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Edward R. Rosset

Written by / Escrito por: Edward R. Rosset Member of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi. Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letras de Euskadi Revised by / Revisado por: BITEZ LOGOS Published by / Editado por: Editorial Stanley Layout / Diseho y Maquetacion: Angela Gomez Martin Front page design / Diseno portada: Diseno (runes Editorial Stanley Apdo. 207 - 20302 IRUN - SPAIN Telf. (943) 64 04 12 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63 ISBN: 84-7873-196-2 Dep. Leg. BI-2919-02 Third edition /Tercera edicion 2003 Printers / Imprime: Imprenta Berekintza

1 Adjective order 2 Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes. 3 Prefixes 4 Adjectives: Comparison 5 Adjective: Comparison (cont.) 2 4 6 8 10 32 Gerund after prepositions 33 Infinitive after certain verbs 34 Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs 35 Modal verbs. Revision 36 The one who / that / which The one with 37 Once + Present perfect 38 Passives: All tenses is considered / thought / said to be 39 Reported speech 40 Reported speech (cont.) 41 Remember (and other verbs) + gerund or infinitive 42 Suffixes and prefixes 43 Compound nouns 44 Tenses: General revision 45 Phrasal verbs 1 Phrasal verbs 2 Phrasal verbs 3 Phrasal verbs 4 Phrasal verbs 5 Phrasal verbs 6 Phrasal verbs 7
Phrasal verbs 8

64 _ 66 _ 68 70 72 74

6 Adjectives: degrees of intensity _ _ 12 7 Adverbs of manner 8 Adverbs of degree 9 As well as + ing - Although As long as - As (cause) 10 Used to + gerund 11 Because of - Bound to 12 By + time phrase By the time + past perfect 13 The causative 14 Clauses of reason 15 Clauses of comparison 16 Clauses of concession 17 Condition clauses 18 Clauses of purpose 19 Clauses of purpose (cont.) 20 Clauses of time 21 Conditionals type 1 22 Conditionals type 2 23 Conditionals type 3 24 Comparisons 25 Connective relative clauses 26 Discourse markers 27 Relative clauses: defining 28 Relative clauses: non-defining 29 Future tense: contrasts 30 Future tense: contrasts (cont.) 31 Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62

76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 91 93 94 95 97 98

APENDIX 1 Exercise. Idiomatic expressions. APENDIX 2 Exercise. Idiomatic expressions with colours APENDIX 3 Expressions with: to do to make

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Edward R. Rosset



Adjective order
Aunque es muy dificil dar un orden exacto, y hay ligeras variaciones entre las gramaticas mas usuales hoy en dfa, se puede considerar que el orden que damos a continuation es el mas aceptado.
A big black cat. A long wide avenue. Cruel blue eyes, A small blue metal box. An old iron bucket. Yellow silk curtains.

Cuando young y old se usan para dar information, ocupan la position num. 3.
A young, black woman. An old, Italian clock.

Si queremos poner enfasis en el tamano es mejor usar small, que little.

He was a small ambitious man.

1 Tamano excepto little. 2 Descripcion general

incluyendo adjetivos de personalidad y emocidn. 3 Edad y el adjetivo little.

4 Forma 5 Color 6 Material 7 Origen 8 Proposito generalmente gerundios: winding road, running shoes.

Cuando los adjetivos son predicatives, es decir, van detras del verbo, generalmente se pone and.
The tea was sweet and strong.

I had a black and white Italian chessboard. They sat at a big, round, conference table. She wore black, Spanish, leather boots. He played with an expensive steelframed tennis racket. The day was dark, wet and cold.

Los adjetivos de personalidad y emotion vienen detras de los adjetivos de description fisica, pero antes que los colores:
A small, nervous man. A large, patient group of men. A fierce, black dog. A kind, white doctor.

A menudo usamos little, young y old, no para dar informacion, sino como una combination de adjetivo/sustantivo:
Jimmy is such a nice, little boy. An athletic, suspicious, young man stood at the door.




1. Pon los adjetivos entre parentesis en la posicion correcta.

Example: We saw a Japanese film, (new) We saw a new Japanese film. 1. an old picture (expensive/Italian) 2. short hair (black/attractive) 3. a large town (new/exciting) 21. a leather handbag (small/black/shiny) 4. a small dog (thin/white) 5. a narrow street (small) 6. a white face (fattish) 7. a wooden box (brown/large) 8. a black car (new/large) 9. a pretty dress (blue) 26. A curious dog (little/brown) 10. a cold shower (refreshing) 27. A tall cowboy (handsome/dark/Texan) 11. a rainy day (miserable) 28. a green ashtray (Chinese/glass) 12. large eyes (red) 29. a conference hall (large/glass) 13. a British film (funny) 30. a carving knife (long/sharp) 14. a black skirt (leather) 31. a handy little calculator (black) 15. an old mansion (decrepit) 32. a curious monkey (little) 16. a beautiful woman (young) 33. an inexpensive dirty hotel (little) 17. an old man (grumpy) 34. a kindly coloured doctor (old) 18. a rare bracelet (emerald) 22. a huge milkshake (ice-cold/ strawberry) 23. a Spanish waiter (little/friendly) 24. a clean room (bright/beautiful) 25. a daring pilot (handsome/young/Air Force) 19. a little restaurant (French/nice) 20.a kitchen cupboard (handmade/ wooden)




Adjectives. Formation, prefixes and suffixes.

Algunas palabras hacen la funcion solamente de adjetivos (small). Otras pueden ser sustantivos o adjetivos (cold). Muchos adjetivos que se relacionan con verbos o sustantivos tienen un final caracteristico (suffix). care careful change changeable Los participios de presente tambien actuan enjoy enjoyable truth truthful como adjetivos: amuse amusing amused astonish astonishing astonished

Adjectives ending in -ible able

susceptible irresponsible unanswerable inseparable inescapable indispensable irreconcilable inexorable implacable incompatible regrettable defensible estimable indomitable unshakeable negligible understandable

Adjectives ending in -ive abortive abusive acquisitive deceptive defective defensive discursive evasive excessive formative indicative intensive lucrative pervasive plaintive repulsive submissive successive

inedible irreplaceable conceivable irreparable indelible irrevocable enviable inimitable impassable uncontrollable negotiable convertible enjoyable pitiable punishable unsaleable

Adjectives ending in -ous boisterous capricious extraneous fallacious fastidious homogeneous ingenious ludicrous malicious miscellaneous monstrous obnoxious precocious presumptuous specious strenuous supercilious

Adjectives ending in -ate insubordinate elaborate desperate appropriate intimate deliberate moderate duplicate desolate separate



1. En letra cursiva tienes una explicacion de la palabra que tienes que poner terminando en ble.
Example: This word is impossible to pronounce. It is unpronounceable. 1. He had followed a course in elocution. His speech was quite without faults.

It was
2. I think that this plan will be impossible to put into practise. It will be 3. A masterpiece is impossible to define or explain.

It is
4. The number 13 can't be divided by any other number.

It is

2. Haz lo mismo con los adjetivos que terminan en ous.

Example: Teachers prefer a class with pupils of the same level. It is an homogeneous class. 1. Children who develop faculties at an early age don't always become Einsteins. They are 2. Many children are difficult to please. They are 3. Her arguments seemed right, but they were not so. They were 4. The weather here is unpredictable and ever-changing. It is very

3. Haz lo mismo con adjetivos que terminan en ate.

Example: Keep these ones apart from the others. Keep them separate.. 1. It was a very complicated plan. It was very 2. The place was deserted and uninhabited,

it was
3. They are very close friends. They are 4. That word was just the right word. It was very




Los prefijos a menudo tienen un efecto negative: Prefixes with:
DISdisappointed disconnected disdainful disgusted dishonest disillusioned disloyal disobedient dissatisfied distinct,
ILillegal illegitimate illicit illiterate illogical. IRirrational irregular irrelevant irreligious irresponsible irreversible. IMimmoral immovable impatient imperfect important impractical improvised imprudent impure impudent.

agreeable honest

disagreeable dishonest

INincessant incidental incompatible incomplete incomprehensible inconsistent inconspicuous inconvenient incorrect incurable indecisive indefinable indented independent indescribable indifferent indirect indispensable indisputable ineffective inevitable inexperienced informal inseparable insignificant insincere invisible.

NONnon-interference non-military non-religious non-violent.

ANTIantiaircraft anticommunist antiseptic antisocial.

UNunable unbroken unarmed uncertain unclear unconcerned uncomfortable unconnected unconquerable uncons-cious uncontrolled unconventional uncooperative uncultivated undecided undignified undisciplined uneasy uneducated unexcitable unexpected unexplored unfaithful unfavourable unfinished unfriendly unhappy unharmed unimportant uninjured unknown unlucky unmarried unnecessary unnoticed unpaid unplanned unpleasant unreal unreliable.

HYPERhyperactive hypersensitive.

OVERoverdue overcharging overdeveloped over-elaborate.

PREprewar. PROpro-American. SUBsubnormal submarine subtitle.

SUPERsuperman superhuman superwoman supernatural. UNDERunderdone undercooked undfirdfi-velonerl



1. Pon el adjetivo contrario al que se te da. Usa los sufijos que has aprendido. Example: This person is not very honest. He is dishonest. 1. Smuggling tobacco is, of course, not legal. 16. He is not very well known. In fact, he is 17. He was not a very social man.

It js
2. That boy is not responsible.

He was
18. She is an extremely sensitive person.
She is

He is
3. This person doesn't care about morals. He is a very I was 5. In America many people were against communism. They were 6. This thing is impossible to eat. It's 7. I'm afraid he is not very loyal. person. 4.1 was not injured in the accident,

19. It is not very well adjusted.

It is
20. This gold is not very pure.

It is
21. He has no illusions left in this life. He is rather 22. This treatment is not very effective.


He is
8. He is lacking education.

23. Johnny has never been very formal. He is rather 24. It was not a very real situation. It _was_quite_ 25. The meat is not done yet.

He is
9. You can dispense with him.

He is not
10. The bill was due to be paid some time ago.

It is
26. This man is extraordinary.

lt is
11. It is not logical to do that.

He is a
27. It was not very consistent. It was rather 28. The report was not complete.

It is
12. 'Is he satisfied?' 'No, he is 13. It was not at all planned.

It was
29. It wasn't a regular situation. It was quite 30. The situation is not very favourable.

It was
14. He is not very religious. On the contrary, he is 15. They are not going to interfere. They have an

It is




Adjectives: comparison
La mayor parte de los adjetivos monosilabos anaden er y est para formar el comparative y el superlative:
cleaner cleanest greater greatest colder coldest

Muchos monosilabos que terminan en vocal + consonante duplican la consonante:

bigger sadder thinner wetter fatter biggest saddest thinnest wettest fattest

Para formar el grado comparative y superlativo de los adjetivos de dos o mas silabas, se anade more/less para los comparativos, y most/least para los superlativos. Less se puede usar con adjetivos de una sflaba (less cold).
adjective comparative superlative


gentler more gentle less gentle

gentlest most gentle east gentle

Los monosilabos que terminan en e anaden ryst:

nicer nicest later latest freer freest safer safest


more beautiful most beautiful less beautiful least beautiful

Asi como gentle, otros adjetivos bisflabos pueden formar el comparative y el superlative
common clever narrow happy tired pleasant - handsome - quiet simple - stupid

Algunos adjetivos terminan en y precedida de consonante. El comparative y superlative se forman con i:

- pretty prettier - prettiest Otros ejemplos son: easy - tidy early busy dry ready heavy sleepy

- empty - funny - dirty

Los puestos de tales palabras (unpleasant, etc.) tambien forman el comparativo y el superlative de dos formas:
unhappier more unhappy unhappiest - the most unhappy

La exception es:
- shy shyer * shyest

Adjetivos compuestos
He is more quick-witted than she is. John is better-looking than Peter. (more good-looking) He is worse-tempered than she is. (more bad-tempered)

quantifier comparative superlative much- many more most little ess least



1. Completa las frases con el comparative correspondiente.

Example: Today is very wet. It is much wetter than yesterday. 1. He came very early. He came 2. This picture is very grey. It's 3. James is very shy. He is 4. My boss is very busy. He is 5. This girl is very sad. She is 6. This boy is very fat. He is 7. These people are very free. They are those. than yesterday. than that one. than his sister. than I am. than her sister. than his friend. than

2. Haz ahora lo mismo con el grado superlative.

Example: April is very wet. It's the wettest month of the year. 1. This desk is very tidy. It's the 2. This man is very thin. He is the 3. She is very funny. She is the 4. This land is very dry. It's the 5. This picture is very grey. It's the 6. This river is very long. It's the river in the world. desk in the classroom. man in the country. girl in her class. land in the state. in the auction.

3. Usa er/est o more/most, less/least, etc. para completar las frases.

Example: This street is very narrow. It's narrower/more narrow than those. 1. This situation is 2. He is well built. In fact he is 3. This is not very expensive. In fact, it's those, (expensive) 4. That joke was not very amusing. In fact, it was the of all. (amusing) 5. This boy is very bad-tempered. He is his father, (tempered) 6. My boyfriend is very handsome. He is the know, (handsome) 7. They were all beautiful, but she was, perhaps, the . (beautiful) than boy I than that one. (common) than me. (built) than




Adjective: Comparison (cont.)

El uso de than en la forma comparativa Si la referenda es clara no hace falta ponerlo: This sleeve is longer. Si estamos hablando de dos cosas podemos decir: Which is the longer? (of the two roads)

Superlative con ever

This is the longest book (that) I have ever read. Los superlativ-es pueden ser modificados con adverbios de grado: much, quite, almost, nearly, far, by far. - This is by far the most expensive book in the shop.

Comparativo de igualdad as... as Si than va seguido de nombre o pronombre actua como preposicion; cuando va - He is as tall as his brother. seguido de una oration, hace el oficio de En negaciones se usa not as... as o not conjuncion: so/as as I know her better than you. - He is not so/as clever as his brother. - I know her better than you know her. The same as y different from. Comparativos con er and er My car is the same as yours. This girl is getting taller and taller. Our house is quite different from yours. The + comparative + the + comparative The more money you have, the more you want.

Uso de la forma superlativa

Usamos el superlative cuando comparamos con mas de uno. This is the cleanest. That is the safest. Casi siempre despues de un superlative ponemos in. London is one of the biggest towns in the world. - He is the tallest in our class. Menos frecuentemente usamos of. John is the tallest of/in the family. August is the hottest month of the year.

Grados de parecido
Those girls are exactly the same. The two brothers are completely different.



1. Termina la frase como en los ejemplos.

Example: He is growing. He is getting taller and taller. He is ambitious. The more he has, the more he wants. 1. This boy is very greedy. The more you give him (take). 2. Flights are getting cheaper. They are getting every day. 3. 'Sometimes you have a lot of time and do nothing.' 'Yes, the more time you have, 4. 'Computers are becoming very complicated.' 'Yes, they are getting every day.' 5. 'If you make a lot of money, you spend a lot money.' 'Yes, the more money you make, ' 2. Pon la preposicion que falta. Example: He is the tallest boy in our class. 1. My girlfriend is the most beautiful girl 2. The 21st of December is the shortest day 3. The Nile is the longest river 4. She is the most clever/cleverest 5. That was the happiest day Africa. her family. my life. the world. the year.

3. Termina la frase con ever. Example: She is the prettiest girl I've ever seen. 1. This is the most interesting book (that) 2. He is the most conceited man (that/whom) I (meet) 3. That was the most expensive bicycle (that) . (ride) 4. Usa el comparativo de igualdad para completar las frases. Example: Your car is not as/so new as mine. 1. This house is just 2. No, this book is 3. My son is just 4. No, he is (big) ours. (interesting) that one. (clever) yours. (hard worker) his brother. . .




Adjectives: degrees of intensity

Recuerda Los adjetivos se pueden dividir en dos ciases: ios que se pueden graduar y ios que no. Un adjetivo es graduabie cuando se puede usar con palabras tales como very, too, enough, excellent, etc. Un adjetivo es no graduabie cuando no se puede modificar: monthly, yearly, medical, dead. Very Very solo, no puede ir con comparativos y superlatives, pero very much si puede.
This is very much faster than this one.

Indeed Intensifica en grado sumo la accion del adjetivo.

'Was it good?' 'Yes, it was very good indeed!'

Con alone:
The poor woman has been very much alone lately.

-ly intensifiers.
He is a particularly good element. The news was terribly confusing. This man works really slowly. She was extremely helpful.

Very se puede usar con gerundios y participios.

She is a very interesting woman. She was very interested.

Very much, so much, such a/an Much o very much puede ir en el medio de la frase.
She is very much/much loved in this country.

Jolly, pretty, dead + adjectives.

He is a jolly good fellow. This train is moving pretty slowly. And he was dead right!

Si queremos ponerlo al final de la frase tenemos que usar very much.

I like her very much.

Con un sustantivo podemos poner such a + adjetivo, o so + adjetivo.


Mrs Smith was such a nice woman!/ Mrs Smith was so nice!



1. En todas las frases tienes adjetivos. Tienes que aumentarlos o disminuirlos de intensidad si se puede. Example. She was a nice person. She was a very nice person. 1. This is a very good cake. That one is 2. This newspaper is daily. It is a 3. The pot is hot. It is 4. Your answer is wrong. It is not 5. The water in the pool is warm 6. I get paid every month. I get paid 7. Byron is 8. It was 9. I enjoyed the party 10. The masterpiece was the only one.lt was 11. Nothing could be heard. The place was 12. We all like him. He is a 13. 'You were very wrong.' 'Yes, I know I was 14. The wounded needed a doctor. They needed good. newspaper. hot to touch. right. to swim in. . admired in Greece. nice party! . . quiet. fellow. wrong.' attention.

2. Usa estos adverbios de intensidad y juntalos con la oracion que creas va mejor. 1 All the bodies were 2 He is an honest man ', \ 3 He has been many years with the firm as he is a 4 The situationcheap F incredibly was 5 The poor girt felt 6 He djdn't trust him^ He felt 7 She is getting old and 8 The raid into enemy territory was 9 They all missed her She was 10 You are wrong.You are 11 This leather _ _? is _ _ .. _ bag 12 Your answers were 13 The soldiers were 14 That pullover is 15 Those sheets are 16 This armchair is A extremely comfortable B whiter than white extremely tight tight D well lined-up E mostly wrong F incredibly cheap G horribly mutilated H completely mistaken I perfectly planned J bad|y needed K works really slowly L deePly suspicious M terribly confusing N terrib|y confused 0 particularly good worker [. *, p highly respectable




Adverbs of manner
La mayoria de los adverbios de manera se forman ahadiendo "ly" a los adjetivos:
- glad mad . gladly . madly

Adverbios con dos formas que se usan de la misma manera

cheap. cheaply clean . cleanly - clear . clearly close . closely dear . dearly fair . fairly ^fine .finely firm . firmly first . firstly loud . loudly quick.quickly quiet. quietly slow . slowly thin .thinly

Los adjetivos que terminan en I duplican la I:

careful . carefully

Si terminan en y despues de consonante:

busy busily

Los que terminan en e ahaden ly:

possible possibly

We bought the house cheap/cheaply.

Prases preposicionales usadas como adverbios Cuando no existe un adverbio para lo que queremos expresar recurrimos a una frase adverbial.
We came here by train. They all came to us in a rush.

Posicion de los adverbios de manera 1. Despues del objeto:

They watched us curiously.

2. Despues del verbo:

It rained heavily last night.

3. Despues de una particula adverbial: He put the ladder up carefully.

Adjetivos que terminan en "ly"

brotherly cowardly * elderly fatherly - friendly * heavenly likely silly sisterly lively unfriendly lovely - unlikely * manly motherly ugly sickly

En narrativa a veces empezamos la frase con adverbios de manera, tales como:

gently slowly suddenly

He is a friendly man. (adjective) - He always greets me in a friendly way. (adverb)

Estos adverbios van seguidos por una coma.

Suddenly, he heard a voice behind him.

Adjetivos y adverbios con la misma forma y el mismo significado

A fast (adjective) car is a car that goes fast (adverb). She works hard (adverb) because she likes hard (adjective) work.



1. Completa las frases siguientes con adverbios.

Example: This is, possibly, the show in town (possible). 1. It was an 2. This boy is 3. This is 5. We pay our bills 6. I always drive very 7. They all left 8. I'm sorry, I hear very 9. It was a very 10. That girl speaks 11. They decided to leave town 12. It was not a 13. I was 14. The train didn't go very 15. They didn't work very difficult situation (extreme). in love with that girl (mad). the same thing (basic). (heavy). (month). (careful). (hurry). (bad). evening (live). quickly (incredible). (secret). successful book (whole). in love with you (true). (fast). (hard).

4. We didn't go out because it was raining

2. En este ejercicio tienes que decidir cual de las dos palabras es la apropiada. Tacha la que no lo sea.
Example: He spoke 'tyti&/quietly in the dark. 1. She is terribly/terrible upset about losing her boyfriend. 2. He drove very careful/carefully along the narrow road. 3. All those people were very colourful/ colourfully dressed. 4. After years in Paris she speaks very good/well French. 5. His English is not very good but his German is almost fluent/fluently. 6. Both of them are very happy/happily married. 7. It has rained continuously/ continuous for two weeks. 8. Why is that girl so unfriend/ unfriendly? 9. She waited nervous/nervously in the waiting room. 10. The two men were seriously/serious injured. 11. She was bitter/bitterly y disappointed. 12. It's a reasonable/reasonably cheap hotel. 13. The food in here is extremely/ extreme good. 14. I'm terrible/terribly sorry. I didn't mean it. 15. The exam was surprising/ surprisingly easy.




