Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 303

t5 os

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

.
..... ..... <:::>

.s
't:l

l;:!

l;:!"

-s
~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

rJ'J

<
o

.~
~

N os
~ ~ ~ ~
'-.)

c
C
'-.)

ir: ~ ~
U

t-<

~ ~ ~

E o,
c..J
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
·N

'-J

-...l
<:::l

l;:! <:> l;:!

~
o~

<Z Z<

~ ~ ~ 0 ~

t-<

.... ....

':S
~

~ ~~ ~] ~ <:::l ~U

0... .0 ~ ~ ~

~"

.... ~
~
<:::l

-e ...,

~ ~

.g
-e .... o
~

.~

o .....
E-<
00

.....

z .....

§ ..... ....
u

-e

;j

......CNCI'l~l..C'1<.O

oiO'loioiO'loi

o ......

...... ......

CNCI'l-.:t;l.C'l<'ot5lr..:t-r..:t-t-r..:r..:

V I-<

;:;s
:~

ell V

00

......

.~ .'0::
...,
Il.i

Il.i

0-

S o

""'C'lc<"l~>!")~t-oo oric<"lc<"lc<"lc<"lc<"lc<"lc<"l
'1""""4 I""""t

(.C)<.C)(.C)(.C)(.C)(.C)(.C)
1"'"""4

C'lc<"l~>!")<'c)t-

I""""t

...............

.....

c<"l

......

c.o ......

~ ~ u .i: ~
",

'".

0 ~ u
(I.)

...
;> ;>
(':j
(I.) (I.)

.c
"@
(I.)

... '"
(I.)

·c
bO

~
W

~
(I.)

:-::
"2
0
(I.)

...::

nl
;>..

S ;:l .:

.: .: 0 0 ·c '" u .: .: 0 ·c 2 u ~ 2 ..c ;:l ""' '" 0 0 ~ ;:l '" ...


(':j
(I.)

><:

"-,

~ ~

~ C> ~ ~ ~

qj

.: ;:l .c '" '" .9 ~ ;:l ~u '" u '" ~ .i: ... u~ .i: ~ '" ~ ~ ~ '" ....; .s .: ~. ... c· ;>.. '" '" ~ S .o 0.. ·2 0.. '" ;:l 0 S ;:l
(I.)

... '"
(I.)

"0 (I.) "0

0..

"0

(i)

.: u:: (i)
"0

(i)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

~~
U

'" '" n

;:l

(I.)

~0 .: '" 0.. III U ;>.. 2 .: u ... .: S .: ... ~ .;9 0 0 ... P.. .i: "0 u ~ '" c ... ~ S .... ;:l 0 0 ""' u .s ..c .s U
(I.) (I.) (I.)

...
(I.)

;:l

c~ u .9 ;:l ~ "0 u0 .: ...


(':j (i)

(':j

:a

(I.)

:a

(':j

.: ~ .: ·c 0.. ·2 .s ~ u:: .: .@ ""' "0 0 0 "0 .: :"Sl ~ u ;> ·c .: ~U0 '" ~. ><:. "0 0 "@ '" ;> ;:l u ~ bO u ~ "0 0 0 ... U ... ""' ""' '" .: .: u .: 0 "@ ~ ~ "@ ~ ~ ~ ;:l .: ;:l ... .: u ;> .s '" '" 0 "0 0 ;:l ..c .9 ""' ;> ... .: ..c ..c ..c .: 0"' 0"' '" ;:l '" ~ ;:l S '" u '" .: 0 ;:l ;> .s 0.. ;> ~ '" '" u c S ""' :E '" ·S 0 qj qj .: f}:E .: ... ... u 0 ~ "@ ..c '" 0.. 4!. ... 0 ~ 0 r.l '" ·2 u:: "@ 0 ;:l 0 '" c 0.. 0.. u:: .s 0.. 0 ..c ~ ~ ... ~ '"
(I.) (I.)

... '" bO .: .:
(':j
(I.)

'-' 0 (':j 0.. .:

(I.)

.:

.:
"@
;>

><:

...

0.8
(I.)

...

.:

(I.)

"0

(i)

(I.)

(':j
(I.)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(I.)

",.

(I.)

(I.)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

(I.)

(':j

(I.)

s
(i)

(':j

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(I.)

(':j

(i)

(I.)

(I.)

