Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 45

TIMURS

SIEGE OF ANKARA CASTLE


27 July 1402

Research on the battle and notes from the field trip performed for the examination of the battlefield today December 2009

Abdullah Turhal

Altar Modelling 2009

TIMURS SIEGE OF ANKARA CASTLE 27 July 1402

Research on the battle and notes from the field trip performed for the examination of the battlefield today December 2009

Abdullah Turhal

Altar Modelling All rights reserved cannot be copied without permission. Unless otherwise stated, all pictures are taken by the author. Views, pictures, information in this document can be used by individuals for researches and personal use provided that proper referencing is clearly made

Reeprraeesseentta Viittam R p a n a V am Tuum prroprriium Mundum aeediiffiica Tuum p op um Mundum a d ca

CONTENTS
Introduction Political and military circumstances before the siege Ankara city and the castle Beginning of the siege End of siege and aftermath Battlefield today Two magnificent monuments complementing each other: Ataturk Statute and the Castle Conclusion Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
In 1913, member of Hungarian Turan society, Bela Horvath travelled thousands of kilometers in Anatolia and concluded his trip in Ankara. On horseback he approached to Ankara from south east via Krsehir. He noted: 1
Road passed south of Elmadag and north of Kuyrukcu Da and elevation reached sometimes up to 1230 meters...suddenly we saw a vast plain ahead, surrounded by mountains. In the middle of this vast plain, lake Eymir and Lake Mogan shined....then we reached another passage at an altitude of 1200m. From the highest point, we could see thin minarets, rail road and the white house at city of Ankara under our feet....Here lays Ankara, a city that is the cause of many wars and bloodshed between East and the West, under hundreds of meters2.....

The road Horvath followed in 1913 was the same road Timur and his great army followed in 1402 to reach Ankara. Timur and his troops must also have seen the shining lakes in the great plain surrounded by mountains. In 1402, the deadly confrontation between two great Turkish sovereigns, between Timur and Sultan Bayezid of the Ottoman Empire, became inevitable. Timur entered Anatolia from East and conquered Sivas castle. To prevent rest of Anatolia from more demolition like Sivas in the hands of Timur, Bayezid mobilised the Ottoman army from Bursa to meet Timur. Bayezid wanted Timurs army, which was almost entirely cavalry to mountainous areas of north of Sivas. Great commander Timur realised this intention and moved from south toward west. When Timur reached south of Ankara, he left bulk of his army around those shining lakes i.e. Eymir and Mogan lakes. Timur hoped Bayezid should follow him from this direction and come behind. Meantime, feeling confident that Bayezid would follow him, he took some of his troops to capture Ankara castle slightly north of these lake area. Timurids were not only masters of cavalry warfare in vast plains but were also great siege army. The launched a serious attack on the Castle of Ankara defended by Ottoman troops. This study complements the study we published in August 2009 titled Battle of Ankara 1402 comprehensive research and field trip. We followed a similar method in this new study of using some very hard to find sources, pictures, diagrams and current site visit photographs, satellite views. This is second battlefield report by Altar Modelling. Ankara had been capital in its history before. Contrary to belief of some people, Ankara is not a dull city having no eye catching feature. Ankara had always been an important mysterious city throughout history. This city, which does not reveal its mysteries easily,
Bela Horvath, Anadolu 1913, Tarih Vakf Yurt Yaynlar, stanbul, Haziran 2008, p 115-117 Horvath overlooking Ankara which is 848 m above sea level from a passage that was 1200 m above sea level.
2 1

deserves respect as it played a very significant role in the foundation of both the Ottoman state and the Republic of Turkey. We do hope you can start looking differently to this city and to its history. To learn who walked in the areas you walk everyday before you would be a great privilege, dont you think it is so?
Abdullah Turhal Ankara, Turkey 2 December 2009

