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Smart Formulating for Printing Inks

Contents
Evonik Products 3 Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks 8 Offset Printing Inks Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes Overprint Varnishes 17 20 24 In the Chemicals Business Area, Evonik Industries is among the worldwide leading companies in specialty chemicals. It has several teams evaluating and supporting products for printing inks and varnishes and are always in close dialogue with you, our valued customers. Evonik makes important contributions in many areas, such as TEGO VariPlus products, Carbon Black Pigments and silicas, waxes and additives for wetting, dispersing, surface control and defoaming, to help you solve problems quickly. Our brochure is designed to help you obtain an overview of the products Evonik offers for printing inks and varnishes. Its structure helps you focus on the requirements and problems of a specic printing ink system.

Introduction

EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Evonik Products
Resins
TEGO VariPlus products are used very widely and in great variety due to their different and mutually complementary properties. The manufacture of special resins with ketone, alcohol, acid and/or urethane groups is based on ketone-aldehyde chemistry. All products satisfy the requirements for labeling as environmentally compliant. Moreover, Evonik offers resins that are totally free of formaldehyde. All resins are non-saponiable, neutral and hard. Because of their high softening points, TEGO VariPlus products do not form lms. Low in molecular weight and almost colorless, they are lightfast and exhibit good compatibility with other binders. Due to their well-balanced polarity they are soluble in a wide range of solvents. A waterborne dispersion with outstanding properties and stability, free of organic solvents, is also available. TEGO VariPlus products can be used as grinding resins or as auxiliary resins in the let-down stage. They improve many of the properties of printing inks and overprint varnishes such as color strength and shade, transparency, gloss, hardness, adhesion, blocking resistance and resistance to solvents or chemicals. They also increase solids content or decrease drying time. Evonik offers different grades of TEGO VariPlus products for use in solventborne, waterborne or radiation-curing printing inks. Products of the TEGO AddBond series are special tailor-made polyesters for improving the adhesion of printing inks to metallic and plastic substrates and the intercoat adhesion of multicoat formulations. Gloss and exibility are demonstrably improved and, moreover, TEGO AddBond products are resistant to light, weathering and saponication. There is a wide portfolio of products for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing formulations. TEGO AddBond products are widely used not only in printing inks but also in can coatings, coil coatings, automotive-OEM nishes, industrial coatings, and lacquers for corrosion protection.

Acrylic resins
Methacrylic resins have proved their suitability for many years as binders for formulating printing inks. They are noted in particular for their universal solubility, excellent chemical resistance, lightfastness and good compatibility with other coatings raw materials and pigments. They show good adhesion to various substrates such as plastics, paper, textiles and metal. DEGALAN has shown itself to be especially suitable for printing packaging materials.

Carbon Black Pigments and Silicas/Silicates


Using various technologies, Evonik produces ne-particle Carbon Black Pigments and silicas, which perform a variety of functions in printing inks and printing auxiliaries. Whereas the Carbon Black Pigments improve readability of printed matter, the synthetic silicas and silicates promote properties such as owability, ink/water balance, anti-misting and especially matting. Although the trend in recent years has been towards increased use of colored printing inks, approx. 150 000 t/a of Carbon Black Pigments are used worldwide in the manufacture of printing inks. It is constructive to consider why Carbon Black Pigments are so important. Their high efciency in combination with excellent fastness at relatively low cost benets printing ink manufacturers. Evonik can choose between three different process technologies (the furnace black, gas black and lamp black processes) and can thus offer Carbon Black Pigments with properties which can be tailor-made for different aspects of printing ink formulation. These products are supplied to printing ink manufacturers under the trade names PRINTEX, HIBLACK, NEROX and SPECIAL BLACK.
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The most important features are the size and structure of the primary pigment particles and their agglomerates. They dene the coloristic properties such as undertone, optical density, gloss and also the rheological effect of the Carbon Black Pigments and their dispersibility in the binders.

Irrespective of the print technology, simple relationships can be dened between the properties of the printing ink and the primary particle size and structure. For lm thicknesses less than 10 m, typical for printing inks, the following relationships are true: Synthetic silicas and silicates comprise the second group of neparticled products manufactured by Evonik. Products of major interest for the printing inks sector are manufactured not only by the AEROSIL technology developed by Evonik, but also by the Carbon Black Pigments precipitation process. Both technologies lead to ne-sized, amorphous materials with physico-chemical properties which can The lower the primary particle size, the higher the optical be altered by adjusting of production parameters. density of the ink lm. AEROSIL, SIPERNAT and ACEMATT grades have been wellThe lower the primary particle size, the more brownish the known for many years as products for optimizing the features of undertone of the print. printing inks, overprint varnishes, and printing auxiliaries. These The lower the primary particle size, the higher the increase in products are not only advantageous for the production of printing viscosity of the printing ink. inks and for their storage and printability but also for the nal The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment, the higher the print product. increase in viscosity of the printing ink.

technology already possess a high proportion of volatile components which indicates a high level of oxidized surface groups. Oxidized groups on the surface of a furnace black are the result of a special after-treatment process. Such products are also part of Evoniks portfolio of carbon blacks under the names NEROX and SPECIAL BLACK. The surface chemistry is important for the wetting of the carbon black by the binder so that this aspect also inuences properties such as rheology and gloss of the printing ink.

The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment, the better the The more structured the Carbon Black Pigment, the better the
hold-out but also the lower the gloss of the ink lm. dispersibility.

Another important property of the Carbon Black Pigment is the level of oxidation of the pigment surface, which depends on the production process. Products manufactured by the Evonik gas black

AEROSIL fumed silicas are characterized by their very small primary particles and high specic surface area. These are not isolated primary particles but aggregates and agglomerates that dene the typical application properties of AEROSIL products. The AEROSIL particles are hydrophilic due to their silanol groups, but for certain AEROSIL grades these silanol groups are modied by chemical reactions, resulting in hydrophobic particles which are characterized by a very low moisture uptake.

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With the ACEMATT products Evonik offers a complete portfolio of silica-based matting agents whose prole of properties, such as particle size, particle size distribution, and surface modication, is ideal for the matting of printing inks. The desired matt effect of the printing ink or overprint varnish can be achieved by suitable choice of product. As can be seen from this short introduction to the properties of carbon black and synthetic silica, interaction of the various features has a marked effect on the printing ink. Furthermore the choice of the right Carbon Black Pigment or silica is largely determined by the print technology and its special demands on printing ink properties such as rheology, ink/water balance, matting or optical density.

The Evonik Ziegler polymerization of ethylene synthesizes both HDPE waxes and LLDPE waxes with a wide range of density (0.91 0.96 g/cm3) and molecular weight (1000 4000 Dalton). The well balanced ratio of amorphous and crystalline components of Evonik VESTOWAX A-grades (PE-waxes) combined with a high molecular weight, leads to outstanding surface protection (rub- and scratch-resistance), high pigment loading (e. g. as a carrier for pigment concentrates) and high heat resistance in different applications. Enhancement of both product groups is accomplished by oxidation, saponication, esterication and compounding and leads to an extensive range of grades. In combination with the different supply forms (from pellets to micro powders) these offer solutions to a multitude of applicational problems. Micronized waxes are especially suitable for improving the surface properties of printing ink formulations. They can easily be incorporated directly by cold dispersion or by cold grinding. It is unnecessary to heat the wax and solvent and the production process is thus simple and fast. Micronized VESTOWAX grades are available with either spherical (sprayed) or irregular (ground) particle shape. Advantages of spherical particles are good slip, high rub resistance and high gloss retention. Irregular particles are used for good wetting and dispersion properties, minimal agglomeration and high matting effect. Furthermore VESTOWAX grades in pellet form can be used for the production of solventborne dispersions and pastes as well as for waterborne dispersions (emulsions). These dispersions, pastes and emulsions are produced for easy incorporation of waxes into printing ink formulations.

