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Advantages of gravity die casting Read More on

Gravity Die Casting Gravity die casting is a process wherein the liquid metal is poured into metallic moulds without application of any external pressure. The liquid metal enters the cavity by gravity. Gravity die casting (GDC) is different from High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC), where the liquid metal is injected into the metal mould under very high pressures for production of thin walled smaller castings with better dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

Gravity die casting is a manufacturing process for producing accurately dimensioned, sharply defined, smooth or textured-surface metal parts. It is accomplished by gently pouring molten metal into reusable metal dies under the force of gravity. The term, "die casting," is also used to describe the finished part.

To begin the process, a cast iron mould capable of producing tens of thousands of castings must be made in at least two sections to permit removal of castings. These sections are mounted securely to a solid base and are arranged so that one is stationary (fixed die half) while the other is moveable (ejector die half).

To begin the casting cycle, the die caster clamps the two die halves tightly together. Molten metal is poured into the die cavity where it solidifies quickly. The die halves are drawn apart and the casting is ejected. Die casting dies can be simple or complex, having moveable slides, cores, or other sections depending on the complexity of the casting.

The main advantage of gravity die casting over sand casting is the high speed of production. The reusable die tooling allows for many hundreds of castings to be

produced in a day. High definition parts reduce machining costs and superior surface finish reduces finishing costs.

Although die-castings are in most cases cheaper than sand castings, die tooling is considerably more expensive than sand tooling so an optimum number of castings need to be produced to make the process cost effective in the long run.

Advantages of gravity die casting

The process is suitable for mass production with better reproduction; dimensional accuracy and surface finish than conventional sand castings. A minimum wall thickness of 3.0 mm can be cast. Exceptionally, 2mm wall thickness is cast over small areas.

Castings ranging from few grams to 100 Kgs of Aluminium alloy can be cast. There are reports of some foundries producing cylinder blocks of around 300 Kgs by GDC. As the component size and complexity increases the process becomes more expensive and becomes uneconomical. It will also cause difficulty in handling the die and in extracting the casting from the die with reduction in dimensional accuracy and soundness of the casting.

The GDC process is capable of achieving 20% higher mechanical properties than that of a sand casting because of faster rate of solidification imparting better grain size. The process can be automated and also can produce semi-gravity diecastings employing sand or plaster of paris cores for production of interior details.

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Gravity Die Casting Process: Die Design and Process Optimization

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Die casting is a versatile process for producing engineered metal parts by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable steel molds. These molds, called dies, can be designed to produce complex shapes with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. Parts can be sharply defined, with smooth or textured surfaces, and are suitable for a wide variety of attractive and serviceable finishes..

Die castings are among the highest volume, mass-produced items manufactured by the metalworking industry, and they can be found in thousands of consumer, commercial and industrial products. Die cast parts are important components of products ranging from automobiles to toys. Parts can be as simple as a sink faucet or as complex as a connector housing..

Click Play above to see the video - Introduction.

Die cast parts are found in many places around the home. The polished, plated zinc die casting in this kitchen faucet illustrates one of the many finishes possible with die casting. These connector housings are examples of the durable, highly accurate components that can be produced with todays modern die casting.

History.

The earliest examples of die casting by pressure injection - as opposed to casting by gravity pressure - occurred in the mid-1800s. A patent was awarded to Sturges in 1849 for the first manually operated machine for casting printing type. The process was limited to printers type for the next 20 years, but development of other shapes began to increase toward the end of the century. By 1892,

commercial applications included parts for phonographs and cash registers, and mass production of many types of parts began in the early 1900s..

The first die casting alloys were various compositions of tin and lead, but their use declined with the introduction of zinc and aluminum alloys in 1914. Magnesium and copper alloys quickly followed, and by the 1930s, many of the modern alloys still in use today became available..

The die casting process has evolved from the original low-pressure injection method to techniques including high-pressure casting at forces exceeding 4500 pounds per square inch squeeze casting and semi-solid die casting. These modern processes are capable of producing high integrity, near net-shape castings with excellent surface finishes. .