Adverbs of degree
Los adverbios de grado mas corrientes son: enoug quite almost rather altogether fairly - hardly somewhat - barely nearly too a bit Se pueden usar como adverbios de grado. - very much a little a lot etc. much
I don't like her very much. They don't drink much wine in this country.

Sin embargo, cuando quite se usa con adjetivos como good o strong, el resultado es ligeramente mas debit. The play was good. The play was quite good. (ligeramente inferior) De todas formas depende mucho del entasis que le damos a la palabra.

Rather y fairly
Ambos significan 'moderadamente', pero fairly se usa generalmente con adjetivos y adverbios favorables (nice, good, well, etc.) mientras que rather se usa generalmente con adjetivos y adverbios desfavorables (ugly, bad, silly, etc.): Jimmy is fairly clever, while his sister is rather stupid. Estos se pueden usar con participios: She was fairly comfortable; he was rather astonished. He is a fairly good speaker, but rather lazy.

El sentido de quite depende de la clase de palabra que lo modifica. Puede expresar el sentido de 'completamente, mucho' con: full all right right determined empty wrong finished etc... The bottle is quite full. You were quite right.

Hardly, barely y scarcely

Los tres son muy parecidos, con un sentido generalmente negative. Hardly se suele usar con ever, any, at all, o con el verbo can. She can hardly speak. The soup was barely warm. hardly barely scarcely ever puede ser reemplazado por almost never. I hardly ever go to London. I almost never go to London.

Con palabras tales como:

amazingly perfectly unique astoundingly etc. This man is quite amazing. He plays quite amazingly.


quite le da a la palabra un valor superlative.



1. A continuacion tienes unas frases con fairly y rather. Tacha la que creas que no esta bien.
Example: This man is rather/fairly stupid. 1. During the driving test she was fairly/rather relaxed. 2. The old woman walks fairly/rather slowly. 3. This book is rather/fairly interesting. 4. It was a rather/fairly boring film. 5. The box was fairly/rather light. 6. It was a rather/fairly heavy box. 7. Johnny is rather/fairly intelligent. 2. Completa las frases que van a continuacion con el adverbio apropiado: fairly, rather, quite, hardly. Example: The meal was quite good. I enjoyed it. 1. That old man is 2. It's 3. I 4. They 5. She 6. He is 7. I was 9. Frank is clever but 10. It's a 11. The job was 12. There was 13. It's like raw fish. spoke on the way. knows a word of French. certain that she'll come back to him. sure that you'd come. lift it. lazy. good play. I wouldn't go again though. finished. anybody left. a nuisance that we can't park here. an expert on Roman coins. a shame that we have to work on Sundays.

8. The case was so heavy that he could

3. Vuelve a escribir estas frases usando almost. Example: I hardly ever see him nowadays. / almost never see him nowadays. 1. There's hardly any good news in the newspapers today. 2. We hardly ever go out nowadays. 3. Your son barely ever knows his lesson.




As well as + ing - Although - As long as - As (cause)

As well as + ing
Cuando as well as se usa con un verbo va seguido de gerundio. As well as breaking his arm, he hurt his leg. He worked at night as well as working during the day. - As well as running a marathon, he went to the disco. Hay una pequena diferencia entre: They act as well as dance, (actuan y tambien bailan) They act as well as they dance, (actuan tan bien como bailan)

Although y though
A menudo se usan indistintamente: He's a nice chap though/although I don't like the way he behaves. Though/although he lacks official support, he continues the fight. Though es mas informal y a menudo se pone at final de la frase: The weather didn't help. I enjoyed myself, though. En este caso se puede traducir por 'sin embargo' y hace el oficio de adverbio. A veces usamos even con though para darle mas enfasis: Even though I didn't understand her, I liked her voice.

As long as
Despues de as long as en ingles se usa el presents de indicative, mientras que la misma frase en espafiol se pondria en presente de subjuntivo: We'll go with them as long as there is room for us. (siempre que haya sitio) Lo mismo ocurre con otras conjunciones: after before when if until You can take my book as long as you don't lose it. (mientras no lo pierdas)

A veces tiene el sentido de although. <* Raining as it was, we went out. (Although it was raining) Tired as he was, he went on walking. (Although he was tired) A veces tiene el sentido de because. As there is little demand, we don't keep a big stock. As she is very old, she doesn't go out any more. A veces tiene el sentido de since. As you can't do it yourself, ask somebody else. As you are young, you can help me.




1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas con as well as.

Example: She washed the dishes. She made the bed. As well as washing the dishes, she made the beds. 1. He plays the guitar. He sings.

2. He speaks Chinese. He writes it.

3. They feed you. They let you have a bed.

4. They smash the place. They laugh at you.

5. He swims in the sea. He lies in the sun.

6. In a triathlon you swim. You run and you cycle.

2. Completa la frase usando as long as.

Example: I'll go there as long as you come with me. 1. We'll go for a picnic (not/rain) 2. I'll go with you (not/go over/speed limit) 3. We'N be able Jo do it (you come/in time) 4. I'll have a word with him (you/not/interrupt us) 5. You won't have any problems (you/pay/on time) 3. Tacha la palabra que consideres mal. Example: Our argument, alfoetmi/though, is the need for economic independence. 1. Even though/although we haven't met for years, we still love each other. 2. It was a quiet party. I had a good time, though/although. 3. Cold though/although it was, I went out. 4. Even though/although it was raining, we went for a walk.




Used to + gerund
Puede que nos parezca raro que en algunas oraciones el verbo que va detras de to vaya en gerundio en vez de infinitive. Lo que pasa es que hay dos clases de to. Uno es el signo de infinitive: I like to stay at home at the weekend. Do you want to come with us? El otro to es una preposicion. I'm going to London. I'm not used to this traffic. Cuando esta preposicion va seguida de un verbo, este verbo lo ponemos en gerundio. I'm not used to driving in this traffic. Do they object to working on Saturday mornings? La forma de saber si el to es preposicion o no, es poner un sustantivo detras. Si se puede poner, es preposicion. I'm looking forward to Christmas. (preposicion) I object to loud music. (preposicion) Si el to no puede ir seguido por un sustantivo no es preposicion. No se puede decir: 'I want to Christmas'. Tampoco se podria decir, por lo tanto: 'I want to speaking'. Los ejemplos mas corrientes de to + gerundio son: look forward to ...-ing, in addition to ... -ing, be accustomed to... -ing, object to... -ing, used to... -ing. I'm not used to driving on the left. I object to having so many interruptions. - He is accustomed to enduring this harsh climate. In addition to having difficulties with the language, he is mentally handicapped. I'm looking forward to hearing from you.

Que los tres tipos de frases siguientes dan lugar a confusion: I'm not used to speaking in public, (no estoy acostumbrado) I used to speak in public, (solia hablar...) I usually speak in public, (suelo hablar...)


1. Completa estas frases con gerundio o infinitive.
Example: I'm not used to eating out. (eat) 1. I object to 2. I'm looking forward to 3. She wants to 4. I used to 5. They usually they are alone.


(have) loud music played in my ear. (hear) from you. (eat) fish. (speak) in French when I met her. (speak) in her mother language when

6. She objects to (be) laughed at. 7. We have to (drive) on the left in England. 8. In addition to (come) late, he came dirty. 9. Are you used to (get up) early? 10. He used to (get up) early when he was in the army. 11. When they were little they used to (come) to see me quite often. 12. In addition to (speak) four languages, he can understand several others. 13. I strongly object to (be) spoken to like that. 14. Are you looking forward to (see) them again? 15. I don't usually (smoke) a pipe. 16. When I was young I used to (smoke) a pipe. 17. Well, the trouble was that I wasn't used to (smoke) a pipe. 18. I'd like to (go) riding in the morning. 19. She expects me to (visit) her every time I go to London. 20. I'm not looking forward to (pay) those bills. 21. I object to (be) treated like a slave. 22. I would like to (have) fish, please. 23. The poor girl was not used to (live) in a caravan. 24. The gypsy girl used to (live) in a caravan. 25. Those gypsies usually (live) in caravans. 26. Are you looking forward to (go) on holiday? 27. I'm not used to (be) insulted. 28. He used to 29. He doesn't usually 30. I'm not looking forward to 31. They expect us to 32. I object to 33. I used to 34. Are you used to (insult) everybody. (stay) here long. (meet) him. (invite) them to dinner. (be) kept waiting for hours. (go) there often when I was young. (drive) on the left?




Because of - Bound to
Because Es una conjuncion que introduce una oracion, con sujeto y verbo.
I couldn't sleep because I had drunk a cup of coffee.

Que bound for signified algo muy distinto. <? The ship is bound for port. (se dirige a) We are bound for home. Where are you bound for? Tambien se pueden formar adjetivos compuestos. Eastbound traffic will be delayed. That's the northbound lane.

Because of Es una preposicion que se pone delante de un sustantivo o pronombre.

They were late because of traffic problems.

Bound Es un sinonimo de confident, sure, certain.

My brother is sure/certain/bound to win this match, (esta seguro de ganar)

Diferencias entre bound y likely.

He is likely to come tonight. (quiza venga) He is bound to come tonight. (seguro que viene)

Confident No puede ir seguido de un infinitive.

I'm confident that you will win.

Por otra parte likely admite tambien una oracion introducida por that. It's likely that he will come tonight.

Bound + infinitive Tambien puede significar estar bajo una obligacion.

According to the contract, they are bound to supply the materials.

Ejemplos con bound to.

The weather is bound to get better tomorrow. You've worked so hard that you're bound to pass your exam. I feel bound to tell you that you are drinking too much. I'm bound to say that I disagree with you on that point.



1. Completa las frases con because o because of. Example: He was very happy because he had won the lottery. 1. They separated 2. He won't be here tonight 3. He won't be here today 4. She was sad 5. She doesn't go out any more 6. He left her 7. We haven't been able to finish it certain differences in opinion. he missed the train. a strike. her dog had been run over by a car. her age. he didn't love her any more. the holidays.

2. Completa las frases con bound o bound for. Example: 'Where are you going?' 'Well, we are bound for London.' 1. 'i,ls she going to tell you?' 'Yes, she is later.' 2. According to his letter, our order is 3. I feel 4. Those people were 5. I knew it! Those two were 6. That ship is 7. Don't worry. He'll tell. He is 8. We've finished for today. We are Liverpool. tell the truth sooner or later. home. tell me sooner or arrive any time.

tell you that you are driving too fast. New York and Miami. get married.

3. Completa las frases con bound to o likely to. Example: 'Do you think he'll sell the car?' 'Well, yes. He is likely to sell it. 1. Look at those black clouds. It is umbrella. 2. 'Will he ring today?' 'Probably. He is 3. I knew it. It was forever. 4. It's quite 6. I'm tomorrow. 5. I was sure of it.That hooligan was to rain any minute. Take the to give us a ring tonight.' to happen. He couldn't lead that sort of life that she will come with us. to finish up in jail! to finish reading it tonight. I'll probably give it to you to supply the material.

7. According to the contract, he is




By + time phrase - By the time + past perfect

By the time phrase
By, seguido de una hora, significa 'para', es decir, 'no mas tarde de'. I have to be at home by ten o'clock. Where is she? She should be here by now. Take the car, but I want it back by six o'clock. By seven o'clock in the morning, I'm already working. Se puede usar con el future imperfecto simple. By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be in Benidorm. I'll be able to tell you by seven o'clock this evening. Y con future imperfecto continue. By six o'clock tomorrow, we'll be lying on the beach in Miami. By seven tomorrow, I'll be telling you the whole story. Con el future perfecto simple. I will probably have finished this job by eight. By eight o'clock, we'll have already finished dinner. Y future perfecto continue. By eight o'clock tonight, I will have been working on this job for 20 hours. By four o'clock, we will have been eating for two hours.

By the time
Se puede usar con presente. By the time you come here, he'll have disappeared. We'll have finished breakfast by the time you get up. En pasado. By the time you came here, he had disappeared. They had stolen all the jewels by the time the police arrived. En preterite anterior. By the time she had finished speaking, the little boy had vanished. I had made all the beds by the time she had finished shopping. By the time the policeman had realized what was happening, the burglar was already on the roof. The boys had already eaten all the cakes by the time their mother went back to the kitchen.




1. Completa las frases en future simple.

Example: By six o'clock this evening I will be back (be back). 1. By nine o'clock, the children 2. I 3. Your father 4. The flight (be) in bed.

(finish) the job by four o'clock. (be) back by Saturday. (arrive) in New York by nine o'clock.

2. Completa las frases en future perfecto.

Example. They will have arrived by now. 1. I posted the letter last week, so they 2. They started at seven this morning, so they 3. I told him yesterday, so he 4. The plane took off at five, so it (receive) it by now. (finish) by now. (do) something about it by now. (arrive) by now.

3. Completa las frases en forma continua en future imperfecto o perfecto.

Example: By this time tomorrow we'll be flying to the Costa Brava. 1. By nine o'clock tonight I (finish) this job. 2. By the end of this month, I (work) here for twenty years. 3. By the time you arrive, I (sleep) in my bed. 4. By the end of the year, I (fight) in the Trade Unions for 40 years.

4. Completa las frases con el past perfect.

Example: By the time they got to the cinema, the film had already started. 1. By the time she arrived, most of the guests 2. By the time you started, I 3. By the time she got to the supermarket, they 4. By the time she got, the children up (have) breakfast. already (leave). (finished) already. (close) already.




The causative
Esta estructura gramatical se forma con: have + object + past participle present: I have my car serviced every month. I'm having my car serviced now. past: I had my car serviced last week. present perfect: I have just had my car serviced. future: I will have my car serviced tomorrow. Los verbos que a menudo se usan con esta estructura son: service paint clean decoral e deliver mend repair develop iron wash cut etc.

I may have my car serviced tomorrow. I may be having my car serviced soon.

Que es muy facil confundir el pluscuamperfecto con la estructura gramatical 'causative'. I had made a table. (past perfect) I had a table made. (causative)

teach train prepare instruct coach nos referimos a cosas que causamos que sean hechas por otros: active: I'm training my son. passive: My son is being trained, causative: I'm having my son trained. Con los verbos:

La forma causativa es parecida a la voz pasiva. Nos fijamos en lo que se le hace a algo o alguien, no en lo que alguien hace. active: We are painting our house. passive: The house is being painted
by us.


We're having our house painted.

Otros usos de have + object + past participle. She's stupid! She had that explained to her three times. Last week I had my radio cassette stolen. The Prime Minister had rotten eggs thrown at him. Why don't you have your hair cut? We had our house remodelled.



1. A continuacion tienes unas frases en voz activa. Ponlas en voz pasiva y en causativa. Example: I'm cleaning my room. My room is being cleaned. I'm having my room cleaned. 1. I built a house on the hill. 2. They'll develop the photos. 3. I mended my socks. 4. I'm going to cut the hedges. 5. She's photocopying the book. 6. She will press her skirt. 7. I did the job last night. 8. We'll paint the fence. 9. We are decorating the room.

2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos: teach, train, instruct, coach, show, prepare. Example: I'm coaching the team. The team is being coached by me. I'm having the team coached. 1. I'm teaching my daughter. 2. She is instructing the boys. 3. i prepared them for the test. 4. We'll train the children. 5. I'll show you the house. 6. He'll coach them.




Clauses of reason
Estas oraciones responden a la pregunta <,por que? y se pueden introducir con las as siguientes conjunciones:
because since seeing (that) As/Because/Since there were few people, the show was cancelled. We don't keep a stock of those books because they don't sell well.

Por regla general si queremos darle entasis la ponemos al final. A menudo empezamos frases con as o since porque las razones a las que nos referimos no necesitan ser enfatizadas.
<? As/Since you can't do it yourself, you'll have to ask somebody else to do it for you. As/Since you're very busy, I'll ask your brother to come with me.

In view of the fact that puede ser expresado por as/since/seeing that, pero no por because.
As/Since/Seeing that you're here, let's go over the figures. As/Since/Seeing that you're younger, you can carry the case. As/Since/Seeing that they've finished, we can go home.

Because suele ir a continuation de la oracion principal para poner entasis a una razon que no es conocida por la persona a la que nos dirigimos:
He is taking driving lessons because he wants to buy a car. I am studying because I want to become an engineer.

Cuando as/since/seeing that se refiere a una aseveracion anterior, o ya entendida, se puede reemplazar por if.
As/Since/Seeing that/If you don't like him, why do you go out with him?

If so/not puede reemplazar un sujeto previamente mencionado + verbo.

Will you be coming to the party? If so, bring a couple of bottles of wine. Do you want to drive? If not, I'll do the driving. Do you want to pass your exam? If so, work harder. Are you going to collect the prize? If not, I'll collect it.

Because se puede usar siempre en vez de as, since, for pero estas conjunciones no siempre se pueden usar en lugar de because.



1. A continuacion tienes dos frases, unelas con una conjuncion de razon. Example: The strike was not successful. There was little support. The strike was not successful since/as/because there was little support. 1. They camped there. It was too dark to go on. 2. The problem was too difficult. I left it blank. 3. You are here. You may as well give me a hand. 4. The fuse blew. She had switched on all the heaters. 5. She was angry. We were late. 6. We had dinner very late. I was not hungry. 7. You don't like him. Why did you invite him? 8. It had frozen. There was ice everywhere. 9. You can't cook. You'll have to hire a cook. 10. He wants to find a flat. He wants to be independent. 11. He is studying at night. He works during the day. 12. He knows Italian. He can do the talking. 13. You don't love him. Why did you marry him?

2. Completar con "if so"o "if not".

Example: Do you love Jim? If so, why don't you marry him? 1. Will you stay tonight? 2. Is he going to New York? souvenir. 3. Can you lend me 1? 4. Have you got any money? some? , hand in the key. , tell him to bring me a , I'll ask Peter. , why didn't you lend me




Clauses of comparison
Estas oraciones a menudo responden a la pregunta <,como? La formation es de: as + adjetivo + as (as good as) as + adverbio + as (as well as) not so/as... as -er... than more... than less... than the... the Normalmente omitimos el verbo de la segunda parte de la comparacion. She is as pretty as her sister (is). Mary types as quickly as Jennifer (does). He is not so/as good as his sister (is). His brother is faster than he (is). She moves more slowly than her brother (does). The more exercise you take, the better you feel. A veces omitimos tanto el sujeto como el verbo. This morning he looked happier than (he looked) last night.

Comparacion con adjetivos y verbos conjugados.

It's warmer today than it was yesterday. My wife spends more money than I earn. He doesn't pay as much as we do.

Comparacion con adverbios y verbos conjugados.

He didn't run as fast as we expected. She works harder than I did at her age.

Comparacion con adjetivos e infinitives o gerundios.

A menudo se usan indistintamente, pero es mejor usar el infinitive para una action en particular, mientras que los gerundios se usan mas para cosas en general. Nowadays it's as cheap to buy a new watch as (it is) to repair the old one. Buying a new watch is as cheap as repairing the old one. It's always safer to do it oneself than to let others do it. Doing things oneself is usually safer than letting others do them. Si tenemos un verbo conjugado + this/that/ which antes de as/than podemos poner un gerundio detras. I'll do it myself; this will be cheaper than calling a plumber. She helped me in the kitchen, which was better than watching TV.




1. A continuacion tienes dos frases con adjetivos. Unelas. Example: He is clever. His sister is just as clever. He is as clever as his sister. 1. He is slow. His brother is faster.
He is

2. He is quick. His sister is quicker. His sister 3. Today it's dark. Yesterday was not so dark.

4. He earns a lot of money. He spends more. He spends 5. We pay a lot in taxes. He doesn't pay so much. He doesn't

2. Haz ahora lo mismo con adverbios.

Example: We played well. You play better. We didn't play as well as you did. 1. i work hard. You work harder.

2. I heard people singing before. She sings louder. She sings 3. He answers quickly. His sister answers just as quickly. He answers 4. He moves slowly. His friend moves faster. He moves

3. Completa las frases siguientes.

Example: Buying a new watch is cheaper than repairing it. To buy a new watch is cheaper than to repair it. 1. I think that lying on the beach is as boring as (watch) television. 2. To drive a car is easier than 3. Eating cereals is much healthier than wine. 4. To sweep the streets is better than , (pilot) a plane. , (drink) , (do) nothing. ,




Clauses of concession
Las oraciones de concesion estan introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones: - although though even if even though no matter however whatever much as while Although/Though/Even though I was sorry for her, I must say that she deserves it. We intend to go to the book fair even if we don't sell any books. However far it is, we'll get there. No matter what you do, don't touch this. Whatever you do, don't tell anybody you saw me. Much as I'd like to help you, I can't do anything for you. However rich people are, they always want more. While I disapprove of the way you do it, I agree to the idea. May puede significar "puede que si". 'But he is your friend!' 'He may be my friend, but I still don't trust him.' De todas formas, may usado asi es parte de la oracion principal, no es una oracion de concesion. As y though pueden ir detras de algunos adjetivos, adverbios y verbos para introducir oraciones de concesion en un estilo formal. Beautiful though she was, she was a very unreliable woman. Try as we might, we couldn't get a word out of him. Even if se puede usar delante de should + infinitive, lo mismo que if en frases condicionales. Expresa la idea de que no es facil que ocurra. Even if she should hear it on the news, there's nothing she can do about it. Los compuestos de ever pueden introducir oraciones de concesion de la misma manera que no matter. Whatever I do, it always seems to be wrong. Whenever you see her, she always seems to be busy.

Podemos usar may en casos hipoteticos despues de todas las conjunciones que introducen oraciones de concesion. However clever she may be, she isn't as clever as he is. Even though you may be sorry for him, he doesn't deserve it. Whatever you may think, I won't change my decision. - However frightened you may be, you must never show it.