POLITICAL & MILITARY CIRCUMSTANCES BEFORE THE SIEGE


Just as one God in the sky, there should be one emperor on earth Amir Timur

ttoman expansion towards west and east continued throughout the 14 century under the effective leadership of sons and grandsons of Osman Gazi, the founder of the Ottoman state. With conquests, Ottomans proved their military and political might. While Ottomans were strengthening their rule in Anatolia and in the Balkans, in the east around Mavaraunnehir, another predominantly Turkish state was getting more powerful each day. This state, under the leadership of Timur, established control over Samarkand and then expanded their rule significantly to almost every direction. This process began in 1370 when Timur gained power. He quickly united disorganised Turkish and Mongolian tribes in those areas and from these tribes, he established a mighty steppe army just like in the times of Chengis Khan almost a century ago. Old centres of power and civilisations, like Iran, Azerbaijan and Iraq fell under his control in seven years time.3 Following his victories in the west, he turned to east and conquered entire northern India by 1399.4 Timurs state was neighboured by 4 different predominantly Turkish states in those years: Turkish Khanagate of India, Golden Horde in Russia, Memluk Sultanate in Egypt and the Ottoman state in Anatolia and Balkans. Timur won victories over the first two and crushed them at battles. The third was under strong pressure by Timurs hordes and accepted his suzerainty. Only Ottomans remained untouched and now they were in Timurs target.5 After India, Timur turned his attention to west once again and reached Ottoman borders by 1400. His troops began attacking Ottoman cities in eastern Anatolia. Smaller beys and leaders of tribes and small states began to choose side and those running from Timur took shelter in Bayezids court and those Anatolian beys Ottomans took their lands, took shelter in Timurs court. The provocative activities of these beys in each ones court escalated the tension between Timur and Bayezid. Bayezid, who was very busy in the west in Balkans were furious with loss of city of Sivas, which was one of the biggest cities in the east and loos of his son defending the city. In line with those days custom, two leaders began exchanging letters. These letters usually serve to understand the position and intention of your opponents save time to finish preparations and understand
3 4

smail Hakk Uzunarl, Byk Osmanl Tarihi, Cilt 1, Trk Tarih Kurumu Yaynlar, Ankara, p 301 ibid, p 302 5 Tahsin Tunal, Ankara Sava, Hayat Tarih Mecmuas, Ocak 1972, p 34

the next possible move of the opponent. The initial letters were cordial, and was written in a tone of respect to each other to avoid a war But finally as times passes and real agendas became clear and all the preparations are made the tone changes and insults begin and sides challenge the other for war. This is what happened in Bayezid-Timur correspondence as well.

Manoeuvres of Timur and Bayezid in Anatolia

While Bayezid was approaching Sivas from north, forward forces of both armies engaged in skirmishes in the mountainous area between Sivas and Tokat. Timur knew that all the critical passages were hold by Ottomans in this difficult mountainous area, therefore he did not push in this direction and headed south toward Kayseri. Timurs army began a very slow and cautious march toward Kayseri fearing of a sudden attack of Ottomans. Bayezids plan was to draw Timurs army majority of which was cavalry to mountains and hunt them down in the narrow passages. Since Timur did not take the bait and moved south, Bayezid also began to withdraw to west following the way they came from. Now, both armies began their march in parallel to each other from east to west toward Ankara. Timur was hoping Ottomans would follow them from behind (through Sivas and then Kayseri). But Bayezid was not an ordinary commander and he did not take this bait either. Impassable mountains separated both armies. While Timur approached Krsehir, the mountains were no more an obstacle and when Timur saw Ottoman forces, he thought Bayezid came from that direction but he soon understood that was a small Ottoman contingent only. Timur could not risk an ambush therefore he quickly marched toward

Ankara and laid siege to the Ottoman castle in Ankara. He positioned bulwark of his army in the south to wait for the Ottomans coming south east, from the direction they passed earlier.

Timurs main army was in the south (marked blue) around Emir Gl and Mogan Gl lakes. He positioned forward forces around Kuyrucku Da to meet advancing Ottoman forces. He then moved quickly up north to Ankara to get the Ankara castle as they wait for Bayezid. Source: mer Halis [Byktay], Timurs Anatolia Campaign in the Seven Year Campaign and Battle of Ankara, Military Printing Office, Istanbul 1934, Map no 5

ANKARA, CITY AND THE CASTLE


Ankara castle is situated on the only significant hill within a large plain. This hill is large enough to accommodate settlement and has abundant water supply making this area a suitable habitat from the ancient periods of time. Many civilisations preferred to settle here and form a fortified settlement.