Click Play above to see the video - History.

The Future.

Refinements continue in both the alloys used in die casting and the process itself, expanding die casting applications into almost every known market. Once limited to simple lead type, todays die casters can produce castings in a variety of sizes, shapes and wall thicknesses that are strong, durable and dimensionally precise..

A magnesium seat pan shows how complex, lightweight die cast components can improve production by replacing multiple pieces..

..

The Advantages of Die Casting.

Die casting is an efficient, economical process offering a broader range of shapes and components than any other manufacturing technique. Parts have long service life and may be designed to complement the visual appeal of the surrounding part. Designers can gain a number of advantages and benefits by specifying die cast parts..

High-speed production - Die casting provides complex shapes within closer tolerances than many other mass production processes. Little or no machining is required and thousands of identical castings can be produced before additional tooling is required..

Dimensional accuracy and stability - Die casting produces parts that are durable and dimensionally stable, while maintaining close tolerances. They are also heat resistant..

Strength and weight - Die cast parts are stronger than plastic injection moldings having the same dimensions. Thin wall castings are stronger and lighter than those possible with other casting methods. Plus, because die castings do not consist of separate parts welded or fastened together, the strength is that of the alloy rather than the joining process..

Multiple finishing techniques - Die cast parts can be produced with smooth or textured surfaces, and they are easily plated or finished with a minimum of surface preparation..

Simplified Assembly - Die castings provide integral fastening elements, such as bosses and studs. Holes can be cored and made to tap drill sizes, or external threads can be cast. .

Die Casting Process.

The basic die casting process consists of injecting molten metal under high pressure into a steel mold called a die. Die casting machines are typically rated in clamping tons equal to the amount of pressure they can exert on the die.

Machine sizes range from 400 tons to 4000 tons. Regardless of their size, the only fundamental difference in die casting machines is the method used to inject molten metal into a die. The two methods are hot chamber or cold chamber. A complete die casting cycle can vary from less than one second for small components weighing less than an ounce, to two-to-three minutes for a casting of several pounds, making die casting the fastest technique available for producing precise non-ferrous metal parts..

Click Play above to see the video - Process.

Die Casting vs. Other Processes.

Die casting vs. plastic molding - Die casting produces stronger parts with closer tolerances that have greater stability and durability. Die cast parts have greater resistance to temperature extremes and superior electrical properties..

Die casting vs. sand casting - Die casting produces parts with thinner walls, closer dimensional limits and smoother surfaces. Production is faster and labor costs per casting are lower. Finishing costs are also less..

Die casting vs. permanent mold - Die casting offers the same advantages versus permanent molding as it does compared with sand casting..

Die casting vs. forging - Die casting produces more complex shapes with closer tolerances, thinner walls and lower finishing costs. Cast coring holes are not available with forging..

Die casting vs. stamping - Die casting produces complex shapes with variations possible in section thickness. One casting may replace several stampings, resulting in reduced assembly time..

Die casting vs. screw machine products - Die casting produces shapes that are difficult or impossible from bar or tubular stock, while maintaining tolerances without tooling adjustments. Die casting requires fewer operations and reduces waste and scrap..

Click Play above to see the video - Die Casting vs Other Processes.

Choosing the Proper Alloy.

Each of the metal alloys available for die casting offer particular advantages for the completed part..

Zinc - The easiest alloy to cast, it offers high ductility, high impact strength and is easily plated. Zinc is economical for small parts, has a low melting point and promotes long die life..

Aluminum - This alloy is lightweight, while possessing high dimensional stability for complex shapes and thin walls. Aluminum has good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as strength at high temperatures..

Magnesium - The easiest alloy to machine, magnesium has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and is the lightest alloy commonly die cast..

Copper - This alloy possesses high hardness, high corrosion resistance and the highest mechanical properties of alloys cast. It offers excellent wear resistance and dimensional stability, with strength approaching that of steel parts..

Lead and Tin - These alloys offer high density and are capable of producing parts with extremely close dimensions. They are also used for special forms of corrosion resistance..

Die Construction.