1. A continuacion tienes dos columnas. Casa las de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. Whatever you do, 2. No matter what you do, 3. However frightened you may be, 4. Even though you may feel sorry for him, 5. However carefully one drives, 6. Whatever your opinion is, 7. No matter where you are, 8. Much as I'd like to help, 9. Although it was supposed to be a secret, 10. While what they say is the ideal thing, A. I'm going ahead with the plans. B. it is difficult to avoid accidents. C. don't give him money. D. you must remain calm. E. don't touch this switch. F. don't tell him what I told you. G. the practise is always different. H. everybody knew about it. I. I'm powerless to do anything. J. you'll always be the same.

2. A continuacion tienes unas oraciones concesivas. Completalas con la conjuncion correspondiente. Example: Beautiful though the necklace was, it was too expensive. 1. Unlikely 2. Rich 3. Try 4. 5. 6. years. 7.

it may sound, what I'm saying is true. the man was, he had not attraction to her. they might, they couldn't move the rock. poor you are, there's always someone poorer than you. you do, don't touch the bomb. he was condemned for robbery, he only got a couple of I disapprove of the way you do it, I think you're right about it is, we'll get there in time. she should find out, she won't do anything about it. happens, don't forget to write. she's gone. gains most points, wins the competition. it rains. team gains most points, wins the set. hard I worked, my teacher was never satisfied. what they are, stick to your beliefs. it may seem. I saw it with my own eyes. he was, he was honest. difficult it is, I'll solve it. he was guilty, he got off lightly.

8. 9. 10. 11. I'll find her, 12. 13. My roof leaks 14. 15. 16. 17. Unlikely 18. Poor 19. 20.



Condition clauses
Las oraciones de condition pueden ser introducidas por las siguientes conjunciones:

as long as assuming that even if if only on condition that provided/providing that

so long as - unless suppose that supposing that whether... or otherwise but for that

Even if We must leave even if you aren't ready. Whether... or = if... or We must leave now, whether you are ready or not. Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative Unless we leave now, we'll be late. If we don't leave now, we'll be late. On condition that They'll lend us their car on condition that we pay for the petrol. Provided/Providing that You can have the rest of the day off provided / providing that you finish the job. Suppose/Supposing (that) Supposing that you miss the plane, what will you do? Otherwise I must finish the job by tomorrow, otherwise I won't get paid for it. But for that My uncle pays the fees; but for that I wouldn't be here.

Recuerda Que hay diferencias entre in case y if I'll bring some beer in case you need some. I'll bring some beer if you need some, En el primer caso traer6 la cerveza de todas formas (por si acaso). En el segundo caso la traere solo si hace falta.

Implied conditionals Type 1 With patience, you'll teach him something. (if you have patience) - Given an opportunity, they'll succeed. (if they are given) Type 2 But for his friends he would have problems, (if he didn't have) Type 3 Without their help we wouldn't have reached the top. (if they hadn't helped us)




1. Completa las frases con una conjuncion condicional. Example: We must be back by 12, otherwise we'll be locked out. 1. She used her calculator, 2. 3. We must leave at once, 4. You can borrow my car, morning. 5. 7. 8. 10. I wouldn't marry him 11. Come with me, 12. I don't mind what he does month. 6. They'll lend us their villa she would have taken longer. you are ready or not. I have it back by tomorrow I miss the train. What shall I do? we look after it. that it is true, what can we do about it? you start at once, you won't get there in time. you speak in English. he was/were a millionaire. they won't let me in. he sends me a cheque every we leave at once, we'll be late.

9. I don't mind what you talk about

2. En este ejercicio tienes que casar las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha. 1. I'll ask your father 2. Suppose there are no flights, 3. I'll be back to work tomorrow 4. We must be early, 5. You can borrow my car 6. I find it difficult to believe 7. Assuming that what you say is true, A. it has nothing to do with me. B. even if you say it's true. C. provided you buy some petrol. D. otherwise/or else we won't get a seat. E. whether I feel well or not. F. what shall I do? G. unless you prefer that I ask your mother.

3. Indica si los implied conditionals son del tipo 1, 2, o 3. Example: With luck we'll be there in time. Type 1 1. In different circumstances, I would have gone with you. 2. I would telephone her, but I don't know her number. 3. To hear her talk, you'd think she was the Queen of Sheba. 4. I'll speak to her, if I see her. 5. We would have eaten that if we had been hungry. 6. She'll marry me if I ask her. 7. You'd do it if you had to.



Clauses of purpose
Estas oraciones indican un proposito y son introducidas por: so that in order that in case lest for fear that Responden a las preguntas ^para que? y para que proposito? In order to y so as to nos dan idea de proposito, pero no son conjunciones, sino una variante del to de infinitive.

La forma negativa de in order that y so that. We came early so that/in order that we might not miss the train. Tambien podrfamos poner should not y would not. No podri'amos poner, sin embargo, could

Se pueden hacer construcciones de infinitivo con not to, so as not to, y in order not to. She wore an apron in order not to get dirty. We were behind the goalkeeper so as not to miss our team's goals.

Secuencias del verbo

Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta en presente, preterite perfecto o future, so that y in order that puede ir seguido de may, can, o will. So that es mas usado que in order that. We've come early so that/in order that we can/may/will get good seats. So that y in order that pueden ir seguidos de presente. Make a knot in your handkerchief so that/in order that you remember to give me a ring. Cuando el verbo de la oracion principal esta en pasado simple, pasado progresivo, o pluscuamperfecto, so that y in order that van seguidos de should, could, might, o would. We came early so that/in order that we should/could/might/would get good seats.

Despues de in case se puede poner should, might o presente. The building has an emergency exit in case there is (there should/might be) a fire. Should con lest He ran away lest he (should/might) be seen, (para que no)

For fear suele ir seguido de might, aunque la misma idea se puede expresar con in case. He left in a hurry for fear(that) she might change her mind. He left in a hurry in case she changed her mind.



1. Casa las frases de la izquierda con las de la derecha.

1. They've arrived early 2. I've opened the window 3. I closed the door 4. They arrived early 5. I'm taking an umbrella 6. They have a memorial service every year 7. i left a note on his pillow 8. The banknotes are different 9. They carved their names on the rock 10. They have died A. so that we should have quiet. B. in order to get fresh air. C. so they can get a good view. D. so as not to miss anything. E. in order that we may live. F. so that future generations might know who they were. G. so that blind people can tell the difference.

H. that he would be sure to see it' it. so I. lest they should forget their dead.
J. in case I need it.

2. A continuacion completa las frases con lest, in case, for fear, so that.
Example: I bought it quickly, for fear she might change her mind. 1. We avoided mentioning her husband 2. We bought the house at once 3. We arrived early 4. She hid her diary 5. We hid in the cave 6. We slipped away silently 7. She's taking a raincoat 8. I'm lighting the fire get home. 9. There were telephone points 10. She asked us to ring first 11. She came early 12. I'll take a gun with me 13. We left in a hurry 14. He uses public telephones his calls. 15. We left in a hurry 16. We left in a hurry 17.1 rang him up she should be grieved. he changed his mind. we might not miss anything. her husband wouldn't be able to find it. we might be seen. that he might wake up. she needs it. the house will be warm when the children drivers could summon help. she was out. that she might not miss anything. I need it. he should change his mind. the police won't be able to trace he'd come after us. he might come after us. to tell him the news.




Clauses of purpose (cont.)

Estas oraciones describen consecuencias y pueden ser introducidas por because o as.
She was sacked because she didn't work hard enough. As it froze, there was ice everywhere.

Las oraciones de resultado se pueden usar despues de so much, so many, so few, so little, etc.
There was so much to see that we stayed two more days. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't get in.

Tambien pueden ser expresadas por dos oraciones unidas por so:
It was too late, so we stopped for the night. It had rained hard, so there were pools everywhere.

En ambos cases se puede usar such a lot (of).

Therefore tiene el mismo sentido, pero es mas formal.

They haven't arrived yet. Therefore, we're leaving.

Que cuando la oracion es una exclamacion el so y el such se pueden usar sin el that. * He is so tall...! They made such a mess ...! She makes such horrible coffee ...! Such + a + adjective + noun se puede reemplazar por so + adjective + a + noun. Such a kind woman. . So kind a woman.

Las oraciones de resultado se pueden introducir con that despues de so + adjetivo.

His hands are so fast (that) the eye can't follow them.

Tambien se puede formar con that despues de so + adverbio.

His hands move so quickly (that) the eye can't follow them.

Se pueden formar tambien con such (a) + (adjective) noun + that.

She is such a pretty girl that everybody stares at her. They have such good players that they are unbeatable.

Such + that se pueden usar en un lenguaje formal.

Her temper is such that no one wants to be near her.

A veces encontramos el so al principio de la frase. Esto va seguido de una forma invertida del verbo.
So terrible was the news that she broke down. So conceited was the girl that nobody went out with her.




1. Completa las frases con so, such, such a, so much, so many, so few, so little.
Example: That man is such a fool that everybody laughs at him. 1. This woman is 2. It was raining 3. I was 4. Children make 5. They are 6. I've never heard 7. Thumbelina was 9. We have 10. It's 11. There are 12. He gets 13. I, however, get 14. He spoke for 15. You seldom drink 16. Mrs Cohn is 17. There was 18. I've never seen 19. That girl is 20. They were won the battle. 21.I didn't know the problem was 22. The dog was 23. It was 24. They had 25. There were 26. They were 27. They had 28. He had 29. She had choose. 30. You've made 31. She speaks 32. Never have 33. He worked pretty! that we stayed in. cold that I couldn't sleep. mess! handsome boys that all the girls love them. terrible news. that she lived in a nutshell. achieved so much. money that we'd better stay home. strange to see you here! things to do on this farm! money and works so little! money and work so much! long time that we all fell asleep. good coffee. kind. She is a lot of rain last night! nonsense in my life. nuisance! that it's difficult to imagine how they could have difficult! fierce that no one dared to get near. fierce dog that no one dared to get near. rain that the rivers overflowed. questions to answer! that they couldn't do the job in time. time that it was impossible that they'd do it in time. water left that he could hardly wet his lips. boyfriends that she didn't know which one to mess, children! fast that it's difficult to follow her. achieved so much. hours that his wife hardly ever saw him. a good person.

8. Never in the history of humanity have




Clauses of time
Las oraciones de tiempo se introducen con las siguientes conjunciones: after - as - as long as - as soon as before hardly... when once - since - immediately no sooner... than since the sooner till/until when whenever - while A menudo usamos el preterite perfecto con un futuro perfecto. By the time they've finished, we'll already have disappeared. A menudo usamos el preterite perfecto despues de once y now that. Once we have painted the kitchen, we'll move to the sitting room. Now that we know the truth, we can act accordingly.

ambien pueden ser introducidas con: the minute the moment Cuando la oracion adverbial va en primer lugar se pone una coma. After she got divorced, her life changed. His life changed completely after he got married. You can keep the book as long as you like. Once you've seen one of his films, you've seen them all. Cuando la oracion temporal se refiere al futuro, generalmente usamos el presente despues de: - after as soon as by the time - immediately till until - directly - before when. They'll emigrate to Australia when their papers are ready. As soon as we get there, I'll light a huge fire.

Que aunque generalmente no usamos el futuro en las oraciones temporales, se puede usar will despues de when. The secretary wants to know when she will be taking her holidays. Normalmente, sin embargo, usamos el presente. When I come back home, I'll bring you a present. He'll tell us about the match when he gets here. After va seguido generalmente de tiempos compuestos. After/When you've finished reading it, give it back to me. After/When the train had left, he remembered leaving the lights on. Hardly/scarcely... when, no sooner.... than. He could hardly breathe when he entered the room. No sooner had they finished painting at one end than they had to start at the other.



1. Completa las frases con una conjunction correspondiente.

after, when, as, as long as, as soon as, during the time, before, by the time, once, since, until, till, the moment, whenever, while. Example: Before John arrives, I'll give the children their tea. 1. I won't say a word, 2. We never met 3. 4. 5. 6. Let me know 7. She was making the bed 8. Finish one thing 9. They were working 10. Martha and John were always fighting 11. you do the same. I lived there. they come, we'll have finished our dinner. you have seen one, you've seen them all. you insist, I must tell you something. he arrives. he was preparing breakfast. you start another. late at night. they lived together. you get into the habit of smoking, it's very difficult to get rid

of it.
12. I'll give you a call 13. She answered the phone almost I finish.

2. En este ejercicio vamos a usar: scarcely, hardly, no sooner, the sooner. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.
Example: Hardly had he begun to talk when he was told to keep quiet. 1. No sooner had she drunk the coffee 2. Scarcely had she entered the room 3. Hardly had he finished his coffee 4. No sooner does she get money 5. The sooner we start, 6. Scarcely had he got to sleep 7. We had hardly began our walk 8. The sooner we get married, 9. Scarcely had I got into the bathtub door. 10. No sooner had she heard the news 11. We had hardly crossed the bridge 12. No sooner had she got the injection consciousness. 13. Hardly had he finished speaking to her on the phone appeared at the door. she began to feel drowsy. the phone rang. he got back to work. she spends it. we'll get to Santiago. the telephone woke him up. it started to rain. we'll have a family. there was a knock at the she broke down in tears. it collapsed. she began to lose she



Conditionals type 1
Usamos las condicionales del Tipo 1 que sucedera o no sucedera, si creemos que un acontecimiento future es probable. If he comes early, we'll go to the theatre. If he doesn't come early, we won't go to the theatre.

Variation 1
Si no estamos seguros de lo que sucedera podemos usar un verbo 'modal'. If he comes early, we may/could/can/ may/might/should/ought to/ must go to the cinema.

Variation 2: If + should + imperative

Se usa sobre todo para peticiones y sugerencias. If you should go to Barcelona, go to see the Olympic City. - If you should write to them, send them my regards. Tambien se pueden usar imperatives en el Tipo 1 ordinario. Speak to them if you want. If you want, speak to them. Se puede expresar una condicion sin if, empezando una frase con should. Esto es una forma de expresion muy formal. Should you be interested in taking part in our book fair, please fill in this form. Should you wish our agent to call on you, just drop this slip in the letter box.

If + should + imperative
If you should see her, tell her to come at once. Should you see her, tell her to come at once. If you should happen to see her, tell her to come at once. Should you happen to see her, tell her to come at once. La oration principal puede no ser un imperativo. If I should see Mary, I'll tell her to come at once.

Variation 3: Imperative + conjunction + clause

Se pueden usar imperatives en vez de oraciones de if para peticiones, comentarios, ofertas, amenazas, etc. - Keep doing that and you'll get a fine. Tell them what to do and they'll do it. Stop shouting, or you'll get smacked. Take the shortcut, or you'll never get there in time. Give us the materials, and we'll do the job.




1. Completa la segunda parte de la oracion con las palabras entre parentesis. Example: If the weather is good, we'll go for a walk. 1. If we arrive early, 2. It will be cold 3. If I win the pools, 4. I'll tell him that 5. If you stop talking, 6. We'll be there by 9 7. If she comes with you, 8. I'll lend you the book 9. If it's cold, 10. I'll fill in the form 11. If you pay cash, 12. You will get more money 13. If I am hungry, 14. You'll catch a cold (we/leave/early). (you/open/window). (I/buy/that house). (I/see/him). (I/tell/you). (the train/leaves/time). (she/be/welcome). (you/want/read it). (close/window). (you/hand/it/to/me). (you/get/reduction). (learn/languages). (eat/sandwiches). (stand/rain).

2. En las frases siguientes vas a usar el imperativo. Example: If you see her, give her my regards. 1. If you should happen to see him, (teII/he/I want/speak/he). 2. Should he call, (tell/he/l/rmg/back). 3. If you should write to Jennifer, (send/she/my/love). 4. Should you go to Madrid, (go/see/Prado Nluseum). 5. Should you be interested in our offer, (lej/we/know). 6. If you want our agent to call, (contact/we^ 7. If she should get in touch with you, (telMshe/l/sti 1I/love/she). 8. Should they come early, (let/l/know). 9. Should you receive a letter, (let/l/read/it).





Conditionals type 2
Este tipo de frases habla acerca de situaciones imaginarias y especula sobre sus consecuencias.
If you took a taxi, you would get there in time. If you didn't go to that place, you wouldn't get in trouble.

A veces describimos cosas completamente imposibles.

If I had your ears, I'd be able to fly.

Variation 1
Se puede usar were en vez de was despues de I/he/she/it. No hay diferencia en el significado, pero were es mas formal.
If I was/were taller, I'd be a policeman.

Variation 2
Cualquier verbo modal puede reemplazar a would cuando creemos que las consecuencias son menos posibles que ocurran.
If they were here, they could give us a hand, (ability) If they were here, they might give us a hand, (possibility) If he lost, he should train harder, (duty)

Sin embargo, para frases imaginarias es preferible were.

If I were the King ...

Tambien usamos were para dar consejos.

If I were you/in your position, I'd take the money.

Variation 3
Podemos usar were + infinitivo en vez de un verbo ordinario.
If I were to ask you, would you lend me some money?

Con la expresion if it were not for/were it not for, no usamos was.

If it weren't for his charity, I would have starved.

De una forma mas formal, If it were not for, se puede expresar por Were it not for.
Were it not for the Red Cross, they would have died. Were it not for the fact that they helped us, we would have died.

Se pueden usar verbos modales en la oration principal.

If you were to ask her, she might accept. If your son were to make an effort, he could do much better.

Una forma comun de inversion, quitando el if es:

Were the government to cut taxes, petrol would be very cheap.

La forma negativa es posible.

- I'd do it, were it not likely to make things worse for us.



1. Completa las frases como en el ejemplo.

Example: I would be a policeman if I were taller. 1. If you went by plane, [get/there/earlier). 2. We'd stay at home, 3. If you saw it, 4. You would get there quicker, 5. If I were taller, 6. I would live in Miami, 7. If they were^ vegetarians, (eat/any meat). 8. I would buy that dress 9. If they needed money, 10. The policeman would find me (park/car/here). 11. If I asked her, 12. I'd go to the pub 13. If I had money, 14. I'd put them in the sitting room (I/have/flowers). 15. If I had scisssors, 16. Iwouldn't^go to Benidorm (l/can/go/tp the/Bahamas). 17. If I liked pmons, 18. Td spread the butter 19. If you looked after jtL (it/look/much/better). 20. [ would jnarry him. 21. Were it not for your help, (I/be/homeless). 22. I would leave him 23. If you were to ask her, 24. If he were here, 25. If he were to make an effort, (can/do/better). 26. I'd be king (you/be/my/queen).

(it/rain). (see/difference). (go/train). (run/faster).


(like it).

(marry/me). (want/play/cards). (put/it/bank).


(eat/them). (have/knife).


(I/be/in her place). (may/help). (can/help us).




Conditionals type 3
Estas oraciones de condicional asumen algo completamente imaginario. Tanto en el tipo 2 como en el 3, son condiciones hipoteticas. If I had been taller, I would have been a policeman. If I hadn't been carrying an umbrella, I would have got wet. - If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a new house.

Variation 1: if + past perfect + modal.

If I had known the facts, I could have told you what to do. If I could have got the facts, I might have told you what to do.

If I had been you/in your position

Expresamos lo que habrfamos hecho si hubieramos sido otro. - If I had been you/in your position, I would have married him.

Que podemos reemplazar would con otro verbo modal cuando sentimos que las consecuencias imaginadas son menos probables que ocurran, o cuando nos referimos a habiiidad, posibilidad, etc. If I had been here, I could have defended you, (ability) if I had been here, I might have told you. (possibility) If he had received the note, he should have gone to the meeting. (duty)

If it hadn't been for

Si no hubiera sido por algo... If it hadn't been for the cold, we would have gone to the beach.

Inversion con "had"

Had he es una variacion de if he had: Had the workers gone on a strike, the production would have stopped. Se puede hacer una inversion negativa. Had it not been for his reluctance to leave, we would have been able to reach the others in time, (no se puede decir hadn't)

Se puede combinar la forma progresiva y tiempos compuestos con los verbos modales. If I had been there, I could have been helping with the harvest. If they had been there, they could have met my teacher.




1. Completa las frases siguientes como en el ejemplo.

Example: If it had rained, we would have stayed home. 1. You would have got a better job (you/work/harder at school). 2. If you hadn't had an umbrelja (you/get wet). 3. Life would have been easier (win/lottery). 4. If I had had time (go/with/you). 5. The children would have broken many things (play/house/ball). 6. If we had liked the film (go/cinema). 7. It would have seemed easier (you/know/it). 8. If you had been a vegetarian ? (you/eat/that/fish). 9. We would have had a good harvest (rain). 10. If I had panted to play cards^ (go/to/pub). 11. I would have liked to go by bicycle, (we/be able). 12. If I had been him (leave/her/ages ago). 13. He might have told us

14. Had the management acted sooner

15. The garden would have looked much better (you/look/after it). 16. If I had had a knife (I/spread/butter/bread). 17. Had it not been for the bad weather (we/be able/save/climber). 18. She could have met my brother, (she/be/here)





Las comparaciones adverbiales se pueden hacer con los siguientes adverbios:
as ... as: not as/so... as: - John runs as fast as his brother. She can't dance as well as you (can). I can't speak so fluently as you (can). The more you study, the more you learn. He is taller than anyone I know. - He is the tallest man in the country. Jimmy is the youngest of/in the family.

Comparaciones entre "like" y "as"

Like (preposition) se usa con nombres, pronombres y gerundios.
He drinks like a fish. You look like a princess. Why aren't you like him? house is like being in a prison.

the... the: comparative: superlative:

As (conjuncion) introduce oraciones con un verbo infinitive.

Do as your brother does: go jogging. Why don't you study foreign languages as we do?

Sin embargo, a veces en ingles coloquial usamos like en vez de as.

Walk to the office like we do.

A menudo usamos el comparativo + than ever, than anyone, than anything.

