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PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOLS OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH Prototype Course Syllabus

Course Title: Parasitology

Course Description: This course deals with the study of human parasites which are of medical importance especially those commonly found in the Philippines. Emphasis is given on the epidemiology, pathogenecity, distribution, life cycle, and laboratory identification of each parasite. Preventive measures against infection and control are also given emphasis

Course Credit: 3 units (2 units lecture, 1 unit laboratory)

Contact Hours: 2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory per week (36 hours lecture and 54 hours laboratory per semester)

Prerequisite: Human Anatomy and Physiology


st

Placement: Third Year, 1 Semester

Terminal Competencies: At the end of this course, the student is able to: 1. identify medically important parasites with emphasis on their characteristics, pathophysiology, and diagnostic features. 2. perform routine and other laboratory tests used in the identification of parasites in different samples submitted to the laboratory. 3. discuss the importance of prevention and control of parasitic infection. 4. manifest personal and professional values of a medical technologist.

References: nd 1. Arora D.R. and Arora B. Medical Parasitology 2 ed. India: CBS Publishers and Distributors, 2007. th 2. Ash, Lawrence and Thomas Orihel. Atlas of Human Parasitology 5 ed. USA: ASCP Press, 2007. nd 3. Belizario, V.Y Jr. and W. U. De Leon. Philippine Textbook of Parasitology, 2 ed. Manila: Publications Program, 2002 rd 4. Boqitsh, Burton, Clint Carter and Thomas Oeltmann. Human Parasitology 3 ed. USA: Academic Press, 2005. th 5. Garcia, Lynn Shore. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology 5 ed. USA: ASM Press, 2006. 6. Heelan, Judith and Frances Ingersoll. Essentials of Human Parasitology. USA: Delmar Learning, 2001. 7. Ichhpujani R.L, Bhatia. Medical Parasitology. India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India , 2002 th 8. John, David and William Petri. Markell and Voges Medical Parasitology 9 ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2006. 9. Leventhal, Ruth and Cheadle, Russell. Medical Parasitology: A Self-Instructional Text. USA: F.A. Davis Co., 2002.
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10. 11. 12. 13.

McClatchey, Kenneth. Clinical Laboratory Medicine 2 ed. USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002. st Mcpherson, Richard A. and Matthew R. Pincus. Henrys Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods 21 ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc., 2007. th Peters, Wallace and Geoffrey Pasvol. Atlas of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 6 ed. Edinburg: Mosby, 2006. th Roberts, Larry, J. Janovy and P. Schimdt. Foundations of Parasitology 7 ed. McGraw-Hill Science, 2004.

nd

Electronic References: 1. http.www.cdfound.to.it/HTML/intpar1.htm 2. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/book/parasit-sta.htm 3. http://www.ksu.edu/parasitology 4. http://www.udel.edu/medtech/dlehman/medt372/ 5. Microscopic Diagnosis of Food and Water Borne Parasites [Electronic Data]. UP College of Public Health, 2003.

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Learning Objectives / Intermediate Competencies At the end of this unit, the student is able to: 1. Define common terms related to parasitology 2. Discuss the types of host 3. Explain the different modes of transmission of parasites 4. Discuss the types of life cycles 5. Explain the pathophysiology and symptomatology of parasitic infection/disease 6. Discuss specimen collection, transport, handling, preservation, processing, and disposal. 7. Characterize an acceptable specimen (stool, urine, etc.) for analysis. 8. Discuss the host-parasite relationships 9. Perform the different techniques used in the identification of parasites 10. Explain the different factors that may alter test results. 11. Discuss the importance of prevention and control of infection

T.A. Content I. Introduction to Parasitology 1. Definition of Terms 2. Types of host: 2.1. Definitive, 2.2. Intermediate, 2.3. Reservoir 2.4. Paratenic 3. Modes of transmission and portal of Entry 4. Types of life cycle 4.1. Direct/Homogenic 4.2. Indirect/Heterogenic 5. Pathophysiology and symptomatology of Parasitic Infections 6. Specimen collection, transport, handling, preservation, processing and disposal. 6.1. Role of medical technologist 7. Specimens for examination of parasites 7.1. Criteria for acceptability 7.2. Variables that may affect test results 8. Host-Parasite Relationship 9. Techniques Used in the Identification of Parasites 9.1. Factors that may alter test results 10. Prevention and Control 10.1. Parasitic Infection as a public health problem Laboratory: Laboratory Work 1. Microscopic Examination 1.1. Direct Fecal Smear 1.2. Scotch Tape technique 1.3. Concentration techniques 1.4. Staining techniques 1.5. Thick and thin blood smear 2. Emerging technologies (immunologic methods, etc.) 3. Laboratory Safety 4. Proper Waste Disposal II. Nematodes A. Aphasmid (Adenophorea) 1. Trichuris trichiura 5 hrs