Waxes
The VESTOWAX range of synthetic waxes consists of two different product groups: Fischer-Tropsch waxes and Polyethylene waxes. Crude Fischer-Tropsch waxes are manufactured by polymerizing products obtained from natural gas into waxes (producer Shell, Malaysia). Physical and chemical modication of Fischer-Tropsch waxes at the Evonik wax plant leads to a variety of modied waxes. Characteristic of Fischer-Tropsch waxes is the combination of low molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution, low viscosity, straight chain structure and high drop point which results in good heat resistance, low surface tension and high release and slip effects in many different applications.

Tego Additives
Evoniks comprehensive Tego range of surface-active additives for printing inks and coatings improves the production, application and nal properties of the inks and varnishes. TEGO Dispers pigment wetting and dispersing additives speedup the wetting of the pigment particles and adsorb on the pigment surface. They stabilize the pigment and reduce the viscosity of the grind resulting in: tension to ensure proper wetting. This can be achieved by the use of organo-modied polysiloxanes with a relatively short siloxane backbone (TEGO Wet 2xx series). For optimum dynamic performance in waterborne inks combined with some degassing activity, a range of silicone-free surfactants is available (TEGO Wet 5xx series). Combining the principles of Gemini surfactants and siloxane chemistry it becomes possible to create powerful surface tension reducers with distinct defoaming properties (TEGO Twin 40xx series). In several applications, combinations of a silicone-free with a siloxane-based substrate wetting additive have proved benecial.

shorter grinding times because of faster color development higher color strength higher transparency or lower hiding power higher gloss improved rheology and rheological stability possibility of higher pigment loading.

TEGO Glide and TEGO Rad Surface Control Additives are TEGO Dispers products are available for waterborne, solventsiloxane-based. They reduce surface tension, promote wetting and borne and radiation-curing printing inks. They are polymeric ow and create a slip effect on top of the ink or varnish. They products based on different technologies; all of them are APE and also improve the scratch resistance and the anti-blocking properties silicone-free. The optimal choice of wetting and dispersing additive of the ink or varnish without interfering with gloss. depends on the type of pigment and the overall formulation. During drying or curing of the ink, slip additives migrate to the TEGO Wet and TEGO Twin act primarily as surface tension surface where they form a thin, invisible liquid lm that acts as reducers and improve the wetting of the ink or varnish on various an effective lubricant on the dry lm. Special TEGO Glide substrates. Low energy substrates (e. g. polyolenes) and conadditives are required if the ink must remain overprintable or taminated substrates require a very strong reduction in surface bondable.

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The cross-linkable TEGO Rad products which contain reactive acrylate groups and react by free-radical curing have been specially developed for radiation-curing formulations. Their use minimizes extractables, creates longer lasting effects and very strong release properties. TEGO Foamex and TEGO Airex Defoamers and Deaerators make use of surface activity combined with controlled incompatibility. They are efcient at preventing the stabilization of entrained air, and break down and release foam once it has been generated. They are very suitable for the higher printing speeds increasingly encountered today and have been an indispensable formulation component especially in waterborne and radiationcuring inks and varnishes for many years. TEGO Foamex and

TEGO Airex are available as siloxane-based and siloxane-free products. Maximum efciency is obtained by the use of siloxanebased products. For waterborne inks, different kinds of products are available: concentrates mainly for the grinding stage, solutions for universal use and emulsions for easy incorporation at the letdown stage or into clears. Tego additives are based on a wide range of technologies including polyacrylate-, polyurethane-, fatty-acid derivative- and poletherchemistries. Siloxane chemistry is used whenever very high surface activity is required. Hardly any Tego additive contains silicone oil. Tegos in-depth expertise in organo-modied siloxanes stretches back over many years. The production process used by Evonik ensures molecules with properties precisely tailored to the application.

Flexographic and Gravure Printing Inks


Solventborne
Introduction Solventborne exographic and gravure printing ink formulations have a low viscosity and make particular demands for additives and co-binders. High pigment loadings (usually organic or carbon black) must be optimally wetted and stabilized. The most diverse print stock requires quick and efcient wetting, drying must be fast and the anti-blocking properties of the ink excellent. The surface characteristics and adhesion properties of inks can be improved by suitable additives and co-binders. Wax additives in solventborne exographic and gravure inks are used to improve rub resistance and slip without signicantly affecting gloss. The varying types of substrates from absorbent board to nonabsorbent paper or lms pose a challenge to the formulator of printing inks for packaging. These solventborne printing inks are based on nitrocellulose (NC) often combined with polyamide (PA), polyurethane (PU) or polyvinylbutyral (PVB). When choosing the appropriate black pigment it is important to ensure the correct combination of binders. Although various pigments can be well-wetted with nitrocellulose, the compatibility of the black base with different binders is the decisive factor in determining nal printing ink properties. The use of a powerful pigment wetting and dispersing additive signicantly increases the possible pigment loadings and improves the stability with various binders. Products TEGO VariPlus products are used as auxiliary resins or grinding vehicles for solventborne exographic and gravure printing inks. They are also used in hot stamping foils and laminates based on various binder classes and different solvents. Typically, they make up 20 to 40 % (occasionally up to 50 %) of the whole binder. They are added in the let-down stage or during grinding. Usually no dispersing aid is required.

Co-Binders for solventborne flexographic and gravure printing inks


Product name TEGO VariPlus CA

Characteristics Ketone condensation grinding resin or co-binder Polyol grinding resin or co-binder with high softening point and excellent stability

Effects Good pigment wetting, good color strength, improved gloss, improved adhesion e. g. in toluene-based OPP or PUR inks Very good pigment wetting, high color strength, high gloss, excellent adhesion, high hardness, fast drying, high transparency, good flexibility, scratch and chemical resistance e. g. in toluene-free NC, PVB or PUR inks Excellent pigment wetting, high color strength, high gloss, excellent adhesion, outstanding hardness and drying, good flexibility, scratch and chemical resistance e. g. in toluene-free NC, PVB or PUR inks with rapid through-drying Good pigment wetting, good color strength, clear transparent film could be metallised. Metal adhesion given Could be used as grinding resin, excellent pigment wetting, high color strength, clear transparent film, wide compatibility to other resins. Enhanced adhesion especially to plastic substrates Could be used as grinding vehicles. Good pigment wetting and good color strength, clear transparent film. Ethanol solubility is given Good pigment wetting and good color strength. Excellent compatibility to alumi flakes and gold bronze pigments. Useable for cigarette packaging. Proven depolymerisation behaviour for ceramic transfer laquers