The athlete ran faster than ever. He runs faster than anyone else.

Most + adjetivo (sin the) significa very.

You are most kind. significa . You are very kind.

Este tipo de frases se forma con adjetivos demasdedossilabas: annoying

disobedient encouraging exciting helpful important misleading etc.

Que hay una diferencia entre like + sustantivo y as + nombre: She works like a slave in that kitchen of hers, (trabaja muchfsimo) Cervantes worked as a slave for five years in Algiers, (fue esclavo) The murderer used the heavy ashtray as a weapon.

Las comparaciones con like y alike.

Jim is very like his father. Jim and his father are very alike. Look at those plants! This is like living in the jungle.




1. A continuacion tienes dos frases. Unelas en una tal como en el ejemplo. Example: She sings sweetly. Her sister sings sweetly too. She sings as sweetly as her sister. 1. I can't swim well. You can swim better.

2. Jim can't jump high. His friend jumps higher.

3. The weather is getting cold. I didn't expect it to get so cold. It is getting 4. My father drives fast. No one drives so fast. Nobody drives 5. This film is very bad. I have never seen a worse one. This is 6. Susan types fast. No one in her class types faster. Susan is

2. Completa las frases siguientes. Example: The faster she types, the more mistakes she makes, 1. This weather is getting colder 2. Things are getting more and (expensive) 3. The rain cleared more 4. He is becoming less 5. The bigger the bed, the (comfortable) 6. Riding a horse is not ride) 3. En las frases siguientes vas a elegir entre like, alike y as. Example: She runs like a gazelle. 1. Why don't you do 2. Why don't you cook 3. You should train every day 4. Mark and his brother are very much 5. These twins are two peas. your mother? she does? we do. . every day. every year. (quick/l/expect) in physics, (interest) we'll sleep. a motorcycle, (easy/




Connective relative clauses

Los pronombres son:
who whom whose which

Ejemplos de oraciones conectivas. He eats a lot of bacon and eggs, which produce cholesterol. She went out with Jill, whose boyfriend had just left her. Se pueden usar one/two, etc., few/several/ some, etc. + of + whom/which. They had twenty goats, two of which were killed by wolves. Mrs Evans introduced us to her daughters, one of whom offered to show us the town. The explosion injured many people, several of whom had to be taken to hospital. Oracion con "which"

Se usan comas igual que en las non-defining clauses. Las oraciones 'conectivas' no describen a los sustantivos sino que continuan la historia. Generalmente se colocan detras del objeto del verbo principal: I asked my father, who said it had nothing to do with him. O detras de una preposicion + sustantivo: I gave the salt to my father, who passed it on to my mother. El pronombre relative puede reemplazarse por and/but + he/she etc. I gave the salt to my father and he passed it on ... I gave the salt to my father, but he ... A veces es dificil distinguir si una oracion es connective o non-defining, puesto que las dos formas son iguales.

She ate a lot of cakes, which made her sick. The alarm clock went off an hour earlier, which annoyed me quite a lot. My girlfriend kept playing about with other boys, which made me mad. A dog was barking all night, which kept everybody awake.

Recuerda Que el pronombre relative what no tiene nada que ver con el pronombre relative conectivo which. Which tiene como antecedente a una palabra o grupo de palabras en la frase anterior, mientras que what no se refiere a nada anterior. What suele ser objeto, mientras que which es generalmente sujeto. He said he was poor, which was not true. What I saw astonished me.

1. Une las dos frases que tienes a continuacion en una sola.


Example: She drank beer. The beer made her fat. She drank beer, which made her fat. 1. She bought a dozen eggs. Five broke on the way. 2. The old man slipped on the banana skin. It made everybody laugh. 3. I threw the ball to my brother. My brother threw it to Jim. 4. The wall collapsed on top of the children. Several children had to be taken to hospital. 5. She went out with her boss. Her boss's car broke down on the way 6. I told my mother. My mother said it wasn't my business. 7. The teacher introduced me to my new classmates. One of my classmates offered to show me around. 8. The rain rattled on the roof all night. This kept us awake all night. 9. She said she had no money. It was not true. 10. Some of the bridges had been blown up. It made the army's advance more difficult. 11. He met all Tom's sisters. Some of them took a fancy to him. 12. I bought two lamps. One of the lamps broke when I dropped the box. 13. The singer let out a squawk. It made everybody laugh. 14. He ate only cereals. That kept him fit. 15. The roads were flooded. That made our journey very dangerous. 16. He said he was an orphan. That was not true.




Discourse markers
Talking about' y 'with reference to' muestran una conexion entre lo que quieres decir y lo que se dijo antes. I saw Susan this morning. Talking about Susan, did you know that she is getting married? With reference to your letter, I should like to point out that.. Structuring Otras expresiones tratan de 'enfocar' la atencion. Well, regarding past results, I don't think it is advisable ... That goes for production. Now, as regards marketing, I think ... As far as marketing is concerned, I leave the decisions up to you. As for Janet, the less I see her, the better.

Hay un gran numero de expresiones que se pueden usar para mostrar la estructura de lo que estamos diciendo: Dividiendo: - firstly secondly finally first of all - to begin with in the first place for one thing moreover in addition similarly as well as besides Generalizando: on the whole - in general - as a rule in most cases broadly speaking to some extent mostly Cambiando de tema: By the way, incidentally, I say. Contrastando con lo que acabamos de decir: all the same yet and yet still on the other hand however He is not very clever. All the same, he's a nice chap. He is a socialist, and yet he has a villa in Spain. Consecuencia logica: thus therefore They didn't do it. Therefore, we'll have to do it. Dando ejemplos y excepciones: for instance for example such as including in particular apart from with the exception of and so on and so forth

Aclarando: I mean, that is to say, in other words.


Cuando nos referimos a las expectativas de otro: 'Was it good?' 'Yes, as a matter of fact, it was very good.' 'Did you go?' 'No, we didn't, actually.'

A menudo criticamos con: Honestly, darling, the meal today was terrible. Frankly, John, your marks could have been better.



1. Completa las frases con una de las expresiones que van a continuacion: to start with, all the same, talking about, therefore, honestly, actually, for instance, and so forth, on the whole. Example: Corporal Evans is not a bad soldier. On the whole, I think he is quite good. 1. 'What shall I do?' 'Well, you can clean this room, ' 2. darling, this is the worst meal I have ever eaten. 3. She's not very clever. very pretty. 4. 'Did you have a good holiday?' 'Well, didn't go on holiday.' 5. She had an accident. She was meet him. 6. Several of my friends came: Carol and Susan, you've got to admit she is we unable to .

7. They discussed investments, the state of the economy and 8. 'I saw John yesterday,' 'did you?. you know he's leaving the firm?' 2. Completa las frases con las expresiones adecuadas. Example: He claims he is a socialist and yet he lives in a mansion. 1. The flat is not very good; 2. He had an accident, he was ruined and, wife left him. 3. I invited John, Jim and Alan. couldn't care less about him. 4. We'll have to do without your services, fired. 5. There was a little whisky, but it was soda 6. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, I enjoyed it very much 7. 8. 9. I like Mary I am home by six. ! What a nice girl is coming this way! her husband, I think he is quite a bore. it's not expensive. it's very cheap. his Mark, I you're . . John, did

10. The car is not very new. 11. There were a few Italians, but there were Americans

12. 'Did you like the party?' 'Yes, I did like it 13. ! This is not what I ordered. 14.1 like Susan, Leslie and Carol. couldn't care less about her. 15. There are some poplars and oak trees, but there are pine trees

' Linda, I




Relative clauses: defining

Una oracion de relative 'definida' es la que nos da una referenda de la palabra que le antecede.
A doctor is a person who has been trained in medical science. - A liar is a person who habitually tells lies.

Cuando nos referimos a cosas solemos usar that o which pero en algunos casos preferimos that: a) Cuando el antecedente es un pronombre indefinido:
The doctors will do all that lies in their hands. b) Cuando el antecedente lleva un superlative: That was the funniest joke that has ever been told here.

El pronombre relative that se usa solo para oraciones 'definidas' y se refiere a personas o cosas. Para personas, por supuesto tambien se usa who, y para cosas which.
I don't like children that are noisy. I dislike women who chatter incessantly. Unemployment is a problem that/which concerns us all.

C) Cuando el antecedente lleva un numero ordinal:

The first answer that was given was the right one.

d) Cuando el antecedente es el complemento de to be.

It's an antique that will fetch a lot of money.

Usamos indistintamente that o who si el antecedente es un sustantivo vago o generalizado o un pronombre.

She is the sort of woman who/that will go out with anyone. We need someone that/who can speak good English.

A menudo omitimos el relative cuando no es sujeto de la oracion.
They didn't have the book I wanted.

Lo mismo ocurre con whom.

Was the woman you spoke to just now a friend of yours?

Si el antecedente es mas definido usamos who:

The woman who came to see you yesterday is a friend of my mother's.

En ingles coloquial, en caso de decir el pronombre decimos who en vez de whom, excepto cuando va precedido de preposicion. En el lenguaje hablado casi siempre usamos oraciones de relative 'definidas'. Es mas, la mayoria de las oraciones de relative son del tipo en el que podemos suprimir el relative.




1. Une las dos frases en una usando un pronombre relative. Pon el relative entre parentesis si no es sujeto y se puede omitir.
Example: The offer is still open. I made it last week. The offer (that) I made last week is still open. 1. The pools winner used a system. This system, he said, had won him a lot of money.

2. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises strong emotions.

3. I know the very person. He will do the job quickly.

4. The gales caused a lot of damage. They swept across southern England last night.

5. The problem is to build houses at a price. Young couples can afford to pay this price.

6. Some frogmen came across a wreck. It had lain on the seabed for 100 years.

2. Anadir oraciones de relative que definan la palabra en negrita.

Example: They are asking every tenant to move to a smaller flat, (have/house/bigger than he needs). They are asking every tenant who has a house bigger than he needs to move to a smaller flat. 1. Any person should be sent to prison, (commit/crimes) 2. The yacht arrived first, (command/captain Marryat) 3. The house has been demolished, (stand/on the corner) 4. The man was my uncle, (you/see/yesterday) 5. I enjoy talking to anyone, (he/have/personality) 6. This skirt is identical to the one my sister bought yesterday, (you/wear)




Relative clauses: non-defining

Estas oraciones proporcionan una informacion extra y van encerradas entre comas. En realidad, las dos oraciones, la de relative y la principal se pueden presentar por separado.
The wax museum is one of the main attractions. It was opened in 1900. The wax museum, which was opened in 1900, is one of the main attractions.

Que con las oraciones de 'non-defining' no se puede omitir el relativo, aunque no sea sujeto de oracion. The wax museum, which opened in 1900, is one of the attractions of the town, (which es el sujeto) The wax museum, which the King opened in 1990, is one of the attractions of the town, (which es complemento)

El hecho de que omitamos o no las comas puede representar un significado diferente en dos f rases identicas.
He has a brother who plays with the Rangers, (defining) He has a brother, who plays with the Rangers, (non-defining)

La ausencia de la coma en la primera frase indica que tiene mas de un hermano; uno de ellos, al que nos referimos en este caso juega con los Rangers. Podriamos aclarar la frase mas diciendo:
He has a brother who plays with the Rangers and another one who plays with Glasgow.

Para ver si una oracion de relativo es 'defining' o 'non-defining', lo mejor es omitirla y ver si tiene sentido el resto de la frase. En las oraciones 'non-defining', la frase tiene perfecto sentido sin la oracion de relativo, que al fin y al cabo no es nada mas que una informacion extra. Mientras que la oracion 'defining' de relativo no se puede suprimir. Defining:
* My uncle is a man who never stops working.

La presencia de una coma en la segunda frase implica que tiene solamente un hermano (por lo tanto no se puede 'definir' cual de ellos es). La oracion de relative simplemente da mas informacion sobre el.

My uncle, who will be 60 tomorrow, never stops working.




1. Une las frases usando which o who en oraciones de relative 'non-defining'. Example: Queen Elizabeth II descends from King Egbert. He united all England in the year 829. Queen Elizabeth descends from King Egbert, who united all England in the year 829. 1. Her first speech was better than her second. The first speech was broadcast. She gave her second one before an audience.

2. The Cabinet will be reduced to twenty. It now has twenty-two members.

3. The 'Book Distributing Co.' provides a novelty service. It was set up in 1950.

4. This industrial dispute has now been settled. It stopped production while it lasted.

5. The English weather is not as bad as some people suppose. They associate it with rain and fog.

6. The new London guide contains a lot of information. It will appear in the bookshops next week.

2. Pon una oracion de relative a continuation de la palabra que va en cursiva. Example: Last night's meeting broke up in disorder. (I/not be able/attend) Last night's meeting, which I wasn't able to attend, broke up in disorder. 1. The Cliffs of Dover are a startling white, (be/famous/all over the world) 2. The winning horse was trained in Ireland, (nobody/expect/win) 3. Joseph Conrad wrote all his books in English. (be/Polish) 4. Bernard Shaw died in 1950. (be/one/greatest writers/the 20th century) 5. Not many people could follow the speaker, (speak/extremely quickly) 6. He was advised to change to an outdoor job. (be/good/his health) 7. The wrecked ship is listing dangerously, (the crew/safe/shore)




Future tense: contrasts

Future simple: I will play. Future progresivo: I will be playing. Futuro perfecto: I will have played. Futuro perfecto progresivo: I will have been playing. Will / Shall Para predicciones, promesas, peticiones, ofertas, sugerencias y amenazas.
Liverpool will win the league. I'll buy you a bicycle for Christmas. Will you hold this for me, please? Shall I open the door for you, Madam? Shall we go for a picnic tomorrow? You'll regret this!

Otras formas de expresar el futuro

Be going to:
I'm going to see him later.

Be to:
I'm to see him later.

Present progressive: I'm seeing him later. Simple present:

It opens tomorrow.

Para contecimientos formales usamos will en vez de going to.

The reception will take place at the Hilton hotel. Usos del futuro progresivo

Will / Shall Para expresar esperanza, expectation, etc. Con verbos y frases tales como:
assume be afraid be sure believe doubt expect hope suppose

The children will be arriving at any minute.

Que hay una diferencia entre: I'll do the cooking tomorrow, (intention, posible promesa) I'll be doing the cooking tomorrow, (indtea un hecho) A veces hay mucha diferencia: I won't pay the bill, (me niego) I won't be paying the bill, (no me toca pagar)

I hope she'll marry him. I suppose he'll get the job.

Con adverbios que indican falta de seguridad.


Perhaps she'll change her mind.



1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo y forma mas conveniente.

Example: He will possibly change his mind. 1. 2. The Rangers 3. I promise you, I your coat for you, Mum? (I/get) the league, (win) on this tomorrow, (work) on

4. If you look at the work schedule, you can see that we this tomorrow, (work) 5. We 6. Look at the book, but I think we 26th. (pay) 7. The wedding place) 8. 9. 'When are you seeing him?' 'Well, I morning.' (see) 10. I am sure she 11. I suppose he this invoice. That's for sure! (pay)

this invoice on the at St. James's on June 25th. (take

for a swim tomorrow, boys? (we/go) first thing in the the job she applied for. (get) his mind in the end. (change)

2. cambia estas frases por future.

Example: I have to see him tomorrow. I'm to see him tomorrow. 1. She has to do it today. 2. We have to give it to him tonight. 3. They have to report at five o'clock. 4. The boys have to meet at four. 5. You have to tell him the truth. 6. They have to let us know as soon as possible. 7. We have to see him tonight.

3. cambia de futuro simple a futuro progresivo.

Example: I will see the film tomorrow. / will be seeing the film tomorrow. 1. We will work in the same office. 2. I'll speak to him in the morning. 3. I'll do the shopping in the afternoon. 4. We'll listen to the 8 o'clock news. 5. I'll look for a new job. 6. I'll see her first thing tomorrow morning.




Future tense: contrasts (cont.)

Future perfecto Usamos este tiempo para mostrar que la action estara ya completada para cierto momento en el future. We will all be dead by the year 2090. Este tiempo se usa a menudo con verbos que indican que se completa algo: finish build etc... complete El future perfecto se usa despues de verbos tales como: suppose believe hope expect I suppose they will have finished by tomorrow. Futuro perfecto progresivo Lo que esta en progreso ahora se puede considerar desde un punto de vista en el futuro: By this time next month, I will have been working for this company for 20 years. Usos del "going to" como futuro. Como prediccion It's going to rain. Look at those clouds. They are going to get divorced, I'm afraid. Tambien se usa el going to para intenciones, planes, etc. I'm going to train tonight.

La intention se puede enfatizar con los adverbios now y just. I'm just going to change into something more comfortable. And now I'm going to show it to you. * Si decidimos hacer algo sin premeditation usamos el will. We are lost. I'll stop and ask the way.

Que el presente progresivo se puede reemplazar por el going to. I'm having lunch with my boss today. I'm going to have lunch with my boss today. Por razones de estilo tratamos de evitar ei going to con los verbos go y come (going to go/going to come). I'm going/coming home late tonight.

Sustitutos de futuro Se usa be to para referirnos al futuro cuando las acciones se pueden controlar. The Prime Minister is to meet the President in May. You are to deliver this letter in person. You are not to tell him anything. El futuro en el pasado They didn't know they were to be reunited years later. I was to see the personnel manager today, but the appointment was cancelled. His inventions were to change the whole way of life for humanity.



1. Eiige entre going to y will.

Example: I think we have a puncture. /'// stop the car and see. 1. I (practise) 2. He 3. There's somebody at the door. I 4. They 5. So you've got a puncture! OK, I (change) 6. Look at the sky. It 7. We 8. 'It's cold! 'OK, I the piano for a couple of hours this evening. an engine driver when he grows up. (be) who it is. (go/see) in November, (get married) the tyre for you. tonight, I'm afraid, (rain) to stop on the way. take my coat.'

2. Forma sustitutos de future con las expresiones: to. due to, about to, on the point of.
Example: The train 1. Mr and Mrs Bridge 2.1 think you 3. You 4. These tablets 5. The race 6. You 7. The bus is at seven. The train is due to leave at seven. leaving. to get a big surprise. to meet Mr Gibson at nine o'clock sharp. to be taken four times a day. to start. to deliver the flowers this evening. leave any moment now.

3. Vas a hacer lo mismo que en el ejercicio 2, pero con futuro en el pasado.

Example: The train was about to leave when we arrived. 1. I 2. Little did we know we 3. I couldn't go on that trip as I 4. The plane 5. We meet Mr Gibson at five, but he cancelled the meeting. meet again 20 years later. have a baby. at seven but it arrived at ten. to study the plans of the marketing manager but he didn't come. to fight to have an to be back at dawn.

6. They couldn't imagine that the two armies again years later. 7. She didn't come with us as she operation. 8. The advanced party




Gerunds after "for" and certain verbs

Usamos for + gerundio cuando estamos hablando de un proposito en particular.
- This is a tool for opening cans. That's a gadget for opening bottles. This is a case for keeping records in. This is the knife for carving meat. This tool is used for cutting holes.

Con algunos verbos que van seguidos de gerundio podemos poner otra palabra entre el verbo y el gerundio. Puede ser un acusativo, me o un nombre, Peter. A veces es tambien un posesivo como my; o's.
When are you going to get him working? I don't want to see you doing that again. I don't enjoy your/his/Peter's teasing.

Detras de los verbos siguientes se pone gerundio, nunca infinitive:

admit appreciate -avoid celebrate consider contemplate defer delay deny detest -discontinue -dislike -dispute -endure -enjoy -escape -excuse -explain -fancy -feel like -finish -forgive -can't help -hinder -imagine -keep -loathe -mention -mind -miss -pardon -postpone -practise -prevent -recall -report -resent -resist -risk -suggest -understand

Verbo (+ acusativo o posesivo) + gerundio. Los verbos siguientes pueden ir seguidos tanto por un acusativo como por un posesivo antes de gerundio:
- anticipate - contemplate - detest - dislike - dispute - endure - escape - excuse - fancy - forgive hate - hinder - imagine like love - mention mind miss - pardon - prevent - resent - resist - understand - can't bear - can't help - can't stand

I dislike going out with that girl. I regret having said that.

Despues de come y go con deportes, etc.

I often go climbing/skiing/fishing/ riding/driving, etc.

I can't bear him /his not writing to you. Fancy you/your having noticed that.

Con nombres.
can't understand Peter/Peter's leaving her.

El gerundio de need y want. Detras de estos dos verbos se puede poner gerundio. She needs a lot of encouraging.



1. Pon el verbo entre parentesis en el tiempo correspondiente.

Example: I don't fancy (go) for a walk in the rain. I don't fancy going for a walk in the rain. 1. That woman keeps 2. I dislike 3. It means 4. I suggest 5. She detests 6. I admit 7. They contemplate 8. Imagine not question! 9. They risk (nag) me all day long. (answer) silly questions. (get up) very early. (go) earlier. (speak) in public. (come) here late at night. (pull) down the whole building. (know) the answer to such a (have) an accident on the way.

2. Cambia las frases siguientes a gerundio.

Example: That wall needs to be painted. That wall needs painting. 1. The whole house wants to be redecorated. 2. My old car needs to be overhauled. 3. These children need to be encouraged. 4. The grass wants to be cut.

3. A continuacion tienes frases con acusativos y con posesivos. Cambialas. Si esta'n con acusativo ponlas con posesivo y viceversa.
Example: Excuse him for not writing to you. Excuse his not writing to you. 1. I dislike them wasting so much money. 2. I hate their speaking to me like that. 3. I can't imagine Peter making such a fuss. 4. I can't understand his mother's approving that! 5. She can't forget my leaving her.