(i)

:a

'"

...:: ...:: ><: ~ ~


W UI

;:.... C
:) lS<

+ _+

nl ~ ...:: ...::

~ ~

I...::

...:: ~ ~

~ ~ ><:

x I~

~.~

_+

~~ ~~ ~ ~ ffi

.:i .:i

>< ~ ffi" ffi ._.. = Q..

..... --~.

u+

"-, ~.!!. d

. ........ ~

"-,

-........

-e
~ ~ ~ ~ ~

.~
~ ~
E-<

-<
~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~~ ~ '" '" 0 0 ·0 ·0 ~uu ~~ ~


0

ool::)

~ c

'" S
~ ~ ~ SS 0 0 J:: J::
..D
(1) (1) (1) (1)

;;.. 0 ..D

(1)

'" '" '" eo eo eo ... ... ...


(1) (1)

'" >- '" '" b 0 ..e-.... ... ... u '0 ~. ... 0 0 .... "@ V eo bO .... 0 .... ;:l ;:l ;:l ;:l 0.. ;:l ;;.. ;;.. ;;.. ~ u ..D u '-' ~ u u u .... '0 ;;.. ;;.. "0 0 ~ ~ ~ '" ~ '" ~ ~ '" es ~ ~ ;:l '" ~ ~ ... 0 0 0 0 0 0.. ;:l S ~ u u 0.. S 0.. 0.. ~o uuuS '" '" '" '"
(1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)><:: (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 4)

'" ~ .9 .~ .... .... es u ~ eo ~ ~ "0 0 ~ ;:l eo "@ ~ ;;.. ·S ~ ·8 ... .... ~ 0 u :3 ~~ u ... ~ ;:l 0.. '" '" ~ ~ S 4-< :3 4-< ~ ~ 0 ...
(1)

c.2
(1)

.a
"0
(1)

.a
(1) (1)

"@ "@

;:l

:;-

(1)

...
(1)

:3 ~ ... ~ '" S
(1)

~~ ~ ~ ~~ 0 ~ '" 0 ~
·0 u
0

0 .... S .... ... u0 0


(1) (1)

;:l

(1)

(1)

"0 "0
;:l
(1)

(1)

(1)

0 ..D~

~ '" ~ ~ S ..c :3 >- .~ ~ ;E ... eo :.E ...::: ~ .... .... ..D u ~ .s 0 ~ ... '" 0.. ~ 0.. '" 4-< 4-< ~

'" ...
(1)

/I

;:l

...:::

c.2
(1)

(1)

~ ..c .~ .... ~ .~ ;;..

'" ...
;:l

0..

~ ~
0

·0

(1)

(1)

(1)

.s

'" "@ .... 0 .... >- ~ ... ... ~ .s :::;;: ..D "5 .... ..c ~ eo .... ~ eo 0
0
;:l
(1) (1)

.s

4)

"@

·N ·N

·S

~ ~ ~~~ ~~~ >< ~ ~+~ i ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~

~-

'-'

~ ~ ~ <I.i -< -< -< -< @'l ~ X ~ >< c.l -1 ~ i~ 1l' ~ ~~ ::t ::t ::t -< -< ~
::t

<

.....
til

Q)

.S
~ o

>

.S .S

eo >

's o
Q)

.:

o u

·s

8 u

~~

0-5
S

o
II

.~ .;a

c.c

V
Q

..:i

~ ~

VI
+

·So
o !\

d ~
il)

·So
o !\

d ~
il)

VI o

VI VI

o ..... '" _. ~ '"


b£>;}l

"'<C

o 1\

.8
~p:;
+ N

._,

~O
N

:a >=
I

'" :.a ...,

f...o

o
II

I'
+
f..,

'" +
f..,

I'

......
II

"-'

~~

"-'

............
II

cg.

cg.
II

----

.g
C':l

...
v

I:

S .... <B

.s
...= o
til

... c.o ...


S

,----,

5'
L..--....I

8H~
~
II

Cb..

~ ~

VI

+
~
+

..s

:$

---+

:::s
::t:
II
'---.

_......_

h~E
-If... :..=~

:s:

EP

·c ~
'-

'" :.a
o

~ ~
VI

~ ~

..__,
II

-:i ::t:

'" ell '" S

~
VI
+

=§ i0... 0...
o

0...

0...

