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Sketch the following electrical connection with a brief explanation of is function. Star Connection Delta Connection Explain how the Star and Delta connections can be combined to produce a Star/Delta Starter for an Electrical Motor Star Connection In this method of interconnection, the similar ends of three coils are joined together at N point as shown in the figure 1.The N point is known as star point or neutral point. The three conductors meeting at point N are replaced by a single conductor known as neutral conductor. Such an interconnected system is known as four-wire, 3phase system. In this connection, the vectorial sum of currents is zero. IR + IS + IT = 0 The neutral wire, in this case may be omitted. The phase difference between any terminal (or line) and neutral (or star) point gives the phase or star voltage. The phase difference between any two lines gives the line-to-line voltage or simply line voltage. Values of phase currents: When considering the distribution of current in a 3-phase system, it is extremely important to: -The arrow placed alongside the current IR , IS and IT flowing in the three phase indicates the direction of currents when they are assumed to be positive and not the direction at a particular instant. It should be clearly understood that at no instant will all the three currents flow in the same direction either outwards or inwards. The three arrows indicate that first the current flows outwards in phase R, then after a phase-time of 120,it will flow outwards from phase S and after a further 120,outwards from phase T. -The current flowing outwards in one or two conductors is always equal to that flowing inwards in the remaining conductor or conductors. In other

words, each conductor in turns, provide a return path for the current of other conductors. In addition, it may be noted that although the distribution of currents between the three lines is continuously changing, yet at any instant the algebraic sum of the instantaneous value of the three currents is zero. IR + IS +IT=0 Voltages and Currents in star connection The voltage applied to each winding is called phase voltage and current in each winding is likewise known as phase current. However, the voltage (UL) and the current flowing in each line I called line current (II). Line voltage URS between line 1 and line 2 is the vector difference of UR and US. Line voltage UST between line 2 and line 3 is the vector difference of US and UT. Line voltage UTR between line 3 and line 1 is the vector difference of UT and UR.. a) Line Voltages and Phase Voltages: U1 =3Uph b) Line currents and phase currents: From fig1 we have seen that each line is in series with its individual phase winding. Hence the line current in each line is the same as the current in the phase winding to which the line is connected. Current in line I=IR; Current in line 2=IS ; Current in line 3 =IT Since IR = IS = IT = Iph the phase current So that Line current II = Iph .

Delta Connection In this form of interconnection the dissimilar ends if the three phase winding are joined together i.e. the starting end of one phase is joined to the finishing end of the other phase and so on as showing in fig.2.On the other word, the three windings are joined in series to form a closed mesh as shown in fig.2.The leads are taken out from the three junctions as shown as outward directions are taken as positive. This type of connection is also referred to as 3-phase, 3-wire system. Voltage and Currents in delta connection: It is seen from fig.2 that there is only one phase winding completely included between any pair of terminals. Hence, in delta connection, the voltage any pair of lines is equal to the phase voltage if the phase winding connected between the two lines considered. a) Line Voltages and Phase Voltages: Since phase sequence is R S T, the voltage having its positive direction from R to S leads by 120 on the having its positive direction from R to T calling the voltage between lines 1 and 2 as URS and that between lines 2 and 3 as UST , we find that URS leads UST by 120. Lct URS = UST = UTR = Line voltage UL .Then it is seen that UL = Uph. b) Line currents and Phase currents: In delta connection the current in each line is the vector difference of the two phase currents flowing through that line. II = 3 Iph .

STAR-DELTA STARTER We can use star and delta connection combined to produce a star/delta starter for an electrical motor as follows. Star delta starter is used to reduce the starting current in 6-terminal motors designed for star delta operation. It is the most common and cost-effective method of reduced voltage starting. The motor is direct-on-line with the stator windings being star connected. The starting current and torque are about 30% if the values obtained by direct-on-line delta starting. In Rio Imperial is used star delta starter in various motor starting like a lube oil pump of main engine. In this starter we have mainly three contactors: KM1, KM2, KM3, these three contactors are use for star delta starting.KM2 contactor is used for connecting motor in delta and KM3 is used for connecting the motor in star. First, motor is connected in star with the help of contactor KM1 and KM3.After few second star contactor is opened and KM2 closed, then motor will be connected in delta connection. For safety, one moulded case circuit breaker and one thermal over load relay are installed too. Operation of control circuit The switch-over between star and delta is automatic, using a timer. A time delay must be inserted between switching off the star contactor and switching on the delta contactor to ensure that the switching arc in the star contactor has been quenched before the delta contactor is closed. To start the electric motor we have to follow the next steps: Switch On circuit breaker WL lighting (that means that we have power)Press start button PB1KA1close KA1 Contact KM3 energize contact KM3 KM1 relay close Contactor KM1Engine start in star connection Time relay 1T disconnect contactor KM3 de-energize KM3 magnetic contactor and energize KM2 KM2 close main contactengine work in delta connection. To stop engine push button PB2KA2 de-energize magnetic contactor and KA1 relay de-energize contact KA1 and the motor is stopped.

From fig.3, we can see the diagram of control circuit for EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP.