Steclin bacterium.

Drugs against mycobacteria Clofazimine Dapsone Capreomycin Cycloserine Ethambutol Lamprene Avlosulfon Capastat Seromycin Myambutol Antileprotic Antileprotic Antituberculosis Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections Antituberculosis

Ethionamide Isoniazid Pyrazinamide

Trecator I.N.H. Aldinamide

Antituberculosis Antituberculosis Antituberculosis

Inhibits peptide synthesis

Rifampicin (Rifam Rifadin, pin in US) Rimactane

Binds to the mostly GramReddishsubunit of RNA positiveand mycobacteri orange sweat, polymerase to a tears, and urine inhibit transcription Mycobacterium avium complex Antituberculosis Antituberculosis Others As Neurotoxicity, other aminoglycosi ototoxicity des rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms

Rifabutin Rifapentine Streptomycin

Mycobutin Priftin



Spirochaetal infections (obsolete) Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Inactivates enolpyr uvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis


meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low Chloromycet cost internal treatment. Rarely: aplasti in Historic: typhus,cholera. c anemia. gram negative,gram positive,anaerobes



Acute cystitis in women

Fusidic acid Linezolid

Fucidin Zyvox VRSA Produces toxic free radicals which Discolored disrupt DNA and Infections caused urine,headache proteins. This nonbyanaerobic bacteria; , metallic specific mechanism alsoamoebiasis,trichomo taste, nausea ;a is responsible for niasis,Giardiasis lcohol is its activity against contraindicated a variety of bacteria, amoebae,



and protozoa. Mupirocin Platensimycin Quinupristin/Dalfo Synercid pristin Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrheacaused by E. coli Gram-negative, Grampositive, anaerobes. widely used in veterinary medicine. Tigacyl Tindamax Fasigyn Brand Names protozoan infections Common Uses[2] upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness Possible Side Effects[2] Mechanism of action A chloramphenicol analog. May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Bactroban Ointment for impetigo,cr eam for infected cuts


Lacks known anemic sideeffects.

Tigecycline Tinidazole Generic Name