Dies, or die casting tooling, are made of alloy tool steels in at least two sections, the fixed die half, or cover half, and the ejector die half, to permit removal of castings. Modern dies also may have moveable slides, cores or other sections to produce holes, threads and other desired shapes in the casting. Sprue holes in the fixed die half allow molten metal to enter the die and fill the cavity. The ejector half usually contains the runners (passageways) and gates (inlets) that route molten metal to the cavity. Dies also include locking pins to secure the two halves, ejector pins to help remove the cast part, and openings for coolant and lubricant. .

When the die casting machine closes, the two die halves are locked and held together by the machines hydraulic pressure. The surface where the ejector and fixed halves of the die meet and lock is referred to as the "die parting line." The total projected surface area of the part being cast, measured at the die parting line, and the pressure required of the machine to inject metal into the die cavity governs the clamping force of the machine..

.There are four types of dies:.

1. Single cavity to produce one component.

2. Multiple cavity to produce a number of identical parts.

3. Unit die to produce different parts at one time.

. 4. Combination die to produce several different parts for an assembly..

Hot Chamber Machines.

Click on the image to see an animation.

. Hot chamber machines are used primarily for zinc, copper, magnesium, lead and other low melting point alloys that do not readily attack and erode metal pots, cylinders and plungers. The injection mechanism of a hot chamber machine is immersed in the molten metal bath of a metal holding furnace. The furnace is attached to the machine by a metal feed system called a gooseneck. As the injection cylinder plunger rises, a port in the injection cylinder opens, allowing molten metal to fill the cylinder. As the plunger moves downward it seals the port and forces molten metal through the gooseneck and nozzle into the die cavity. After the metal has solidified in the die cavity, the plunger is withdrawn, the die opens and the casting is ejected..

Cold Chamber Machines.

Click on the image to see an animation.

. Cold chamber machines are used for alloys such as aluminum and other alloys with high melting points. The molten metal is poured into a "cold chamber," or cylindrical sleeve, manually by a hand ladle or by an automatic ladle. A hydraulically operated plunger seals the cold chamber port and forces metal into the locked die at high pressures..

High Integrity Die Casting Methods.

There are several variations on the basic process that can be used to produce castings for specific applications. These include:.

Squeeze casting - A method by which molten alloy is cast without turbulence and gas entrapment at high pressure to yield high quality, dense, heat treatable components..

Click on the image to see an animation.

.Semi-solid molding - A procedure where semi-solid metal billets are cast to provide dense, heat treatable castings with low porosity..

. . Automation and Quality Control.

. Modern die casters use a number of sophisticated methods to automate the die casting process and provide continuous quality control. Automated systems can be used to lubricate dies, ladle metal into cold chamber machines and integrate other functions, such as quenching and trimming castings. Microprocessors obtain metal velocity, shot rod position, hydraulic pressure and other data that is used to adjust the die casting machine process, assuring consistent castings shot after shot. These process control systems also collect machine performance data for statistical analysis in quality control..

Die Casting Design.

. . Die casting is one of the fastest and most cost-effective methods for producing a wide range of components. However, to achieve maximum benefits from this process, it is critical that designers collaborate with the die caster at an early stage of the product design and development. Consulting with the die caster during the design phase will help resolve issues affecting tooling and production, while identifying the various trade-offs that could affect overall costs..

For instance, parts having external undercuts or projections on sidewalls often require dies with slides. Slides increase the cost of the tooling, but may result in reduced metal use, uniform casting wall thickness or other advantages. These savings may offset the cost of tooling, depending upon the production quantities, providing overall economies..

Many sources are available for information on die casting design, including textbooks, technical papers, trade journals and professional associations. While this section is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of all the factors involving die casting design, it will highlight some of the primary considerations. Additional sources of information are listed in the "Resources" section of this brochure..

Alloy Properties One of the first steps in designing a die cast component is choosing the proper alloy. Typical properties for the most commonly used alloys are shown on the linked charts..

Comparing Materials.