TEGO VariPlus SK

TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF (free of organotin)

Polyurethane polyol grinding resin or co-binder with outstandingly high softening point

DEGALAN PM 381 DEGALAN P 28

Methacrylate polymer based on BMA/MMA Methacrylate polymer base on BMA

DEGALAN N 742

Methacrylate polymer based on EMA

DEGALAN P 24

Methacrylate polymer based on BMA/MMA

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TEGO VariPlus provides higher gloss, excellent pigment wetting (color strength and shade, jetness, anti-bronzing) and outstanding drying properties. The products permit a higher solids content and result in excellent hardness, blocking resistance and heat stability, good adhesion on plastics and paper, better transparency and resistance towards yellowing, color deterioration, solvents and chemicals. The main TEGO VariPlus products for solventborne exographic and gravure printing inks are summarized in the table on page 8. TEGO VariPlus SK and TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF are free of formaldehyde. Also Methacrylic Resins are used typically as co-binders for solventborne exographic and gravure printing inks. They are also used in hot stamping foil applications. Typically, they make up 20 to 50 % of the whole binder. They are added in the let-down stage or used as grinding vehicle. Methacrylic Resins provide higher gloss, and adhesion onto various substrates like plastic, paper and metal. Recommended Carbon Black Pigments
Product name SPECIAL BLACK 4 SPECIAL BLACK 250 Characteristics

Publication gravure inks are processed at very high speeds necessitating a very low viscosity of the printing ink. The use of lowstructured Carbon Black Pigments with relatively large primary particle sizes, such as PRINTEX 25 and PRINTEX 35, permits formulation of low viscosity printing inks with excellent coverage, optical density and gloss. The abrasiveness of these grades is monitored with the well known Burda-tester. Depending on the specic binder combination and requirements of the ink, oxidized furnace blacks, non-oxidized grades and also gas blacks can be used. In practice, densied or beaded Carbon Black Pigments show advantages such as higher optical density and gloss compared with low-density products. Recommended Carbon Black Pigments are summarized in the table below.

Effects Maximum jetness combined with excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone; excellent compatibility with PA- and NC-based packaging inks Low influence on rheology combined with high jetness; good compatibility with PU-, PVB-, and NC-based packaging inks Low influence on rheology combined with good bluish undertone; good compatibility with PU- and NC-based packaging inks

Oxidized gas black of RCG type; used for packaging inks Low structured furnace black of LCF type, oxidized; used for packaging inks Low structured furnace black of LCF type; used in packaging and gravure inks Low structured furnace black of LCF type; used in packaging and gravure inks

PRINTEX 35

PRINTEX 25

As direct incorporation of wax additives into solventborne formulations is usually straightforward, micronized waxes are mainly used. For best rub resistance the use of micronized polyethylene waxes is recommended, whereas micronized Fischer-Tropsch wax-

es are selected for anti-blocking and slip effect. Further improvement of slip and surface protection can be obtained by adding PTFE-modied Fischer-Tropsch micro powder. Wax products are tabulated below.

Wax products
Product name VESTOWAX A 616 SF

Characteristics Sprayed/ground PE-wax Sprayed PE-wax Sprayed FT-wax Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified

Effects Rub-resistant gravure inks, medium/low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Rub-resistant flexographic inks, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Slip/anti-blocking, reasonable rub resistance, very low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Outstanding slip, good rub resistance,low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %)

VESTOWAX A 616 XF VESTOWAX H 2050 SF VESTOWAX FM 1012

The high demands on the properties of solventborne printing and in particular packaging inks require highly efcient additives that ensure optimum performance. The polymeric wetting and dispersing additive TEGO Dispers 710 provides excellent wetting and stabilization of organic pigments and carbon blacks. High pigment levels and excellent Appropriate Tego additives
Product name TEGO Airex 900

compatibility with various binders can be achieved. Highly efcient deaerators are available to ensure proper ink transfer at high printing speeds. Slip and scratch resistance combined with antiblocking properties are achieved by the use of the tailor-made surface control additive TEGO Glide A 115. The table below lists the appropriate Tego additives.

Characteristics Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate, solvent-free Solution of fluoro-silicone PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive, free of secondary amino groups Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free

Effects Very strong deaeration and defoaming Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization, resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology Flow, leveling and moderate slip, overprintable and bondable Superior scratch resistance, slip and anti-blocking

TEGO Airex 931 TEGO Dispers 710 TEGO Glide 100 TEGO Glide A 115

Waterborne
Introduction In recent years, waterborne printing inks have become increasingly important. The intensive work of ink formulators and raw material suppliers has opened the door to truly high quality applications. The selection of the most suitable Carbon Black Pigment for waterborne exographic and gravure inks is mainly dependant on the nal substrate and the desired coloristic properties.

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In the manufacture of waterborne inks for exographic and gravure printing, the pigment can be ground with or without the use of a waterborne resin solution. The choice of process governs the requirements made on the wetting and dispersing additives. Important reasons for the use of waxes in water-borne exographic and gravure inks are rub resistance and slip, and improvement of water repellency. Products If the pigment grind is carried out in waterborne resin solution, the use of TEGO VariPlus DS 50 is recommended. This dispersion in water, free of organic solvents, exhibits excellent pigment Characteristics of TEGO VariPlus DS 50
Product name TEGO VariPlus DS 50

wetting properties and improves several ink properties. A combination of TEGO VariPlus DS 50 with a dispersing additive, such as TEGO Dispers 750 W or TEGO Dispers 760 W, leads to pigment concentrates with outstanding color strength, transparency and stable viscosity. It is ideally suited for binder-containing grinds of carbon blacks, organic or inorganic pigments. TEGO VariPlus DS 50 can also be used as a co-binder in the let-down stage. It improves wetting of all kinds of pigments, color strength, transparency, gloss, hardness, chemical resistance, blocking resistance and adhesion. Its characteristics are summarized in the following table.

Characteristics Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a grinding resin or co-binder

Effects Very good pigment wetting, high color strength, high gloss, improved adhesion, excellent hardness, very fast drying, flexibility, scratch and chemical resistance e. g. in acrylic inks

High structured furnace black pigments such as PRINTEX 30 normally lead to high optical densities on absorbent substrates. Nevertheless the inuence of these pigments on the ow properties of the printing inks has to be taken into account. Low structured grades, e. g. PRINTEX 45, give excellent results on non-absorbent substrates such as coated paper or lms. These pigments have less effect on the viscosity and therefore allow high pigment loadings. Properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas/silicates
Product name PRINTEX 60

The use of precipitated silicas or silicates can improve print quality especially on absorbent substrates. SIPERNAT 320 DS is a ller while SIPERNAT 820 A is recommended for use as a pigment extender for titanium dioxide resulting in improved opacity of white printing inks. The properties of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas/silicates are summarized in the table below.