II

II

II

II

]
,.Q

e ... ... ... .g_

~ ~

::I

...: ... . .
u

o~
II

o
II

......

s -

l::

+
~
§

o o
II II

..s:. ~H~
VI
II l::

+ .e _s

~
.~

...... o~
II

VI

VI o VI

+
~
+

~
VI o

0" AI

'" u .~
<I)

0..

'" "0
......

o o eo

8 ......
...... o·
II

......

......

~
II

:&;
II

<::,

'"'-,

II

*.s ;;:-

*~

.... ._...

00....

o VI

......

....
o· III

o o
VI
II

......


1\

......
+ ::;

~
II

o
III

5
I

II

+
......

.S ...
o
'.... ""' ....

0..

I f-,.

o
II

,.D

0..

o ...

~ ~
II

;::::;

~ '-"
-e
;:...'

s:' co..
i:j ._,_

---C,.J

SG
II

~::...

s:
"tl

;
til

;
til

...
e
til

I:

]
U

:=

rIl

...
(J

..cI

~ ... :a ...

e-

~ ~

.~ ....._,
1-4 1-4

.~
Q
~ ~ ~

.~

E-<

-<
~

--~
:::J

-S

~ ~

II

VI

SH!
~~
8
sl!.
o

+ -e

o III

< VI
+
o ~

-e

......

o III ......

-s

t ..

ci
1\1 -se

.~

II

~o ~
1\1 II

<I)

0..

..c

....
I

AI

-e .• .~ ~~
;3

. 8~Q.. Q..

AI II VI

'"d

o '" U

<I)

a
1\

-e
<.;)

c.J

~ '" ~ ~ ~
v)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

=
Q

C')

.E ~

8~

,_..,

i
AI
;::

:]
~-s
0:i
...

'" t 6.~
<.;)

.~ Z~

.:::l

:;

~-S

.~
il..I

+ +
~
I
"-,
(N

'0 ..=: ..=:

u u
;:l


c.i
V

'" rn
o ;:l .S ....
;:l

VI

.~

o u

i:

'" .9::

0..

.S

cs::
+
;::;,

;J

"
co..
+

" co.. + +
VI

,......_

.J
cs::
VI

..?
I

.0

I=..
;:,"

~
VI

.~

co..
VI

~
I I

~3_

'" r3
.:!l

VI VI o

.S
o

... 4-<

0..0..

" h
VI

c:: en..
.?
I

~ ~o


.:2 u ~ '"0 .S
...0
c-,

~ ~
II

E
Q..

" h
II

...

Q..

~
V o

'"

?C, I

?C, I

..... .....
O§:

bJ.)

><:

w
AI

~ ~

,....., ci

"-,

c::o.. VI

~
I

~
bJ.)

I
"-,

c::o..

+
VI

S
'-'

..-.. 3 VI

.~ .~

.:::

.~

.~

x
~
::....
II

,.--"-,

VI

.....

>::

-H~
'"C

.::

.....
.0
Q.)

.~

--N

i
~

<..:;

VI

::....

>::

i
.::
es

VI o

-'j.
'"C

:5 i
.~ >::

u::....

._,___, '"'
.~

.:;!l

.':::

......

~ = ~
II

~.

.'-=

.~

8 Q.)

~
o Q.)

..c:

f-;

o
1\

II

t.5
V
?=;

~ ..._,
><:

?--.

~o ..c ....

So:: ~~
o;l

o;l~

«o

1\

II

.~

lL"l

........

eo

AI

.6 ~ ~

c.o V

~
I
"-, CN

bf.)

~ ~~
........
?,

VI

t
<;:)
<.;)

"-,

~ ~ C<:I_
C<:I

.~

a~
~I!L

~ ~ ~ ~
<;:)

.~

.e .!:
bf.)

~
"-,

~ ........ ~ ~

bf.)

"-,
CN

"-,

VI o

VI

VI o

~ .:

'"

'" :a
~
'"0

.S

o
II
8

II

<:5

c
SJ
'-'

Hlr
o.~ :: + '" ..,s!!.
o

co..

+
~
+

;t

'" "'0
.t::

0-

Q)

.S

..: ..., .o ..
+
V
+ .r 8"
.!:l

... o

+
V

8"

......
0"

II

.r

II
"o:t:::

...c: u
;::J en

o o ...c: u
'"0
~l

en

Q.)