Gerund after prepositions

Usamos el gerundio despues de preposiciones tales como: instead of about by without after to for He left the hypermarket without paying. Muchos adjetivos van seguidos de preposiciones + gerundio: - afraid of bored with fond of good at happy about - interested in keen on sorry for etc... He is very good at playing football. - I'm not interested in acting. Muchos verbos van seguidos de preposiciones + gerundio: - apologize for insist on prevent somebody from thank somebody for I apologize for being rude to you. You can't prevent him from spending his money. Verbos que admiten tanto el infinitive como el gerundio: begin - intend omit attempt - start continue I intend to walk/walking all the way. She started to sing/singing. Verbos que admiten las dos formas con significados diferentes: like - hate love dread - prefer I like washing my car. (I enjoy it) I like to wash my car on Saturdays. (I prefer) Despues de condicional siempre se usa el infinitive. I would like to see you soon. I'd hate to live in this place.

Remember, forget, regret, try, stop, go on.

Remember, forget + infinitive se refiere a una accion en el future (o a una accion futura vista desde el pasado). Remember to give me a ring. forgot to ask your brother. Remember, forget + gerundio se refiere al pasado. I remember falling/having fallen into the river. Have you forgotten meeting her? Try + infinitivo significa 'hacer un esfuerzo'. Try to overcome your fears. Try + gerundio significa 'experimental, 'hacer la prueba'. Try taking a couple aspirins with brandy.

Gerundio despues de "to"

Cuando el to no es parte de un infinitive es preposicion. I want to go home, (parte del infinitive) I object to music. (preposicion + sustantivo) I object to smoking in public, (preposicion + gerundio)



1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo correspondiente. Example: You open a door by (turn) a key in the lock. You open a door by turning a key in the lock. 1. Why don't you pay, instead of 2. He left without 3. The little boy was punished for 4. You'll learn a lot about 5. We'll settle everything by 6. I apologize for (make) a fuss. (say) a word. (talk) in class. (fish) with this man. (speak) to him. (come) late.

2. Completa las frases con los siguientes adjetivos + gerundios: afraid of, bored with, fond of, good at, happy about, interested in, sorry for, used to. Example: She was afraid of speaking in public. 1. I am very 2. I am not 3. She is 4. I'm sorry 5. We are all 6. The old man is 7. I am 3. Elige entre gerundio o infinitivo. Example: Would you like to eat out? 1. You'd hate 2. I'd love 3. I hate 4. She likes morning. 5. I wouldn't like you 6. Cervantes was said to like morning. 7. She says she'd love 8. I like 9. I'd like 10. She is very keen on 11. I'm not much good at 12. She objects to (live) on a desert island. (go out) with you. (do) the washing. (make) the beds first thing in the (think) I've forgotten you. (write) early in the (accept) the invitation. (do) the ironing in the afternoon. (speak) to you about it. (come) with us. (play) the piano. (be) treated like a slave. playing the piano. working for you. going out at night alone. interrupting you. going on holiday together. getting up early in the morning. always listening to the same thing.




Infinitive after certain verbs

Los verbos mas corrientes que van seguidos de un infinitive son: afford agree -appear -arrange -ask -attempt -bear -beg -begin -care -choose consent I -dare -decide determine expect fail forget happen hate help hesitate hope intend learn like love manage mean neglect offer prefer prepare pretend - promise propose refuse regret remember seem start swear trouble try want wish. Con estos cuatro verbos se suele poner to be + gerundio: appear happen - pretend seem

She happened to be looking out of the window when I arrived. He seems to be following them. Verbo + how/what/when/where/ which/why

+ infinitive.

Los verbos que mas frecuentemente se usan de esta manera son:

hope to get there in time. I can't afford to buy a new car.

decide discover find out - forget

Verbo + objeto + infinitive Los verbos mas corrientes para esta construction son: - advise - allow ask bear beg - cause - command - compel encourage - expect - forbid force hate - help instruct . intend - invite leave like - mean - need - oblige order permit persuade - prefer - press - recommend - request - remind teach tell - tempt - trouble - want - warn

know - learn - remember see think

- understand - wonder - want to know

\ know how to get inside. He couldn't think of what to say. Infinitivo detras de los verbos: - assume believe consider feel know cimnooA suppose think think understand seguidos de un objeto . + to De.


I don't want you to go. She told me to stay. They don't allow people to smoke. Con esta estructura podemos usar los verbos:

- Thev considered her to be the best candidate for the post. A menudo usamos estos verbos en pasiva. He is thought to be the best player. You are supposed to know the laws of the country.


hear feel

notice have

- watch

y know con el infinitive sin to. I made him give me the money back. They let their children stay up very late.



1. Pon el verbo en infinitive o gerundio. Example: I can't afford to buy a car every year. 1. I happen 2. I refuse 3. I don't want 4. I love 5. She failed 6. That girl enjoys 7. I made him 8. They don't allow anybody 9. She appeared (know) this man. He's a friend of my brother's. (go) to the toilet every time I want to smoke a cigarette. (bother) you with my problems. (jog) early in the morning. (pass) her driving test. (dance). (tell) me the truth. (smoke) in here. (be) in good health.

2. Construye frases como en el ejemplo. Example: (l/want/he/sit down/near me) / want him to sit down near me. 1. (I/warn/she/not/do/that) 2. (She/make/l/wash/my face) 3. (I/tell/they/not/say/that) 4. (Would/you/tell/she/come/tonight) 5. (She/expect/l/visit/her/when I come to London) 6. (l/expect/they/obey/me/at once) 7. (They/don't/allow/people/smoke/office)

3. Completa las frases siguientes. Example: He found out how to open the safe. 1. I just couldn't think of 2. We discovered 3. She found out 4. He showed me 5. I always wonder 6. I forgot 7. She learnt 8. I remembered 9. At last I decided say at that moment. make cheap sausages. buy that gadget. button press. get by with my salary. switch it off. make ice cream. get the tickets. do it. I'd do it on Monday.




Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs

Algunos adverbios o frases adverbiales pueden poner entasis en la frase si invertimos el orden. Los mas importantes son: - hardly ever hardly... when - in no circumstances neither nor - never no sooner... than - not only not till - nowhere - on no account only by - only in this way - only then/when - scarcely ever - seldom so They hardly ever managed to meet unobserved, (normal) Hardly ever did they manage to meet unobserved, (enfatico) I had never before been asked to do such a job. (normal) Never before had I been asked to do such a job. (enfatico) They not only steal things, they smash everything, too. (normal) Not only do they steal things, they smash everything, too. (enfatico) He didn't realize that he had lost his pen until then, (normal) Not till then did he realize that he had lost his pen. (enfatico) These cables must not be touched on any account, (normal) On no account must these cables be touched, (enfatico) He was able to make himself understood only by shouting. (normal) Only by shouting was he able to make himself understood, (enfatico) She became so suspicious that she hired a detective, (normal) So suspicious did she became that she hired a detective, (enfatico) Un segundo verbo negative en una frase se puede expresar con nor e inversion. I had no money, nor did I know where I could get some. She had no friends, nor did she know where to get help. Algunos adverbios o frases adverbiales pueden ser introducidos por it is o it was y retener el enfasis cuando se colocan al principio de frase. I didn't realize how ill she was until I visited her. (normal) - Not until I visited her did I realize how ill she was. (enfatico) It was not until I visited her that I realized how ill she was. (enfatico) Fijate en la diferencia. Jim comes here, (viene a menudo) Here comes Jim. (esta viniendo en este momento)




1. Invierte las siguientes frases.

Example: He spoke to me not only on Monday, but also on Tuesday. Not only did he speak to me on Monday, but also on Tuesday. 1. Such a situation should never again be allowed to arise. 2. He had hardly finished eating his breakfast and he was hungry again. 3. The men not only demanded new training facilities; they also wanted more money. 4. He had no sooner put down the receiver than the phone rang again. 5. The robbers little realized that the police had thrown a cordon round the bank. 6. I wouldn't doubt his honesty for a moment. 7. The truth didn't become known until many years later. 8. The smoke was so dense that we couldn't breathe inside. 9. We have rarely seen such interest in the country's situation. 10. You will find a greater concentration of brains nowhere else in the world. 11. He agreed to land the plane, only when the terrorists threatened to kill the passengers. 12. Peace will be established in the area, only if both sides accept the treaty.

1. Pon entasis en estas frases usando it was.

Example: I didn't realize how old she was till I met her. It was not till I met her that I realized how old she was. 1. The two countries began talks about six months ago. 2. She mentioned it to me only yesterday. 3. I discovered the truth only recently.




Modal verbs. Revision

Hay doce verbos modales auxiliares: can - could may - might shall should will - would must ought need dare Need y dare, se usan como modales solo en las formas interrogativas y negativas. Los verbos modales no tienen ni infinitives ni participios, por lo que tenemos que usar perffrasis tales como be able to, o have to. El uso de could, might, would, should, sugiere una actitud mas tentativa por parte del que habla. En peticiones representa lo que se llama la forma cortes: Could/Would you let me have...? A continuation tenemos dos tablas de usos de verbos modales. En la tabla 1 para afirmar varies grades de posibilidad en cuanto a la verdad de la asercion (es posible, probable, cierto) mientras que en la tabla 2 los verbos modales se usan para referirse a la habilidad, deber, permiso, etc. con relation al sujeto:


must be there already.

can't/couldn't be there already will/would be there already may/might be there already could be there already should/ought to be there already

conclusion logica

conclusion logica

posibilidad probabilidad


. must go immediately . needn't go immediately should/ought to go immediately shall go immediately will go immediately . may go immediately can go immediately


ausencia de obligacion
recomendacion promesa disposicion permiso habilidad o permiso

Podemos usar el infinitivo preterito con verbos modales:


must have been there. can't/couldn't have been there, will/would have been there. may have been there. might have been there. could have been there. should/ought to have been there.




1. En este ejercicio tienes que escribir frases con could o could have. Example: He doesn't want to go with Tom. But he could go with him. He didn't want to go with Tom. But he could have gone with him. 1. He didn't want to give me money. But he 2. He doesn't want to give me money. But he 3. He didn't want to have anything to eat. But he 4. She doesn't want to speak to me. But she 2. Ahora vas a leer una situacion y escribir una frase con must have o can't have. Example: The doorbell rang but she didn't hear it. She must have been asleep. 1. I don't understand how he bumped into a tree, (he must/be/asleep) 2. He did the opposite of what I said, (he/can't/understand/what I said) 3. They knew everything about our projects, (they must/listen/to our conversation) 4. The light was on when I woke up. (I must/forget/to turn it off) 5. She didn't do what I said, (she/can't/listen)

3. A continuacion tienes que escribir frases explicando cada situacion. Example: I can't find Mary. I wonder where she is. a) (she might/go/shops) She might have gone to the shops. b) (she could/play/tennis) She could be playing tennis. 1. Mark didn't come to the meeting. I wonder why not. a) (He might/have/go/spmewhere else) b) (He may not/know/about it) 2. David is going out. I wonder where he's going. a) (He/may/go/to the cinema) b) (He/could/go/party) 3. Excuse me, sir. Do you know how the fire started? a) (Someone/may/drop/cigarette) b) (It could/be/electrical fault)




The one who / that / which - The one with

The one es el antecedente del pronombre relative who, that o which.
That boy over there is the one who/that came yesterday. This book is the one that/which I like so much.

(singular) (plural)

The one that/which The ones that/which

The one who/that The ones who/that

The one who/that (para personas - singular)

The girl with blond hair is the one who/ that said it. (sujeto) Mr Smith is the one who/that spoke at the meeting, (sujeto) She is the one (that/who/whom) I gave the packet to. (objeto)

The ones that/which (para cosas - plural)

Those books are the ones (that/which) I want to buy. (objeto) These antiques are the ones that/which fetched such a high price, (sujeto)

En todos los cases en los que el relative sea objeto del verbo se puede omitir. Compara:
That boy is the one who said that. That is the boy who said that.

The one which/that (para cosas - singular)

That house was the one (that/which) she liked, (objeto) That tile is the one that/which fell from your roof, (sujeto) That car is the one that/which won the race, (sujeto)

The one with (el de los)

'Which one is your boyfriend?' The one with long hair.' 'Which one is your son?' The one with dirty trousers.' 'Which one is the book you like?' The one with blue cover.'

The ones who/that (para personas - plural)

Those children are the ones who/that came singing carols, (sujeto) Those girls are the ones who/that asked us the way. (sujeto) Those boys are the ones who/that you like, (objeto)



1. Cambia la frase tal como en el ejemplo.

Example: This is the man who came selling encyclopedias. This man is the one who came selling encyclopedias. 1. These are the pictures that were stolen from the Museum. 2. Those are the players that won the match. 3. These are the people who want to emigrate. 4. Those are the pictures which you have to hang. 5. These are the plugs and the battery that you have to change. 6. This is the window that you have to paint. 7. That is the man you have to play with. 8. Those are the trees that have to be planted. 9. That is the branch that has to be cut off. 10. That is the lecture I am so interested in. 11. That is the man who is giving the lecture. 12. That is the treasure which was lost for so many years.

2. Responde a la pregunta como en el ejemplo.

Example: 'Which one do you like?' 'The one with the red skirt.' 1. 'Which picture do you prefer?' (golden/frame) 2. 'Which puppy would you like to take?' (brown/head) 3. 'Which car shall we buy, darling?' (flashing lights) 4. 'Which villa shall we hire for the holidays?' (swimming pool)




Once + Present perfect

El preterito perfecto se usa a menudo con once y now that. Once we have decorated the house, we can move in. Once you have finished your studies, you can start looking for a job. El preterito perfecto que usamos en ingles despues de once, corresponde a veces al reterito perfecto de subjuntivo espahol. (Una vez que hayamos decorado...). Sin embargo, en ocasiones, se puede traducir per indicative. Once you have seen one penguin, you've seen them all. Once you've parachuted a couple of times, you're all right. Once you've driven on the left for half an hour, you don't feel so awful.

Now that + present perfect

Now that you've grown, you can think of getting married. Now that we have paid all our debts, we can think of buying a new car. Now that the weather has changed, we can set off.

The first time + present perfect

This is the first time I've drunk Scotch whisky. This is the first time (that) I've felt relaxed for months. This is the first time (that) I've heard her sing. That's the fifth time you've said that. - It's the fourth time he's fallen in love this year.

When + present perfect

When you have spoken to him a couple of times, you soon get used to it. When you've seen one, you've seen the lot. - When you have worked hard all your life, you deserve a rest.

Ever and never + present perfect

'Have you ever been to Scotland?' 'No, I've never been to Scotland.' 'Have you ever been in love?' 'No, I've never been in love.' 'Have you ever eaten caviar?' 'No, I've never eaten caviar.' 'Have you ever run a marathon?' 'No, I've never run a marathon.' 'Have you ever spoken to the president?' 'No, I've never spoken to him.'




1. Pon la frase como en el ejemplo.

Example: (Once/you/see/clown/you/see/all) Once you've seen one clown, you've seen them all. 1. (Once/you/confess/sins/you/feel/happier) 2. (Once/you/cross/that/line/there is/no return) 3. (Once/she/make up/her mind/nothing will make her change) 4. (Once/you/make/deal/you can't get out of it)

2. Vas a hacer lo mismo con now that.

Example: Now that you've finished (finish/studies) what are you going to do? 1. Now that you better? 2. Now that you happier? 3. Now that we holiday to the Continent. 4. Now that we petrol. (confess/guilt), do you feel (succeed) in life, are you (buy/a new car), we can go on (pay/the car), we can buy the

3. Completa las frases siguientes con when.

Example: I'd like to have a word with you when you've finished on the phone. 1. When you have to feed the other one. 2. When they one end, they'll have to start at the other. 3. You'll feel happier when you truth. 4. Things will be easier when you months in this country. (finish) feeding this baby, you'll (finish) painting the bridge at (tell) me the (live) a few

4. Forma la pregunta para las siguientes respuestas.

Example: 'No, I've never been to Rome.' 'Have you ever been to Rome?' 1. No, I've never eaten lobster. 2. No, I've never met him. 3. No, I've never been to Egypt. 4. No, I've never spoken to the President.

? ? ? ?



Passives: All tenses - is considered / thought / said to be

May/might/will have been + past participle Active Present Past Future Conditional Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect Conditional perfect
She buys the bread. She bought the bread. She'll buy the bread. She'd buy the bread. She has bought the bread. She had bought the bread. She'll have bought the bread. She'd have bought the bread.

The bread is bought by her. The bread was bought by her. The bread will be bought by her. The bread would be bought by her. The bread has been bought by her. The bread had been bought by her. The bread will have been bought by her. The bread would have been bought by her.

Is considered/thought/said to be Este tipo de frase se puede poner de dos formas.

- It is considered that he is the best player in the world. He is considered to be the best player in the world. It was thought that Galileo was heretic. Galileo was thought to be heretic. It is said that this man is mad. This man is said to be mad.

May/might/will have been + past participle

He may have arrived by now. The silly idiot! He might have told me! By 6 o'clock it will have been done for 12 hours. The jury may have already reached a verdict. Everyone knew it. You might as well have told me! * By tomorrow the factory will have been closed for two years.




1. Cambia las frases como en el ejemplo.

Example: It is thought that Jim is the best. Jim is thought to be the best, 1. It is considered that this colour is the most suitable. 2. It is said that our team is the best. 3. It is thought that this picture is a masterpiece. 4. It is considered that this car is the fastest. 5. It is thought that this restaurant is the best in the country.

2. Responds a las preguntas con may have o might have.

Example: 'Why didn't he answer the phone? I'm sure he was at home.' 'He might not have heard the phone.' 1. 'I wonder why he didn't come to the party.' (he might/have/go somewhere else)

2. 'She didn't come to the meeting. I wonder why.' (she/may not/know/about it)

3. 'Why didn't Betty answer the doorbell?' (she/may/go/bed/early)

4. 'I'm sure she didn't go to the cinema.' (she/might/go/theatre)

5. 'How did the fire start?' (someone/may/drop/ cigarette)

3. Completa la frase con will have been + participio. Example: By six o'clock the road will have been closed tor 12 hours. 1. By eight o'clock tomorrow the truce (broke) for 10 hours. 2. By midnight the ship rocks for 48 hours. 3. By tomorrow morning he hours. (wreck) on the (go) for 36




Reported speech
Present simple I like tall girls. Present continuous I'm waiting for Jim. Past simple I didn't know you were here. Present perfect You've broken the vase. Past continuous I was thinking about it. Future We'll come early. Conditional I'd go if 1 could. Past simple He said he liked tall girls. Past continuous He said he was waiting for Jim. Past perfect He explained that he didn't know I was there. Past perfect He recognized he had broken the vase. Past/past perfect continuous He said he was thinking/had been thinking about it. Conditional He said they would come early. Conditional He said he would go if he could. Might no cambia excepto cuando es una petition. - She said, Tom might come today.' She said that Tom might come that day. Pero 'You might type the letters for me,' he said. He asked her/me to type the letters for him. Cuando should o ought to se usan como consejo mas que obligation, se puede cambiar a advise. 'You should/ought to go faster,' said John.
John advised/urged me/him to go faster.

Wish, would rather/sooner y it's time no cambian. 'I wish I didn't have to go to school,' said Jim. Jim said that he wished he didn't have to go to school. Tom wants to go alone,' said Mary, 'but I'd rather he came with us.' Mary said that Tom wanted to go alone, but that she'd rather he went with them. 'It's time we began making plans,' he said. - He said that it was time they began making plans.



1. Pon las siguientes frases en forma indirecta. Example: 'You'd better not drink the water,' she said. She advised us not to drink the water. 1. 'How old are you?' he asked me. 2. 'I'm tired,' she said, I'm going home.' 3. 'It may rain,' she said. 4. 'I should be delighted,' he said. 5. 'I hadn't seen her before that day,' he said. 6. 'I was only joking,' he said. 7. 'I didn't recognize you,' she said. 8. 'Is it raining?' he asked. 9. He said, 'I could do it tomorrow.' 10. 'If I had a screwdriver I could mend it,' he said. 11. 'You should read the instructions,' my boss said to me.

2. Ahora haz lo contrario. Example: She said that she had been waiting for him. '/ have been waiting for you,'she said. 1. He said that he would take the car. 2. He said that they had been very happy when they lived in Paris. 3. Tom said that he would be 20 the following day. 4. He said that they had been thinking of selling the car. 5. She explained that she never ate meat.




Reported speech (cont.)

Los verbos agree/refuse/offer/promise/ threaten + infinitive, y los verbos assure y apologize a veces se pueden usar en vez de

Questions in reported speech.

'Where does he live?' she asked. She asked/wanted to know where he lived. 'Where's the station?' he inquired. He asked where the station was. 'What have you got in your pocket? he asked. He asked me what I had in my pocket. Prases que empiezan con shall I en forma indirecta. 'Shall I ever see him again?' she wondered. She wondered if she would ever see him again. 'Shall I bring the soup now, sir?' the waiter asked. The waiter asked me if he was to/if he should bring the soup. Prases que empiezan con will you/ would you. 'Will you come with us tomorrow?' he said. He asked if she would come with them the next day. 'Would you like to come with me?' he asked her. He asked her if she would like to go with him.

'I won't lend you my bicycle any more,' said Tom. Tom refused to/said that he would not lend him his bicycle any more. Til help you if you like,' said John. John offered to/said that he would help her. I'll pay you back next month, Mary,' Tony said. Tony offered to pay Mary back the following month. Tony said he would pay Mary back the following month. Tony assured Mary that he would pay her back the following month. Iil kill you,' the man said. The man threatened that he would/ to kill him. 'I'msorry I'm late,' she said. She apologized for being late. Con los verbos siguientes se usa mucho tanto la forma directa como la indirecta: add explain - grumble - admit answer - object observe argue assure - promise boast protest - complain remark deny reply 'I won't do it,' John assured us. John assured us that he wouldn't do it. 'But it'll take longer,' he objected. He objected that it would take longer.