Ankara in the eyes of Frenchman Tavernier in 1711 Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 79

Archaeological findings in Ankara suggest settlement from very ancient periods of time. Hittites are known to be active in the larger region around Ankara. A place called Gavurkale, which is 60km south west of Ankara, was a forward garrison for the Hittites. Whether or not Hittites settled in the city of Ankara was accepted but there was not tangible archaeological evidence until recently. In the ongoing excavations at Roman Bath in Ulus (which is near the castle) archaeologists recovered an amulet, a good luck charm, belonging to Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II believed to be made in 13. century B.C. This is the first finding suggesting an in city Hittite settlement as after the Battle of Qadesh, Hittites and Egyptians formed a certain level of relationship with possible exchange of trade and visits.6

Ankara bir gnde 500 sene yaland, Akam newspaper, 1 December 2009

Development of settlements in Ankara and dates showing which civilisation settled in which parts of the city. Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 70

After Hittites, there are plenty of archaeological evidence that Phrygians settled here between 750 B.C until 500 B.C. The tumulis (artificial hills used as graves for notable people) are still visible within the city in such districts as Bahelievler and Bestepe. After the Phrygians, just like all Anatolia, Ankara fell under the control of Persians. In 4th century B.C, Alexander the Great began his move to east. In 334-333 B.C, he spent the winter in Gordion near Ankara and came to Ankara and moved to face the Persian army. Beginning with 3rd century B.C., a significant change occurred for the city. From a vast distance, from distant corner of Europe, new settler appeared. These were the Celtic tribes, the Gauls or Galatians, migrating in great numbers looking for a new home. The came following the Danube river to Balkans and then moved into deeper Anatolia and

finally selected Ankara as their new home in 278-277 B.C. 7 Among them, the tribe called Tectosages (or Tektosags) settled in Ankara city.8 These fierce warriors managed to dominate areas surrounding Ankara and kept their dominant position until the Roman period. In 25 B.C, Roman Emperor Augustus took this region called Galatia under Roman control and Ankara became the capital of this Roman province.9 Strabon mentioned Ankara as the fortified city of the Celts.10 Ankara developed in the plain as an open city throughout the Roman rule until 270 A. D in the Haci Bayram area in the slopes of Ankara Castle. As the Roman Empire began losing its power, city became vulnerable against raids and it had to be moved into a fortified position in the castle area with 270 A.D. First walls were erected around this time.11 The city remained under Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire through the Middle Ages serving as a safe stop in winter period and as a supply point on the pilgrim road. Due to growing Sassanid and Abbasid threat beginning by 7th century city moved entirely in to the walled area and defences were strengthened and upgraded. Following the Seljuk Turk victory against Byzantine Empire at Manzikert in 1071, Turks advanced westward and captured the city in 1073 and named the city as Dar-l Hsn, literally meaning a fortified province.12 With the crushing Mongol invasions city fell to Mongol Ilkhanids in 1304. Local Ahi Begs ran the city under Mongol dominance. In 1352, when Eredna who was keeping Ankara and the region from Sivas died, Ottomans under Orhan Ghazis Suleyman Pasha captured the city in 1354. However, with Orhans dead, Ottomans lost the city..13 Finally, in summer of 1361, Murad I, advanced toward Ankara with his army14 and local Ahi Beys surrender the city without resistance to Murat who was Ahi himself as well. With capture of Ankara, Ottomans who were expanding to west captured a formidable stronghold in their eastern borders and became neighbour with its most dangerous enemy Karamaonoglu Beylik in Anatolia.15 Besides being a major stronghold in the east and having a sizeable population, Ankara was important due to its lively trade facilities. In his book dated 1580, Hoca Sadettin Efendi noted that this beautiful city was rich, known for its agricultural products and famous for armour making and export excellent quality clothes and wool to Iran, Arabia, Byzantium and to the West to the land of Franks.16

