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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.

4, 2011

Accurate Path Loss Prediction Model for CDMA Communication System in Macrocellular Environment
Ifeagwu E.N1 Alor Michael2, Onoh G.N3, Okorogu V.N4, Oguejiofor O.S5
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Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering,Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Email : scotolysis@yahoo.com, obynola@yahoo.com,okoroguvn@yahoo.com

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Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering, Enugu State University of Technology

Abstract
This paper shows the efficient outdoor path loss prediction in CDMA communication network design. The path loss model describes how the received signal power and the transmitted signal power decreases as the distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. This helps to determine the effective coverage area covered by the radio transmitter and so plays a ital role in the design of mobile communication network design

1.0.

Introduction
Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. The

concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where frequency can be reused within a geographical area [1]. Digital cellular radio system is classified into second generation (2G), third generation (3G) and the forth generation (4G) cellular network by International Telecommunication [2]. Radio propagation is essential for energy technologies with appropriate design, deployment and management strategies for any wireless network. Accurate characterization of radio channel through the parameters and a mathematical model is important for predicting signal coverage, achievable data rates, specific performance attributes of alternative signaling and reception scheme. Propagation models have traditionally focused on predicting the reared signal strength at a given distance from the transmitter, as well as the variability of the signal strength in a close spatial proximity to a particular location.

Path loss prediction is a process to be carried out before installing or developing a network in order to achieve between performance after the network is set up. Efficient pathloss prediction is important for proper design of wireless network. Efficiency of present pathloss models suffers when they are used in the environment other than for when they have been designed [3]. Code Division multiple Access is a multiplexing technique where a number of users simultaneously and asynchronously access a channel by modeling and spreading their information bearing signals with preassigned sequences [4].

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 This paper therefore predict the out door pathloss model of CDMA communication network design using channel modelling. 2.0 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Free Space Propagation: The bench mark through which the loss in a transmission link is measured is the loss that would be expected in free space-the free of all objects that might absorb or reflect radio energy. Calculating free space transmission loss is quite simple. Considering a transmitter with power pt coupled to an antenna which radiates equally in all directions (isotropic antenna). At a distance from the transmitter, the radiated power is distributed uniformly over an area of 4d2 so that the power flux density is: S = pt 4d
2

The transmission loss then depends on how much of this power is captured by the receiving antenna. If the capture area, or effective aperture of this antenna is Ar,then the power which can be delivered to the receiver (assuming no mismatch or feed lineless) is simply Pr = SAr 2 4 Combing equations (1) & (3) into (2) we have Pr = 4 2

For hypothetical isotropic receiving antenna, we have Ar = 3

The free space path loss between isotropic antenna is Pt/Pr. Since we usually deal with frequency rather than wavelength we can make the substitution ( = c/f) to yet Lp Where Lp c f d = = = = = pathloss speed of light frequency distance 5

This shows the classic square law dependence of signal level versus distance. The free space pathloss equation is now Lp = 32.4 + 20logf + 20logd [dB] 6

Considering the actual antenna gains and cable losses; the signal power Pr which is available at the receiver input. Pr = P t L p + G t + G r L p - Lr

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 Where Pt = Lp Gt Gr Lt Lr 2.2 transmitter power output = = = = = pathloss transmit antenna gain (dBi) receive antenna gain (dBi) transmission line loss between transmit and transmit antenna transmission line loss between receive antenna and receive input.

Pathloss Models The term line of sight (LOS) as applied to radio links has a pretty obvious meaning: the antennas at the ends of the link can see each other, at least in a radio sense [5]. Propagation models have focused on predicting the received signal strength at a given distance from the transmitter, as well as the variability of the signal strength in a close spatial proximity to a particular location. Propagation models that predict the signal strength for an arbitrary transmitter receive (T-R) separate distance are useful in estimating the radio coverage area of a transmitter [4]. Radio transmission in a mobile common system often takes place over irregular terrain. The terrain profile of a particular area needs to be taken into account for estimating the pathloss [6]. A number of propagation models are available to predict pathloss over irregular terrain. Most of these models are based on a systemic interpretation of measurement data obtained in the service area. Among numerous propagation models, the following are the most significant ones. The empirical modes are: i. ii. iii. Hata Okumura model Cost 231 models ECE 33 mode.

