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Appendix A: CAD drawings

Appendix B: Velocity over Airfoils


Figure: Contours of velocity magnitude, m/s, over the NACA 63-018 airfoil.
= 18.8, Va = 24.2m/s

Figure: Forces on the airfoils, Vw=6m/s, TSR = 3


1 []
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
100.00
110.00

F1[N]
-4.75
-4.74
-4.33
-3.47
-2.00
0.12
1.85
3.61
4.77
5.14
4.77
3.61

F2[N]
1.85
0.12
-2.00
-3.47
-4.33
-4.74
-4.75
-4.31
-3.80
-3.19
-2.43
-1.52

F3[N]
-0.46
0.63
1.45
1.73
1.46
0.62
-0.47
-1.55
-2.49
-3.31
-3.99
-4.39
Favg, cycle [N]
Vt [m/s]

Ftot [N]
-3.36
-3.99
-4.89
-5.22
-4.88
-4.00
-3.37
-2.25
-1.51
-1.36
-1.65
-2.30
-3.23
18.00

Power [W]

1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

F1
-2.51
-3.57
-3.33
-2.59
-2.53
-1.11
0.36
2.16
3.27
3.62
3.27
2.16

2
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230

F2
0.58
-1.11
-2.53
-2.59
-3.33
-3.57
-2.51
-1.41
-1.06
-0.87
-0.83
-1.18

3
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350

58.16

F3
-0.61
0.03
-0.65
0.87
-0.65
0.03
-0.61
-1.18
-0.83
-0.87
-1.06
-1.41

Ftot
-2.54
-4.64
-6.50
-4.31
-6.50
-4.64
-2.76
-0.42
1.38
1.88
1.38
-0.42

Favg, cycle -2.34


Vt
13.41
Power
-31.41
Figure: Total power output with rpm = 140, TSR = 2.3, Vw=6 m/s

11

Appendix C: Airfoil Specification


Table: Coordinates for a NACA 63-018 airfoil with a 12 cm chord length.
Coordinates are given in meters.
0
0.0006
0.0009
0.0015
0.003
0.006
0.009
0.012
0.018
0.024
0.03
0.036
0.042
0.048
0.054
0.06
0.066
0.072
0.078
0.084
0.09
0.096
0.102
0.108
0.114
0.12

0
0.001687
0.002061
0.002647
0.003705
0.005235
0.00637
0.007278
0.008672
0.009657
0.010319
0.0107
0.010795
0.010611
0.010174
0.009526
0.008705
0.007748
0.006682
0.005547
0.004381
0.003229
0.002145
0.001184
0.000419
0

Note: These calculations were used to size the wind turbine to optimize feasibility and
output
max power output as a function of wind speed/ turbine
dimensions
Turbine Dimensions
diam (ft)
3
4
5
6
7
height (ft) 4
5
6
7
8
diam (m)
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
height (m) 1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2
area (m ) 1.1
1.9
2.8
3.9
5.2
12

8
9
2.4
2.7
6.7

velocity
(m/s)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Power (W)
2.1
3.6
7.2
12.0
17.1 28.5
33.4 55.7
57.8 96.3
91.8 153.0
137.0 228.3
195.1 325.1
267.6 445.9
356.1 593.5
462.3 770.6
587.8 979.7
734.2 1223.6

5.4
18.1
42.8
83.6
144.5
229.4
342.5
487.6
668.9
890.3
1155.9
1469.6
1835.5

7.5
25.3
59.9
117.1
202.3
321.2
479.5
682.7
936.5
1246.4
1618.2
2057.4
2569.7

10.0
33.7
79.9
156.1
269.7
428.3
639.3
910.2
1248.6
1661.9
2157.6
2743.2
3426.2

12.8
43.3
102.7
200.7
346.8
550.6
821.9
1170.3
1605.4
2136.7
2774.1
3527.0
4405.1

max power output as a function of wind speed/ turbine


dimensions
Turbine Dimensions
diam (ft)
3
4
5
6
7
height (ft) 6
7
8
9
10
diam (m)
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
height (m) 1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3.0
2
area (m ) 1.7
2.6
3.7
5.0
6.5
velocity
(m/s)
Power (W)
2
3.2
5.0
7.1
9.6
12.5
3
10.8
16.9
24.1
32.5
42.1
4
25.7
40.0
57.1
77.1
99.9
5
50.2
78.0
111.5 150.5 195.1
6
86.7
134.9 192.6 260.1 337.1
7
137.7 214.1 305.9 413.0 535.3
8
205.5 319.6 456.6 616.5 799.1
9
292.6 455.1 650.2 877.7 1137.8
10
401.3 624.3 891.9 1204.0 1560.8
11
534.2 831.0 1187.1 1602.6 2077.4
12
693.5 1078.8 1541.1 2080.6 2697.0
13
881.7 1371.6 1959.4 2645.2 3429.0
14
1101.3 1713.1 2447.3 3303.8 4282.8