See Charles Texier, Kk Asya: Corafyas, Tarihi ve Arkeolojisi, Enfarmasyon ve Dkmantasyon Hizmetleri Vakf, Ankara, 2002 vol 2, pp 407-414 8 Horvath, p 12 9 Texier, p 413 10 ibid, p 444 11 Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, p 14 12 ibid, p 15 13 Uzunarl, p 124 14 smail Hami Danimend, zahl Osmanl Tarihi Kronolojisi, Cilt 1, Trkiye Basmevi, stanbul, 1947, pp 34-35 15 Mufassal Osmanl Tarihi, skit Yaynevi, ehir Matbaas, stanbul 1957, vol 1, p 129 16 Hoca Sadettin, p 111

Ankara city and the castle 17.century oil painting from Amsterdam Rijks Museum. Source: Guide book of Museum of Anatolian Civilisations, Ankara, pp 4-5

Ankara castle was known to be mightiest castle in Anatolia. The defences combined with the steep hill and well made walls made this castle a formidable castle for the attackers. Both Ottoman traveller Evliya Celebi in 17th century and French traveller Charles Texier in the 19th century carefully noted these features of the castle in their works. This special position of the castle had not changed through the centuries.17 Ankara castle has a citadel and large circle of outer walls. There are around 20 towers in the outer circle. Citadel covers an area around 43 thousand square meters. In the construction and in later repairs as well as spoil rocks from existing buildings in the region the stone called Ankara stone were used.

17

Texier, p 444

Plan of Ankara castle Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, folded map between pp 156 and 157

The architectural style of the castle suggest the view that it was built in 7th century since the dominant style is rectangular based rather than having round, smoother plans. As it is known before wide use of effective gun power technology, castles and towers were build in this form.

Walls between ark Kale (East Fortress) and Akkale (White Fortress) Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 178

ark Kale (East Fortress) Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 175

Akkale (White Fortress) and Mount Timur (Hzrlk or Hdrlk hill) in front Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 176

Looking toward Cebeci in 1933 from ark Kale (East Fortress)

Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 176

Plan of Akkale (White Fortress)

Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 182

Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 182

Fortress of Ankara on a 1926 postal stamp Source: Altar Modelling collection

Fortress of Ankara on a 1963 postal stamp Source: Altar Modelling collection

Fortress of Ankara and its surrounding area in 1930s Source: Altar Modelling collection

Fortress of Ankara and its surrounding area in 1970s Source: Altar Modelling collection

BEGINNING OF THE SIEGE


Since Timur believed he correctly positioned bulk of his army in the south, he laid siege to the Ankara castle in the north while waiting for the main Ottoman army and Sultan Bayezid.

Source: mer Halis [Byktay], Timurs Anatolia Campaign in the Seven Year Campaign and Battle of Ankara, Military Printing Office, Istanbul 1934, Map no 5

The units he sent forward to city earlier had already cut the citys connection to the outer world. Timur established his headquarter at Demirli Bahe which is now north of Cebeci train station in the east of the castle.18 Without losing time, Timur rode around the castle to identify the best attack point. Upon completing his tour and examination he decided to attack from the north east direction of the citadel and ordered his troops to attack from there. With this choice, he actually preferred to attack from the strongest point of the castle. There were many more vulnerable, difficult to defend areas in the southern sections of the city. But since Timur was under time pressure, he wanted to strike hard to the hardest section making it impossible for defenders to withdraw gradually to the inner castle i.e. the citadel called White Fortress (Akkale). The water bends were destroyed by Timurid forces and defenders were denied to have access to water.19 Two locations in the siege were important to remember: Demirli Bahe and Hzrlk Hill. As we noted before, Timur established his headquarters at Demirli Bahe, a nice spot among the vast vineyard on the large plain having excellent view of the castle. Timurs advanced siege engineers and his troops were ordered to begin changing the course of river Bendderesi away from the castle at this point. The route was planned but work had

18 19

Byktay, p 63 eref Erdodu, Ankarann tarihi semt isimleri ve ykler, Kltr Bakanl Yaynlar, Ankara 2002, p 11

to be called off.20 The messengers coming from the north came forward with a shocking news.