Characteristics High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor-bent paper High structured furnace black of RCF type for absor-bent paper Medium structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper Low structured furnace black of RCF type for non-absorbent paper Precipitated silica used as filler for absorbent and nonabsorbent paper Precipitated aluminum silicate recommended as filler and as pigment extender for non-absorbent paper

Effects Excellent hold out and therefore highest jetness Moderate influence on the rheology; very good hold out and therefore high jetness Moderate influence on the rheology High jetness achievable Good rheology adjustment; smooth matting effect Rheology adjustment; improved hold out

PRINTEX 30 PRINTEX 300 PRINTEX 45 SIPERNAT 320 DS SIPERNAT 820 A

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As stated previously, the use of waxes in waterborne exographic and gravure inks improves rub resistance, slip and water repellency. Due to their very low surface tension, micronized Fischer-Tropsch or, even better, micronized PTFE-modied Fischer-Tropsch waxes, are very effective. As the direct incorporation of micronized waxes Characteristics of appropriate waxes
Product name VESTOWAX A 616 XF

does not always result in a stable dispersion of the wax particles, waxes are often added as waterborne pre-dispersions of micronized waxes or even as waterborne dispersions (wax emulsions) of hard oxidized PE waxes. The characteristics of appropriate waxes are tabulated below.

Characteristics Sprayed PE-wax

Effects Rub resistant flexographic inks, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via pre-dispersion in water with TEGO Dispers 650) Slip/anti-blocking, reasonable rub resistance, very low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via pre-dispersion in water with TEGO Dispers 650) Outstanding slip, good rub resistance, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via pre-dispersion in water with TEGO Dispers 650) Ease of incorporation, reasonable rub resistance, negligible influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via emulsion)

VESTOWAX H 2050 SF

Sprayed FT-wax

VESTOWAX FM 1012

Ground FT-wax PTFE-modified Oxidized PE-wax pellets

VESTOWAX AO 3533

Various TEGO Dispers grades ensure high color strength and allow high pigment loadings at low viscosities. Special products have been developed for the formulation of resin-free pigment concentrates (TEGO Dispers 750 W) and resin-containing ink grinds (TEGO Dispers 760 W). Defoaming exographic and gravure inks becomes increasingly difcult with ever higher machine speeds and the use of chambered doctor blades. TEGO Foamex defoamers efciently prevent foam build-up, ensure rapid foam collapse, are very shear resistant and maintain their effectiveness during storage. TEGO
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Foamex 845 and 822 emulsions are widely used as defoamers for the let-down stage, whereas TEGO Foamex 842 is the preferred choice for the grinding stage. TEGO Wet and TEGO Twin are the products of choice for improving quick and efcient wetting on diverse print stock. The silicone-free Wet 5xx products show excellent dynamic performance and the siloxane Gemini structures TEGO Twin provide maximum surface activity combined with defoaming properties. Appropriate Tego additives are listed in the following table.

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Appropriate Tego additives


Product name TEGO Dispers 651

Characteristics Anionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive, APE and solvent-free Highly polymeric pigment wetting and dispersing additive, APE and solvent-free

Effects Very good viscosity reduction and stabilization of inorganic pigments and fillers. Also achieves outstanding results for phthalo-pigments Good pigment wetting, viscosity reduction and color strength development combined with outstanding stabilization. Ideal for organic and Carbon Black Pigments in resinfree pigment grinds Outstanding pigment wetting, viscosity reduction and color strength development especially when used in combination with grinding resin, ideal for organic and carbon black pigments Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and inks on film Good defoaming and broad compatibility, ideal for the grinding stage Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect, ideal for the let-down stage, even for inks on film Excellent defoaming, good long term effect, ideal for the grinding stage Powerful defoaming, good long term effect, ideal for the let-down stage Good defoaming and compatibility, suitable for the grind and the let-down stage Outstanding slip effect, scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties. Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print Effective defoaming and substrate wetting combined Foam inhibiting, improves wetting of the substrate and the pigment particles, excellent dynamic performance

TEGO Dispers 750 W

TEGO Dispers 760 W

Non-ionic pigment wetting and dispersing additive, APE and solvent-free

TEGO Foamex 805 TEGO Foamex 810 TEGO Foamex 822

Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion

TEGO Foamex 842 TEGO Foamex 845 TEGO Foamex K7 TEGO Glide 482

Siloxane-based defoamer solution Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion Silicone-free defoamer concentrate Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion

TEGO Twin 4000 TEGO Wet 500

Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant, solvent-free Silicone-free substrate wetting additive, solvent-free

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Radiation-curing
Introduction Radiation-curing exographic, screen and offset printing inks are a strong growth area. In addition to pigment wetting and gloss, adhesion of radiation-curing printing inks is often problematic because of the volume shrinkage, especially during radical polymerization. Methacrylic Resins, TEGO VariPlus and TEGO AddBond products from Evonik are used as supplementary resins in such printing inks while suitable micronized grades of wax additives improve rub resistance, slip and anti-blocking properties of radiation-curing formulations. The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatibility of the additives used. Special high performance pigment wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiation-curing exographic inks. Special crosslinkable surface control additives create scratch resistance or release properties. Products TEGO VariPlus 3350 UV and TEGO AddBond LTH provide good adhesion, reduced volume shrinkage, good hardness, pigment wetting and gloss. TEGO VariPlus AP and TEGO VariPlus SK provide good adhesion, high hardness, high gloss, high solids content and better pigment wetting. The table below lists Methacrylic Resins, TEGO AddBond and TEGO VariPlus products for radiation-curing printing inks. DEGALAN PQ 611 improves adhesion onto BOPP based substrates. Improve color strength development, leads to higher and better levelling. DEGALAN P 28 improves adhesion on various substrates especially on plastics, reduce volume shrinkage, enhance pigment wetting and gloss. DEGALAN LP 64/12 provides adhesion improvement on various substrates. Limited inuence on viscosity level of UV-curing systems. Co-binders for radiation-curing printing inks
Product name TEGO AddBond LTH TEGO VariPlus 3350 UV TEGO VariPlus AP TEGO VariPlus SK DEGALAN PQ 611 Characteristics Solid, hard polyester polyol co-binder for radically and cationically cross-linked inks Polyester polyol co-binder dissolved in TPGDA with excellent compatibility with acrylic resins for radically cross-linked inks Free of formaldehyde, solid, ketone condensation co-binder Free of formaldehyde, solid and hard polyol co-binder Methacrylate polymer based on i-BMA Effects Good pigment wetting, improved gloss, improved hardness, reduced shrinkage, improved adhesion, improved reactivity Good pigment wetting, improved gloss, reduced shrinkage, improved adhesion Cost efficient, good pigment wetting, improved gloss, reduced shrinkage Excellent pigment wetting, high gloss, high hardness, reduced shrinkage Good pigment wetting effect, improved gloss and levelling, reduced shrinkage, improved adhesion especially onto BOPP films Good pigment wetting effect, improved gloss, reduced shrinkage, improved adhesion especially onto plastic substrates Cost efficient, good pigment wetting, improved gloss, reduced shrinkage

DEGALAN P 28 DEGALAN LP 64/12

Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA Methacrylate polymer based on BMA/MMA

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Methacrylic Resins, TEGO VariPlus and TEGO AddBond products are used as co-binders. They can be dissolved in various reactive diluents and used in radically cross-linked printing inks. TEGO AddBond LTH can also be used in cationically crosslinkable formulations. The relatively low viscosity of the TEGO VariPlus products compared to the main binders used is an additional advantage. The main characteristic of Carbon Black Pigments is the absorption of radiation not only in the visible part of the spectrum but also in the ultraviolet region. The binders used for these inks are already relatively high in viscosity which is further increased by Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products
Product name SPECIAL BLACK 250 Characteristics Low structured, oxidized furnace black of LCF type

the incorporation of particles. The concept of radiation-curing (i. e. mainly UV-curing) and black printing inks seems a contradiction in terms. It is obvious that the formulation of radiation-curing black inks for exographic or gravure printing needs the Carbon Black Pigment and the formulation to be a perfect match. SPECIAL BLACK 250, a low structured oxidized furnace black, is Evoniks answer to these demands. Due to its oxidized surface this Carbon Black Pigment shows excellent wettability and has little effect on the rheology. Additionally, printing inks formulated with SPECIAL BLACK 250 show good through-cure combined with high level coloristic properties. Suitable Carbon Black Pigment and silica products are shown in the following table.

