Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,

Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


Harmonic Mitigation Techniques for IEEE 13-Bus
Medium Voltage Distribution System

Pravallika.Y
1
R.Kameswara Rao
2


S.S.Tulasi Ram
3
and

G.Ravikumar
4
1, 2, 3
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University college of Engineering, JNTUK, Kakinada,
Andhra Pradesh, India

1
Pravallika.yanagala@gmail.com
2
rkameswara@gmail.com
3
ramsankara@gmail.com
4
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Bapatla Engineering college, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh,
India
4
goli.ravikumar@yahoo.com

Abstract

Distribution system is the part of power system consisting of different combinations of linear and
non-linear loads. The widespread application of power electronics is introducing non-linear loads in
the distribution system. Proliferation of both non-linear and switched loads led to increased voltage
and current harmonic distortion in industrial distribution system. Harmonic mitigation is becoming
a great concern for both electric utilities and customers. The objective of this paper is to study the
harmonic distribution in a typical distribution system and to suggest suitable harmonic
compensation techniques. Various loads such as adjustable speed drives, arc welder, lift, water pump
and light dimmer are modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Current and voltage harmonic analysis is
done for standard IEEE 13-bus medium voltage industrial simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Modeling of adjustable speed drives is considered for non-linear loads. The harmonic distortion
levels at different buses are identified and subsequently suitable harmonic mitigation techniques are
performed to control the harmonic levels within the limits.

Key words: ASD, passive filters, harmonic mitigation, sensitivity analysis, distribution system, THD.

1. Introduction

The problem of distribution system harmonics has become increasingly serious owing to the wide
use of non-linear and electronically switched loads. Given that the economic benefits from using
electronic equipment are much noticeable than the losses caused by the harmonics produced by these
equipment, then sources of harmonic distortion are expected to spread over the distribution system.
Harmonic producing devices range [1] from simple TV, computer sets and electronic ballast utilized in
domestic areas to large adjustable speed drives for heat pumps and air conditioning utilized in
industrial zones. All loads [2] share some common characteristics, which is injecting huge amount of
harmonics leading to detrimental effects to the power system. Limits have been established to control
the amount of harmonic currents and voltages generated by customers and utilities. Both the IEEE
std.519 [3] and IEC 1000-3[4] are good examples of such limits that are widely accepted in industry.

Generally, individual low-power end-users and high-power industrial customers are responsible for
limiting the current distortion caused by their equipment. On the other hand, electric utilities are in
charge for limiting voltage distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC) and distribution systems.

Passive filters have been extensively used to simultaneously meet one or more objectives and also to
meet the requirements of IEEE std.519 with respect to total demand distortion (TDD) at the point of
common coupling (PCC). The single-tuned filter, also called low passive filter is most commonly
applied. However one filter may not be adequate to filter effectively all the troublesome harmonics.
Two single-tuned filters will have characteristics identical to a double band pass filter. A high-pass
filter will allow a percentage of all harmonics above its notch frequency to pass through. This results in
large rating at fundamental frequency and high losses in the resistor [5]. The filter is commonly applied
for higher frequencies and notch reduction. The composite filter consists of two branches of band pass
Special Issue Page 38 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


filters and a parallel branch of high-pass filter for higher frequencies. Single-tuned or double-tuned
filters are not possible to employ for certain loads like cyclo converters or when the power system has
inter harmonics.

Electronic adjustable speed drive (ASD) [6] has attracted the attention recently for the high
reliability and efficiency encountered in its performance. The ASD is becoming a significant load
component for different applications in distribution systems; yet, it is considered as a major contributor
to the system harmonic distortion due to the inherent non-linearity associated with its switching
operation. In this paper, modeling of ASD is provided and design of various passive filters is
presented. IEEE 13-bus system model is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK as a case study and
harmonic analysis is performed. The Performance of filters in compensating current and voltage
harmonics is tested by simulation.

2. ASD Load Model

There are two mechanisms through which an ASD generates harmonic currents. The first
mechanism is the converter operation which injects harmonic currents into the supply system by an
electronic switching process. The second mechanism is the inverter operation. The inverter can
introduce additional ripples into the DC link current. These ripples in turn can penetrate into the supply
system side. The extent and the frequency of inverter-caused ripples are largely a action of inverter
design and motor parameters. An ASD can therefore be represented with a generic three-phase bridge
converter circuit of Figure. A significant feature of this circuit is that the inverter and the motor are
collectively modeled as a direct current source.
Theoretically speaking, the inverter and motor should be represented as a harmonic current source.
The magnitudes and phase angles should be determined from the inverter design and motor operating
conditions. Attempts were made in this research to develop a procedure that automatically determines
the harmonic current source. However the complexity and variety of the inverters make the work
extremely difficult. Even if such a procedure were in place, it is very likely that there is no adequate
data available.
Fortunately, extensive sensitivity studies as described later show that there is little need to model the
current source as a harmonic source. Namely, the inverter harmonics are negligible as seen from the
converter AC side. This is because in the case of PWM and VSI type ASDs, the inverter harmonics are
largely bypassed by the DC link capacitor before they can penetrate into the supply system side. In the
case of CSI type ASD, the series inductor serves as a large impedance to block inverter harmonics
from ever getting into the converter. ASD can be modeled with a common three phase bridge converter
circuit together with a DC link circuit and a harmonic current source to represent the inverter and the
motor as shown in Fig 1.


