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# CENTURION INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING POWER SYSTEM OPERATION & CONTROL

MODULE- I FUNDAMENTALS OF POWER SYSTEM 1. What are the main divisions of power system? Ans: The generating system, transmission system, and distribution system 2. What are the advantages of interconnected power system? Ans: (I) less no. of generators are required as a reserve for operation at peak loads. Hence the reserve capacity of the generating station gets reduced. (II) Less no. of generators which are running without load are required for meeting the sudden unexpected increase in load. (iii) It allows the use of most economical sources of power depending on time. 3. What are the problems of interconnection? Ans: (i) It increase the amount of current which flows when a short circuit occurs on a system and thereby requires the installation of breakers which are able to interrupt a larger current (ii) Synchronism must be maintained between of all the interconnected systems. 4. Define one line diagram. Ans: A simplified diagram by omitting the completed circuit through the neutral and by indicating the components of the power system by standard symbols rather than by their equivalent circuits. 5. What is meant by impedance diagram? Ans: The equivalent circuits of all the components of the power system are drawn and they are interconnected is called impedance diagram. 6. What is meant by reactance diagram? Ans:Omitting all static loads ,all resistance. The magnetizing components of each transformer and the capacitance of the transmission line are reduced from the impedance diagram is called reactance diagram. 7. Define per unit value.

Ans: Per unit of any quantity is defined as the ratio of the quantity to its base value is expressed as a decimal. 9. Define base current. Ans: Ratio of base MVA to base KV 10. Define stability study. Ans: Stability studies are performed in order to ensure that the system remains stable following a severe fault or disturbance.

11. What are the elements of Y- bus matrix? Ans: Short circuit driving point admittance. Short circuit transfer admittance.

12. What are the quantities whose base values are required to represent the power system by reactance diagram? Ans: The base values of voltage, current, power and impedance are required to represent the power system by reactance diagram. Selection of base values for any two of them determines the base values of the remaining two. 13. What is the need for base values? Ans: The components of power system may operate at different voltage and power levels. It will be convenient for analysis of power system if the voltage, power, current ratings of the components of the power system is expressed with reference to a common value called base value. 14. What is impedance and reactance diagram? Ans: The impedance diagram is the equivalent circuit of power system in which the various components of power system are represented by their approximate equivalent circuits. The impedance diagram is used for load flow studies. The reactance diagram is the simplified equivalent circuit of the power system in which the various components are represented by their reactance. The reactance diagram can be obtained from impedance diagram if all the resistive components are neglected. 15. What are the approximations made in impedance diagram? Ans: The neutral reactance is neglected. The shunt branches in equivalent circuit of induction motor are neglected.

## 16. What are the approximations made in reactance diagram?

Ans: The neutral reactance is neglected. The resistances are neglected. All static loads and induction motors are neglected.

17. What is a bus? Ans: The meeting point of various components in a power system is called a bus. The bus is a conductor made of copper having negligible resistance. The buses are considered as points of constant voltage in a system. 18. What is bus admittance matrix? Ans: The matrix consisting of the self and mutual admittances of the network of a power system is called bus admittance matrix. 19. Name the diagonal and off diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix. Ans: The diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix are called self admittances of the buses and off diagonal elements are called mutual admittances of the buses. 20. What is bus impedance matrix? Ans: The matrix consisting of driving point impedances and transfer impedances of the network of a power system is called bus impedance matrix. 21. Name the diagonal elements and off diagonal elements of bus impedance matrix. Ans: The diagonal elements of bus impedance matrix are called driving point impedances of the buses and off diagonal elements of bus impedance matrix are called transfer impedances of the buses. 22. What are the methods available for forming bus impedance matrix? 1. Form the bus impedance matrix and then take its inverse to get bus impedance matrix. 2. Directly from the bus impedance matrix from the reactance diagram. This method utilizes the techniques of modifications of existing bus impedance matrix due to addition of new bus.

POWER FLOW SOLUTIONS 23. What is load flow or power flow study? Ans: The study of various methods of solution to power system network is referred to as load flow study. The solution provides the voltages at various buses, power flowing in various lines and line losses. 24. What is the information that is obtained from a load flow study?

Ans: The information obtained from a load flow study is magnitude and phase of bus voltages, real and reactive power flowing in each line and the line losses. The load flow solution also gives the initial conditions of the system when the transient behavior of the system to be studied. 25. What is the need for load flow study? Ans: The load flow study of a power system is essential to decide the best operation existing system and for planning the future expansion of the system. It is also essential for designing the power system.