The Hata-Okumura model is an empirical formula for graphical pathloss data provided by Yoshihisa Okumura and is read from 150MHZ to 1500MHZ. Hata presented the urban area propagation as a standard formula; However the model neglects terrain profile between transmitter and receiver [7]. The pathloss in dB for the urban environment is given by PL (dB) = A + B log d (6)

Where d is distance in kilometer A represent a fixed loss that depends on frequency of the These parameters are given by the empirical form A B Where f hb = = = = 69.55 + 126.16 log (f) 13.82 log (hb) a (hm) 44.9 6.53 log (hb) frequency in MHZ height of base star antenna signal.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 hm = mobile antenna light

a(hm) = correction factor in dB For effective mobile antenna height a (hm) is given by a[hm] = [1.1log (f) 0.7]hm [1.56log (f) 0.8] Cost 231 model To extend Hata Okumura model for personal communication system (PCS) applications operate at 1800 to 2000MHZ, the European operate for scientist and technical research (COST) come up with COST 231 model. The pathloss in urban area is given by PL (dB) = 46.33 + 33.9log (f) 13.82log hb a(hm) + [14.9 6.55log (hb)] Where a(hm) = [1.1log (f) 0.7]hm [1.56log (f) 09log (d)] ECC 33 model The ECC 33 pathloss models, was developed by electronic communication (ECE), and it is extrapolated from original measurement by Okumura and modified its assumptions so that it is more operative for scientific and technical research.

3.0.

Research Methodology The common approaches to propagation modeling include physical models and Empirical models.

In this paper, only empirical models are considered. Empirical models use measurement data to model a path loss equation. To conceive these models, a correlation was found between the received signal strength and other parameters such as antenna lengths, terrain profiles, and so on, through the use of extensive measurement and statistical analysis. Empirical models are based on the statistical characterization of the received signal. They are easier to implement, require less computational effort, and are less sensitive to the environments geometry.

3.1

Choice Design Approach: Path loss model based on the field measurements was used for this research work. Performing field measurements in the environment for which a path loss model is to be developed explicitly, has the advantage of taking into account all the environmental effects regardless of whether they can be separately recognized. Field measurements were performed in the urban city of Enugu using the visafone CDMA based technology as a case study. The visafone BTS located at the Okpara Avenue office of Nitel Plc was also used for this work.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 3.2 Collation of Data: All the measurements were taken for mobile terminal using a radio propagation simulator called the Global positioning system (GPS). The GPS indicates the transmitter-Receive (T-R) separation distances. The procedure for the measurement were as enumerated below: (i) At the first of the Base Transceiver Station (BTS), the GPS was switched on and the point was marked. (ii) (iii) After the four (4) channels of the satellite are launched, the Enter button was pressed. The page button was pressed on the map page where the distance is recorded, elevation about sea level and latitude are indicated. (iv) The researcher then moved away from the reference Base Transceiver Station (BTS) to the next distance for the measurement of its signal strength. (v) (vi) The radio propagation simulator was then switched on. The received power level of the transmitting Base Transceiver at the given location was then recorded. (vii) The above steps were then repeated over all the required distances.

Measurement were taken in all three sectors (East, West and North). For macro cellular system, the reference distance is taken as do = 1km starting from 1km, measurements were taken in intervals of 0.5km in three zones. As the maximum coverage of CDMA based mobile terminals is 3km to 5km, measurements were performed up to a distance of 5km from the transmitter. 3.3 Data Analysis: Statistical Analysis using mean values for ungrouped frequency distribution of the received power for model development was used. This was a result of the variances of the measurement at the same distance in different sectors. The value of path loss exponent n is obtained from the measured data by linear regression, such that the difference between the measured and estimated path loss is minimized in a mean square sense. The sum of squared error is given by J (n) = 7

Where j(n) is the mean square error (MSE) as a function of the path loss exponent (n), Pi is the actual measured value of power at a distance, Pi is the estimate of received power at any distance, k is the number of measurement samples.

The value of n which minimizes the mean square error, is obtained by equating the derivative of equation (26) to zero, and then, solving for n. dJ(n) / dn = 0 8

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011

4.0.

System Design/Specification The following is the system design of a 3G CDMA Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) for the field

test transmitted. i. ii. iii. iv. Transmit power = Antenna gain Transmit frequency 10w = = 20dB 800MHz

Height of BTS antenna = 45m

The mobile station (MS) has the following parameters i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Transmit power = Sensitively Less than = Antenna Gain Transmit frequency Height of MS antenna = Average cell radius 10w 104dBM = = 1.6m = 5km 0dB 800.25MHZ

4.1

The path loss exponent of different propagation environment: The path loss exponent depends on specific propagation environment for free space n = 2 and when obstructions are present n will have a large value as shown in the table (1) Table(1) list the typical path loss exponents obtained in the mobile radio communication environments.