The cost of materials is another important design consideration. Accurate comparisons require looking beyond the cost per pound or cost per cubic inch to fully analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each competing process. For instance, the relatively greater strength of metals generally allows thinner walls and sections and consequently requires fewer cubic inches of material than plastics for a given application..

Environmental.

Click Play above to see the video - Environmental.

Effective Design Load example illustrations to help show how design and engineering can affect final production..

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Site Map | Disclaimer | Security | Email to a Friend | Share on Facebook | RSS . . .. Die casting is the method used for forcing molten metal intomold cavities under high pressure. Die casting is very versatile and hence, isthe widest used method for casting a metal. Die casting is same as permanentmold casting the only difference is that the metal is injected into the mouldat very high pressure of 10-210 Mpa. This results in a more uniform part,usually good dimensional accuracy and also good surface finish.

The different metals and alloys that can be used in diecasting are zinc, aluminum, copper, magnesium, tin and lead. Ferrous metals canalso be used for die casting, die casting method is generally used forapplications in which a large quantity is medium or small sized parts arerequired with detail, good dimension and fine surface finish.

There are namely two equipments used for die casting coldchamber and hot chamber process.

Cold Chamberprocess: In the cold chamber category of die casting, a cold chamber ofeach module is filled with molten metal. The time exposure provided for themolten metal to plunge the walls of the mold is less. This clod chamber processmethod is very useful for metals like aluminum, copper and metals that easilyalloy with iron at high temperatures.

Hot Chamberprocess: In the hot chamber process method of die casting, the pressurethat is connected to the die cavity is forever and permanently in molten metal.As the plunger moves towards the open position that is towards the non -pressurized area, the inlet port connected to the pressurizing cylinder isuncovered.

The die casting molds which are used in this method areexpensive and take usually take long production time. These die casting modulesare also called as dies

Advantages of DieCasting: The method of die casting gives excellent dimensionalaccuracy. The dimensional accuracy is as good as 0.1mm for the first 2.5cms and0.005 for the first inch. Die casting also provides with smooth cast surfaces.Small and thin walls and can be made using the method of die casting walls astiny as 0.75mm approximately can be casted. Inserts like thread insert, highstrength bearing surfaces and heating elements can also be inserted using theDie Casting method.Die casting alsohelps in reducing or even completely eliminating the use of secondary machiningoperations. The use of Die Casting method also helps to reduce the productiontime and a huge number of articles can be produced in a very short time. Diecasting method also helps to retain as well as increase the tensile strength ofthe metal. It offers tensile strength as high as 415 MPa that is 60ksi.

Disadvantages ofDie Casting: The casting weight is very less hardly between 30 gramsand 10 kgs. Also the size of the material that needs to be casted using the DieCasting method needs to small say around 600mm. the process of Die Castingrequires high budget and can pile up high initial cost. Die Casting methodmakes the metal porous up to some extent. In the Die Casting method thethickest section needs to be less than 13mm or 0.5 inches. Die-casting is similar to permanent mold casting except that the metal is injected into the mold under high pressure of 10-210Mpa (1,450-30,500) psi . This results in a more uniform part, generally good surface finish and good dimensional accuracy, as good as 0.2 % of casting dimension. For many parts, post-machining can be totally eliminated, or very light machining may be required to bring dimensions to size.

Die-casting can be done using a cold chamber or hot chamber process.

In a cold chamber process, the molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber for each shot. There is less time exposure of the melt to the plunger walls or the plunger. This is particularly useful for metals such as Aluminum, and Copper (and its alloys) that alloy easily with Iron at the higher temperatures. In a hot chamber process the pressure chamber is connected to the die cavity is immersed permanently in the molten metal. The inlet port of the pressurizing cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurized) position. This allows a new charge of molten metal to fill the cavity and thus can fill the cavity faster than the cold chamber process. The hot chamber process is used for metals of low melting point and high fluidity such as tin, zinc, and lead that tend not to alloy easily with steel at their melt temperatures.

