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KINGS ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Subject: Applied Hydraulics and Pneumatics Code: ME 2035 Sem / Class:

V Semester / III Mech Unit 1 PART A 1. Define the term fluid power. Fluid power refers to the use of fluids for the development of methods for power transmission, control and utilization. 2. Distinguish between transport systems and fluid power systems. The objective of the fluid transport systems is to transport / deliver fluids from one place to the other to achieve some useful purpose. The fluid power systems use pressurized fluid to produce some useful mechanical movements to accomplish the desired work. 3. Why is fluid power considered as the muscle of automation a. Ease and accuracy of control b. Multiplication of force. c. Constant force and torque. d. Simplicity, safety and economy 4. List any five applications of fluid power in the manufacturing industry? Hydraulic presses, pneumatic hand tools, hydraulic and pneumatic fixtures, hydraulic feed machines, automatic lathe with air-operated equipments. 5. What are the basic components of a hydraulic system? Reservoir, Pump, Prime mover, Valves, Actuator, and fluid transfer piping. 6. What are the basic components of a pneumatic system? Reservoir, Compressor, Prime mover, valves, Actuator, and fluid transfer piping. 7. Define fluid? a. A fluid is a substance which is capable of flowing. b. A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external shearing force thereby capable of flowing. 8. What is a liquid? a. A liquid is a fluid which possesses a definite volume for a given mass independent of the shape of its container. In simple terms, liquid possesses definite mass and volume but no definite shape. 9. What is viscosity index? a. It is a number indicating the effect of a change in temperature on viscosity. 10. What is bulk modulus? a. It is the measure of the incompressibility of the fluid. The higher the bulk modulus, the less compressible or stiffer the fluid. Generally it is desirable to have the hydraulic fluid which has the minimum compressibility. 11. What is Oxidation stability?

a. It is defined as the ability of the liquid to resist reaction with oxygen or oxygen containing compounds. 12. What is flash point? a. It is the minimum temperature at which sufficient liquid is vaporized under specific conditions to create a mixture that will burn if ignited. 13. What is fire point? a. It is the minimum temperature at which sufficient vapour is continuously generated to sustain combustion. 14. Draw the symbol of an Oscillating motor. 15. Draw the symbol of 4/3-way valve. 16. Draw the symbol of adjustable temperature and pressure compensated flow control valve. 17. Draw ANSI symbols for the following hydraulic components. 18. Define Pascals law? The pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions. 19. Write the Bernoullis equation? Z1 + (v12 / 2g ) + P1/ w = z2 + (v22 / 2g ) + P2/ w 20. Write the Darcys equation HL = f (L / D)(V2 / 2g) PART B (16 marks) 1. What are the basic components that are required for a hydraulic system and also mention their functions? (16) 2. State and explain Pascals law? (8) 3. Compare and contrast the various basic methods of transmitting power? (16) 4. List the basic components of a pneumatic system and also give their functions. (16) 5. Discuss the factors to be considered in the selection of hydraulic fluids? (8) 6. List the basic components of a hydraulic system and also give their functions. (16) 7. Explain the various properties of hydraulic fluids. (16) 8. Explain any five types of valves along with their symbols (8) 9. List the essential components of a pneumatic circuit (8) 10. List the fundamental components of a standard hydraulic circuit used in machining applications. (8)