Effects Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface. Little influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface. Little influence on rheology combined with good through-cure and high jetness Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface. Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface. Little influence on rheology combined with excellent jetness Best matting efficiency in radiation-curing printing inks

SPECIAL BLACK 350

Low structured, oxidized furnace black of LCF type

NEROX 505 NEROX 305 ACEMATT OK 607

Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Oxidized furnace black of RCF type Silica-based, aftertreated product

Suitable products for radiation-curing formulations


Product name VESTOWAX A 616 XF VESTOWAX H 2050 SF Characteristics Sprayed PE-wax Sprayed FT-wax Effects Rub resistant flexographic inks, little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via pre-dispersion 30 % in TPGDA) Slip / anti-blocking, reasonable rub resistance, very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via predispersion 30 % in TPGDA)

15

The VESTOWAX product range includes suitable products for radiation-curing formulations which are summarized in the table below. Pre-dispersion in the reactive solvent (e. g. TPGDA) is usually the best method of incorporation for obtaining a stable dispersion of the wax particles. Efcient foam prevention and air release is obtained by siliconefree deaerators such as TEGO Airex 920 which is highly compatible and easily overprintable. For even more demanding defoaming requirements the siloxane-based TEGO Airex 900 is recommended. The absence of organic solvents puts particular demands on the solubility and compatability of the additives used. Special high Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks
Product name TEGO Airex 900

performance wetting and dispersing additives are needed to ensure color strength development and low viscosity in radiationcuring exographic inks. The newly developed TEGO Dispers 685 provides these properties even on the most critical organic pigments and carbon blacks. For inorganic pigments TEGO Dispers 655 is the rst choice. The surface characteristics of exographic inks can be improved as required by using TEGO Glide and TEGO Rad products. They ensure wetting and ow during the printing process. On the cured print, they provide slip and anti-blocking. Appropriate Tego additives for radiation-curing printing inks are listed below.

Characteristics Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate, solvent-free Silicone-free deaerator concentrate, solvent-free Pigment wetting and dispersing additive, liquid and solventfree Pigment wetting and dispersing additive, liquid and solventfree Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free Cross-linkable silicone-based flow and leveling additive, solvent-free Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip additive and deaerator Silicone-based substrate-wetting and flow additive, solventfree Silicone-free substrate wetting, flow and leveling additive, solvent-free

Effects Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration, primarily in pigmented inks Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility, overprintable Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction, ideal for inorganic pigments, fillers and matting agents Outstanding pigment wetting, viscosity reduction and color strength development, ideal for organic and carbon black pigments Unique combination of substrate wetting, flow and slip, non-foaming Improves flow and leveling, excellent compatibility also in clears, overprintable Unique combination of powerful slip, scratch resistance and deaeration, especially for pigmented inks Improves substrate wetting and flow, overprintable in low dosages Improves flow and leveling, aids the wetting of inorganic pigments and fillers, overprintable

TEGO Airex 920 TEGO Dispers 655 TEGO Dispers 685

TEGO Glide 435 TEGO Rad 2100 TEGO Rad 2500 TEGO Wet 270 TEGO Wet 505

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EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Offset Printing Inks


Coldset
Introduction The very special challenge in formulating coldset printing inks is to achieve excellent optical densities combined with good rub resistance on highly absorbent substrates. Products Evonik offers specialty Carbon Black Pigments for this area of application. The structure of the Carbon Black Pigment has a high impact on the xation to the substrate. Low structured Carbon Black Pigments are able to penetrate into the paper so that they are well xed and increase the rub resistance. Higher structured Carbon Black Pigments give a better hold-out. To optimize the optical properties as well as the rub resistance of the nal print irrespective of the paper quality it is advantageous for the printing ink manufacturer to use blends of different kinds of Carbon Black Pigments. An additional demand on Carbon Black Pigments is the automated production of coldset printing inks and the combined handling of the raw materials. Carbon blacks are especially suitable as they show little formation of dust and good ow properties. Typical Carbon Black Pigments for this application are PRINTEX 30 and PRINTEX 300. To combine good handling with very good dispersing properties Evonik developed the oil-beaded products PRINTEX ES 22 and PRINTEX ES 34. The following table indicates the relevant Evonik products.

Heatset
Introduction This printing technique is suitable for a very broad range of substrates ranging from SC papers through LWC papers to coated papers. The formulation of the printing inks, including the choice of Carbon Black Pigments and silicas, needs to take this into account to ensure the best possible print quality independent of the paper quality. Due to the low lm thickness, heatset offset inks require low particle size waxes to improve rub resistance, slip and anti-blocking properties. They are added in the form of micronized waxes, whose particle sizes are often further reduced during the incorporation step.

Relevant Evonik products


Product name PRINTEX G PRINTEX 30 PRINTEX 300

Characteristics High structured furnace black of LCF type High structured furnace black of RCF type Medium structured furnace black of RCF type Oil-beaded, high structured furnace black of RCF type Oil-beaded, medium structured furnace black of RCF type

Effects Good bluish undertone in combination with good flow properties All purpose grade with good flow properties and jetness High jetness achievable. Reduced impact on the rheology for high speed presses Easily dispersible grade with excellent hold-out leading to good jetness. Acceptable influence on the rheology Easily dispersible grade. Good jetness combined with bluish undertone; moderate influence on the rheology

PRINTEX ES 22 PRINTEX ES 34

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Products The Carbon Black Pigments mainly used in heatset inks are PRINTEX 45, PRINTEX 35 and PRINTEX 25. All three grades are low structured furnace black pigments that guarantee good ow properties of the heatset printing inks. PRINTEX 45, with the smallest primary particle size of the three, gives excellent optical density whereas PRINTEX 25 with the largest primary particle size provides an excellent bluish undertone. PRINTEX 25 may also be used for blending as it will increase the bluish undertone while reducing the viscosity. Pseudoplastic ow behavior counteracts ink penetration in absorbent papers. This can be achieved by using AEROSIL and results in good dot sharpness and optimum gloss. Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSIL products are listed in the following table. For the heatset printing method, with its fast running machinery, products with high thermal stability and good slip properties are necessary. Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or, for best performance, micronized PTFE-modied Fischer-Tropsch waxes are mainly suitable. These are tabulated below.