.:: c;s

::: C;S
'"0
C
C;S

;>...

co..
Q.)

1\

~
ill

r.8
C\I

...

~ ;>... .:: C;S

;::J r.rJ

8.. 0.

en

.:: .9 ....

-.:t<

+
II

8"

< ...
'"0
Q.)

en en

S ;::J

0.

;:J

.::

~ ~
Q..,

~l

Q.)

c;;

o en

,-.._

~l

VI

+
&0

~ ~

e CQ

+
...... o·
II

'"1
VI

+ + ;s+
CQ

GO

+ ~ '<

-<;

CN
C<)

;s+

-f

CQ

;s+
~
+

+ ;s+
CQ

.z,
~
I

-f

CQ

AI

o
'< ~
o

CQ

k.

AI

'"1
AI

>i

VI

.<;::::

......

.
.... .t
.... ell

~ ~

ell

;::, * CQ

-0-5
C(") ~

Q) ~

8 8

~0
ell '"
_..::_ 0 C<)

----

.S +
c.i

8~
o~

*;::, CQ
+
o ~
k.

-0

'" o

Q)

0----

~w

*;:;, CQ
+

---s

VI

~.
';j
CQ

+
;{-:

'<

..:+

...

o
8 I

,<I

...c::C;;
~

Q) '" ... Q) Q) ::3 ;>

b
U

o
II

ci

......
o

~. *' ~
II

~
AI

_.-


+

en

o
II
...

o o

... o =
en V

§;

.r .r

.~ _.;:;

.r co.. 8H~
o

kH~

co..

co..

VI

.r

.g€

~"C

><:SJ
CIS

"t

VI o

o AI

;:> *

:3
+

<:!l.

.......

........

w
*l-:.
~ ~
__..._ o

__..._

w
(I,)

*l-:.
u

c;5

.::

.
o
II
+

o
VI

_-i
<:!l.
I

*' '1
l-:.

VI

~
VI o

II

o
.:
II

o ;:,

&_
VI ;sI

?:.

3~

8~
II

~E

s
II

UI

......

.--..

......

.~

til

0-

.S

......
It')

c.c

00

z o
Eo<

z o ....
Eo<

z o
Eo<

+
~
><::'

~~ ~~ ~ -< <;:l

~
)1

:J.--..

:~ -<~

~w

:-~ -< ~'

~ o .t
t:: t::

.,.c

... ~
0
i-<

bIl
i-<
11) 11)
I

c.2 3 u '"
t::

o
II

......

;S

a
Q)

..c
4-<

'o' " Q)

f-< o
Q) Q)

.<;: '"

'" '" ..c ...,

0...

o•
>- .

2 ;::,
II

"0 J:'Q)

..c >Q)v ..c ...., ~

.~ a ~ .a '"

~
III

~~ ... ;::,~ ;::.. § VI


.~

~
I

"
<;:l

b.o

\C 00

-a

ti..o

Q)

6 VI

..c* '" ._-

s-= o~
;::,

o
III
.-<

'" .~

-a

.5

..... ----

o
1\1 .-<

.....
?::. ?::.

..::£
L..-J

g
L..-J

'" .~

""' o..S
~~

""' o..S
~~
VI

0..

.8

.....

U
QJ

0..

'" I-<
QJ

'" ;0
"0

.S c ;:j o u .::
C"<l

...

b£i

o
iJ..

·a
,9

c·0
o .::
o

bjj

......
o

I ;>::
"-,

a
~

+
~
bjj

~
I

---I

VI

~ .:::,
I

"-,

+
VI

~-5

';;j

~ ~

+
VI

VI

~
I

._ ._ '" a

"-,0..

>-

o
-<l
+

1:1': ....:

o· VI

VI

8H~
o

co..

-<l

Ed=

~~

VI o

VI

......

o
1\

......

...c

... ...
CIS

+
co.. ~
......
I

...... ......

+
~
I

8
............ ......

'" ~ 1-0
<I)

>
t::
<I)

o u
u
<I)

......I!

co 8H~
~~

L....--J

t:: ;::s

81

'" .a

'"

r--

<I)

t::
4-<
<I)

o o
u
<I)

~
...... o~
+

0'"

t:: ;::s

...c

...
<I)

'"

<I)

1\

~
VI

:g
~
II
,-...

8 ~ ~
VI

VI

""' I

-:g
'-"

......