Unit 2 PART A 1. Define a Hydraulic pump? It is device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. 2. Give the classification of pumps? a. Positive displacement pumps i. Rotary pumps 1. Gear pumps 2. Vane pumps ii. Reciprocating pumps b. Non-positive displacement pumps i. Centrifugal pumps ii. Axial flow pumps iii. Radial flow pumps. 3. What is a positive displacement pump? a. It discharges fixewd quantity of fluid into the hydraulic system per revolution of pump per shaft rotation. 4. What is a centrifugal pump? a. It is used only for transporting fluid from one location to another location. 5. What is a vane pump? a. The vane pumps prevent the leakage which occurs between the small gaps of teeth and also between teeth and pump housing by using spring or hydraulically loaded vanes. 6. Define mechanical efficiency? a. It is the ratio between the theoretical power required to operate the pump to the actual power delivered to the pump. 7. Define cavitation in a pump. a. The formation, growth, and collapse of vapour filled cavities or bubbles in a flowing liquid due to fall in fluid pressure. 8. Define slip in a pump? a. Slip is the leakage which occurs between the discharge and suction sides of the pump through the pump clearances. 9. What is an actuator? They are devices which are used for converting hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. 10. What are the types of hydraulic actuators? a. Linear and rotary actuators. 11. What is a linear actuator? a. A linear actuator is a fkuid motor which generates linear motion. 12. What are the disadvantages of a single acting cylinder? Simple to operate, compact in size,. 13. What is a rotary actuator? a. It is a device which is used to convert hydraulic energy into rotary mechanical energy. 14. What is a tandem cylinder?

a. It is one in which two or more piston and rod combinations are assembled as a rigid unit with all the pistons mounted on a single rod. 15. What is meant by cylinder cushion? When the pressurized fluid is allowed to enter inside the cylinder, the piston accelerates and travels in the cylinder barrel. If the piston is allowed to accelerate till the end of the stroke, it will hit the end cap with a greater impact. To avoid this impact, the piston needs to decelerate at the end of travel. The arrangement made at the end caps to achieve the same is called cylinder cushion. 16. What is a limited rotary actuator? a. They provide an oscillating power output. In other words, they provide rotary output motion over a finite angle. Usually, the rotation of the shaft of these motors is 900, 180, or 270. 17. What is a radial piston pump? a. It is a pump which has a number of radial pistons in a cylinder block which revolves around a stationery eccentric cam. 18. What is a fixed displacement bent axis piston pump? Here the pumps are mounted in a fixed casing so that the swing angle cannot be adjusted. So the fixed displacement of the pump and hence the constant discharge of the fluid are achieved. 19. Define volumetric efficiency of a pump? a. It is the ratio between the actual flow rate produced by the pump and the theoretical flow rate that the pump should produce. 20. A gear pump has a 80 mm outside diameter and 1 55 mm inside diameter and a 25 mm width. If the actual pump flow at 1600 rpm and rated pressure is 95 lpm, what is the volumetric efficiency? PART B (16 marks) 1. Explain the construction and working of the following with a simple sketch for each: 1. Lobe pump 2. Gerotor pump 3. Screw pump. (16) 2. Discuss with a neat sketch, the working of a swash plate type axial piston pump.(8) 3. Explain the construction and working of a balanced vane pump with a neat sketch. Also comment on the expression for the output of the vane pump. (16) 4. With a neat sketch, explain the construction and operation of a double acting hydraulic actuator. Also derive an expression for the torque capacity of the cylinder. (16) 5. Explain the construction and working of a limited rotation hydraulic actuator with a neat sketch.(16) 6. A hydraulic motor has a displacement of 150 cm3 and operates with a pressure of 85 bars and a speed of 1800 rpm. If the actual flow rate consumed by the motor is 5 Lps and the actual torque delivered by the motor is 185 N-m, find 1) volumetric efficiency 2) Mechanical efficiency 3) overall efficiency and 4) kW power delivered by the motor. (16) 7. a) Explain the construction and working of a gear pump (8) b) How the capacity of a variable displacement pump is adjusted? Explain with a diagram (8)