1. Reemplaza la palabra said por una de las palabras que se dan a continuacion. Lisa cada palabra solo una vez: insisted, shouted, agreed, suggested, claimed, whispered, protested, admitted, exclaimed, objected, boasted, muttered, sneered, threatened, groaned, announced, promised. Example: 'I can speak seven languages fluently,' he said. He boasted that he could speak seven languages fluently. 1. 'Let's go to the theatre this evening,' he said. 2. 'Stop that noise, will you!' said the teacher. 3. 'The bicycle you're riding is mine,' said the man. 4. 'Yes, I broke the window playing cricket,' said the boy. 5. 'I know my rights,' said the man. 6. 'I shall always love you,' said her boyfriend. 7. 'We don't have enough money for that,' said the treasurer. 8. This teacher doesn't know what he's talking about,' said the student. 9. 'Well, it's a surprise to see you here!' she said. 10. 'Well, yes. If the weather is bad, we can't go,' he said. 11. 'If you can't come today, you must come tomorrow,' he said. 12. 'I'll be back, darling,' he said. 13. 'Gentlemen, ours is the victory,' he said. 14. 'My whole body aches,' he said. 15.'I'll kill him,' he said. 16. 'I can't listen to those low-class people,' he said.




Remember (and other verbs) + gerund or infinitive

Los verbos remember, forget y regret pueden ir seguidos de infinitivo o gerundio, aunque con sentido diferente. La forma de gerundio se refiere a cosas que suceden (antes de que tenga lugar el hecho de recordar, olvidar, etc.) I shall always remember hearing the bombs falling. I remember reading about the typhoon in the papers. I remember posting/having posted the letters on my way home. * I regret spending so much money. <* I don't regret telling him what I thought. I shall never forget seeing the Queen. Have you forgotten meeting her? Remember tambien puede ir seguido de un adjetivo posesivo/objeto + gerundio. I remember his/him telling me about that. I remember my uncle/uncle's telling me about it. Remember, regret, forget + infinitivo se refiere a una accion en el future (o a una accion en el futuro vista desde el pasado). Remember to post the letters. He remembered to do it, didn't he? Don't worry. I'll remember to tell him. I regret to inform you that your son is dead. I regret to say that you're under arrest. I forgot to leave you a note. I won't forget to give him your message.

Forget + gerundio se usa muy a menudo en forma negativa. I shall never forget waiting for the soldiers to come back. Many people will never forget hearing the bombs fall. Try + infinitivo significa 'hacer un esfuerzo'. You must try to understand my position. Try + gerundio significa 'experimental. Try taking an aspirin. Stop + infinitivo se refiere a un proposito: I stopped to buy the paper. Stop + gerundio: el gerundio es el complemento del verbo. He couldn't stop coughing.



1. Completa las frases con infinitivo o gerundio. Example: I'll remember to attend the meeting on Thursday. I remember falling into the river when I was five. 1. I'll remember 2. I won't forget 3. She says that she regrets 4. Don't forget 5. Remember 6. I remember 7. I don't regret 8. I still remember my father 9. I regret 10. I'll never forget 11. She remembered 12. Did you remember 13. I don't remember 14. One day you'll regret 15. I'll never forget first time. 16. Don't forget 17. I will never forget 2. Haz lo mismo con los verbos try y stop. Example: He stopped to ask the way. 1. Stop 2. 'I can't stop sneezing.' 'Try 3. I tried 4. I can't stop her 5. 'I've got a headache.' 'Try 6. On the way to the office I stopped 7. When he told us that joke, I couldn't stop 8. You really must stop 9. Every hour I stop work 10. I can't make any sense of it. Let's try down. 11. Come on, boys.Let's try (smoke). (smoke) a cigarette. (put) it upside (win), shall we? (talk), will you! (hold) your breath.' (hang) the picture but I couldn't. (talk) to the press. (take) these pills.' (buy) a paper. (laugh). (give) you a ring in the morning. (give) you a call. (say) that to you. (write) to your uncle. (put) the cat out before you go to bed. (live) in this area many years ago. (spend) that money. (tell) us about it. (say) that you have failed. (go) to that museum. (read) about the earthquake. (lock) the door, John? (lock) the door, do you? (waste) your time. (see) my daughter dance in public for the (wash) your face, will you? (see) those poor people starving.




Suffixes and prefixes

Muchos adjetivos tienen un final carateristico(osufijo). Por ejemplo: -ful que anadido a un sustantivo, beauty nosda .beautiful -able enjoy que anadido al verbo nos da - enjoyable Participios presente y pasados que se usan como adjetivos. Muchos participios presentes (gerundios) se pueden usar como adjetivos:
falling glass shining sun

Las formas de gerundio a menudo hacen el oficio de adjetivos (speeding car). Muchas de estas formas adjetivadas tienen adjetivos que terminan en -ed (boring/ bored). Algunos participios irregulares funcionan como adjetivos (fallen). Los prefijos que se anaden a los adjetivos generalmente tienen un efecto negative. Por ejemplo: dis- anadido a continue nos da discontinue No todos los adjetivos 'positives' dan uno negativo al ahadir un prefijo. A veces es necesario el uso de not (not taxable). De la misma forma, no todos los adjetivos 'negativos' (sobre todo los que estan formados por un participio) tienen un equivalente positivo (mistaken). Parejas de adjetivos que terminan en ed y -ing: annoyed - annoying
amazed bored excited interested pleased tired amazing boring exciting interesting pleasing - tiring

Tambien muchos participios pasados se pueden usar como adjetivos:

spoken word broken glass locked door etc

Los participios regulares siguen las reglas de pronunciacion normales. Sin embargo, hay algunos adjetivos que terminan en -ed, pero que no son participios, y de ahi que la pronunciacion sea /id/, como en:
aged crooked learned naked ragged wicked

Algunos adjetivos formados con sufijos:

capable possible beautiful careful careless foolish attractive lifeless friendly mechanical hesitant circular affectionate sufficient humorous fearsome

Algunos adjetivos formados con prefijos:

dishonest illegal impossible indifferent irresponsible non-stick overdue prewar pro-American subnormal

We were bored by the film. It was very boring.




1. A continuacion tienes unos prefijos. Busca por lo menos dos adjetivos que empiecen con ese prefijo: omni, peri, fore, non, post, pre, anti, multi, inter, ante, circum. Example: omni omnipotent, omnipresent, omnivorous. LPeri: 2. Fore:

3. Non:
4. Post:

5. Pre:
6.Anti: 7. Multi: 8. Inter: 9. Ante: 10. Circum:

2. Busca por lo menos dos sustantivos que empiecen con los prefijos: mono, over, super, trans, sur, out, mal.
Example: Mono: monoplane, monomania, monochord. 1. Over: 2. Super: 3. Trans:
4. Sur: 5. Out: 6. Mal:

3. Busca por lo menos dos palabras formadas con cada sufijo que se te da a continuacion: -ess, -some, -ship, -meter, -less, -ory, -logy, -let, -hood. Example: -ess: waitress, actress, mattress. 1. -some: 2. -ship: 3. -meter:

4. -less:
5. -ory:
6. -logy:
7. -let:

8. -hood:



Compound nouns
Muchos sustantivos en ingles estan formados por dos palabras. A veces se pone guion, otras veces no, y otras veces se juntan: hitchhiker river bank cupboard Sustantivos formados con adjetivo + sustantivo.
greenhouse shorthand redskin

C) El primer sustantivo indica el tiempo del segundo.

Sunday dinner spring flower a two-week holiday evening dress night watchman summer holiday

e) El primer sustantivo indica el material del segundo.

cotton shirt gold medal velvet curtains brick wall metal fence stone house (Con wool y wood se usan sus adjetivos: woollen y wooden. Gold tambien tiene sus forma adjetivada, golden, pero se usa solo figurativamente.) woollen pullover wooden door golden opportunity

Sustantivos formados con gerundio + sustantivo.

waiting room frying pan visiting card diving board booking office swimming pool

Sustantivos formados con sustantivo + gerundio.

water skiing horse-riding sunbathing weightlifting bird-watching fire-fighting

f) La primera palabra indica el proposito de la segunda.

sheep dog football club bookcase can opener notice board petrol can

Algunos sustantivos se forman con particulas adverbiales.

handover breakdown hold-up

g) El primer sustantivo puede mostrar sobre que trata el segundo.

horror film plane ticket parking fine ghost story entry fees peace talks

Sustantivos formados con 'sustantivo + sustantivo' a) El segundo pertenece o es parte del primero.
church bell car key gear lever kitchen door garden fence doorknob

h) Algunos sustantivos se forman con las palabras man, woman, self, etc.
fireman policewoman self-control

b) El primer sustantivo indica el lugar del segundo.

town hall kitchen sink street market

country road corner shop river bank



1. Forma un sustantivo compuesto con las palabras que tienes.

Example: The clothes used in winter are winter clothes. 1. A tank containing petrol is a 2. The door going into the kitchen is the 3. The bell of the church is the 4. Flowers which grow in spring are 5. The driver of a taxi is a 6. The room where you have dinner is the 7. The window of a shop is called the 8. The knob of the door is the 9. A device for opening tins is a 10. A man who sells books is a 11. A mine of gold is a 12. A match of football is a 13. A rally of cars is a 14. A pot for tea is a 15. A cup for coffee is a 16. A man who works is a 17. A man who rides a horse is a 18. A blouse made of cotton is a 19. A house made with stones is a 20. A walk of two hours is a 21. A holiday of three weeks is a 22. The key of the car is the 23. The sink in the kitchen is the 24. A story of detectives is a 25. A field to play football on is a 26. A stamp costing five pence is a 27. A shirt made of silk is a 28. A door made of wood is a 29. A cardigan made of wool is a 30. Hair like gold is 31. A club for people who play golf is a 32. A bill for using the telephone is a 33. A film full of mystery is a 34. A ticket you buy to travel on the bus 35. A tin to keep biscuits is a 36. A dress to wear in the evening is an




Tenses: General revision

Present simple I eatat Do I eat? I do not eat Present continuous I am eating Am I eating? I am not eating Past simple I eatat Did I eat? I did not eat Past continuous I was eating Was I eating? I was not eating 'Going to' form - Past I was going to eat Was I going to eat? I was not going to eat Future I will eat Will I eat? I will not eat Future continuous I will be eating Will I be eating? I will not be eating 'Going to' form - Future I am going to eat Am I going to eat? I am not going to eat Conditional I would eat Would I eat? I would not eat Conditional continuous I would be eating Would I be eating? I would not be eating Present perfect I have eaten Have I eaten? I have not eaten Present perfect continuous I have been eating Have I been eating? I have not been eating Past perfect I had eaten Had I eaten? I had not eaten Past perfect continuous I had been eating Had I been eating? I had not been eating Future perfect I will have eaten Will I have eaten? I will not have eaten Future perfect continuous I will have been eating Will I have been eating? I will not have been eating Conditional perfect continuous I would have been eating Would I have been eating? I would not have been eating Imperative (affirmative) Let me eat Eat Let him/her/it eat Let us (let's) eat Eat Let them eat Imperative (negative) Don't let me eat Don't eat Don't let him/her/it eat Don't let's eat (Let's not eat) Don't eat Don't let them eat





1. Pon el verbo en el tiempo que se te pida.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Example: 3rd. pers. sing, present continuous run. He is running. 2nd. pers. 1st. pers. 3rd. pers. 3rd. pers. 1st. pers. 2nd. pers. 3rd. pers. 1st. pers. 2nd. pers. 3rd. pers. 1st. pers. 2nd. pers. 3rd. pers. 1st. pers. 2nd. pers. 3rd. pers. 1st. pers.
pi. pi.

past perfect simple future perfect continuous, present continuous, past simple, present perfect, continuous, conditional simple, conditional perfect, future continuous past continuous, past perfect, int. neg. int. neg. int. int. neg. int. int. neg. neg. neg. int. neg. int. int, neg.



work break drive drive believe sell sail shout play sing

sing. sing. sing.

pi. pi. pi.

sing. future perfect, sing. sing.

pi. pi. pi.

present continuous, conditional continuous present perfect continuous future continuous past simple past perfect

breathe change open close





Phrasal verbs 1*
A menudo el significado original del verbo cambia completamente cuando combina con una preposition o particula; se forma un nuevo verbo. look (mirar) look after (cuidar) look for (buscar) La mayoria de los phrasal verbs se forma con los siguientes verbos: be break bring come do fall find get give go help let make put send stand take tear throw turn No solamente puede un verbo combinar con tales particulas como: along down in off on out over under up sino que una sola combination puede tener diferentes significados: The plane took off. (despego) He took off his shoes, (se quito) Los phrasal verbs pueden ser transitivos e intransitivos. Cuando llevan complemento directo, este se puede poner a veces antes o despues de la particula. He gave away all his fortune. He gave all his fortune away.

Ver el libro "GUIDE TO PHRASAL VERBS" de esta mlsma editorial.

Aunque muchos gramaticos difieren de la definition exacta de un phrasal verb, generalmente usamos estetermino para la combination: verb + preposition o verb + adverb participle. - Cuando el objeto es un pronombre a veces se pone al final de la expresion: I'm looking for them. Pero con particulas cortas: up down in out away off on el objeto se suele poner inmediatamente despues del verbo. He put it down. She took it off.

Phrasal verbs
account for (explicar) You must account for your actions. allow for (tomar en consideration) You must allow for those extra expenses. answer for (ser responsable) You have to answer for your deeds. ask for (pedir) I've asked for a gin and tonic. be for (estar a favor) I am for capital punishment. be over (acabar) The war is over. be up to (tramar) What is he up to?

1. Elige la preposicion adecuada para completar la frase.
Example: I am in for striking. 1. 'Is your husband at home?" 'No, he is not 2. I'm afraid we are for a bumpy flight. 3. 'Is Peter in?' 'No, n "s I I I Z e i 3III I 4. Where were you? Everybody was asking you. 5. He didn't ask me ; he kept me standing at the door. 6. She has many boyfriends and she is usually asked every evening. 7. When you die you'll have to answer your acts. 8. 'Is he still in bed?' 'No, he is 9. The storm was finally 10. You have to allow these extra miles. 11. It's the government to do something.


2. Sustituye las frases subrayadas por un phrasal verb.
Example: He had risen already. He was up already. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It's not my responsibility. It depends on the manager. I favour strict measures. The people around stepped backwards in fear. You have to consider a possible delay. Our headmaster always supports his teachers.


3. Rellena los huecos usando los siguientes phrasal verbs: allow for, be up to, be out, be over, be back, be in for, back away.
Example: We'll get there at four, but we have to allow for a possible delay. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What will little Jimmy next! 'Is your father at home?' 'No, he In 1945 at last the war He's out but he will by six. I'm afraid we a shock. The two children afraid. You have to all this money.

Phrasal verbs 2
> break down (averiarse) The car broke down on the motorway. break down (derrumbarse moralmente) The woman broke down on hearing about her son's death. ' break in (interrumpir) Jimmy, you must not break in when we are talking. break in/into (forzar) - Burglars broke into the shop last night. break off (romper compromisos, relaciones) Peace talks have broken off after five months. > break out (estallar: guerras, epidemias, incendios) A war broke out between the two countries. > break up (separarse, deshacerse.fracasar, disolver) The meeting broke up at about ten. bring about (ocasionar, producir, efectuar) - Bad sanitary conditions brought about a cholera epidemic. Antibiotics brought about changes in medicine. bring down (abatir, rebajar) - He brought down a wild boar with one shot. Shops usually bring down their prices after the New Year. bring forth (rendir) The autumn brought forth a good harvest. bring in (presentar, introducir) Steam engines brought in a new way of travel. bring up (vomitar, educar) - The nuns brought up the two orphans.

Phrasal verbs 2
come about (acontecer, producirse) - It came about that the tribes went to war. The cholera epidemic came about through bad sanitary conditions. come down (derribar, estrellarse, perder prestigio, reganar, enfermar) The old buildings will have to come down. The plane came down in the Alps. The teacher came down on the children for coming late. - That family has come down in the world.


come in (llegar primero, etc.) He came in second. come into (asociarse, heredar) He came into a lot of money. An American company decided to come into the venture.

1. Elige la preposicion adecuada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: One of the prisoners has broken out. 1. Mrs Evans brought her nine children by herself. 2. The meeting broke at eight. 3. New Year has come at last. 4. This minister has brought many changes. 5. A skin rash broke 6. The town came sight when he turned the bend. 7. He brought a couple of hares and a rabbit. 8. Their marriage broke a year later. 9. The photocopier has broken again! 10. I didn't want to bring the subject 11. He came the conclusion that his wife had betrayed him.

2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otro verbo con el mismo significado.
Example: When his grandfather died he came into a small fortune. When his grandfather died he inherited a small fortune. 1. This year has brought forth good business. 2. The business has broken up into several branches. 3. The fisherman came across a pool full of trout. 4. The hunter brought down some fowl. 5. The storm broke out suddenly with great fury.

3. Usa los verbos siguientes para rellenar los huecos: come to, bring down, come up, come out, break in.
Example: This amount comes to 1000. 1. We'll have to the prices. 2. They against some serious problems. 3. The stains when he used the stain remover. 4. Look at the mess. Somebody must have last night.


Phrasal verbs 3
do away with (eliminar, abolir, suicidarse) - He did away with himself. The Americans did away with slavery a long time ago. do for (matar, be done for estar moribundo) The first thrust of the sword did for the bull. - I'm afraid that the poor animal is done for. do up (renovar, redecorar, abrocharse, atarse) Do your buttons up, will you? We have to do up the kitchen. do with (nada que ver con, aguantar, venir bien) I could do with a cup of tea. That has nothing to do with me. - For many years teachers had to do with small wages. do without (prescindir de) I can't do without a good secretary. fall for (enamorarse de, dejarse engahar, acoger) - They soon fell for each other. He fell for the trick and lost 5. The deal was attractive and the firm fell for it.


fall to (ser responsable, sucumbir) It falls to the sergeant to keep the troops in line. He fell to the temptation. find out (averiguar) I'll find out what time the trains is leaving. give away (regalar, dar, vender barato) He gives away a lot of money. I'm going to give away these old clothes. He gave the picture away for 1,000. give out (distribuir, agotar) His strength gave out after two weeks without food. He gave out the cards. give up (dejar, renunciar, traicionar, abandonar) I have to give up smoking. My wife is giving up her job. He gave his friend up to the police. give way (ceder, hundirse) At a roundabout in England, you have to give way to traffic coming from your left.

1. Elige la parti'cula adecuada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: We have to do away with these old laws. 1.1 could do a drink. 2. The poor woman has done with herself. 3. I'm afraid the poor man is done 4. Do the zip, will you? 5. The miners had to do small wages for many years. 6. You can't do heating in winter in this country. 7. It falls the teacher to keep the class quiet. 8. He has to look his lost wallet. 9. Why don't you find the truth? 10. He has given his inheritance. 11. I'm afraid one of the engines of the plane has given 12. You have to give drinking, I'm afraid.


2. Sustituye el phrasal verb por otro verbo del mismo significado.


Example: I could do with another cigarette. I should like to smoke another cigarette. 1. Do up your overcoat, will you? 2. One coffee will do for us, thank you. 3. The first bullet did for him. 4. The boy fell for her at once. 5. She gave out the leaflets.

3. Rellena los huecos con uno de los phrasal verbs: give away, give way, give out, give up, do with, do without.
Example: Don't be so stubborn. Someone has to give way. 1.They are selling these carpets at prices. 2. the cards, will you! 3. I've smoking many times. It's very easy. 4. We could another hand to move this piano. 5. I can't you, darling.

Phrasal verbs 4
- get away (escaparse, evadirse) - The prisoner got away. get back (volver) We didn't get back until Sunday night. - get hurt (hacerse daho) He didn't get hurt when he fell down the stairs. get off (bajarse) He got off the bus. - get old (envejecer) - He is getting old. get rich (enriquecerse) This man is getting quite rich. - get sick (ponerse enfermo) He got sick after eating that meat. get tired (cansarse) I'm getting tired of repeating the same thing. get ready (prepararse) - Get ready, it's getting late. - get to sleep (dormirse) I finally got to sleep. get together (juntarse) The whole family get together for Christmas.

' get up (levantarse) I usually get up at seven. get wet (mojarse) Don't go out. You'll get wet. ' get at (insinuar, atacar) - What are you getting at? get down (tragar, deprimir, ir al grano) This rainy weather gets you down. These people can get down a lot of beer. > get in (entrar, llegar, meter) I just couldn't get a word in. get off (quitar, ligar, salir del trabajo) I couldn't get the stains off. He got off the bus at Paddington station. < get on (progresar) How are you getting on with your English? ' get out (salir, apearse) - He got out of the room. get over (superar, terminar de una vez, sobreponerse) He got over his illness.

1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco. Example: He got away from it all. 1. The sea is getting We'll have a rough crossing. 2. A good speaker always gets his audience. 3. Don't let the cat get the chickens. 4. What are you getting ? 5. Don't let the loss of your job get you 6. What time did your train get ? 7. He got with just a small fine. 8. It's getting for nine o'clock. 9. He is getting my nerves. 10. Get the bus, will you! 11. He can't get the crisis. 12. I can't get on the phone.


2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otras palabras del mismo significado. Example: He got to the office very late. He arrived at the office very late. 1. He is getting on very well in his school. 2. Come on, Lassie, get at them! 3. She got into the room laden with parcels. 4. Get on with your work, you, lazy boy! 5. The convict got away over the wall. 6. He gets up every day at seven. 7. The forest fire got up with the wind. 8. He got off the bus at Victoria Station. 9. They didn't the hay in get until September.