26. What are the quantities associated with each bus in a system? Ans: Each bus in a power system is associated with four quantities and they are real power, reactive power, magnitude of voltage, and phase angle of voltage. 27. What are the different types of buses? Ans: Load bus, generator bus, and slack bus. 28. Define voltage controlled bus? Ans: A bus is called voltage controlled bus if the magnitude of voltage and real power are specified for it. In a voltage controlled bus the magnitude of the voltage is not allowed to change.

29. What is PQ bus? Ans: A bus is called PQ bus when real and reactive components of power are specified for the bus. In a load bus the voltage is allowed to vary within permissible limits.

30. What is swing bus? Ans: A bus is called swing bus when the magnitude and phase of the bus voltage are specified for it. The swing bus is the reference bus for load flow solution and it is required for accounting line losses. Usually one of the generator bus is selected as swing bus. 31. What is the need for slack bus? Ans: The slack bus is needed to account for transmission line losses. In a power system the total power generated will be equal to sum of power consumed by loads and losses. In a power system only the generated power and load power are specified for buses. The slack bus is assumed to generate the power required for losses. Since the losses are unknown the real and reactive power are

not specified for slack bus. 32. What are the operating constraints imposed in the load flow studies? Ans: The operating constraints imposed in load flow studies are reactive power limits for generator buses and allowable change in magnitude of voltage for load buses. 33. What are the iterative methods mainly used for solution of load flow study. Ans: The Guass seidal method and Newton Raphson method are the two iterative methods. 34. Discuss the effect of acceleration factor in load flow study. Ans: The acceleration factor is a real quantity and it modifies the magnitude of voltage alone.

35. What is meant by flat voltage start? Ans: In iterative methods of load flow solution, the initial voltages of all buses except slack bus are assumed as 1+j0 pu.This is referred as flat voltage profile. 36. When the generator buses are treated as load bus. Ans: If the reactive power constraints of a generator bus violate the specified limits then the generator is treated as load bus.

37. What will be the reactive power and bus voltage when the generator bus is treated as load bus? Ans: When the generator bus is treated as load bus, the reactive power of the bus is equated to the limit it has violated, and the previous iteration value of bus voltage is used for calculating current iteration value. 38. What are the advantages of Gauss seidal method? Ans: Calculations are simple and so the programming task is less. The memory requirement is less Useful for small systems 39. What are the disadvantages of Gauss seidal method? Ans: Requires large no. of iterations to reach converge Not suitable for large systems Convergence time increases with size of the system 40. How approximations are performed in Newton Raphson method? Ans: In N-R method, the set of nonlinear simultaneous equations are approximated to a set of linear simultaneous equations using tailors series expansion and the terms are limited to first order approximation.

41. What is Jacobian matrix? How the elements of Jacobian matrix are computed. Ans: The matrix formed from the first derivatives of load flow equations is called Jacobian matrix. The elements of Jacobian matrix will change in every iteration. In each iteration the elements of the Jacobian matrix are obtained by partially differentiating the load flow equations w.r.t. a unknown variable and then evaluating the first derivatives using the solution of previous iteration 42. What are the adv. of N-R method? Ans: The N-R method is faster, more reliable and the results are accurate. Requires less no. of iterations Suitable for large size system 43. What is the disadvantage of N-R method? Ans: The programming is more complex .The memory requirement is more.

MODULE- II ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEM 1. Define economic dispatch problem? Ans: The objective of economic dispatch problem is to minimize the operating cost of active power generation. 2. Define incremental cost? Ans:The rate of change of fuel cost with active power generation is called incremental cost. Write the load balance equation? Pg-pd-pl=0. 3. Define Unit commitment? Ans: Commitment of minimum generator to meet the required demand. 4. Define spinning reserve? Ans:It is the term describes the total amount of generation availability from all units synchronized on the system. 5. What is meant by scheduled reserve?

Ans: These include quick start diesel turbine units as well as most hydro units and pumped storage hydro units that can be brought online, synchronized and brought up to full capacity quickly. 6. What are the techniques for the solution of the unit commitment problem? Ans: Priority list method dynamic programming Lagrange relation

LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL 7. What is the major control loops used in large generators? Ans: The major control loops used in large generators are 1.automatic voltage regulator (AVR) 2.automatic load frequency control (ALFC). 8. What is the use of secondary loop? Ans: A slower secondary loop maintains the fine adjustment of the frequency, and also by reset action maintains proper MW interchange with other pool members. This loop is insensitive to rapid load and frequency changes but focuses instead on drift like changes which take place over periods of minutes. 9. What is the advantage of AVR loop over ALFC? Ans: AVR loop is much faster than the ALFC loop and therefore there is a tendency, for the AVR dynamics to settle down before they can make themselves felt in the slower load frequency control channel. 10. What is the difference between large and small signal analysis? Ans: Large signal analysis is used where voltage and power may undergo sudden changes of magnitude that may approach 100 percent of operating values. Usually this type of analysis leads to differential equations of non-linear type. Small signal analysis is used when variable excursions are relatively small, typically at most a few percent of normal operating values. 11. What is the exciter?