13

Appendix D: Aluminum Axis Rod and Support Bar Calculations


Torque Calculations of aluminum axis rod:
Note: These torque calculations were used to determine the minimum wind speed
necessary to induce rotation and design the support structure
Equations used
Torque : = * I

1
2
m(rOR
rIR2 )
2
= rpm
I=

2
a = ( * rOD
) ( * rID2 )

Inner
Diameter
(IN)
0.25
0.50
1.00

Inner
Radius
(FT)
0.02
0.04
0.08

Outer
Diameter
(IN)
1.32
1.32
1.32

Outer
Radius
(FT)
0.11
0.11
0.11

Length
(IN)
54.00
54.00
54.00

Area
0.04
0.03
0.02

Volume
(a*L)
1.96
1.74
0.86

Mass
(LBS)
4.61
7.06
5.46

Inertia
(Ix)
(.5*m*r^2)
0.03
0.04
0.03

Angular
Acceleration
(rpm)
200.00
200.00
200.00

Aluminum Axis Buckling and Deflection

Buckling Calculations
Check worst case scenario- how much axial force can be added without buckline?

Pcritical =
Use

2 EI
L2

I= .03 in^4
E = 10.1x 10^6
L = 72

Pcrit= 1025.54 lb

This force is approximately 40 times the load of 25 lbs that we plan to put on the pipe.

I=

(r0 ri )

Where Ro=.5 inches and Ri= .37 inches.

14

Torque (Ix*)
5.54
8.48
6.55

And under deflection, which was modeled as a static load for simplicity.
ymax = FL3/(3EI)
Which yields a maximum deflection of 1.364 inches, which is close to the observed
deflection at maximum rpm.
Aluminum Support Arm

Maximum Bending Calculations


PL3
ymax =
3EI
Bars have a cross sectional dimension 1.75 x .75 and a length of 34
Weight of foil is assumed to be 5lb
ymax= .0795

The bars will bend a very small amount.


Further, the axial deformation is given as

PL
EA

This yields a maximum axial deformation of .0043 inches.

When given the image in section II.V.I This yield an I of .081 in^4.

15

Appendix C: Specs and Technical Data

Manufacturing specifications:
Motor Case Size 5"Long x 4"
No-load speed 1100 rpm @ 0.260 amp

Diameter
Diameter

Main Shaft Size 1.9 Long x .625


With a 100 oz-in load the shaft speed was 900 rpm @ 2.3 amp.

Rear Shaft Size .375 Long x .1875 Diameter


the output was 5.8 amps @ 12 VDC

When tested as a generator at 1000 rpm,

Permanent magnet 38 VDC


nominal. Reversible

Permanent magnet DC motor rated 38 VDC

Motor has five #10x32 tpi tapped holes on front cap


flexible wires, Some with Plug and some without
Part#. 116868-00

Electrical connections are via 3-1/2" long

Terminal resistance 20 ohms +-20%


Armature current before permanent

demagnetization is 12 amps
Very Popular for Wind Generators, Water Generators, Battle Bots, and Robotics. Rear Shaft Can
be Used for Tachometers, Encoders, Servo Motors, and Many Other Things.

These are the specifications of the generator given by the seller.

16

Appendix D: Generator Power Curves


Load 1: 17 ohms 4.4A

Load 2: 76 ohms 2.8A

RPM

Volts

Amps

Power

RPM

Volts

Amps

Power

637

6.67

0.36

2.40

427

8.47

0.11

0.93

1025

10.55

0.59

6.22

575

13.46

0.18

2.42

1300

13.44

0.76

10.21

615

21.32

0.28

5.97

1450

22.50

1.24

27.90

780

25.98

0.34

8.83

1660

25.02

1.42

35.53

980

32.32

0.43

13.90

1860

27.97

1.58

44.19

1095

36.15

0.48

17.35

2040

30.34

1.72

52.18

1380

44.70

0.59

26.37

2180

32.05

1.82

58.33

1520

49.60

0.66

32.74

2420

35.15

2.00

70.30

1665

55.00

0.73

40.15

2630

37.66

2.14

80.59

1845

60.10

0.80

48.08

2840

40.70

2.31

94.02

Load 3: 52ohms 3.3A

Load 4: 89ohms 2.2A

RPM

Volts

Amps

Power(w)

RPM

Volts

Amps

Power

400

13.75

0.26

3.58

380

8.84

0.10

0.88

575

20.00

0.37

7.40

555

19.40

0.23

4.46

720

24.28

0.45

10.93

800

26.72

0.31

8.28

990

32.12

0.60

19.27

920

30.69

0.36

11.05

1160

38.04

0.71

27.01

1120

36.98

0.43

15.90

1290

41.70

0.78

32.53

1300

43.20

0.51

22.03

1490

47.50

0.89

42.28

1620

53.10

0.62

32.92

1620

51.70

0.97

50.15

1800

59.10

0.69

40.78

1785

56.30

1.05

59.12

2050

66.80

0.78

52.10

1920

60.80

1.15

69.92

Raw data for generating the generator power curves. Measurements were taken over
different resistance loads.
Turbine Output Power
Load
(ohms)