Phrasal verbs 5
* go after (perseguir) - The dog went after the cats. go away (alejarse, marcharse, desvanecerse) - I'll go away in the morning. go back (volver) - I'll go back to my country in summer. go by (a juzgar por, pasar cerca, acatar, segun) - Trains go by here every hour. To go by his clothes, he is not very rich. go for (atacar, entusiasmarse, va por ti) - And that goes for you too. - Watch that dog, it may go for you. go off (estallar) - The bomb went off at nine o'clock. go on (pasar, seguir, proseguir, progresar) What's going on? - go through (penetrar, sufrir) - We can't go through that crowd. go up (subir, estallar) The tanks went up in flames. help oneself to (servirse) Help yourself to the whisky. let down (bajar, desinflar) He let the basket down from the balcony. They let the tyres down.



Phrasal verbs 5
let in (dejar entrar) - Is that Jimmy? Let him in. let off (dejar escapar, disparar) - The boss let us off without finishing the work. let out (dejar salir, ensanchar, soltar un grito, etc.) The old woman let out a groan. make after (perseguir) - She made after the dog when it stole the meat. make for (dirigirse) The boat is making for the shore.


make ou (distinguir, convencer, fingir, portarse How did the team make out? make up (componer, aplicar maquillaje, recuperar, compensar) - We'll have to make up the list. - You'll have to make up for the time lost. - They quarrel a lot but they always make up later.

1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar los huecos. Example: All the lights of the house went off due to the storm. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. How is Jimmy getting in his new school? We'll have to go that hole. The bomb went in the terrorist's hands. Frank is going with Linda tonight. Let's go the plans again. This car has never let me He lets steam by shouting at everybody. When you're alone in the house, don't let anybody They had a quarrel but now they have made He always tries to make that he is poor. We'll have to make for the losses.

2. Sustituir el phrasal verb por otro verbo con el mismo significado. Example: The boat is making for the shore. The boat is going towards the shore. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Don't make fun of old people. You'll be old one day. Don't let go of the reins. He let out a groan as he was hit on the chin. Help yourselves to the cakes, children. John is at the door. I'll let him in.

3. Escribe otras frases usando phrasal verbs sin que cambie el significado. Example: The bomb exploded. The bomb went off. 1. Don't disappoint me, boy! 2.1 can't understand what he is saying. 3. What's happening in here? 4. The programme has passed several stages.


Phrasal verbs 6
put away (guardar, ahorrar, envainar) They put some money away for their old age. put back (retrasar, devolver) - We have to put the clocks back one hour. put down (anotar, hacer un primer pago, suprimir) Put down everything they say. They put down fifty pounds. put off (aplazar, expulsar, dejar pasajeros, disuadir) They put off their wedding till the spring. The taxi driver put the passengers off at Paddington. put on (ponerse, adelantar, encender, engordar) - He is putting on weight. - Don't put on that pullover. put up (alojar, izar, fijar, aguantar) They are putting up notices everywhere. We put up in a hostel for the night. set alight (prender fuego) He set the paper alight. set aside (anular, desestimar, rechazar) They set my petition aside.


> set back (costar, retrasar) The incident set back the talks for over a year. set forth (ponerse en camino, presentar) - She set forth her ideas on the project. set off (poner rumbo, detonar, acentuar) - The explosives were set off from a safe distance. set out (ponerse en camino) They set out at five. set up (organizar, establecerse, proporcionar) He set up a business in town. stand by (estar alerta, defender, apoyar) - Soldiers, stand by for action! His best friend stood by him throughout the trial. stand for (preconizar, significar, representar) He stands for freedom. stand out (sobresalir, destacarse, oponerse) He stands out as one of the nation's best athletes. > stand up (ponerse de pie, defender) He stood up for his friend. - He put his book down and stood up.

1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco. Example: Put that sword away.
1. Today we have to put the clocks one hour. 2. They put their holidays until autumn. 3. They haven't put the fire yet. 4. I'll put you 5. I can't put 6. He set 7. They set 8. Stand 9. My son stands 10. What does the 'N' stand for the night. with this noise any longer. his own business in this town. on a very long journey. for an emergency. as one of the best athletes in his school. ?

2. Sustituye el phrasal verb por otro verbo del mismo significado.


Example: They have put aside a large sum of money over the years. They have saved a large sum of money over the years. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The rebellion was put down by the army. They had to put off their wedding date. The taxi put them off at the station. He is putting on weight. He must go on a diet. They are going to set off early in the morning.

3. Escribe otra frase con el mismo significado usando un phrasal verb.

Example: That cruise cost me 10,000. That cruise set me back 10,000. 1. 2. 3. 4. You have to be alert in case of an emergency. This man is putting his name down for parliament. The old man rose to his feet slowly. They laid the blame on his nerves.

Phrasal verbs 7
run about (corretear) It's good for the children to run about in the country. run across (cruzar corriendo) Don't run across the street. run after (perseguir) Dogs like to run after cats. run away (escaparse, evadirse) The two convicts ran away. run down (criticar, atropellar, acabar la cuerda) He was run down by a car. run in (rodar) You have to run the new car in. run into (toparse, chocar) The car ran into a tree, run out (acabar, agotar) We ran out of petrol. run over (atropellar, ensayar) Let's run over this part of the music again. run to (extenderse, permitirse gastar) run up against (tropezar con dificultades, montar) The bill ran up to 500. They ran up against the opposition of her parents. take after someone (seguir el ejemplo) She dances beautifully. She takes after her mother. take back (devolver, retractarse, readmitir) Itake back all I said about you. take care (cuidar) I'll take care of the children while you are away. take in (alojar, enganar) Are you trying to take me in? take off (despegar, quitarse) The plane has taken off. take on (coger empleados, desafiar) He says he'll take anyone on. take over (hacerse cargo, suplir) He took over the business. take up (acortar, investigar, reanudar) You have to take up the skirt.

The book ran to 300 pages.


1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar el hueco.
Example: The prisoner has run away from prison. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


They ran the escaped convict when he reached the sea. You have to run your new car. This book has run five editions. We've run of petrol, I'm afraid. The cat was run by a lorry. Let's run the whole plan again. That boy takes his father. Take what you said about me or you'll regret it. Do you take guests? He took me , I'm afraid. He took his father's business.

2. Sustituye los siguientes phrasal verbs por otros verbos del mismo significado.
Example: He's has taken on three mechanics. He has hired three new mechanics. 1. He took off his clothes. 2. She has taken in new guests. 3.1 was taken for a ride, I'm afraid. 4. Take care not to miss the bus. 5. The child ran across the road.

3. Cambia las frases siguientes usando un phrasal verb.

Example: She escaped with a classmate. She ran away with a classmate. 1. We met one of our old teachers this morning. 2. The programme continued for hours. 3. We'll have to rehearse this part again. 4. He faced many difficulties.

Phrasal verbs 8
tear away (arrancar, arrebatar, alejarse de prisa) The floods tore away the old barn. tear down (arrancar, derribar) - They tore the flag down. tear up (romper, rasgar) He tore up the contract. throw about (derrochar, esparcir) She is throwing food for the birds about. throw a party (hacer una fiesta) They are throwing a party. throw down (arrojar, dejar, deponer) - The soldiers threw down their arms. throw in (echar las cartas, la toalla) He threw in the towel. throw out (deshechar, expulsar) - He was thrown out of his job for causing accidents. throw over (derrocar, dar calabazas, abandonar) - They decided to throw over the plan. turn about (dar media vuelta) The soldiers turned about, turn aside (apartarse, desviarse) - She turned him aside from the group.

Phrasal verbs 8
turn away (despedirse, rechazar, despedir) - The new boss refused to turn away any of


the men.
turn back (repeler, volver, hacer volver) - They were turned back by enemy fire. We'll have to turn the clock back, turn down (rechazar, bajar el volumen) His application was turned down. - Please, turn the volume down, turn in (acostarse) - It's very late. I'm going to turn in. turn into (convertir en, transformar) She was turned into a little mouse by the evil witch.

turn on/off (apagar, encender) Turn on the light, please. - Turn off the radio, I'm going to sleep. turn out (producir, expulsar, resultar) - He turned out to be a criminal. They turn out 100 cars a day. turn up (aparecer) He turned up at five o'clock in the morning.

1. Elige la particula apropiada para rellenar los huecos. Example: He tore his hair out. 1. She tore the letter in a fit of fury. 2. You mustn't throw all your plans. 3. The old government was thrown 4. The dogs were thrown by the scent. 5. The people soon turned the new ruler. 6. She turned me from my friends to tell me that. 7. She turned the volume It was too loud. 8. I'm tired. I'm going to turn 9. She was turned a frog. 10. We turned the main road a mile from town. 11. In this factory they're turning washing machines. 2. Cambia el phrasal verb por otro verbo con el mismo significado. Example: She threw over her boyfriend. She abandoned her boyfriend. 1. They are throwing a party. 2. She tore away from him. 3. He turned a deaf ear to our request. 4. He turned away from gambling for good. 5. The prince was turned into a little dog. 3. Cambia la frase por otra igual usando un phrasal verb. Example: He stopped the engine. He turned off the engine. 1. He reduced the gas. 2. He was picturing it in his mind again and again. 3. He rejected the job because it involved travelling. 4. They are producing car accessories. 5. Increase the volume. I can't hear anything. 100



Exercise, Idiomatic expressions.

Sustituye las palabras en negrita por otras palabras del mismo significado.
Make 1. I can't make him out. 2. He's just made that story up. 3. You've made yourself up. 4. He took the money and made off. 5. This won't make up for it.

1. He carried it off. 2. We'll carry out a test.

13. Get a builder in. 14. Get her around here. 15. Stop getting at me. 16. She got into trouble/debt. 17. He's got over his illness. 18. You can't get around me. 19. How can we get around this problem?

1. My watch loses ten minutes a day. 2. Get lost! 3. Sarcasm is lost on her.

1. She did everybody down. 2. We've done the house up. 3. I could do with a cup of tea. 4. I can't do without a secretary. 5. They did away with the bad law. 4. He was lost in thought.

1. You really get about/around, don't you? 2. I've always wanted to get ahead. 3. He got off lightly. 4. We really get on. 1. She gave away the secret. 2. She gave herself away. 3. Who's giving the bride away? 4. I've given up smoking. 5. They gave themselves up. 6. I'll never give in.

1. We'll bring the job off. 2. Who brought it about? 3. Who brought down the ruler? 4. They'll bring your article out. 5. We'll bring him round. 6. You brought your son up well. 7. Don't bring that up again.

5. It's time you got up. 6. He got away with it. 7. He got back at me in the end. 8.1 got down to work. 9. I'll get in touch with him. 10. He's getting into trouble. 11. He got his message across. 12. The news got me down.

1. Don't take it out on me. 2. I'll take the matter up with John. 3. She's taken up with Frank. 4. The plane is taking off. 5. I'm not taken in by this. 6. How many are they taking on?



Exercise. Idiomatic expressions.

7. He is going to take her out. 8. She takes after her mother. 9. She took to English quickly. 5. I'll come and see you off. 7. I'm going about my business. 8. Let's go after him. 9. The dog went for the postman. 10. The picture went for 5,000. 11. I'll go into the matter.

1. I came across this old book. 2. He came at me with a knife. 3. Where did you come by this? 4. He came into a lot of money. 5. What came over you?

1 . We'll have to look into this. 2. I'd like to look over the house. 3. She looked right through me.

1. I ran across/into her. 2. Will he run for president? 3. We'd better run for it. 4. A lorry ran into my car. 5. We've run into problems/ trouble. 6. The project runs into millions. 7. He ran through a fortune. 8. We can run to a new car this year. 9. She always runs me down. 10. The cat was run over by a lorry. 11. Our supplies have run out.

6. How did that come about? 4. I hope we can look to you for help/support. 5. Please, look over this essay. 6. Look this word up. 7. Look me up when you get back. 8. Look out! 9. Things are looking up. 10. He looks down on us. 11. I look forward to it. 12. I'll look out for him. 13. She looks up to you. 13. She came up with a good idea. 7. Prices have come down. 8. My plan came off. 9. The subject came up again. 10. Come across with the money. 11. It comes down to this. 12. His work has come in for criticism.

1. I won't go back on my word. 2. She's gone in for painting.

1. I'll see about fixing that TV. 2. She saw to the customers? 3. I saw through it. 4. I'll see to the dinner. 3. I can't go through with it.

12. We've run out of sugar. 4. The bomb went off.

13. He has run out on her.

5. What's going on? 6. Will this food go round? 14. I'm running up against problems.




Exercise. Idiomatic expressions with colours

1. He was white with fear. 2. She was as white as a sheet. 3. To bleed someone white. 3. It's a blue joke. 4. I'll have a white coffee, please. 5. He was dressed/clad in white.

1. His face was blue with cold.

1. He is as brown as a berry. 2. I'm browned off with that

2. He has blue blood.


1. It turned yellow with age. 2. The news was published in the yellow press. 3. He's yellow.

4. There was a blue streak.

5. I've told you till I'm blue in the face.

1. It was black with age. 2. It was a black year.

6. You look blue.

7. He sings the blues.

1. He was red with anger.

8. He came out of the blue. 3. It was a black deed. 4. As black as coal. 5. I'll have a black coffee. 2. He is very green. 6. The Black Death came over to London. 2. He is red as a beetroot.

3. She is as red as a lobster. 1 . He is green with envy. 4. The clue proved to be a red herring. 5. There is a lot of red tape. 6. She turned red. 7. I'm in the red at the bank. 8. She makes me see red.

7. They were taken in a Black Maria. 8. He is in a black mood. 9. She was dressed in black. 1. He is a grey eminence.

2. The first grey of dawn. 3. He's turning grey.



Expressions with: to do to make Do

something - nothing much - little - one's military service - a favour - damage good - no good harm - no harm - justice - a kindness - a service. - business - a deal with - one's duty a job - something for a living - one's job/work - the cooking - the gardening -the ironing - the shopping - the washing - the washing-up - the sights - Paris (in a day) my car does 100 miles an hour - thirty miles to the gallon the beds the flowers the kitchen one's hair one's nails one's teeth

- accountancy - engineering law art - French - an experiment - your homework - research - a lesson - an exercise - crosswords

an accusation an agreement an apology an application an attempt a bargain abed a bid bread breakfast a cake a (phone) call a car cement a change a chair a choice clear a claim clothes coffee a comment a contribution a criticism a deal a decision a deduction a demand difficulties dinner a discovery disturbance a dress an effort an error an escape an excuse a fortune a guess a habit of something happy history a hole an impression an inquiry a journey (somebody) laugh a law - a list - a loss love - lunch a man - merry - a mess - a mistake - money - the most of something - a move - a movement - a start - a name for oneself - a noise - an offer - paper - peace - a profit - progress - a promise - a proposal - questions - a record a reference - regulations - a remark - a report - a request room - rules - sense - a start - a success of - supper - a table tea - a threat - it in time - a trip - trouble - oneself understood - use of war - one's way to a place - a will wine.

NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3 NIVELES 1 , 2 Y 3

NIVELES 1 , 2, 3, 4 Y 5

NIVELES 1, 2, 3, 4 Y 5


NIVELES 1, 2 Y 3



NIVELES 1, 2, 3 Y 4


NIVELES 1,2, 3 Y4













EDITORIAL STANLEY Apdo. 207 20300 ( R U N Tel.

943 64 04 12 Fax. 943 64 38 63


PMfil ICU n D A M M A D


1. An expensive, old, Italian picture. > 2. Attractive, short, black hair. 3. An exciting, large, new town. 4. A small, thin, white dog. 5. A small, narrow street. 6. A white, fattish
faro laCc.

7. A large, brown, wooden box. a A large, new, black car. 9. A pretty, blue dress. 10. A refreshing, cold shower. 11. A miserable, rainy day. 12. Large, red eyes. 13. A funny, British film. 14. A black, leather skirt. 15. A decrepit, old mansion. 16. A beautiful young woman. 17. A grumpy old man. 18. A rare, emerald bracelet. 19. A nice, little, French restaurant. 20. A handmade, wooden, kitchen cupboard. 21. A small, shiny, black, leather handbag. 22. A huge, ice-cold, strawberry milkshake. 23. A little, friendly, Spanish waiter. 24. A beautiful, bright, clean room.

25. A daring, handsome, young Air Force pilot. 26. A curious, little brown, dog. 27. A tall, dark, handsome, Texan cowboy. 28. A green, Chinese, glass ashtray. 29. A large, glass conference hall. so. A long, sharp carving knife. 31. A handy, little, black calculator. 32. A curious, little monkey. 33. An inexpensive, dirty little hotel. 34. A kindly, old, coloured doctor. PAGE 5

14. 15. 16. 17. is. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. so.

irreligious agreement unknown antisocial hypersensitive maladjusted impure disillusioned ineffective informal unreal underdone superman inconsistent incomplete irregular unfavourable

3.1. I have ever read. 2. have ever met. a I had ever ridden 4.1. as big as 2. not so/as interesting as 3. as clever as 4. not as hard a worker as PAGE 13 1.1. not as 2. daily 3. too 4. quite 5. enough 6. monthly 7. very much a such a 9. very much indeed 10. unique 11. dead/very 12. jolly good 13. dead/quite 14. medical

2.1. terribly 2. carefully a colourfully 4. good 5. fluent 6. happily 7. continuously a unfriendly 9. nervously 10. seriously 11. bitterly 12. reasonably 13. extremely 14. terribly 15. surprisingly

PAGE 9 1.1. earlier 5. sadder 2. greyer 6. fatter 3. shyer 7. freer 4. busier

2.1. tidiest 4. driest 2. thinnest 5. greyest 3. funniest 6. longest

1.1. 2. 3. 4. impeccable impracticable indescribable indivisible

3.1. more uncommon/ uncom-moner 2. better built a less expensive 4. least amusing 5. worsetempered 6. most handsome /handsomest 7. most beautiful one. PAGE 11
1.1. the more he takes. 2. cheaper and cheaper. 3. the less you do. 4. more and more complicated 5. the more you spend.

2.1. precocious 2. capricious 3. fallacious 4. capricious 3.1. elaborate 2. desolate a intimate 4. appropriate PAGE 7
1.1. illegal 2. irresponsible 3. amoral 4. uninjured 5. anticommunists 6. inedible 7. disloyal a uneducated 9. indispensable 10. overdue 11. illogical 12. dissatisfied 13. unplanned

2.1. G 2. P
9.J 10. H

a 0
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. M N L K I

11. F
12. E 13. D 14. C 15. B 16. A

PAGE 17 1.1. fairly 5. fairly 2. rather 6. rather a fairly 7. fairly 4. rather 2.1. quite a hardly 2. rather 9. rather a rather 10. fairly 4. hardly 11. quite 5. hardly 12. hardly e. quite 13. rather 7. quite 3.1. There's almost no good news ... 2. We almost never go out ... 3. Your son almost never knows his... PAGE 19 1.1. As well as playing the guitar, he sings. 2. As well as speaking Chinese, he writes it. 3. As well as feeding you, they let you have a bed. 4. As well as smashing the place, they laugh at you.

2.1. in - 2. of - 3. in 4. in/of - 5. of

PAGE 15 1_ i. 1. extremely z madly a basically 4. heavily 5. monthly 6. carefully 7. hurriedly a badly 9. lively 10. incredibly 11. secretly 12. wholly 13. truly 14. fast 15. hard

5. As well as swimming in the sea, he lies in the sun. 6. As well as swimming in a triathlon, you run and cycle. 2.1. as long as it doesn't rain. 2. as long as you don't go over the speed limit. 3. as long as you come on time. 4. as long as you don't interrupt 28. insult 29. stay so. meeting 31. invite 32. being 33. go 34. driving PAGE 23 1 because of 2. because 3 because of 5 because of 6 because 7. because of PAGE 27



2.1. bound to 2. bound to 3. bound to 4. bound for 5. bound to 6. bound for 7. bound to a bound for 3.1. bound 5. bound 2. likely 6. likely 3. bound 7. bound 4. likely PAGE 25 1.1. will be 2. will finish 3. will be 4. will arrive 2.1. will have received 2. will have finished 3. will have done 4. will have arrived 3.1. will be finishing 2. will have been working 3. will be sleeping 4. will have been fighting 4.1. had left 2. had finished 3. had closed 4. had already had

5. as long as you pay in time. 3.1. though 2. though a though 4. though PAGE 21

1. having 2. hearing 3. eat 4. speak 5. speak e. being 7. drive s. coming 9. getting up 10. get up 11. come 12. speaking 13. being 14. seeing 15. smoke 16. smoke 17. smoking is. go 19. visit 20. paying 21. being 22. have 23. living 24. live 25. live 26. going 27. being

1. A house was built on the hill. / I had a house built on the ... 2. The photos will be developed. / I'll have my photos developed. 3. My socks were mended./ 1 had my socks mended. 4. The hedges are going to be cut. / I'm having the PAGE 29 hedges cut. 2.1.5. The book is 1. if not - 2. if so 1. They camped being 3. if not - 4. if so there as/ photocopied. / because/since it PAGE 31 She's having was too dark to the book go on. 1. slower than his photocopied. 2. As/Since the brother (is). a Her skirt will be problem was too 2. is quicker than pressed. / She is difficult, I left it he (is). having her skirt blank. 3. darker today pressed. a Since/Seeing than it was 7. The job was that/As you are yesterday. done last night. / here, you may 4. more money I had the job as well give me than he earns. done last night. a hand. 5. pay as much in 8. The fence will be 4. The fuse blew taxes as we do. painted. / We'll because/as she 2.have the fence had switched on 1. harder than I do. painted. all the heaters. 2. louder than the 9. The room will be 5. She was angry people I heard. decorated. / because/as we 3. as quickly as his We'll have the were late. sister does. room decorated. e. I was not hungry 4. more slowly 2.because/as we than his friend 1. My daughter is had dinner very does. being taught by late. ." me./ I'm having 7. If/Since/Seeing 1. watching my daughter that you don't 2. to pilot taught. like him, why do 3. drinking 2. The boys are you invite him? 4. to do being instructed 8. There was ice PAGE 33 by her./ She is everywhere as/ 1.having the boys because it had instructed. 1. F 6. A frozen. 3. They were 2. E 7. J 9. Since/As you prepared for the 3. D 8. I can't cook .you'll test by me./ 1 4. C 9. H have to hire a was having them 5. B 10. G cook.

prepared for the test. 4. The children will be trained by us./ 1 will have the children trained. 5. The house will be shown to you by me./ 1 will have the house shown to you. 6. They will be coached by him./ He will have them coached.