Unit 3 PART A 1. What are hydraulic valves/ a. They are devices which are used to control pressure, flow direction, and flow rate in a hydraulic circuit. 2. What are the types of control valves based on their function in the hydraulic system/ a. Directional control valves, pressure control valves, and flow control valves. 3. What are the types of control valves based on their configuration or mode of operation? Poppet valves, Sliding spool valves, and rotary spool valves. 4. What is a directional control valve? They regulate the direction in which the fluid flows in a hydraulic circuit. 5. What is the function of a position valve? It is to control the introduction of the fluid to the lines of the system. 6. Draw the symbol of a 4/3 valve. 7. What are the various types of valve actuation methods? a. Manual actuation b. Mechanical actuation c. Electrical actuation d. Fluid actuation. 8. What are the classifications of position valves? a. Two way two position valve b. Three way two position valve. c. Four way two position valve. d. Four way three position valve. 9. What is a pressure control valve? a. They are devices used to control the fluid pressure in a system. 10. What is a shuttle valve? a. They are used when power is needed from more than one power source. 11. What is a sequence valve? a. They are used to control the fluid flow to ensure several operations in a particular order of priority in the system. 12. What is an accumulator? a. It is a pressure storage reservoir in which a non-compressible hydraulic fluid is retained under pressure from an external source. 13. What is a pressure intensifier? It is a device which converts a large volume low-pressure fluid supply into a proportionately small-volume high pressure fluid outlet. 13. What are the types of accumulators?

Weight-loaded (or dead weight) accumulators. Spring loaded accumulators Gas loaded accumulators. 14. What is a bladder type accumulator? a. It consists of a bag or bladder of synthetic material which is pre-charged with gas to a determined pressure. 15. Why is nitrogen gas preferred to most of gas-operated accumulators? a. Nitrogen is basically an inert and a non-poisonous gas. It does not support combustion or combine with other elements. 16. How does an accumulator function as a hydraulic shock absorber? a. In high pressure hydraulic systems, the sudden stoppage or deceleration of a hydraulic fluid flowing at high velocity in pipe lines can cause considerable damage to the piping. This hydraulic shock also known as water hammer may snap heavy pipes, loosen fittings and cause leaks. By installing an accumulator, this high pressure pulsations or hydraulic shocks can be suppressed. 17. Name the basic types of rotary actuators. Which will provide the maximum degree of rotation? 18. List the need of using an accumulator in a hydraulic circuit? 19. What is a ladder diagram? 20. What is an air-oil intensifier? PART B (16 MARKS) 1. a) Give any two accumulator circuits employing accumulator for different purposes?(8) b) A hydraulic cylinder is used or an industrial application. It has been decided to use an accumulator as a leakage compensator. Design a circuit to fulfill these requirements. (8) 2. Explain the following types of accumulator with neat sketches. a) Piston type accumulator (8) b) Bladder type accumulator.(8) 3. Draw and explain the circuits for the accumulator as a leakage compensator and a emergency power source. (16) 4. Explain the nature of a regenerative circuit by drawing its hydraulic circuit and ladder diagram. (16) 5. Explain the hydraulic circuits used for reciprocation of a cylinder with pressure switches and limit switches. (16) 6. Explain the pressure intensifier circuit in a punching press application. (16)

Unit 4 PART A (2 marks) 1. Define Pneumatics? a. The pneumatics may be defined as that branch of engineering science which deals with the study of the behaviour and application of compressed air. 2. Why is air used as the fluid medium in all pneumatic systems? a. Air is abundantly available, safe to use, cheaper in cost, easier maintenance and easier handling. 3. State Boyles law? a. If temperature remains constant, the pressure of a confined mass of gas will vary inversely with its volume. 4. What does staging mean? a. Staging means dividing the total pressure among two or more cylinders by allowing the outlet from one cylinder into the inlet of the next cylinder and so on. 5. How can you specify an air compressor? a. Outlet pressure of air that can be delivered by the compressor b. Capacity of volume of air that can be delivered by the compressor c. Compressor configuration and cylinder geometry. 6. What is the function of an air filter? It is to remove all foreign matter and allow dry clean air to flow without restriction to the regulator and then on to the lubricator. 7. What is the function of an air pressure regulator? a. It is to regulate the pressure of the incoming compressed air so as to achieve the desired air pressure at a steady condition. 8. What do you mean by FRL unit? The combination of filter, regulator, and lubricator is often labeled as FRL unit or service unit. . 9. What is the purpose of a quick exhaust valve? a. It is used to exhaust the cylinder air to the atmosphere quickly so as to increase the piston speed of cylinders. 10. What is the function of a pneumatic actuator? a. They are devices used to convert the pressure energy of air into mechanical energy to perform useful work. 11. What is the role of an air pressure regulator? a. It is used to supply a prescribed reduced outlet pressure in a pneumatic circuit and to maintain it at a constant value. 12. What is the use of a regenerative circuit? a. It is used to speed up the extending speed of the double acting cylinder. 13. What are the four important factors to be considered while designing a fluid power circuit? a. Safety of operation