Table 1 :Path Loss Exponents For Different Environment Environment Free space Urban Area Cellular Radio Shadowed Urban Cellular Radio In building line of sight Obstructed in building Obstructed in factory Path Loss Exponent 2 2.7 3.5 3-5 1.6 1.8 46 23

4.2.

Practical Path Loss Prediction Technique The two practical mobile radio link design prediction techniques are: i. ii. The log distance path loss model The log normal shadowing model

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011

The log distance path loss model: Path loss is an attenuation that signals suffer when propagation from transmitter to the receiver. Propagation path loss increases not only with frequency but also with distance. Both theoretical and measurement based propagation models indicate that the average received signal power decrease logarithmically with distance, whether in outdoor or in indoor radio channels. The average large scale path loss for an arbitrary T-R separation is expressed as a function of distance by using a path loss exponent n as PL (d) (d/do)n Or PL (dB) = PL (do) + 10nlog (d/do) 10 9

Where n is the path loss exponent, which indicates the rate at which the path increases with distance, do is reference distance and d is the T R separation distance. The reference distance should always be in the far field of the antenna so that near field effects do not alter the reference path loss. Its typical value is 1km in macro cell system. The Pr (d0) can be calculated from the free space path loss model through field measurement in the wireless environment at reference distance (d0)from the transmitter. The value of n can be determined analytically or empirically. The log-normal shadowing model Shadowing is the gradual variation of the received signal strength around its average value and fading is the rapid variation in the received signal strength due to multi path propagation. Signal strengths are varied in the range of 40db. The log-distance path loss model does not consider the fact that the surrounding environment clutter may be vastly different at two difference locations having the same T R separation. This leads to measured signals, which are vastly different from the average value predicted by equation 7

The log-normal distribution describes the random shadowing effects which occur over a large number of measurement locations which have the same T-R separation, but with different levels of clutter on the propagation path. This phenomenon is referred to as log-normal shadowing.

5.0

SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION/RESULTS In this research work, the log-normal shadowing path loss models is used in predicting the outdoor path loss which in turn can be used to determine the radio link designs. This model is chosen since it takes care of the random shadowing effects normally ignored by the log distance loss model All the measurements were taken from mobile terminal using the GPS measurement were taken in all three zones/sectors. For macro cellular system, the reference distance is taken as do = 1km. starting from 1km, at interval of 500m, measurements were taken in nine (9) different locations in the three zones. As the maximum coverage of CDMA based mobile terminals is 3km to 5km,measurements were performed up to a distance of 5km from the transmitter.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 Nine different received power measurements were taken in the three sectors/zones are represented in tables ( 2 ) below. The three zones/sectors are donated by A, B & C. Table ( 2 ): Measured Results of the Received Signal Distance from the transmitter(km) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 -66 -73 -76 -82 -86 -90 -93 -98 -102 -67 -73 -76 -81 -87 -89 -97 -99 -100 -65 -72 -74 -83 -85 -90 -98 -97 -104 SectorA(dBm) SectorB(dBm) SectorC(dBm) Mean Value(dBm) -66 -73 -76 -82 -86 90 -96 -98 -102

As the measurement varies at the same distance in different sectors, mean values for ungrouped frequency distribution of the received power for model development may be used. The corresponding path loss is given in table ( 3 ) using the formula. PL (d) = 10log10 Pt/Pr Among dBm in watts, we have -66 = 10log10 Pr Pr = 2.5 x 10-710 Pr (d) dB = = 10log10 10/2.5 x 10-7 76dB 11

Similarly, other received power can be obtained as shown in the table below Table ( 3 ): measured ungrouped mean path loss. Distance from the Transmitter (Km) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Received Power (dB) 76 83 86 92 96 100 106 108 112

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 5.1. Determination of the Path Loss Exponent: The path loss exponent (n) is the rate at which the path loss increases with distance. Path loss exponent is one of the values used to determine the efficient path loss model prediction for effective coverage area of the radio transmitter. As earlier stated, this value is obtained by using the mean square error method. Equation 12 was used to determine the path loss exponent (n).