Looking at Ankara castle from Demirli Bahe. This picture was from early 1920s and this is the view Timur had from his headquarters. There were no settlement until the castle in those years. Source: Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, p 102

Second critical location was the Hzrlk (Hdrlk or Mount Tamerlane) which was the hill facing the hill where the Akkale was constructed. This hill is 110 up the river bed under it. It faces the hill where Akkale stood but there was no way a shot could be made due to the distance between them. Therefore, Timur commanded his troops from this hill having a net view of the activities of his sappers and attack forces trying to breach the city. This hill had been a sacred place since Roman times and host numerous temples, graves and tombs but none remains.21

Hzrlk hill facing Akkale. Source: Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, p 83

20

Byktay, p 64. However, Texier noted that Timur changd the bed of Cubuk river and damaged the castle walls. See Texier, p 468 21 Erdodu, p 102

Ruins of a later demolished tomb at Hzrlk hill facing Akkale. Source: Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, p 82

Timurs distinguished attack units Maksut, Tokl Baorcu, ehsuvar, Saray, Ali ir attacked from the location strongly as their commander ordered. Timurs forces were not only masters of cavalry battles on large fields but also talented in breaching well defended fortresses and cities. They proved this at Kemah22 and Sivas castles.23 But these stubborn and successful units were against well trained forces of the Ottomans who were as stubborn as the attackers. Governor and castle commander of Ankara Yakup Bey and his men were defending the castle so successfully that by mid day, Timurs forces could not even manage to came close to the citadel walls.24

22

Hoca Sadettin Efendi noted in 1580 that Kemah was such a formidable castle that even falcons flying high above could not reach the castle but this vast army now captured it. See Hoca Sadettin, pp 258-259 23 After the Battle of Ankara, Timur reached Izmir on the Aegean coast and in a very impressive way, he easily conquered heavily fortified strong castle of Knight of St. Jean. Bayezid, as captive of Timur, was even impressed with the siege skills of Timurid army. Texier noted, surrounded knights had only one way out that was the sea and the port and Timur asked each soldier to throw one stone and the sea had been filled in a day. See Texier, p 144 24 Byktay, p 64

Timurs order was to attack the inner castle as shown with blue arrows and the satellite view of this area today Source: mer Halis [Byktay], Timurs Anatolia Campaign in the Seven Year Campaign and Battle of Ankara, Military Printing Office, Istanbul 1934, Map no 6 and Google Earth.

Best map ever produced showing the details of the Siege of Ankara Castle by Timurid forces in 1402 (blue) Source: mer Halis [Byktay], Timurs Anatolia Campaign in the Seven Year Campaign and Battle of Ankara, Military Printing Office, Istanbul 1934, Map no 6

END OF SIEGE AND AFTERMATH


While Timur was busy in commanding his troops to capture Ankara, his messengers from north brought a shocking news and told him that the Roman Kaiser25 was approaching from north. Bayezid the Thunderbolt came to Ankara not from south east as Timur expected, but from north east. Timur was shocked both by the speed of Ottomans and the direction they came. Bayezid set up his encampment at Cubuk plain near Meliksah village.26 This meant Timur was caught by surprise and in wrong position. Timur quickly ordered all his troops to move north and entire Timurid army moved in a disordered position. With this development Ankara had been saved from falling into hands of a devastating army. Now, castle defenders had to wait for the outcome of the major confrontation between Timur and Bayezid at Cubuk plain. Their wait had been for long as the next day, in a gigantic field battle that lasted from morning to midnight, Ottoman army had been defeated and the mighty Sultan Bayezid fell captive to Timur on 28 July 1402. Insisting on defending the city became pointless, therefore, castle commander Yakup Bey surrendered the city to Timurs forces and tax officials began collecting money from the city in return for their souls and property.27 Ankara was spared from a major disaster and mass killings. Timur forces left the city shortly in 1403. Ottomans captured the city definitely in 1421 in the period of Sultan Murad II and up until the end of the First World War, the city never experienced a foreign occupation.28

25 26

Bayezid ibid., p 310 27 Byktay, p 92 28 In 1919, small detachment of British and French troops were stationed at railway and telegraph stations in Ankara just like it had been the case in all locations of the defeated Ottoman Empire in the First World War.