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigment grades and AEROSIL products


Product name PRINTEX 45

Characteristics Low structured furnace black of RCF type Low structured furnace black of LCF type Low structured furnace black of LCF type Hydrophilic fumed silica that builds up a strong pseudoplasticity Hydrophobic fumed silica that builds up a moderate pseudoplasticity

Effects High end color properties with moderate flow. Excellent jetness High jetness combined with a bluish undertone. Low influence on the rheology, high pigment loading Very low influence on the rheology permitting high loading levels. Best bluish undertone Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers. Reduced misting and dusting Improved ink/water balance therefore preventing scumming. Improved rub resistance

PRINTEX 35 PRINTEX 25 AEROSIL 200 AEROSIL R 972

Micronized Fischer-Tropsch/micronized PTFE-modified Fischer-Tropsch waxes


Product name VESTOWAX SH 112

Characteristics Ground FT-wax Sprayed FT-wax Ground FT-wax, PTFE-modified

Effects Slip, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Slip, very low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Outstanding slip, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %)

VESTOWAX H 2050 SF VESTOWAX FM 1012

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EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Sheetfed
Introduction Printed matter produced with this technique is often high end, requiring or ustifying coated papers. High optical densities in combination with high gloss are demanded. For the production of such high quality printing inks, low structured Carbon Black Pigments and their oxidized versions are the products of choice. In sheetfed offset inks good rub resistance and, often, overprintability are usually ore important than slip properties. This is why polyethylene waxes are added here, either as micronized powders or in form of solventborne dispersions/pastes. Products PRINTEX 55 should be particularly mentioned here. Its relatively small particles guarantee excellent optical densities. The low structure of PRINTEX 55 results in little inuence on printing ink rheology thus giving good ow. AEROSIL fumed silica is well known for providing excellent control of the ow properties of polar and non-polar liquids. In heatset printing inks hydrophilic and hydrophobic grades can be utilized for controlling rheological properties. The pseudoplastic ow behavior which can be achieved results in good dot sharpness combined with high optical density and reduced misting. Measurement of the ink/water balance of offset printing inks shows that hydrophobic AEROSIL grades are particularly effective in promoting emulsication. The appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas are indicated in the following table.

In sheetfed printing inks, high density micronized PE waxes or, for wax dispersions, VESTOWAX A 118 with a balanced composition of easily-dispersible amorphous and rub-resistant crystalline components, are used. These products are listed in the table below.

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments and silicas


Product name PRINTEX 35

Characteristics Low structured furnace black of LCF type Low structured furnace black of RCF type Low structured furnace black of RCF type Hydrophilic fumed silica introducing strong pseudoplasticity Hydrophobic fumed silica controlling rheology and introducing hydrophobicity

Effects High jetness combined with a bluish undertone. Little influence on rheology, high pigment loading Good color properties and excellent gloss. Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow High end color properties and excellent gloss. Excellent printing sharpness combined with good flow Improved dot sharpness on absorbent papers. Reduced misting and dusting Improved ink/water balance therefore preventing scumming

PRINTEX 45 PRINTEX 55 AEROSIL 200 AEROSIL R 972

PE waxes/VESTOWAX A 118
Product name VESTOWAX X 4118

Characteristics Ground modified PE-wax Sprayed/ground PE-wax

Effects Rub resistance, overprintability, medium influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Rub resistance, little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %, further particle size reduction necessary during incorporation) Reasonable rub resistance (improved by addition of A 616), overprintability, low influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 % via pre-dispersion approx. 30 % in solvent/binder)

VESTOWAX A 616 SF

VESTOWAX A 118 (+ A 616)

PE-wax pellets

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Screen Printing Inks and Varnishes


Introduction Screen printing differs in some respects from other printing techniques. The most obvious differences are the printing speed and the applied lm thickness, both of which inuence the formulation of the printing inks which can be pigmented or clears. The higher applied lm thickness means that lower Carbon Black Pigment concentrations are needed. The optical density, undertone and the level of gloss are high and the ow properties of the ink have a corresponding effect on the behavior of the ink during application. In screen printing inks, slip and release are the very desirable surface properties contributed by waxes. Micronized Fischer-Tropsch or PTFE-modied Fischer-Tropsch grades are especially important. Co-binders for screen printing inks
Product name TEGO AddBond LTH

Various drying methods such as absorption, oxidation, evaporation, chemical and radiation-induced drying are used in screen printing inks and varnishes. High demands are therefore placed on additives and co-resins, particularly on deaerating additives, in such applications. The reason for this is that during printing a large amount of nely distributed air is incorporated into the ink lm as micro-foam. The relatively high lm thickness and the rather high viscosity sometimes even combined with thixotropy of the inks and varnishes make it difcult to release the foam. Powerful additives are also necessary to wet the many different substrates such as plastic, metal and glass, and to obtain excellent surface effects such as slip and release.

Characteristics Solid, hard polyester polyol supplementary resin Soft polyester polyol supplementary resin Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Polyol co-resin

Effects Improved adhesion on metals, plastics and minerals, improved gloss Improved adhesion on metals, plastics and minerals, improved gloss Good pigment wetting, good color strength, improved gloss Very good pigment wetting, high color strength, high gloss, high hardness Excellent pigment wetting, high color strength, high gloss, excellent hardness and blocking resistance Good pigment wetting, good color strength, clear transparent film. Improve adhesion on plastics and especially on metal Excellent pigment wetting, high color strength, clear and transparent film. Wide compatibility improve adhesion especially on plastic substrates Good pigment wetting and color strength, clear and transparent film. High hardness and blocking resistance Good pigment wetting and color strength, clear and transparent film. Extraordinary hardness and blocking resistance. Useable for IMD screen inks

TEGO AddBond LTW TEGO VariPlus CA TEGO VariPlus SK

TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF Polyurethane polyol co-resin (free of organotin) DEGALAN PM 381 Methacrylate polymer based on BMA/MMA

DEGALAN P 28

Methacrylate polymer base on i-BMA

DEGALAN M 912

Methacrylate polymer based on MMA

DEGALAN VP 1018F

Methacrylate polymer based on MMA

20

EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Products TEGO AddBond LTH, TEGO AddBond LTW, TEGO VariPlus SK and TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF, DEGALAN PM 381, PM 381 and DEGALAN P 28 wet many substrates such as plastic lms, metals or glass thus improving adhesion of the ink. Ink and varnish properties such as gloss, pigment wetting, hardness or blocking resistance can be improved by using TEGO VariPlus CA, TEGO VariPlus SK or TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF. The reactivity of their hydroxyl groups enables them to be used in PUR printing inks to increase hardness and resistance properties. Methacrylic resins, TEGO AddBond and TEGO VariPlus products for screen printing inks are given in the table on page 20. Independent of whether the kind of screen printing ink is solventborne or radiation-curing, SPECIAL BLACK 4 gives excellent optical density and gloss. As this kind of printing ink, pigmented or clear, needs very good rheology control the AEROSIL grades are benecial. They give a dened pseudoplasticity so that the printing ink will stand on the substrate after application with a doctor blade through the screen resulting in excellent dot sharpness. The scratch resistance of the surface of an applied solventborne or radiation-curing screen ink can be improved by the structure-modied product AEROSIL R 9200. ACEMATT products permit optimized matting of all three kinds of screen printing inks and varnishes. ACEMATT TS 100 incorporated into waterborne screen printing inks results in highly efcient matting combined with excellent transparency. SIPERNAT 820 A can be used as a pigment extender for titanium dioxide and will also control the rheology of the screen printing ink. Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments, silicas and silicates for screen printing inks are listed below.