The estimated path loss is obtained using the formular. PL = PL (do) + 10nlog(di/do) path loss, we have pi = 76 + 10nlog (di/do) P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 = = = = = = = = = 76 + 10nlog (1) = 76 + 10nlog (1.5/1) 76 + 10nlog (2.5/1) 76 + 10nlog (2.5/1) 76 + 10nlog (3.0/1) 76 + 10nlog (3.5/1) 76 + 10nlog (4.0/1) 76 + 10nlog (4.5/1) 76 + 10nlog (5.0/1) 12 Using the field measurement, at the does in distance (do) of 1km, PL (do) = 76dB to calculate the estimated 13 Based on the field measurement, the estimate of the received power at the specified distances are: 76 = = = = = = = = 76+2n 76+3n 76+4n 76+5n 76+5.4n 76+6n 76+6.5n 76+7n

In obtaining the channel path exponent, as stated earlier, the mean square error (MSE) method is used. The evaluation of the MSE is shown in the table below: Table(4) : Evaluation of Mean Square Error Distance (m) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 76 83 83 92 96 100 106 108 112 Pi (dBm) Pi (dBm) 76 76 + 2n 76 + 3n 76 + 4n 76 + 5n 76 + 5.4n 76 + 6n 76 + 6.5n 76 + 7n 0 7 2n 10 3n 16 4n 20 5n 24 5.4n 30 6n 32-6.5n 36 7n Pi - Pi 0 4n228n+ 49 9n260n +100 16n2-128n+256 25n2-200n+400 29.16n2-259.2n+575 36n2-360n-900 42.25n2-416n+1024 49n2-504n+1296 (Pi Pi)2

= 210-41n2 1955.2n + 4601

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Recalling equation (7) again and solving for j (n) we have J (n) = 210.41n2 1955x2n + 4601 The value that minimizes the mean square error (n) is called the minimum mean square error (MMSE). This is obtained by taking the derivative of the MSE & making it equal to zero (0). The derivative of the MSE is dj(n)/dn = 420.82n 1955.2 Therefore, the minimum mean square error (MMSE) is dj(n)/dn = 420.82n 1955.2 = 0 n = 1955.2/420.82 = 4.65

Therefore the path loss exponent of the shadowed urban area of Enugu metropolis is 4.63. To determine the standard deviation (dB) about the mean values, the formula is used (dB) = = /K 14

[(210.41n2 1955.2n + 4601)/9]1/2

But n = 4.65 [dB] = [(210.41 x 4.655 1955.2 x 4.65 + 4601/9]1/2 = 2.56.

The standard deviation of the log-normal shadowing about its mean value is 2.56dBm. From the calculations above, the path loss model is Lp(d) = 76 + 46.5 log (d) + 2.56

Therefore, by adding the obtained value of the standard deviation to the equation above, the resultant path loss model is given as Lp(d) = 78.56 + 46.5 log (d)

5.2 Result Analysis The outdoor path loss prediction parameters obtained using the log-normal shadowed model reveals that the path loss exponent value and the standard deviation caused by the shadowing effect are 4.65 and 2.56dBm respectively. The path loss exponent value shows the rate with which the path loss increases with distance. Fig 1 shows the graph of distance versus signal strength while fig 2 shows the graph of distance versus the received power. This helps us to have a better understanding of the measured signal strength / Received power from the three sectors of the Base Transceiver Stations.

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Fig 1 : Distance versus received signal strength

Fig 2 : Distance versus Actual received signal strength

Fig1 shows that the various signal strength varies as the distances increase; hence showing the sector that has a better signal strength when distance increases. Fig 2 shows that as the distance increases the received power also increases

6.0. Conclusion In this paper, the outdoor path loss prediction parameters obtained using the log- normal shadowing model reveals that the path loss exponent value and the standard deviation caused by shadowing effect are 4.65 and 2.56dBm respectively. This gives an efficient path loss model of Lp(d) = 78.56 + 46.5log(d) The path loss exponent value shows the rate at which the path loss increases with distance in a CDMA communication system. An understanding of the radio propagation using path loss model as a function of distance from where the signal level could be predicted is essential for reliable communication system design.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No.4, 2011 References: [1] Agarwal D.P et al (2003) Introduction to wireless mobile systems Thomson and sons, pp 63 [2] Rappaport T.S, (2006) wireless communication principles and practice Pearson Education [3] Jorgan A.B, et al,(1996) propagation Measurements and models for wireless communication

channels, IEEE communication magazine, Vol.33 no 1, pp 42 [4] Guptel V, et al, (2008) Efficient pathloss prediction in mobile wireless communication Networks, proceeding of world Academy of science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 36 [5] Waltisch, J. et al,(1988) A theoretical model of uhf propagation in urban environments, IEEE Transactions on Antenna and propagation pp 1788 1796. [6] Smith, M.S et al,(2000) A new methodology for delivery pathloss model for cellular drive test data. [7] Andisen J.B et al , (1995) Propagation Measurement for wireless Communication channels, IEEE commercial magazine, pp42 - 47

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