Shanty houses in Hzrlk hill. The internal migration which began in 1930s caused this and unlike Yenisehir, this region named as Altindag represented the uncontrolled poor expansion of the new capital of the Republic of Turkey. Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

White Fortress (Akkale) from Hzrlk hill Source: Hrriyet newspaper, 8 July 1994

Ankara and its environs in 1933 Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 39

BATTLEFIELD TODAY

Map showing the locations of siege and the field battle at Ankara Eymir, Mogan lakes, Ankara castle and the Meliksah and Saraykoy villages. Source: Google Earth

Map of the castle and its neighbourhood today Source: Google Maps

Akkale from Ethnographic museum Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Akkale from Ethnographic museum Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Akkale. as seen from ark Kale Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Looking toward Demirli Bahe from ark Kale Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Looking toward Ulus from ark Kale Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Looking north east from ark Kale. Mount Hseyin Gazi is visible in the horizon. Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

Looking north from ark Kale. The hill with antennas is Hzrlk hill and 20 km behind this location, there lies the Cubuk plain where two armies collided. Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

TWO MAGNIFICENT MONUMENTS COMPLEMENTING EACH OTHER: ATATURK STATUTE AND THE CASTLE
After the proclamation of the Republic in 1923, the owner and chief columnist of Yenigun newspaper, Yunus Nadi Bey, launched a campaign to erect a monument reflecting the spirit of the War of National Liberation and the Republic. Public gave great support with donations and famous Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel (1883-1941) was commissioned for this monument. In 1927, the monument in which Ataturk was sculpted in his marshal uniform on his beloved horse named Sakarya together with statutes of two Turkish soldiers and one Anatolian woman had been opened with enormous excitement. This is so far, one of the best statutes of the great leader Ataturk. This major monument had been complemented with the Ankara fortress with its walls in the background for many years. However, in the following years, with erection of so called modern buildings the view had been lost forever.

The view of the square in 1909 where the Ataturk monument is erected. The area had been full of graves in the beginning of the century. The castle is on the right and Hzrlk hill is on the left in the background. Source: Ernest Mamboury, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933, p 81

The day Ataturk monument was unveiled in 1927. The crown of the city, i.e. the Ankara castle with its outer walls is seen in the background. Source: Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, p 46

Ataturk Monument Source: Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994, pp 57 and 59

Monument-fortress complementing each other on a postal stamp Source: Atatrkn lm ve Antkabire nakil gnleri, gazete ve fotoraf sergisi, Trkiye Barolar Birlii, 9-24 Kasm 2009, Ankara katalogu, p 37

Location of Atatrk Monument which is on the left and the fortress on the right Source: Google Earth

The view of the Ataturk Monument today. The giant multi-storey building behind cut the view of the castle. Only part of Akkale can be seen in the back in distant horizon. Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

In 2009, Ankara Municipality painted this historical masterpiece into gold. What type of art, history and cultural consciousness draw them into such madness is difficult understand but what is for sure, this was a true act of vandalism. Source: Hrriyet newspaper 14 October 2009

Another masterpiece lost between ugly multi-storey building. The mosque of Halla Mahmud built in 1545 Source: Photo from Altar Modelling collection

I marched with my soldiers on Kaiser via Angurya. Kaiser Bayezid met me with four hundred thousand foot and mounted soldiers. When battle begun, I defeated the Roman army. My soldiers brought the Kaiser before me. I returned Samarkand from my 7 Year Campaign with victory and glory.

Battle of Ankara in Timurs words Tzkat- Timur, Kaynak yaynlar, stanbul, 2004

Defeated Bayezid brought before victorious Timur. A 1903 Liebig postcard depicting this scene. Source: Altar Modelling archive

Sultan Bayezid the Thunderbolt Original gravure from the 1662 French translation of the book of Byzantine historian Laonicus Chalcondyle Source: Blaise de Vigenere, Histoire Generale Des Tvrcs: Contenant l'Histoire De Chalcondyle. Tradvite Par Blaise De Vigenaire, Auec les illustrations du mesme Autheur. Et Continvee Ivsqves en l'an MDCXII par Thomas Artus; Et en cette Edition, par le Sieur de Mezeray, iusques en l'annee 1661, Paris 1662 Middle East Technical University Library, Ankara Turkey (ML Rare Collection catalogue no DR485 .V673)