Die casting molds (called dies in the industry) tend to be expensive as they are made from hardened steel-also the cycle time for building these tend to be long. Also the stronger and harder metals such as iron and steel cannot be die-cast

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Common Alloys in Die Casting

Ads by Google Friction Stir Welding Engineering and Manufacturing Provider of FSW products & service www.ajt-inc.comAluminum, Zinc and Copper alloys are the materials predominantly used in die-casting. On the other hand, pure Aluminum is rarely cast due to high shrinkage, and susceptibility to hot cracking. It is alloyed with Silicon, which increases melt fluidity, reduces machinability. Copper is another alloying element, which increases hardness, reduces ductility, and reduces corrosion resistance. Aluminum is cast at a temperature of 650 C (1200 F). It is alloyed with Silicon 9% and Copper about 3.5% to form the Aluminum Association 380 alloy (UNS A03800). Silicon increases the melt fluidity, reduces machinability, Copper increases hardness and reduces the ductility. By greatly reducing the amount of Copper (less than 0.6%) the chemical resistance is improved; thus, AA 360 (UNS A03600) is formulated for use in marine environments. A high silicon alloy is used in automotive engines for cylinder castings, AA 390 (UNS A03900) with 17% Silicon for high wear resistance. Common aluminum alloys for die casting are summarized as follows:

Material Silicon Copper Tensile Strength MPa (ksi) Properties AA 380 (UNS A03800) 8.5 % 3.5 % 324 (47) Fair easy to fill AA 384 (UNS A03840) 11 % 4 % 331 (48) Easy to fill AA 386 (UNS A03860) 9.5 % 0.6 % 317 (46) Good corrosion resistance AA 390 (UNS A03900) 17 % 4.5 % 283 (41) Good wear resistance

Zinc can be made to close tolerances and with thinner walls than Aluminum, due to its high melt fluidity. Zinc is alloyed with Aluminum (4%), which adds strength and hardness. The casting is done at a fairly low temperature of 425 C (800 F) so the part does not have to cool much before it can be ejected from the die. This, in combination with the fact that Zinc can be run using a hot chamber process allows for a fast fill, fast cooling (and ejection) and a short cycle time. Zinc alloys are used in making precision parts such as sprockets, gears, and connector housings.

Copper alloys are used in plumbing, electrical and marine applications where corrosion and wear resistance is important.

Minimum wall thicknesses and minimum draft angles for die casting are

Material Min. Thickness mm (in) Min. Draft Angle () Aluminum alloys 0.9 mm (0.035 in) 0.5 Zinc alloys 0.6 mm (0.025 in) 0.25 Copper alloys (Brass) 1.25 mm (0.050 in) 0.7

Die-castings are typically limited from 20 kg (55 lb) max. for Magnesium, to 35 kg (77 lb) max. for Zinc. Large castings tend to have greater porosity problems, due to entrapped air, and the melt solidifying before it gets to the furthest extremities of the die-cast cavity. The porosity problem can be somewhat overcome by vacuum die casting

From a design point of view, it is best to design parts with uniform wall thicknesses and cores of simple shapes. Heavy sections cause cooling problems, trapped gases causing porosity. All corners should be radiused generously to avoid stress concentration. Draft allowance should be provided to all for releasing the parts-these are Language: English (US) Deutsch EspaolSEARCH: Investor RelationsHistoryPoliciesMission StatementValuesPartnersExecutive ManagementCareers

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In cold-chamber die casting the molten charge (more material than is required to fill the casting) is ladled from the crucible into a shot sleeve, where a hydraulically operated plunger pushes the metal into the die. The extra material is used to force additional metal into the die cavity to supplement the shrinkage that takes place during solidification. The principle components of a coldchamber die casting machine are shown below. Injection pressures over 10,000 psi or 70,000 KPa can be obtained from this type of machine.

Operating Sequence of the Cold-Chamber Die Casting Process

1.The die is closed and the molten metal is ladled into the cold-chamber shot sleeve.

2.The plunger pushes the molten metal into the die cavity where it is held under pressure until solidification.

3.The die opens and the plunger advances, to ensure that the casting remains in the ejector die. Cores, if any, retract.

4.Ejector pins push the casting out of the ejector die and the plunger returns to its original position.

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