Figure 1. ASD model

The direct current into inverter can be estimated from the motor load as Eq. (1).

(1)

Special Issue Page 39 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


Where P is the motor load including losses and V
ph
is the phase voltage of the supply system.
Changing the converter firing angle and the DC current source magnitude I
dc
will reflect different
operating conditions of the ASD. The MATLAB/SIMULINK model of the ASD is shown in Fig. 2.



Figure 2. MATLAB/SIMULINK model of the ASD

3. Design of Passive Filters

Passive harmonic filters reduce distortion by diverting harmonic currents in low impedance paths.
Passive filters are designed to be capacitive at fundamental frequency, so that they are also used for
producing reactive power required by converters and for power factor correction.

3.1. Single-tuned filter

The most common type of shunt passive filters used in harmonic mitigation is the single tuned filter
(STF) [7] which is either a low pass or band pass filter. This type of filter is the simplest to design and
the least expensive to implement. The configuration of a single tuned filter is depicted in Fig. 3(a).
The major criteria in designing the filter, is the selection of proper capacitor size that gives a
reasonable power factor at fundamental frequency. The capacitor reactance value X
c
and reactive
power relationship is given by,

(2)

Where, kV cap is the line-to line rated voltage of the capacitor and MVAr is the reactive power of
the capacitor.
The filter capacitance is then calculated using Eq. (3) as

(3)
Where, f is the fundamental frequency. Eq. (4) is then used to obtain the reactor value of the filter.

(4)

Where n is the harmonic order to which the filter is tuned. The value of the resistance R determines
the quality factor (Q) of the filter and is equal to the ratio of the inductive or capacitive reactance, at
resonance, to the resistance. Typical values of Q range from 15 to 80 for filters used in industrial and
commercial applications.


Special Issue Page 40 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


3.2. Double tuned filter

The double tuned filter (DTF) consists of a series LC circuit and a parallel RLC circuit. The basic
configuration of DTF is shown in below Fig. 3(b) and Reactance one-port filter is shown in fig.3(c). If
f
1
and f
2
are the two tuning frequencies, both the series circuit and the parallel circuit are tuned to
approximately the mean geometric frequency.





Figure 3. Passive filter circuits

DTF can be used to filter two harmonic components simultaneously. Compared to the STF with the
same performance, DTF has a few advantages such as only one reactor is subjected to full line voltage.
Its losses are much lower and the impedance magnitude at the frequency of the parallel resonance is
lower and smaller space is needed. The filter parameters L
1
, C
1
, L
2
and C
2
are calculated by using Eq.
(6). C
1
is calculated using Eq. (5) by neglecting the internal resistances.


(5)
L
1
is then calculated by Eq. (6)
(6)
Value of C
2
is calculated from C
1

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= 1
2
2 2
2
2
1
1 2
s
p
C C
e
e e e
(7)
L
2
can now be calculated as Eq. (8)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2 2
1 1
s
p
p p
C C
L
e
e e e
e e
(8)
Where e
1
and e
2
are the tuned frequencies, e
p
= Parallel resonance frequency selected between
e
1
and e
2
, and e
s
= e
1
e
2
/ e
p
.

4. IEEE 13-Bus Distribution System

A practical IEEE 13-bus medium voltage industrial distribution system feeding different types of
industrial and commercial loads shown in Fig. 4 is considered for harmonic analysis. The system
transformer data is given in Table 1. The system is fed from a utility supply at 69kV at bus 1. Two
Special Issue Page 41 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


harmonic producing loads namely the adjustable speed drives of 20 hp each are serving the customers
at bus 2 and bus 5.


