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EXPLANATION Social Function To explain the process involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena.

Generic Structure General Statement to position the reader Sequenced Explanation of why or something occurs Significant Features Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verbs 3. Using passive voice 4. Using noun phrase 5. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using technical terms 7. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Example How Roman Roads were Built The system of roads for mobility has been begun early decades. It was started since the Roman Empire conquered the world. The roads in Roman era were known as the best construction. The Romans built roads are for the purpose of mobility, especially for the army. Having the best road, the army could march from one place to another. They built the roads as straight as possible, so that the army could take the shortest route. It is interesting to know how the roads were built, which some of them are still in use today. First, the Romans builders would clear the ground of rocks and trees. Then they dug a trench where the road was to go and filled it with big stones. Next, they put in big

stones, pebbles, cement and sand which they packed down to make a firm base. After that, they added another layer of cement mixed with broken tiles. On top of that rough construction, then they put paving stones to make the flat surface. These stones were cut so that they fitted together tightly. As the finishing touch, kerb stones were put at each sides of the road to hold in the paving stones. It was also used to make a channel for the water to run away. Taken from:
http://www.2020site.org/n/how-roman-roads-were-built.html

Competence Standard

: READING

To understand meanings of short functional text in the form of explanation

Basic Competence READING To respond the meaning and rhetoric steps in simple essay text which uses written language accurately, fluently and accepted in the context of daily

Teaching Materials Written text in the form of reading text entitled How Roman Roads were Built

Learning and Teaching Activities


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Indicators
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Assessment Type: multiple choice, crossword, fill the blanks, jumbled sentences, matches the synonyms

Time Allotment 2x45

Resource/Media Internet

Students are asked to identify the generic structure of explanation text Students are asked to identify the characteristics of explanation text Students are asked to find out specific and general information of the explanation text Students are asked

Identifying the generic structure of Explanation text Identifying the characteristics of explanation text Finding out specific and general information of explanation

Test ways: individual work

life and used to access knowledge in the form explanation

to get the meaning of the word through context Students are asked to get the meaning of a word by paraphrasing, definition, synonym and antonym.

text Getting the meaning of the word through context Getting the meaning of a word by paraphrasing, definition, synonym and antonym.