Ans: The exciter is the main component in AVR loop. It delivers the DC power to the generator field. It must have adequate power capacity and sufficient speed of response (rise time less than 0.1 sec). 12. What is the function of AVR? Ans: The basic role of the AVR is to provide constancy of the generator terminal voltage during normal, small and slow changes in the load. 13. Explain about static AVR loop? Ans: In a static AVR loop, the execution power is obtained directly from the generator terminals or from the station service bus. The AC power is rectified by thyristor bridges and fed into the main generator field via slip rings. Static exciters are very fast and contribute to improved transient stability. 14. Write the static performance of AVR loop? Ans: The AVR loop must regulate the terminal |V| to within required static accuracy limit. Have sufficient speed of response. Be stable.

15. What is the dis.adv of high loop gain? How is to be eliminated? Ans: High loop gain is needed for static accuracy but this causes undesirable dynamic response, possibly instability. By adding series AND/OR feedback stability compensation to the AVR loop, this conflicting situation can be resolved. 16. What are the effects of generator loading in AVR loop? Ans: Added load does not change the basic features of the AVR loop, it will however affect the values of both gain factor Kf and the field constant. High loading will make the generator work at higher magnetic saturation levels. This means smaller changes in |E| for incremental increases in if, translating into the reduction of KF. The field time constant will likewise decreases as generator loading closing the armature current paths. This circumstance permits the formation of transient stator currents the existence of which yields a lower effective field induction.

17. What are the functions of ALFC? Ans: The basic role of ALFCs is to maintain desired MW output of a generator unit and assist in controlling the frequency of large interconnection. The ALFC also helps to keep the net interchange of power between pool members at predetermined values. Control should be applied in such a fashion that highly differing response characteristics of units of various types are recognized. Also unnecessary power output changes should be kept at a minimum in order to reduce wear of control valves. 18. Specify the disadvantage of ALFC loop? Ans: The ALFC loops will main control only during normal changes in load and frequency. It is typically unable to provide adequate control during emergency situations, when large MW imbalances occur. 19. How is the real power in a power system controlled? Ans: The real power in a power system is being controlled by controlling the driving torque of the individual turbines of the system. 20. What is the need for large mechanical forces in speed-governing system? Ans: Very large mechanical forces are needed to position the main valve against the high stream pressure and these forces are obtained via several stages of hydraulic amplifiers MODULE: III POWER SYSTEM STABILITY 21. Define stability? Ans:The stability of a system is defined as the ability of power system to return to stable operation when it is subjected to a disturbance.

22. Define steady state stability Ans: The stady state stability is defined as the ability of a system to remain stable for small disturbance.

## 23. Define transient stability?

Ans:The transient stability is defined as the ability of a system to remain stable for large disturbance. 24.What is steady state state stability limit? Ans: The steady state stability limit is the max. Power that can be transferred by a machine to a receiving system without loss of synchronism. 25 Define swing curve? What is the use of swing curve. Ans:The swing curve is the plot between the power angle and time. It is usually plotted for a transient state to study the nature of variation in angle for a sudden large disturbance. 26. Define power angle? Ans: The power angle is defined as the angular displacement of the rotor from synchronously rotating referance frame. 27. Define critical clearing time and critical clearing angle? Ans: The critical clearing angle is the max. allowable change in the power angle before clearing the fault, without loss of synchronism. The critical clearing time can be defined as thw max. time delay that can be allowed to clear a fault without loss of synchronism. 28. Define equal area criterion? Ans:The equal area criterion for stability states that the system is stable if the area under pvs angle curve reduces to zero at some value of angle. 29.What is transient state stability limit? Ans: The transient state stability limit is the max. power that can be transmitted by a machine to a receiving system without loss of synchronism. In steady state the power transferred by synchronous machine is always less than the steady state stability limit.

## 30. What is transient stability limit?

Ans:The transient stability limit is the max power that can be transmitted by a machine to a fault or a receiving system during a transient state without loss of synchronism. The transient stability limit is always less than the steady state stability limit.