VI


II

-=
t
~

5 ... ~ $

ell

g
~ ~

;r

8H~

o
II

.:

"" ~+
I..,)

GO~

~~

'i:+

J+
GO~

I..,)

i~ ~;z.
-IC'J

+
..Q

GO

+
':l

II

i
II

cQ.

.;..

~
I

~
I

*;1; *;1;

&:t f.;H~
:.=~ II Q

:i ~
S8

*.:: ~

'-.---'

co. ~H~
:.=~ 1\1 Q

t...'"'

S8

~
I

.8 ...,
,..._, '" *_ ..c
~;::l

OI:!

.E ...,
'"

" *~

's "
::0
II)

8 0..

.~

s
II)

::0
o

0..

..
;:3

> .5'0 c:: ..c ....


II)

'"
II)

.~
S
II)

.=:
l? II .--..
b()

'" :.a ....


c.E c:: o
. .:::::l

S ~

l? II

+ ""

..
o u
0..
II)

g
II

g
b()

.--.. l?

II

"" +
+

:a c::

g
~
II l? II
+

..9 ~ c::
II)

....
II)

..c

II)

t--

~ o Z

'"

:a

'" s v

8 0...

·0 0...

..c:: ~ o ... eo ~ S
o

'" .5

.::

4-<

o
0"

:a o
0...

S v

...

..c:: ....
"0
;:::l

~
I

II

"0 v u

o
AI
+ ;? ::>--

.5
v
~
C'J

u)

o .:: o u
v
"0

VI

:> .5'n

~ .:: v

.s ~

)._

"eo

:E:.:!)
.... ell '" '" U
QJ

~=:

C ~

~w o..-":!

-5~ .~ ...;

o
1\1
<.>,

... = e
~

bI.l

..s

8 V
'<.>

bI.l

S' ,
......

::<
+

Sj , ::<
......

::<
+

d
...... ......
+

~ ,

::<
+

§;

·be
8l1.
o +

:>

~Ht
~~
t1l

...s

......

..:;2

c 1\

8j:

:t

§ ....
13
:I

-< i ....

CJ CJ

go o ::r:

.~ '"
~ 0.. o c:: o
8

+
V
(1)

.~

...

Ie;:,..

.s
_;I

'" I-<

"0 0.. o c:: o


8

.~

Cl
VI

Cl

.+ '" § ::::.U -,...:_~


I-<

.~

6 II

6
II

a
Q.)

.~

:0 o ...

VI
..iE
+

+
II

8"

..c
~ o ... ~

0..

VI
..iE ;;0

d Q.) o 1\

.5'0

:>

eo

.5 ....
o ..c ....
Q.)

0..

~ VI
..iE
+

VI
..iE ;;0

Q.)

d
:>

.5(,

o 1\

......

,.-._

......

o
1\

-<

......

':::r'

~ ~ ~

sV'11
~~

co.

EJ

o
II

......

--

C\I

...... ......

.~

... .....
;::l

<1)

.9 t':!
<1)

... ...
t::
<1)

.~
.....
<1) <1)

0..

t':!

;::l '"

.s .....
"0 t::
;:::l
<1)

o ;::l

0..

S
o

'"
"0 t::
<1) <1)

t::

t':! U

t:: o u "0

.~

~. i_
_+
'"

;:

0-=

...... ~ -;;; 4-< o...l oW


..c

~-.:::

'"

seE.
C\S§

C!l.

VI

c:t ;::l '"

"0+ t::-

;::::;-~ 6 II
C!l.~ t::

.~

;~
;:.._~
t':!..c

;:.._

1
<1)

&i
1:')

...

1:')

o
<1) <1) <1)

t::

... bI:!
"0
4-<

o
;::l '"

~

I

o <1)
<1)

t::

?:,
..:<..

S o ..s:: ~
+

eo o

.~

s! :':::T
e-,

;;;

e ~
7

~
o

VI VI
I

;:, *

8H~
~~ S~ t .c
<1)

C!l.

.e
~ GO

<1)

d
;>

.5'0
o
1\

:-g
o

...
<1)

'" t::

0..

'"

;::l

.s §
S ij
o I:(J)
(1)

>-. 0':::

o ..... u I:

~
AI

,::t:

~'

S2
c..J I

VI

-;::>

s
I

c..J'

S
II

~$

S~

o '-'

I II

o '-'

'-'

0_

......

w
...... VI

o
AI
N

......