Teaching Strategies Lecture Integrated Method Lecture/ Discussion with the use of C.D. (Power Point Presentation) Lecture/Discussion Laboratory Laboratory exercises Identification of the different stages of each parasite using prepared slides

Skills

Values

Evaluation/Assessment

Technological Skills (Uses technological equipment accurately, properly and in timely manner) Technical Skills Motor/Mobility skills

Obedience -follows established procedures properly -follows protocols as defined in policy and procedure manual. Honesty, Compassion

Unit test Performance Evaluation Checklist Quizzes Periodical Examinations Class Participation Unit test Practical Examination Class Participation Quizzes

9 hrs

At the end of this unit, the student is able to: 1. Describe the general

Lecture/Discussion Case Analysis

Laboratory exercises Identification of the

Technical skills

Responsibility Accountability Hard work

Unit test Performance Practical exam


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morphology of nematodes 2. Explain the pathophysiology, life cycle, infective stages, modes of transmission, prevention and control 3. Describe the diagnostic features of each parasite. 4. Enumerate the different specimens used for identification 5. Identify correctly the diagnostic features of each parasite. 6. Perform the laboratory tests 7. Discuss specimen collection, transport, processing, preservation and disposal

2. Trichinella spiralis 3. Capillaria philippinensis B. Phasmids 4. Ascaris lumbricoides 5. Toxocara cati 6. Toxocara canis 7. Necator americanus 8. Ancylostoma duodenale 9. Ancylostoma braziliense 10. Ancylostoma caninum 11. Strongyloides stercoralis 12. Enterobius vermicularis 13. Gnathostoma spinigerum 14. Angiostrongylus cantonensis 15. Wuchereria bancrofti 16. Brugia malayi 17. Loa loa 18. Onchocerca volvulus 19. Mansonella perstans 20. Mansonella streptocerca 21. Mansonella ozzardi Lecture: 1. Morphology 2. Pathophysiology 3. Life cycle 4. Specimens used for identification 5. Diagnostic features of each stage 6. Prevention and control Laboratory: 1. Identification of parasites using clinical specimens and prepared slides 2. Laboratory Safety 3. Proper Waste Disposal III. Cestodes (Tapeworms) 1. Taenia saginata 2. Taenia solium 3. Hymenolepis nana 4. Hymenolepsis diminuta 5. Diphylobothrium latum 6. Echinococcus granulosus 7. Spirometra mansoni Lecture: 1. Morphology 2. Pathophysiology 7 hrs

different stages of each parasite using prepared slides

Commitment Faithfulness

Evaluation Checklist Quizzes Periodical Examinations Class Participation

12 hrs

At the end of this unit, the student is able to: 1. Describe the general morphology of nematodes 2. Explain the pathophysiology, life cycle, infective stages, modes of transmission, prevention and control 3. Describe the diagnostic features of each parasite. 4. Enumerate the different specimens used for

Integrated Method Lecture/Discussion Reporting Case analysis

Laboratory exercises Identification of the different stages of each parasite using prepared slides

Technical skills

Prudence Integrity Respect Cooperation Commitment Compassion Love of fellowmen

Unit test Performance Practical exam Evaluation Checklist Quizzes Periodical Examinations Class Participation