Table 1. Industrial System Transformer Data

Trans- former Voltage (KV) MVA Rating R (%) X (%)
T
1

T
2

T
3

T
4

T
5

T
6

T
7

13.8/0.48
69.0/13.8
13.8/0.48
13.8/4.16
13.8/0.48
13.8/0.48
13.8/2.40
1.50
15.0
1.25
1.725
1.50
1.50
3.75
0.9593
0.4698
0.7398
0.7442
0.8743
0.8363
0.4568
5.6694
7.9862
4.4388
5.9370
5.6831
5.4360
5.4810




Figure 4. MATLAB/SIMULINK model of 13-bus industrial distribution system

5. Simulation Results
The distribution system shown in Fig. 4 is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The two ASDs are
connected at bus 2 and 5. The harmonic analysis is performed by simulation and THD values are
identified at different buses. Fig.5 shows the voltage and current harmonic spectrum at buses 2 and 5.
It is noticed that the bus at which ASDs are connected are prone to more harmonics and accordingly
Special Issue Page 42 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


filters are fixed to compensate the harmonics in the system, by tuning STF and DTF filters. The
technical parameters of these filters are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. Parameters of Single and Double Tuned Filters

Filter
type & position

Single tuned Double tuned
10th bus 2nd or 5
th
bus 10th bus 2nd or 5th bus
Parameters
L
1
( mH )
C
1
( F )
R ( )
C
2
( F )
L
2
( mH )
9.147
50.1433
0.0000271
Nil
Nil
0.10
6907.77
0.010
Nil
Nil
0.107
206.50
Nil
42.69
0.140
0.570
2873.4
Nil
358.0255
2.580





Figure 5. Current waveforms and harmonic spectrum at buses 2 and 5




Figure 6. Harmonic spectrum at buses 2 and 5 with STF and DTF
Special Issue Page 43 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011



The Simulation results after placing filters at different buses and the performance of the filters in
mitigating current and voltage harmonics are tabulated in Table 3. In this paper, THD is used as the
harmonic index. From the above observations it is clear that passive filters can compensate the
harmonics at the buses where they are installed. When filters are placed at bus 2 and bus 5 at which the
ASDs are connected, system harmonics are controlled and are well within the limits.

Table 3. THDs with and without filters

Bus
No.
Without FILTER With STF With DTF
%THD
I
%THD
V
%THD
I
%THD
V
%THD
I
%THD
V

2
5
22.89
23.03
11.64
11.64
8.25
8.01
0.11
1.24
5.01
5.11
0.03
0.35

6. Conclusions

This paper presented the mitigation of harmonics in an IEEE 13-bus industrial system. The
harmonic analysis of the system is performed for static load and ASDs in the system. The mitigation of
harmonics is suggested by using STF and DTF. The results show that the passive filters are capable of
reducing the system distortion. Optimal location of filter is identified and is found that harmonics are
within limits when filters are placed at buses where the ASDs are connected.

7. References

[1] D.V.S.S. Siva Sarma , and M.Sydulu, Estimation and Mitigation of Voltage and Current
Harmonics in Distribution Systems, IEEE 2008.
[2] D.V.S.S.Siva Sarma, M.Sydulu; Modelling of Non-Linear Loads and Estimation of
Harmonics in Industrial Distribution System, fifteenth NPSC, IIT Bombay, Dec 2008.
[3] IEEE Recommended practice for Industrial and Commercial Power System Analysis, IEEE
Std. 399-1997
[4] Electro magnetic compatability(EMC)-part 3: Limits-Section 6: Assessment of Emmission
Limits for Distorting Loads in MV and HV power systems, IEC 10003-6, 1996..
[5] T.K.Abdel-Galil,E.F.EI-Saadany and M.M.A.Salama; Implementation of Different Mitigation
Techniques for Reducing Harmonic Distortion in Medium Voltage Industrial Distribution
System, 2001-IEEE.
[6] Tosak Thasananutariya and Somchai Chatratana, Planning Study of Harmonic Filter for ASDs
in Industrial Facilities, IEEE transactions on industrial applications volume.45,no.1,jan/feb
2009
[7] W.Chi-Jui, C.Jung-Chen, Y.Shih-Song, L.Ching-Jung, Y.Jin-Shyr and G.Tzong-Yih,
Investigation and Mitigation of Harmonic Amplification Problems Caused by Single-Tuned
Filters, IEEE Transactions, Vol .13, No.3, July 1998.









Special Issue Page 44 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216
International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology,
Vol. 3, No.4, 2011


Authors Profile



















Y. Pravallika received B. Tech degree in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering from JNTU
College of Engineering, Kakinada. Presently she
is pursuing M.Tech Degree in advanced power
systems in the same college.




R. Kameswara Rao received B. Tech and
M.Tech degrees in Electrical Engineering from
JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada.
Presently working as Associate professor in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering department
in the same college. His areas of interest include
Power system analysis and control.






S.S.Tulasi Ram received B. Tech, M.Tech and
PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from JNTU
College of Engineering, Kakinada. Presently
working as professor in the Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering department
in the same college. His areas of interest include
high voltage engineering, Power system analysis
and control.




Goli Ravikumar graduated from Andhra
University College of Engineering,
Visakhapatnam, India in 1993 and received
M.Tech from Jawaharlal Nehru Technology
university college of Engineering, India in 2007.
Presently he is pursuing Ph.D degree in Fuzzy-
wavelet based Transmission line protection with
FACTS controllers.







Special Issue Page 45 of 93 ISSN 2229 5216