10. He wants to find a flat as/ because he wants to be independent. 11. He is studying at night because/ as he works during the day. 12. Since/Seeing that he knows Italian, he can do the talking. isSince/lf/Seeing that you don't love him, why did you marry him?


2.though though as However No matter what Although/Even though/Though 7. While a However 9. Even if 10. Whatever 11. Wherever 12. Whoever 13. whenever 14. Whichever 15. However 16. No matter 17. as 18. though 19. However 20. Although PAGE 35 1. 2. a 4. 5. 6.

3. A 4. D 5. J

8. G 9. F 10. E

33. so many PAGE 41

14. if you stand in the rain.

1.1. as long as 2. during the time a By the time 4. Once 5. Since 6. as soon as 7. while a before 9. until/till 10. during the time 11. Once 12. as soon as 13. immediately 2.1. than 2. when 3. when 4. than 5. the sooner e. when 7. when a the sooner 9. when 10. than 11. when 12. than 13. when PAGE 43

2.1. tell him I want to speak to him. 2. tell him I'll ring back. a send her my love. 4. go and see the Prado Museum. 5. let us know. e. contact us. 7. tell her I still love her a let me know 9. let me read it PAGE 45

2.1. lest 2. in case a in order that 4. so that 5. lest e. for fear 7. in case a so that 9. so that 10. lest 11. in order 12. in case 13. for fear 14. so that 15. in case 16. for fear 17. in order

25. he could do better. 26. if you were my queen. PAGE 47

1.1. if you had worked harder at school. 2. you would have got wet. 3. if I had won the lottery. 4. I would have gone with you. 5. if they had played in the house with a L _ II ball. 6. I would have gone to the cinema. 7 if you had known it. a would you have eaten that fish? 9. if it had rained. 10. I would have gone to the pub. 11. if I had been able. 12. I would have left her ages ago. 13. if he had been here yesterday. 14. the strike would not have happened. 15. if you had looked after it. 16. I would have spread the butter on the bread. 17. we would have been able to save the climber. 18. if she had been here.

1.1. you'd get there earlier. 2. it rained. 3. you'd see the difference. 4. if you went by train. 5. I'd run faster. e. if I had money. 7. they wouldn't eat any meat. a if I liked it. 9. they'd sell the car. 10. if I parked my car there. 11. she'd marry me. 12. if I wanted to play cards. 13. I'd put it in the bank. 14. if I had flowers. 15. I'd cut it. 16. if I could go to the Bahamas. 17. I'd eat them. 18. if I had a knife. 19. it would look much better. 20. if I were you. 21. I'd be homeless. 22. if I were in her place. 23. she might help. 24. he could help


1.1. 2. a 4. 5. e. otherwise unless whether provided/ providing Suppose on condition/ provided that/as long as Assuming Unless as long as even if otherwise as long as/ provided
5. C
6. B 7. A

.1. SO

2. so much
3. SO

4. 5. e. 7. 8. 9

such a such such so little so few so little

2.1. we'll leave early. 2. if you open the window, a I'll buy that house. 4. if I see him. 5. I'll tell you. 6. if the train leaves in time. 7. she'll be welcome. s. if you want to read it. 9. I'll close the window. 10. if you hand it to me. 11. you'll get a reduction. 12. if you learn languages. 13. I'M eat I II * sandwiches.

7. a 9. 10. 11. 12.


10. SO

1. G
2. F 3. E 4. D

11. so many 12. so much 13. so little 14. such a 15. such 16. so / such a 17. such a is. such 19. such a 20. so few
21. SO 22. SO

3.1. Type 3 2. Type 2 3. Type 2 4. Type 1 5. Type 3 6. Type 1 7. Type 2

PAGE 37 1.. r\ 6. Ii 1. C
2. B

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. so.

such a so much so many so few so little so little so many such a

7. H

31. SO


32. so few

PAGE 49 1.1. can't swim as/so well as you (can).


2. can't jump as/so high as his friend. a colder than 1 expected. 4. as fast as my father. 5. the worst film 1 have ever seen. e. the fastest typist in her class. wasn't my business. 7. The teacher introduced me to my new classmates, one of whom offered to show me around. a The rain rattled on the roof all night, which kept us awake. g. She said she had no money, which was not true. 10. Some of the bridges had been blown up, which made the army's advance more difficult. 11. He met all Tom's sisters, some of whom took a fancy to him. 12. I bought two lamps, one of which broke when I dropped the box. 13. The singer let out a squawk, which made everybody laugh. 14. He ate only cereals, which kept him fit. 15. The roads were flooded, which made our journey very dangerous. 16. He said he was an orphan, which was not true. PAGE 53 1_ i. 1. to start with. 2. Honestly, 3. All the same, 4. actually 5. e. 7. a therefore for instance so forth Talking about
2.1. Any person who/ that commits crimes should be sent to prison. 2. The yacht that/ which Captain Marry at commanded arrived first. 3. The house which/that stood on the corner has been demolished. 4. The man (Whom/ who/that) you saw yesterday was my uncle. 5. I enjoy talking to anyone who has personality. e. This skirt (that) you are wearing is identical to the one my sister bought yesterday.


2.1 on the other hand 2. on top of that, 3 As for

4. In nthpr wnirta Ill Ullltsl WUIUO,

2.1. and colder 2. more expensive a quickly than I expected. 4. and less interested 5. more comfortably 6. as easy as riding
3.1. like -2. as- 3. as 4. alike - 5. like

5. mostly 6. indeed
As d 7. r\o A
rule lulc?,

8. I say
/Vo for 9. r\o IUI

10. On the other hand 11 mostly. 12. actually. 13. I say! 14. As for 15. mostly. PAGE 55
1.1. The pools winner used a system, which, he said, had won him a lot of money. 2. Immigration is an issue which raises strong emotions. 3. I know the very person who will do the job quickly. 4. The gales that swept across southern England caused a lot of damage. 5. The problem is to build houses at a price which/ that young people can afford to pay. e. Some frogmen came across a wreck that/which had lain on the seabed for 1 00 years.

it lasted, has now been settled. 5. The English weather, which people associate with rain and fog, is not as bad as they suppose. 6. The new London guide, which will appear in the bookshops next week, contains a lot of information.

2.1. The cliffs of Dover, which are famous all over the world, are a startling white. 2. The winning horse, which nobody expected to win, was trained in Ireland. 3. Joseph Conrad, who was Polish, wrote all his books in English. 4. Bernard Shaw, who was one of the greatest writers of the 20th century, died in 1950. 5. Not many people could follow the speaker, who spoke extremely quickly. e. He was advised to change to an outdoor job, which would be good for his health. 7. The wrecked ship, whose crew is safe on shore, is listing dangerously.


1.1. She bought a dozen eggs, five of which broke on the way. 2. The old man slipped on a banana skin, which made everybody laugh. a I threw the ball to my brother, who threw it to Jim. 4. The wall collapsed on top of the children, some of whom had to be taken to hospital. 5. She went out with her boss, whose car broke down on the way. e. I told my mother, who said it


.1. Her first speech, which was broadcast, was better than the second one, which she gave before an audience. 2. The cabinet, which has now twenty-two members, will be reduced to twenty. 3. The Book Distributing Co., which was set up in 1950, provides a novelty service. 4. This industrial dispute, which stopped production while





PAGE 59 1. Shall I get 2. will win 3. will work 4. will be working 5. won't pay e. will be paying 7. will take place a Shall we go 9. am seeing him 10. will get 11. will change

a will go and see 4. are going to get married 5. will change e. is going to rain 7. are going a will

2.1. are on the point

a I can't imagine Peter making such a fuss. 4. I can't understand his mother approving that! 5. She can't forget me leaving her. PAGE 65

2. a 4. 5. a 7. are about to get are are to be taken is about are due to

1.1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. making saying talkino fishing speaking coming fond of interested in afraid of sorry for happy about used to bored with

2.1. She is to do it today. 2. We are to give it to him tonight. a They are to report at five o'clock. 4. The boys are to meet at four. 5. You are to tell him the truth. e. They are to let us know as soon as possible. 7. We are to see him tonight.

a I told them not to say that. 4. Would you tell her to come tonight? 5. She expects me to visit her when I come to London. e. I expect them to obey me at once. 7. They don't allow people to smoke in the office.

9. Rarely have we seen such ... 10. Nowhere else in the word will you find a ... 11. Only when the terrorists threatened to kill the passengers did he agree to ... 12. Only if both sides accept the treaty will peace be ...

3.1. 2. a 4. 5. 6. 7. a 9. what to how to where to which / to how to how to how to how to when to

2.1. It was not until six months ago that the ... 2. It was only yesterday that she ... a It was only recently that I ... PAGE 71

3.1. was to 2. were to a was about to 4. was due 5. were e. were 7. was about to a was due

2.1 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7.

3.1. to live 2. to go out a doing 4. making 5. to think e. to write 7. to accept a to do 9. to speak 10. coming 11. playing 12. being PAGE 67 1. to know 2. to go


1.1. could have given me some. 2. could give me some. a could have eaten something. 4. could speak to

1.1. 2. a 4. 5. e. 7. a 9. nagging answering getting up going speaking coming pulling knowing having

1.1. Never again should such a situation be allowed to arise. 2. Hardly had he finished eating his breakfast, than he was hungry again. a Not only did the men demand new ... 4. No sooner had he put down the receiver ... 5. Little did the robbers realize ... e. Not for a moment would I doubt 7. Not until many years later did the truth hppomp become a So dense was the smoke that ...

3.1. We will be working in the same office. 2. I'll be speaking to him in the morning. a I'll be doing the shopping in the afternoon. 4. We'll be listening to the eight o clock news. 5. I'll be looking for a new job. a I'll be seeing her first thing tomorrow morning. PAGE 61 1.1. I'm going to practise 2. is going to be

me. 2.1. he must have been asleep. 2. he can't have understood whal 1 said, a they must have listened to our conversation. 4. 1 must have forgotten to turn it off. 5. she can't have been listening.

2.1. The whole house wants redecorating. 2. My old car needs overhauling. a These children need encouraging. 4. The grass wants cutting. 3.1. I dislike their wasting so much money. 2. I hate them speaking to me like that.

tfi uuiiitri lu hftthpr

4. jogging 5. to pass 6. dancing

7 tpll /. IC/II

8. to smoke 9. to De . 2. 1. I warned her not to do that. 2. She made me wash my face.

3.1. a) He might have gone somewhere else. b) He may not


rvc. i


know about it.

2. a) He may be

was lost for so many years.

going to the cinema, b) He could be going to a party. 3. a) Someone may have dropped a cigarette, b) It could have been an electrical fault. PAGE 73

2.1. The one with the golden frame. 2 The one with the brown head 3 The one with the flashing lights. 4. The one with the swimming pool. PAGE 75

2. 3.



1.1. Once you confess your sins, you feel happier. 2. Once you cross that line, there is no return. a Once she makes up her mind, nothing will make her change. 4. Once you make a deal, you can't get out of it.

be the most suitable. Our team is said to be the best. This picture is thought to be a masterpiece. This car is considered to be the fastest. This restaurant is thought to be the best in the country.

1.1. Those pictures are the ones that were stolen ... 2. Those players are the ones that won ... a These people are the ones who want to ... 4. Those pictures are the ones which you have 5. These plugs and this battery are the ones that you have ... e This window is the one that you have to paint. 7. That man is the one that you have to play with. s. Those trees are the ones that have to be planted. 9. That branch is the one that has to be cut off. 10. That lecture is the one I am so interested in. 11. That man is the one who is giving the lecture. ^2. That treasure is the one which

2.1. He might have gone somewhere else. 2. She may not have known about it. 3. She may have gone to bed early. 4. She might have gone to the theatre. 5. Someone may have dropped a cigarette. 3.1. will have been broken 2. will have been wrecked a will have been gone PAGE 79 .1. He asked me how old I was. 2. She said (that) she was tired and (that) she was going home. 3. She said (that) it might rain. 4. He said (that) he would be delighted. 5. He said (that) he hadn't seen her before that day.

e. He said (that) he was/had been only joking. 7. She explained/ said that she hadn't recognized him/me. a He asked if it was raining. 9. He said that he could do it the next day. 10. He said (that) if he had a screwdriver he could mend it. 11. My boss advised me to read the instructions.

2.1. "I'll take the car," he said. 2. "We were very happy when we lived in Paris," h/a o^i/4 ne said. a "I'll be twenty tomorrow," Tom _: -i said. 4. "We were/had been thinking of selling the car," he said. 5. "I never eat meat," she said. PAGE 81

2.1. have confessed your guilt 2. have succeeded a have bought a new car 4. have paid for the

car 3.1. have finished 2. have finished a have told 4. have lived 4.1. Have you ever eaten lobster? 2. Have you ever met him? 3. Have you ever been to Egypt? 4. Have you ever spoken to the President? PAGE 77 1.1. This colour is considered to

1.1. He suggested
nninn tn thp vjuniy lu i lit?

theatre that evening. 2. The teacher shouted that they were to stop that noise. a The man claimed that the bicycle that he/I was riding was his. 4. The boy admitted breaking the window playing cricket.

5. The man protested that he knew his rights, e. Her boyfriend whispered that he would always love her. 7. The treasurer objected that they didn't have enough money for that. s. The student muttered that that teacher didn't know what he was talking about. 9. She exclaimed that it was a surprise to see him/me there. 10. He agreed that if the weather was bad they couldn't go. 11. He insisted that if I couldn't go that day I had to go the following day. "\2. He promised to her he'd be back. 13. He announced that the victory was theirs/ours. 14. He groaned that his whole body ached. 15. He threatened that he would kill him. 16. He sneered that he couldn't listen to those low-class people.

.1. to give 2. to give a saying 4. to write


5. tO put

English G R A M M A R

2.1. overwork, overtone, overstrain. 2. superman, superpower, supersound. a transformation, tran-scription, transatlantic. 4. surplus, surname, surcharge. 5. outbreak, outcry, outcome, outfit. e. malfunction, malcontent, maladministration. 3.1. troublesome, bothersome, burdensome. 2. hardship, scholarship, headmastership. 3. voltmeter, speedometer, amperimeter. 4. powerless, fruitless, meaningless. 5. oratory, dormitory, lavatory. 6. philology, odontology, graphology. 7. pamphlet, leaflet, gauntlet, a parenthood, childhood, brotherhood, boyhood. PAGE 87

e. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

living spending telling to say going reading to lock locking wasting/having wasted 15. seeing 16. to wash 17. seeing 1. talking 2. holding a to hang 4. talking 5. taking e. to buy 7. laughing a smoking 9. to smoke 10. putting 11. to win PAGE 85 1.1. periphrastic, perimetric. 2. foregoing, foregone, forehand. a nonexistent, non-profit, nonstop. 4. postwar, postpaid, postgraduate. 5. prewar, prepaid, pre-occupied. e. antichristian, anticancerous, antirabic. 7. multivalent, multicoloured, multichannel, a interstate, interrelated, interposed. 9. antediluvian, ante meridiem, antenuptial. 10. circumscribed, circum-ambient, circumpolar.


12. football match 13. car rally 14. teapot 15. coffee cup 16. workman 17. horseman 18. cotton blouse 19. stone house 20. two-hour walk 21. three-week holiday 22. car key 23. kitchen sink 24. detective story 25. football field 26. fivepenny stamp 27. silk shirt 28. wooden door 29. woollen cardigan so. golden hair 31. golf club 32. telephone bill 33. mystery film 34. bus ticket 35. biscuit tin 36. evening dress PAGE 89 1.1. You had spoken. 2. We will not have been buying. 3. Has he been working? 4. They didn't break. 5. Had I been driving? e. Would you drive? 7. He would not have believed. a We will be selling. 9. Were you sailing? 10. They had not shouted. 11. Will I have played? 12. You are not singing. 13. Would he be running? 14. Have we been breathing?

15. We will not be changing. 16. Didn't they open? 17. Hadn't I closed? PAGE 91

5. with 11. out 6. without 12. up

2.1. button up 2. be enough/ sufficient 3. killed him 4. fell in love 5. distributed

1.1. in 2. in 3. out 4. for 5. in

6. OUt

7. for a up 9. over 10. for 11. up to

3.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. give away give out given up do with do without

2.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. is up to am for backed away allow for backs up

PAGE 97 H . i _

7. Off

3.1. be up to 2. is out 3. was over 4. be back 5. are in for e. backed away 7. account for

2. across a at 4. at 5. down e. in

to a on 9. on 10. off 11. over 12. through

.1. 2. a 4. 5. e. 7. a 9. progressing attack entered continue escaped rises increased descended collect

1.1. up
2. Up

7. down
8. Up

3. in 9. down 4. about 10. up 5. out 11. to e. into

2.1. propitiated 2. divided 3. found 4. killed 5. started

PAGE 99 1.1. on 7. off 2. through a in 3. off 9. up

4. OUt
10. OUt

5. over 6. down

11. up

2.laugh at release he groaned take the cakes yourselves 5. allow him to enter 3.1. let me down 2. make out a going on 4. gone through

1.1. petrol tank 2. kitchen door a church bell 4. spring flowers 5. taxi driver e. dining-room 7. shop window a doorknob 9. tin opener 10. bookseller 11. goldmine

3.1. 2. 3. 4. bring down came up came out broken in

1. 2. 3. 4.

PAGE 95 1.1. with 7. to 2. away 8. for 3. for 9. out 4. up 10. away

PAGE 101 1.t. back 6. up
2. Off 7. OUt

English GRAMMAR 4

3. out a by 4. up 9. out 5. up 10. for 2.1. suppressed 2. postpone a left 4. gaining 5. leave

5. converted 3.t. turned down 2. turning it over 3. turned down 4. turning out 5. turn up APPENDIX 1 MAKE 1. understand 2. invented 3. cosmetics 4. escaped 5. compensate

10. mischief 11. conveyed 12. depressed 13. to do the job 14. persuade her 15. criticising constantly 16. had problems 17. recovered from 18. persuade 19. solve GIVE 1. revealed it 2. showed she had been lying 3. at the wedding 4. stopped the habit 5. surrender e. surrender TAKE 1. treat me unfairly 2. discuss it 3. become friends 4. leaving the ground 5. deceived e. employing 7. escort on a date a resembles 9. learnt it easily LOOK 1. investigate 2. inspect it a ignored me 4. ask 5. scrutinize 6. in the dictionary 7. come to see me a be careful dancer
in Improving 9 . imnrn\/inn

COME 1. found it 2. attacked a obtained 4. inherited 5. affected 6. happen 7. reduced a succeeded 9. was mentioned 10. provide 11. means 12. received 13. produced

BLACK 1. with the years 2. bad year 3. bad action 4. very black 5. only coffee 6. epidemic 7. prison van a bad humour 9. mourning BLUE 1. very cold 2. he is of royal parentage a dirty joke 4. flash of lightning 5. till I'm tired e. iood sad 7. negro songs a appeared suddenly

1. 2. 3. 4.

stand by standing for stood up put it down to'

PAGE 103 1.1. down 7. after 2. in a back a into 9. in 4. out 10. in 5. over 11. over e. over 2.1. undressed 2. lodged a was deceived 4. be careful 5. crossed the road 3.1. ran into 2. ran on a run over 4. ran up against PAGE 105 1.1. up 7. down 2. over a in a over 9. into
4. Off
10. Off

5. against 11. out e. aside 2.1. having 2. left him in a hurry a ignored 4. stopped

DO 1. despise 2. decorate a want one badly 4. manage 5. suppressed BRING 1. succeed in doing it 2. caused to happen a defeated 4. publish 5. to consciousness e. educated 7. mention CARRY 1. managed it successfully 2 conduct LOSE 1. goes slow 2. disappear a doesn't affect 4. absent-minded GET 1. travel 2. succeed 3. wasn't punished 4. have a good relationship 5. rose from bed e. managed to deceive 7. retaliated a began to tackle 9. contact him

10. considers us inferior 11. expect to enjoy 12. constant watch 13. admires you

SEE 1. arrange 2. attend a understood the -truth 4. attend to it 5. say goodbye

GO 1. fail to honour 2. started as hobby a do something difficult 4. exploded 5. happening 6. be enough GREEN 7. I am doing 1. very envious a pursue 2. inexperienced 9. attacked GREY 10. was sold 1. very clever 11. investigate 2. first lights of the RUN dav V4W.7 1. by chance 3. getting old 2. try to be elected BROWN 3. escape 1. very tanned 4. crashed 2. fed up 5. had problems e. reaches YELLOW 7. spent quickly 1. getting old a afford 2. newspapers 9. criticizes unfairly willing to publish 10. a lorry went over scandals the cat 3. coward 11. been used up RED 12. we've used up 1. very angry all we had 2. very red 13. abandoned 3. red from the sun 14. facing 4. false trail APPENDIX 2 5. paper work 6. her face went WHITE red 1. very afraid 7. overdrawn 2. very pale a gets me mad 3. take ail his money 4. with milk 5. white clothes 6. wearing