7 hrs

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Laboratory: 1. Identification of parasites using clinical specimens and prepared slides 2. Laboratory Safety 3. Proper Waste Disposal At the end of this unit, the student IV. Trematodes 1. Fasciola hepatica is able to: 2. Fasciolopsis buski 1. Describe the general 3. Paragonimus westermanii morphology of trematodes 4. Schistosomes 2. Explain the pathophysiology, 5. Heterophyes heterophytes life cycle, infective stages, 6. Opistorchis modes of transmission, 7. Echinostoma ilocanum prevention and control 8. Clonorchis sinensis 3. Describe the diagnostic features of each parasite. 9. Others 4. Enumerate the different specimens used for Lecture: 1. Morphology identification 5. Identify correctly the 2. Pathophysiology 3. Life cycle diagnostic features of each parasite. 4. Specimens used for identification 5. Diagnostic features of each stage 6. Perform the laboratory tests 7. Discuss specimen collection, 6. Prevention and control transport, processing, preservation, and disposal Laboratory: 1. Identification of parasites using clinical specimens and prepared slides 2. Laboratory Safety 3. Proper Waste Disposal At the end of this unit, the student V. Protozoa is able to: A. Sarcodina 1. Describe the general Parasitic Amoeba 1. Entamoeba histolytica morphology of protozoa 2. Entamoeba coli 2. Explain the pathophysiology, 3. Endolimax nana life cycle, infective stages, 4. Iodamoeba butschlii modes of transmission, 5. Entamoeba gingivalis prevention and control B. Rhizopoda (Pathogenic Free-Living 3. Describe the diagnostic features of each parasite. Amoeba) 1. Naegleria fowleri 4. Enumerate the different 2. Acanthamoeba culbertsoni specimens used for 3. Acanthamoeba polyphaga identification

identification 5. Identify correctly the diagnostic features of each parasite. 6. Perform the laboratory tests 7. Discuss specimen collection, transport, processing, preservation and disposal

3. 4. 5. 6.

Life cycle Specimens used for identification Diagnostic features of each stage Prevention and control 9 hrs

Lecture/ Discussion Case studies

Laboratory exercises Identification of the different stages of each parasite using prepared slides

Technical skills

Prudence Integrity Respect awareness, appreciation, logical thinking, enthusiasm, perseverance

Unit test Performance Practical exam Evaluation Checklist Quizzes Periodical Examinations Class Participation

7 hrs

12 hrs

Lecture/ Discussion Case studies

Laboratory exercises Identification of the different stages of each parasite using prepared slides

Technical skills

Prudence Integrity Respect awareness, appreciation, logical thinking, enthusiasm, perseverance

Unit test Performance Practical exam Evaluation Checklist Quizzes Periodical Examinations Class Participation

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5. Identify correctly the diagnostic features of each parasite. 6. Perform the laboratory tests 7. Discuss specimen collection, handling, processing, preservation and disposal

4. Acanthamoeba castellani 5. Acanthamoeba astronyxis C. Ciliata 1. Balantidium coli D. Zoomastigophora Atrial Flagellates 2. Giardia lamblia 3. Trichomonas vaginalis 4. Trichomonas hominis 5. Trichomonas tenax 6. Diantemoeba fragilis 7. Chilomastix mesnili Blood and Tissue Fagellates 1. Trypanasoma gambiense 2. Trypanosoma rhodosiense 3. Trypanosoma cruzi 4. Leishmania brasiliense 5. Leishmania donovani E. Sporozoa 1. Plasmodium falciparum 2. Plasmodium vivax 3. Plasmodium malariae 4. Plasmodium ovale 5. Isospora belli 6. Eimeria spp. 7. Toxoplasma gondii 8. Sarcocystis hominis 9. Sarcocystis suihominis 10. Sarcocystislindemanni 11. Cryptosporidium spp. Lecture: 1. Morphology 2. Pathophysiology 3. Life cycle 4. Specimens used for identification 5. Diagnostic features of each stage 6. Prevention and control Laboratory: 1. Identification of parasites using clinical specimens and prepared slides 2. Laboratory Safety 3. Proper Waste Disposal 8 hrs

12 hrs

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Technical Working Group for Prototype Course Syllabi Development (2007-2008) Zennie Aceron Petrona Benitez Sergia Cacatian Zenaida Cajucom Edwin Cancino Jacinta Cruz De Carlos Leon Oliver Shane Dumaoal Bernard Ebuen Nini Lim Frederick Llanera Carina Magbojos Gregorio Martin Fe Martinez Josephine Milan Ferdinand Mortel Magdalena Natividad Rodolfo Rabor Ma. Teresa Rodriguez Celia Roslin Anacleta Valdez Rowen Yolo
and other PASMETH members not cited in this page who in one way or another has contributed greatly to the success of this endeavor

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