Volts(I) Amps(A) Power(W)

17

5.50

0.07

0.39

89

1.68

0.02

0.03

76

1.60

0.03

0.05

44

1.50

0.02

0.03

52

1.61

0.03

0.05

Raw data for power output of generator over various resistance loads.
17

Appendix E: Testing Environment


Wind map and raw data. The map is taken directly facing the opening of the wind tunnel

and symmetry was assumed. The wind turbine is assumed to be in the center of the grid.
Data map: Location of Each Data Point Used in Mapping Wind Profile
Distance in X direction (ft)
Distance in y

1.5

4.5

7.83

4.75

3.25

Direction (ft)

Tables of wind speed and standard deviation at each setting of the wind tunnel.
40 Hz
Location V avg

Stand.

(m/s)

Dev

0.2156

0.1051

2.3357

0.448

0.0194

0.0579

2.76

0.1305

0.2191

0.1301

0.3859

0.1726

45 Hz
Location V avg
1

Stand.

(m/s)

Dev

18

1.0581

0.3744

3.08

0.1625

0.1497

0.1084

1.651

0.359

50 Hz
Location V avg

Stand.

(m/s)

Dev

0.2147

0.1194

1.3417

0.2616

0.1484

0.0932

4.1772

0.1957

0.2218

0.0693

0.5326

0.3161

55 Hz
Location V avg

Stand.

(m/s)

Dev

0.0704

0.1031

2.6387

0.4258

0.155

0.0746

4.6408

0.3555

19

0.2277

0.1089

0.8089

0.3726

60 Hz
Location V avg

Stand.

(m/s)

Dev

0.6718

0.1269

2.3784

0.386

0.5882

0.1569

4.3267

0.2052

0.7515

0.225

6.5363

0.278

20

Wind profiles at a variety of settings on the wind tunnel.

Velocity Profile of Wind at 40 Hz

Wind speed (m/s)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
8
6

6
4
4
Vertical distance (ft)

2
2

Horizontal distance (ft)

21

Velocity Profile of Wind at 45 Hz

Wind speed (m/s)

4
3
2
1
0
8
6

6
4
4

2
2

Vertical distance (ft)

Horizontal distance (ft)

Velocity Profile of Wind at 50 Hz

Wind speed (m/s)

5
4
3
2
1
0
8
6

6
4
4
Vertical distance (ft)

2
2

Horizontal distance (ft)

22

Velocity Profile of Wind at 55 Hz

Wind speed (m/s)

5
4
3
2
1
0
8
6

6
4

2
2

Vertical distance (ft)

Horizontal distance (ft)

Velocity Profile of Wind at 60 Hz

Wind speed (m/s)

8
6
4
2
0
8
6

6
4

4
Vertical distance (ft)

2
2

Horizontal distance (ft)

23

Appendix F: Budget and cost analysis


Unit

Total

Item Company

Catalog #

Description

Unit

Qty

Price

Price

McMaster

2737T315

1" Sprocket: 45 Teeth

11.70

$11.70

McMaster

2737T111

1/2" Sprocket: 15 Teeth

5.83

$5.83

McMaster

2737T331

1/2" Sprocket: 54 Teeth

13.65

$13.65

McMaster

2737T123

5/8" Sprocket: 18 Teeth

6.17

$6.17

McMaster

6261K14

10' ANSI 25 Chain

32.91

$32.91

McMaster

6261K108

Connection Links

3.60

$18.00

McMaster

1658T55

Alloy 6063 Al Tube 1.00" OD

12.36

$12.36

McMaster

1658T45

Alloy 6063 Al Tube .500" OD, 1

5.76

$5.76

1.37

$8.22

Fabric

84.00

$84.00

2060 Epoxy Hardener

26.75

$26.75

2000 Epoxy Resin

9.98

$9.98

22.75

$22.75

10.34

$10.34

31.40

$31.40

5.62

$5.62

17.79

$17.79

8620 Alloy Steel Rod 3/16"


9

McMaster

8930K1

OD
3K, Plain Weave Carbon Fiber

10

Fibre Glast 2210-A


2060-A 1/2

11

Fibre Glast pint


2000-A

12

Fibre Glast Quart


Flying

13

Foam

1.3#2x24x36 EPP Foam


Banded SingleRow Thrust

14

Applied

908756

MSC
15

Direct

Ball Bearing Flange Units ID:


57131203

MSC
16

Direct
Direct

1"
Needle Roller 2-Bolt Flange

7174345

MSC
17

Bearing, ID: 0.4530"

Bearing ID: 0.5"


Single Row Taper Roller

43336940

Bearings, ID:0.9842"

24

18

Ebay

Generator

70.00

$70.00

Subtotal $393.23

25

Total

$393.23

Balance

$106.77