Appropriate Carbon Black Pigments, silicas and silicates for screen printing inks
Product name SPECIAL BLACK 4 Characteristics Oxidized gas black of RCG type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks Lowest structured, oxidized furnace black of LCF type for solventborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiationcuring screen printing inks Effects Excellent wetting behavior due to high degree of oxidized surface groups; excellent jetness combined with good through-cure and moderate influence on rheology Excellent wetting behavior due to oxidized surface; minimal influence on rheology combined with very good through-cure and bluish undertone Introduces strong pseudoplasticity; rheology control additive Introduces strong pseudoplasticity; rheology control additive

SPECIAL BLACK 250

AEROSIL 200 AEROSIL R 972 AEROSIL R 9200 ACEMATT TS 100 ACEMATT OK 607 ACEMATT OK 412 SIPERNAT 820 A

Hydrophobic, structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne Very little influence on rheology; improved scratch resistance and radiation-curing screen printing inks Silica-based matting agent for waterborne screen printing inks Silica-based, aftertreated product for radiation-curing, screen printing inks Silica-based, aftertreated product for solventborne screen printing inks Precipitated aluminum silicate for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing screen printing inks Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency Good matting efficiency Good matting efficiency Good rheology adjustment; recommended as filler and pigment extender

21

There are a number of micronized VESTOWAX Fischer-Tropsch grades for screen printing inks and these are shown below. Micronized VESTOWAX Fischer-Tropsch grades*
Product name VESTOWAX SH 112

Characteristics Ground FT-wax

Effects Slip, release, little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Slip, release, very little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %) Outstanding slip and release, little influence on gloss (quantities to be added 12 %)

VESTOWAX H 2050 SF

Sprayed FT-wax

VESTOWAX FM 1012

Ground FT-wax, PTFE-modified

*for screen printing inks

High-performance TEGO Airex grades ensure rapid air release and allow high line speeds even in rotary screen applications. The variety of pigments used in screen printing inks places high demands on the TEGO Dispers grades used. TEGO Wet, Twin, Glide and Rad have been specially developed to provide an efcient wetting of the most difcult substrates as well as good leveling effect on top of the screen printing ink. These products are summarized in the following table.

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EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

TEGO Wet, Twin, Glide and Rad


Product name TEGO Airex 900

Characteristics Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate, solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based deaerator concentrate for waterborne formulations Silicone-free deaerator concentrate, solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations Solution of fluoro-silicone for solventborne formulations Pigment wetting and dispersing additive, liquid and solventfree for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing formulations Pigment wetting and dispersing additive, liquid and solventfree for solventborne, and radiation-curing formulations PU-based pigment wetting and dispersing additive for solventborne formulations Siloxane-based defoamer concentrate, solvent-free for solventborne and radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive, solventfree for radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations Cross-linkable siloxane-based slip and deaerator additive for radiation-curing formulations Cross-linkable siloxane-based release additive for radiationcuring formulations Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant, solvent-free for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing formulations Silicone-free substrate wetting additive, solvent-free for waterborne and radiation-curing formulations

Effects Effective and fast defoaming and deaeration primarily in pigmented inks Powerful deaeration and defoaming in varnishes and inks Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility, ideal for clears. Overprintable and bondable Good defoaming and deaeration with excellent compatibility Outstanding pigment wetting and viscosity reduction, ideal for inorganic pigments, fillers and matting agents Outstanding pigment wetting, viscosity reduction and color strength development, ideal for organic and carbon black pigments Excellent pigment wetting and stabilization, resulting in high color strength and good and stable rheology Maximum defoaming and deaeration in pigmented inks, ideal for rotary screen application Unique combination of substrate wetting, flow and slip, lowfoaming and excellent compatibility in clears Effective slip, flow and leveling with excellent compatibility, highly suitable for varnishes Outstanding slip effect, scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties. Additionally improves the water-resistance of the print Unique combination of powerful slip, scratch resistance and deaeration, additional marker-resistance and release effect Maximum release and anti-blocking properties primarily for pigmented inks, additional deaerating effect Effective defoaming, flow and substrate wetting. Especially powerful in waterborne formulations Foam inhibiting and deaerating, improves wetting of the substrate and pigment particles, excellent dynamic performance in waterborne formulations

TEGO Airex 901 W TEGO Airex 920 TEGO Airex 931 TEGO Dispers 655

TEGO Dispers 685

TEGO Dispers 710 TEGO Foamex N TEGO Glide 432 TEGO Glide 450 TEGO Glide 482

TEGO Rad 2500 TEGO Rad 2700 TEGO Twin 4000 TEGO Wet 505

23

Overprint Varnishes
Introduction Overprint varnishes are applied to give protection to the print and effects as matting or high gloss. Synthetic silicas are important components in such formulations. As in a number of other areas, ow and substrate wetting are very important characteristics provided by additives used in overprint varnishes. Defoaming is also of major importance since it must be achieved in these varnishes without impairing gloss or ow or causing cloudiness. Special surface effects, such as scratch resistance, anti-blocking and release properties, excellent sealability and bondability, are also required. These requirements may be at odds with each other and compromises must be made in certain cases. Products Overprint varnishes benet noticeably from the use of TEGO VariPlus products and Methacrylic Resins as co-binders. TEGO VariPlus CA, TEGO VariPlus SK, TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF, DEGALAN M 912 and DEGALAN VP 1018F are highly recommended for solventborne applications. Due to the low viscosity of the dissolved TEGO VariPlus products the ow properties are improved. Substrate wetting of plastic lms, paper, cardboard and aluminum is very good. High gloss varnishes can be achieved. High softening and high glass transition temperatures improve surface effects such as scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties. Bonding strength and exibility may also be increased. Excellent sealability can be obtained using TEGO VariPlus SK or TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF. For radiation-curing overprint varnishes, these improvements in ow, substrate wetting and surface effects can be obtained using TEGO VariPlus SK or TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF. In waterborne varnishes, TEGO VariPlus DS 50 is suitable for increasing gloss, hardness and resistance properties. Methacrylic resins exhibt a good substrate wetting on various substrates. They show high gloss and due to high glass transition temperature lms with high hardness, anti-blocking, mechanical and chemical resistance can be achieved. Methacrylic resins and TEGO VariPlus products for overprint varnishes are summarized on the next page. Incorporation of AEROSIL fumed silica gives excellent rheological properties producing pseudoplastic behavior that guarantees good dot sharpness and reduced setting. Due to the very small particles, the transparency of the dried ink lm is not affected. The hydrophilic grade AEROSIL 200 is preferable for waterborne printing inks whereas the hydrophobic AEROSIL R 972 is recommended for solventborne formulations. Both grades are suitable for radiation-curing inks. SIPERNAT 320 DS can be used as an extender that will additionally control the rheology of waterborne overprint varnishes.

