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Math 201 Lia Vas

Parametric Equations
If variables x and y are given as functions of the third variable t (parameter) by the equations x = f (t) and y = g(t) then the points (x, y) = (f (t), g(t)) constitute the graph of a parametric curve. For example, 1. Equation of a line in parametric coordinates: x = at + b and y = ct + d 2. Equation of the circle of radius r with center at (x0 , y0 ) : x = x0 + r cos t and y = y0 + r sin t with 0 t 2. The points (f (a), g(a)) and (f (b), g(b)) on the parametric curve x = f (t), y = g(t) with a t b are called initial and terminal point respectively. Practice Problems. a) Sketch the curve and indicate the direction in which the curve is traced as the parameter increases. Then eliminate the parameter to nd a Cartesian equation of the curve. 1. x = 4t + 4, y = 2t + 5 2. x = 4t + 4, y = 2t + 5, 0 t 2 3. x = t2 , y = 6 3t 4. x = t2 , y = 6 3t, 0 t 2 5. x = et , y = et 6. x = et , y = et , 0 t 7. x = 2 + 2 cos t, y = 2 sin t, 0 t 8. x = 2 + 2 cos t, y = 2 sin t, 0 t 3 9. x = 2 + sin t, y = 1 cos t, 0 t /2 10. x = 2 cos t, y = 2 2 sin t, 0 t 3/2 b) Find the intersection points of the two given parametric curves. 1. x = 4t + 4, y = 2t + 5, and x = 2t + 10, y = t + 4 2. x = cos t, y = sin t, and x = 1 cos t, y = sin t t Solutions. a) 1. y = 1/2x + 7 2. y = 1/2x + 7, 4 x 4 3. y = 6 3 x 4. 2 2 5. y = 1/x 6. y = 1/x, x 1 7. (x 2) + y = 4, y = 6 3 x, 0 x 4 y0 8. (x 2)2 + y 2 = 4 9. (x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 1, x 2, and y 1 10. 2 2 x + (y 2) = 4, x 0, or y 2

b) 1. At t = 1 point (8,3).

2. At t = /3 points (1/2, 3/2) and (1/2, 3/2).

Derivatives of parametric curve. Area enclosed by a parametric curve


Derivative of the parametric curve x = f (t) and y = g(t) is dy dy/dt g (t) = = dx dx/dt f (t) Second derivative is
dy dy d d dx d2 y dt dx = = dx2 dx dx/dt The area under the parametric curve on interval t [t1 , t2 ] is

A= Practice Problems.

b a

ydx =

t2 t1

g(t)f (t)dt

a) Find the rst and the second derivative. Then nd an equation of the tangent to the curve at the point corresponding to the given value of parameter t. 1. x = t t3 , y = 2 4t, t = 1. 2. x = et , y = et , t = 0. 3. x = t2 , y = 6 3t, t = 3. 4. x = 2 + 2 cos t, y = 2 sin t, t = 0, t = /2. b) Find the points on the given curve where tangent is horizontal and vertical. If the curve crosses itself, nd the point of self-intersection and nd the equations of the two tangents at that point. 1. x = t2 , y = t3 3t. 2. x = cos t, y = cos t sin t. c) Find the area bounded by the given curve(s). 1. x = t 1/t, y = t + 1/t, and y = 2.5. 2. x = sin t, y = cos2 t sin t and x-axis. 3. x = cos t, y = cos t sin t. Solutions. a) 1. dy/dx = 4/(13t2 ), d2 y/dx2 = 24t/(13t2 )3 ; tangent y = 2x2 2. dy/dx = e2t , 2 2 3t 2 2 d y/dx = 2e ; tangent y = x + 2 3. dy/dx = 3/(2t), d y/dx = 3/(4t3 ); tangent y = 1/2x + 3/2 4. dy/dx = cos t/ sin t, d2 y/dx2 = 1/(2 sin3 t); tangent at t = 0 is vertical line x = 4; tangent att = /2 is horizontal line y = 2. (1, b) 1. Horizontal tangent at (1, 2) and -2); vertical tangent at (0,0); self-intersection at (3,0). 2. horizontal tangent at ( 2/2, 2/2) ; vertical tangent at (1,0) and (-1,0); self-intersection at (0,0). c) 1. .977 2. 1/2 3. 4/3