Amir Timur Timur literally meant Iron. Ottoman historians called Timur Timurlenk due to his disability in his foot. Timurlenk meant Timur the lame and this passed to other languages in such forms as Tamarlane, Tamerlan, Tamerlanos, Tamerlanes etc. Main motive of the Ottoman historians to call him by his disability was to insult him. It is not acceptable to use this name containing an insult to one of the greatest Turkish conquerors of history. We do need to show proper respect and call him Timur, Amir Timur, Timur Gurgan or Demir Original gravure from the 1662 French translation of the book of Byzantine historian Laonicus Chalcondyle Source: Blaise de Vigenere, Histoire Generale Des Tvrcs: Contenant l'Histoire De Chalcondyle. Tradvite Par Blaise De Vigenaire, Auec les illustrations du mesme Autheur. Et Continvee Ivsqves en l'an MDCXII par Thomas Artus; Et en cette Edition, par le Sieur de Mezeray, iusques en l'annee 1661, Paris 1662 Middle East Technical University Library, Ankara Turkey (ML Rare Collection catalogue no DR485 .V673)

CONCLUSION
We made the introduction by citing comments from the Hungarian researcher Horvaths 1913 trip to Ankara and we would like to conclude our article with some other comments from the same author. When Horvath visited Ankara in 1913, the city had a population of 50 thousand. Horvath noted the trade was lively in the markets of the city with sellers and buyers from variety of ethnic groups. The city remarkable for its rich trade was also remarkable for another reason. Horvarth noted suddenly we bump into someone carrying a banner on his back chanting and inviting people to an Othello performance. Shakespeare is played in Anatolia! Horvath, surprised with this call in the middle of step would surely be shocked if he had visited Ankara in ten years time. The city became the capital of the new Turkish Republic in that period. The extent of enlightenment, high cultural and scientific consciousness, the achievements of the dynamic cadres of the Republic created a self confident city which became model for the entire world. This rapid development continued from 1920s to 1940s. It lost steam afterwards and it would not wrong to argue that city developed in an uncontrolled manner away from the model set in the early years and became a heir spending and wasting its legacy and reached today making it an unrecognizable city with nearly 4 million inhabitants, disconnected from its past and high values. Horvath must also have known that it is not easy and possible for human beings to destroy a city entirely. Misdoings would only constitute short periods of misfortune in the long lives of cities. Ankara, a mysterious city, yet never cries out its mysteries and wont easily reveal what it keeps hidden in itself. This city had been on the critical way between east and west and north and south throughout the history, hosting major events at critical times of history. Ankara had been capital in its history before. Battle of Ankara, one of the most important battles in the history of wars is just one example. A battle with combatants around 250 thousand strong on both sides is rare to see. Even in modern times, to convene such a force on one plain was not possible to most nations. Areas, starting from Eymir and Mogan lakes in the south up to north passing through entire Ankara city up to Cubuk and to Mahmutoglan village, were the area of manoeuvring armies of Ottomans and Timurids. 250 thousand warriors, hundreds of thousands of horses, dozens of war elephants, marched over these lands, fought, perished and mixed to earth here. In short terms, entire city of Ankara that we live in today was the battle field. The developed nations, advanced nations of the world try their best to teach new generations their glorious past. Ataturks special interest to this battle and the extraordinarily beautiful and useful work of General Omerhalis or the excellent guide by Mamboury, were all due to this quest, to teach Turkish generations about their past. Such a high understanding that was launched in 1930s had faded away in time. Instead these generations got lost in the deep holes of ignorance and illiteracy. The attempts of Ataturk and people like General Omerhalis and Mamboury became history themselves. Those trying to turn dry lands into green became history leaving us with rudely ignorant generations we see everywhere now. This study is dedicated to those people who worked hard to tell us more about our history.