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EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Methacrylic resins and TEGO VariPlus products for overprint varnishes


Product name Solventborne TEGO VariPlus CA TEGO VariPlus SK TEGO VariPlus EP-1201 TF DEGALAN M 914 DEGALAN VN 1018F Waterborne TEGO VariPlus DS 50 UV TEGO VariPlus AP TEGO VariPlus SK Solid, ketone condensation co-binder Solid and hard polyol co-binder Better flow and substrate wetting; higher gloss Better flow and substrate wetting; improved surface effects; higher gloss; improved hardness and bonding strength Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol dispersion in water with excellent stability used as a co-resin Higher gloss; improved hardness and resistance properties Ketone condensation co-resin with alcohol groups Hard polyol co-resin Very hard but flexible polyurethane polyol co-resin Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Methacrylate polymer based on MMA Better flow and substrate wetting; improved gloss; better resistance properties; improved flexibility Better adhesion; high gloss; better resistance properties; improved flexibility; higher bonding strength and sealability Better adhesion; excellent gloss; better resistance properties; improved flexibility; higher bonding strength and sealability Clear transparent film, high gloss, improved hardness Clear transparent film, high gloss, excellent hardness and antiblocking effect Characteristics Effects

25

The ACEMATT grades can be used to control matting of all three kinds of overprint varnish. ACEMATT OK 607 is recommended for radiation-curing inks in which this aftertreated and therefore hydrophobic matting agent shows excellent wetting behavior combined with minimal inuence on the rheology and excellent gloss reduction. Appropriate AEROSIL, ACEMATT and SIPERNAT products for overprint varnishes are tabulated below.

TEGO Wet and TEGO Twin efciently reduce surface tension and ensure wetting even on fresh litho inks without foam stabilization. TEGO Foamex defoamer emulsions are easy to incorporate and provide efcient foam prevention. TEGO Foamex 845 is suitable for surfactant-sick overprint varnishes while TEGO Foamex 822 is suitable for low viscosity varnishes

on aluminum. TEGO Airex 920 is an efcient and compatible deaerator for radiation-curing varnishes. A comprehensive selection of TEGO Glide and TEGO Rad products is available to fulll specic requirements and these are included in the table on the right.

Appropriate AEROSIL, ACEMATT and SIPERNAT products for overprint varnishes


Product name AEROSIL 200

Characteristics Hydrophilic fumed silica for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing overprint varnishes Hydrophobic fumed silica for solventborne and radiationcuring overprint varnishes

Effects Introduces strong pseudoplasticity; rheology control Introduces strong pseudoplasticity; rheology control

AEROSIL R 972 AEROSIL R 9200 ACEMATT TS 100 ACEMATT OK 412 ACEMATT OK 520 ACEMATT OK 607 ACEMATT 3300 SIPERNAT 320 DS

Hydrophobic, structure-modified fumed silica for solventborne Minimal influence on rheology; improved scratch resistance and radiation-curing overprint varnishes Silica-based matting agent for waterborne overprint varnishes Silica-based, aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes Silica-based, aftertreated matting agent for solventborne overprint varnishes Silica-based, aftertreated matting agent for radiation-curing overprint varnishes Silica based matting agent for radiation curing over print varnishes Very fine sized, hydrophilic precipitated silica for waterborne overprint varnishes. Excellent matting efficiency combined with high transparency High matting efficiency and little influence on rheology High matting efficiency and good transparency High matting efficiency Highest matting efficiency Rheology adjustment. Recommended as extender

26

EVONIK PRODUCTS FLEXOGRAPHIC AND GRAVURE PRINTING INKS OFFSET PRINTING INKS SCREEN PRINTING INKS AND VARNISHES OVERPRINT VARNISHES

Comprehensive selection of TEGO Glide and TEGO Rad


Product name TEGO Airex 920

Characteristics Silicone-free deaerator concentrate, solvent-free for radiationcuring formulations Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formulations Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formulations Siloxane-based defoamer emulsion for waterborne formulations Silicone-free defoamer concentrate for waterborne formulations Siloxane-based glide additive, solvent-free for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations Siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive, solventfree for radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based slip additive, solvent-free for solventborne and waterborne formulations Siloxane-based slip additive emulsion for waterborne formulations Cross-linkable siloxane-based substrate-wetting and slip additive, solvent-free for radiation-curing formulations Siloxane-based Gemini surfactant, solvent-free for solventborne, waterborne and radiation-curing formulations Silicone-free substrate wetting additive, solvent-free for waterborne formulations

Effects Effective deaeration combined with excellent compatibility, minimizes risk of turbidity and defects, overprintable and bondable Outstanding compatibility even in the most sensitive binder formulations and varnishes on film and aluminum Good defoaming combined with broad compatibility and long term effect, ideal for lower viscosity varnishes Powerful defoaming, good long term effect, ideal for varnishes with high surfactant content Good defoaming and compatibility, suitable for the grind and the let-down stage Flow, leveling and moderate slip, overprintable and bondable Powerful slip, flow and anti-crater effect Unique combination of substrate wetting, flow and slip, low foaming and excellent compatibility Effective slip, flow and leveling with excellent compatibility, highly suitable for varnishes Outstanding slip effect, scratch resistance and anti-blocking properties. Additionally improves the water resistance of the print Unique combination of substrate wetting, flow and slip, low foaming Effective defoaming and substrate wetting even on fresh litho inks, especially powerful in waterborne formulations Improves wetting, flow and leveling without foam stabilization, enhances gloss. Excellent dynamic performance

TEGO Foamex 805 TEGO Foamex 822 TEGO Foamex 845 TEGO Foamex K7 TEGO Glide 100 TEGO Glide 410 TEGO Glide 432 TEGO Glide 450 TEGO Glide 482

TEGO Rad 2300 TEGO Twin 4000 TEGO Wet 510

27

TEGO Evonik Tego Chemie GmbH Goldschmidtstrasse 100 45127 Essen Germany phone +49 201 173-2222 fax +49 201 173-1939 info-tego@evonik.com www.tego.de

AEROSIL Dynasylan Evonik Degussa GmbH Inorganic Materials Weissfrauenstrae 9 60287 Frankfurt am Main Germany phone +49 69 218-2532 fax +49 69 218-2533 aerosil@evonik.com

ACEMATT COLOUR BLACK NEROX PRINTEX SPECIAL BLACK SIPERNAT Evonik Degussa GmbH Inorganic Materials Weissfrauenstrae 9 60287 Frankfurt am Main Germany phone +49 69 218-2613 fax +49 69 218-2853 inorganic-materials@evonik.com

DEGALAN Evonik Rhm GmbH Kirschenallee 64293 Darmstadt Germany phone +49 6151 18-4784 degalan@evonik.com

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present knowledge and experience. However, it implies no liability or other legal responsibility on our part, including with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights, especially patent rights. In particular, no warranty, whether express or implied, or guarantee of product properties in the legal sense is intended or implied. We reserve the right to make any changes according to technological progress or further developments. The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful inspection and testing of incoming goods. Performance of the product described herein should be verified by testing, which should be carried out only by qualified experts in the sole responsibility of a customer. Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation, nor does it imply that similar products could not be used. (april 2008)

Evonik Industries AG www.smartformulating.com

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