......

......

VI o

o
~

<..l

AI

+
3
._.

~
~ CQ CQ,

'§'
N

CQ

CQ

+
<..l

~ CQ CQ,

......

......

til

S
.~

'So
!5

'" ~
11)

~ ~

11) 11)

......
......

~'

..c .... eo
;0

'" .::

......

'a
~
II

U
.!::

s o

8 +

-......

v u
.::
11)

......

I-<

.... til
"0 ..c

':.a ""'

'" "'0

.S

+
~
II

'"o "'

.~

+
~

w
11)

.S

'"

..c: ....
v
:>

..
C~

c;

;:l

+
""
I

..c: ....
..D

'" +
t
I

O~

*l<.J::

3
V I::

* ~

o
1\

'" +
0

o§: '"

v
V
i-<

o
o

..c:
II

~I~

I II

* ~

*l....
II

oS ;:l
:::: f;l

* 2:: ~ 0..

----

6 E=

6 8 .~
c

rtl

.... =

~ ~
I

'-" N

---'""

'-------J

~ '"

a ~~
0..00

+
VI

~
VI
11) 11)

... btl
11)

"«:

"'0

VI o

,-----,

,-..--..

,-..--..

---~
~'

r-::::::'

~'

~~

~17
+
;:>

is'

~~

~~17
+

s 717
'------..J

~"Cl

7~17
'------'

s
co.. +
c,

~~

co.. +
c,

~17
~~
'--v--'

~17
~~ .._,__.,
o."i:

o."i:

Sl~ 0..

Sl~ 0..

;:l '" ;:l

.S ....

.~

t:: o u

o
II

s
o
1\1

.S -1-0 '" S ;:j


Q) Q)

o u

'" .:: o
o
Q)

if

.s
'-

~~
V

~ ;;>
'"0

;:j

VI o o
II

""' .::
;:j

Q)

'" :.a
Q)

o u

§' +
Q:;

...c ""' .~
_.-._

3 b.o
II

_.-._

rIl

......

Z
CJ

g
"
VI

...c C':l ""'...c . __ ""' '" ~


Q) ""'

...
3 b.o
VI o
_.-._

i.
~ e ... :c ...

.0

. ...c

• rJ)

o
II

I
,....., ---

co..

'" c o ·c u
b(, <2 .s

'" '" ;::l ~


;::l

o ...

.§ c

.s
'"

v .i: ~

...
C':l

o u

-5 u

c~ 0 ......
b() ......

Vc ..c '"

~:e

........

.....
II

g
~ c:o..

l?

l?

~ ~'"' o
II

........

+
II
8"

+
II

_So...

-,

...... 0 t

II
"-,

...... t

_S8...

o
VI

......
'-----J

"'-,

......
'-----J

........ ......

...... ......
'-----J

'-~ X

"'@

~ bI;
II

J
......
I

til

._ 0 t:: 0..;>--

~:o
til til Q.) Q.)

·C

t::

ou

:E _,
o ~
t::

til

... CIS

t::

...
:9
U
Q.)

t::

til

......,

~ .s
o~
<t>.

v~

OJ)

t::

_g

til til

CIS

.
~

s v
~
0...

~
v
;j

0'"

'"

g
~'"' o
II

----

.~

v en
0.. 0..
;::1 en

I~

'"'
o
II

+
+
<;;j

~
I

<;;j

II

<;;j

II

;-0.

t.b

s o
be ;::1

o VI

.s ...,
.'= ..., en .c
o VI
,......,
;::1 en

""'

'"

;3

<'
I
CN
I

~.
I

••

o
Q:l

<'
<:
II

~ "':<'
0···0

II ;3

-<

II ;3

<

II

..<1 o

<'

000

o ...... ;.:_0<,0

o o o

-< -< -<


II
0

0 0

0 0

Q:l

II

II

.......
"'-"

---.

.......


II

~
I

j
Q::)
I

+
I~

+
~ ~
+

"" + N

~ ~

+
+
II

I~

I~


II

~ ~
+

O:t
;..::::1
o
II

.;!l

+
~
.:!l

co..

---~ -<

:<
+ ~ ....
Q.)

~ ....
"0
Q.)

co.. ""
~
I

"0

II

II

.:!l

o
II

o
II

o
II

~ N ~
N
+

"" +

L....__J

N
II ,-----,

"" +

d .9 :0 t:: o u

...

ci
II

~
I

...... o·
II

~x

"'o' "

N c::o..
I
1

-<

c::o..

c::o..

II

N N
+

-<

"" ::5'
N
+

""

-< c::o..
1

1-

"" +

II I:I:l

~
II

~ ~

+
+

.~

c::o..
I

156

6 / Deterministic Dynamics

6.5 / Applications

157

6.5

Applications

A Cyclical Example

13-1

Consider again the model in Exercise 6.2. The functional equation is


v(k)

= max [kaO(1
O"y"l

- y)a(l-O)

f3v(y)],

where
I I I I I I

°<

a < 1 and

°< e <

1.

,--------I
-==..fJL
V"/V'
I I

Exercise 6.7 a. Verify that for any ko E [0, 1], there is a unique optimal capital sequence {kt}. That is, verify that this problem satisfies Assumptions 4.3-4.4 and 4.7-4.9. Find the Euler equation. b. Show that the unique stationary point is k* = f3fJ/(1 - fJ + f3fJ). c. Expand the Euler equation around the point k = k* to obtain the linear approximation

(kt+2 - k*) + B(kt+1 - k*) + where

W1(kt - k*)

0,

Figure 6.3 B

1 - a(1 - fJ)
a(1 - fJ)

1 - afJ
afJf3 .

In a neighborhood of the stationary point k*, then, optimal paths for capital behave approximately as kt+l = k* + A.I(kt - k*). Since 0< 11.1 < 1, this solution conforms with the conclusion reached in Section 6.1. It also gives information on the speed of convergence, which evidently increases as (f"/f')/(U"/U') increases. Curvature in the technology speeds up convergence; curvature in preferences retards it. This conclusion is also consistent with the results for the limiting case of linear utility in Section 5.3.

Show that both of the characteristic roots Al and 11.2 of this equation are real, that 11.2 = (1311. d -I, and that A I + 11.2 = - B, so that both roots are negative. Under what conditions on a, fJ, and 13 is the stationary point k* locally stable? The remainder of this problem considers the behavior of solutions for the parameter values 13 = 0.1, a = 0.8, and fJ = 0.75.
Exercise

for this case k* For the one state variable dynamic program, where F satisfies Assumptions 4.3-4.4 and 4.7-4.9, and is twice differentiable, show that a. both roots of A are real, b. both roots are positive if F xy > 0, and c. both roots are negative if Fxy < O.
Exercise 6.6

6.7 d. Conclude from your answers to (b) and (c) that = 0.23 and k* is unstable.

Define a two-cycle to be a sequence {kt} of the form


X

=y
{

if t is odd if t is even,

for any two numbers x,.y E [0, 1], x 4= y.

8' I

GO

~ ~
I

-e-

;.::d

so

I-<

-ee

Cil

..2

I-<

.5 ....
o

0..

s
+

,......,
IN

110<

IN

.._

,......,
IN fIl

....
I;J

1
Z ....
Q

<I)

.;;; 8~ til

bO ......
til

. oJ:!

;;.

"0

...c: ...
.0

o o o

... .s
<I)

...c:
til

.(j)

eo ~

.s ::a
<I)

'"'
til

til

...c:

<I)

'"'

.......

'"0 ;::::

<1.1

.s
o ~
'N

'N

:i
'%'

4-<

"" ~ '-.

co..
~
I

<1.1

til

C':l U

\Q \Q

:.a ~
til

......

c .....

VI

......

<::l

c;;

,-..

.~

8~

II

"

Q::l

~
II

a .....t
I

S
::t

-~
8

s
a ~
.....t
8

::t
II

~"
UI

-s ::t
;.::d
8

a
II

" $
::t

s
~

~V'l~
;.:::~

a
II

.~

-....
<Il

..

UI

E9,
II

4-<
._

8~ U
b«)::l <Il I:: b

S"C)

.S

.S
4-0

;:a

8 ~
o
;j

...

'" a '"

~ ~ ~

w
VI

-.::;..

~H~
II II

<::l

'--.,._..I

...... 0

II

...... 00 ......

?f

;lC'l

"
I

VI

VI
+

" -eVI

" -eVI o
.;:J

4-<

o
u
ell
QJ

...c:

E S