This city, which does not reveal its mysteries easily, deserves respect as it played a very significant role in the foundation of both the Ottoman state and the Republic of Turkey. We do hope you can start looking differently to this city and to its history. To learn who walked in the areas you walk everyday before you would be a great privilege, dont you think it is so?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
AKA, smail, Timur sadece bir asker mi idi?, Belleten, Trk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, Ankara, Cilt LXIV, Say 240, Austos 2000 AKA, smail, Timur ve Devleti, Trk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, Ankara, 2000. Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi Rehberi, Ankara Atatrkn lm ve Antkabire nakil gnleri, gazete ve fotoraf sergisi, Trkiye Barolar Birlii, 9-24 Kasm 2009, Ankara katalogu BIYIKTAY, merhalis, Yedi yl harbi iinde Timurun Anadolu seferi ve Ankara sava, Askeri Matbaa, stanbul 1934 Bir Zamanlar Ankara, Ankara Bykehir Belediyesi, Ankara, 1994 DANMEND, smail Hami, zahl Osmanl Tarihi Kronolojisi, Cilt 1, Trkiye Basmevi, stanbul, 1947 DE VIGENERE, Blaise, Histoire Generale Des Tvrcs: Contenant l'Histoire De Chalcondyle. Tradvite Par Blaise De Vigenaire, Auec les illustrations du mesme Autheur. Et Continvee Ivsqves en l'an MDCXII par Thomas Artus; Et en cette Edition, par le Sieur de Mezeray, iusques en l'annee 1661, Paris 1662 ERDODU, EREF, Ankarann tarihi semt isimleri ve ykler, Kltr Bakanl Yaynlar, Ankara 2002 GALANT, AVRAM, Ankara Tarihi I-II, alar Yaynlar, Ankara 2005 Gravrlerle Trkiye IV, Anadolu I, Kltr Bakanl yaynlar, Ankara, 2003 HOCA SADETTN EFEND, Tact-Tevarih, Hazrlayan smet Parmakszolu, Kltr Bakanl, 1992, Cilt 1 HORVATH, Bela, Anadolu 1913, Tarih Vakf Yurt Yaynlar, stanbul, Haziran 2008. KYMEN, Mehmet Altay, Neri Tarihi, Kltr Turizm Bakanl Yaynlar, Ankara 1984. MAMBOURY, Ernest, Ankara: Guide Touristique, Ministere Turc de lIntrieur, Ankara, 1933 MUFASSAL OSMANLI TARH, Tarihi, skit Yaynevi, ehir Matbaas, stanbul 1957 NER, Mehmed, Kitab- Cihan-nma, Neri Tarihi, Trk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 1995, Cilt I-II. ZASLAN, METN, Atatrkn Ankaraya gelii ve Ankarann bakent olma nedenleri Bilge dergisi, say 35, K 2002. Ayn makale Ankara Kulb Dergisinin web adresinde bulunabilir http://www.ankarakulubu.org.tr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=77&Itemid=1 M, Nizamddin, Zafername, Trk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, Ankara 1987 ENYAPILI, NDER, Ne demek Ankara; Balgat, niye Balgat?, ODT Yaynclk, Ankara, 2004 TEXIER Charles, Kk Asya: Corafyas, Tarihi ve Arkeolojisi, Enfarmasyon ve Dkmantasyon Hizmetleri Vakf, Ankara, 2002 cilt 2, s 144 TUNALI, Tahsin, Ankara Sava, Hayat Tarih Mecmuas, Ocak 1972

Tzkat- Timur, Kaynak yaynlar, stanbul, 2004 UZUNARILI, smail Hakk, Byk Osmanl Tarihi, Cilt 1, Trk Tarih Kurumu Yaynlar, Ankara NER, Ragp, Ankara Meydan savann dram, mektuplamalar, Atatrkn bu sava hakknda dnceleri, Hayat Tarih Mecmuas, Kasm 1976 YCEL, Yaar, Timurun Ortadou-Anadolu Seferleri ve Sonular, Trk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, Ankara 1989 Vilayetlerimizin Tarihi: Sivas, Hayat Tarih Mecmuas, Aralk 1967 eki Hrriyet newspaper, 14 Ekim 2009 Hrriyet newspaper, 8 Temmuz 1994 Ankara bir gnde 500 sene yaland, Akam newspaper, 1 Aralk 2009