b. Performance of desired function c. Efficiency of operation d. Cost. 14. What is meant by air-over oil system? a. The air-over-oil system was both air and oil to obtain the advantages of each medium. By the use of these two media, the quick action of air and the smooth high pressure action of oil can be blended. 15. Why are multi-stage compressors preferred over single stage compressors? a. When multi-stage compressors are used, the effective cooling can be implemented between stages. The effective cooling (i) reduces input power requirements and (ii) increases the efficiency of the compressor. 16. What is the purpose of fluid conditioners? a. It is to make the compressed air more acceptable and suitable fluid medium for the pneumatic system components as well as for operating personnel. 17. State Charles law. a. It states that pressure remaining constant, the volume of a given mass of gas will vary directly as its absolute temperature. 18. What is the role of a compressor in a pneumatic system? a. Compressors are used to compress and supply the required quantities of air. 19. Draw the graphic symbols for a FRL unit and a muffler. 20. Draw the graphic symbols for a filter strainer and a air compressor. PART B (16 marks) 1. a) Discuss the working principle of an air compressor (8) b) Discuss the functions of an FRL unit (8) 2. a) Explain the working of a pneumatic speed control circuit (8) b) What is time delay circuit? Discuss with an example (8) 3. What is a compressor? Explain the working principle of piston type compressor with a neat sketch. (16) 4. What is synchronizing? Explain the synchronizing circuit with suitable approaches. (16) 5. a) What is the importance of a pneumatic silencer? With a sketch, discuss the operation and construction of a muffler. (8) b) With a neat sketch, explain the purpose, construction, and operation of an air dryer. (8) 6. Draw a hydraulic circuit for the operation of a hydraulic press and explain. (16) 7. Explain a regenerative circuit with a suitable application (16) 8. With a neat diagram, explain the semi-automatic material handling pneumatic circuit. (16) 9. Explain with the help of a hydraulic circuit how the cylinder speed can be controlled by metering-out oil from the cylinder. (16) 10.a) With a neat sketch, explain the construction and operation of a piston type reciprocating compressor. Also bring out the advantages of employing it. (8)

b) Write a brief about compressor starting unloader control.










Unit 5 PART A (2 marks) What are the four important factors that should be considered while designing a fluid power circuit? a. Safety of operation b. Performance of desired function c. Efficiency of operation d. Cost. What is meant by hydraulic power pack? a. Hydraulic power pack consists of a pump, drive motor, mechanical couplings, oil reservoir, filters, coolers, and valves assembled as a single unit to supply pressurized fluid. b. It provides pressure, direction, and flow control functions within the basic package. Why is the load carrying capacity of the regenerative circuit small when the piston rod area is small? a. We know that Regenerative cylinder extending load carrying capacity Fload = P x A r So when the piston area (Ar) is small, the load carrying capacity of the regenerative cylinder will also be small. What is meant by synchronization of cylinders? a. It is the process of making cylinders to perform identical tasks at the same rate. Name the various methods by which synchronization of cylinders can be achieved? a. By using double-end cylinders connected in series b. By using mechanically linked pistons c. By using flow control valves, etc. What is the purpose of a fail safe circuit? a. It is designed to safe guard the operator, the machine, and the work-piece. b. It prevents any possible injury to the operator or damage to the machine and the work-piece. What is meant by bleed-off circuit control? a. The flow control valve is connected with its outlet port which is connected to the reservoir. The flow control valve controls flow to the cylinder by diverting an adjustable amount of pump flow to the reservoir. Since oil diverted to the cylinder does not have to flow through the flow control valve, this circuit avoids the need of dumping excess oil through the relied valve. Define the terms lap and null with respect to servo valves. a. Lap is the length relationship between the metering lands to the spool and the port openings in the sleeve or body. b. Null is the relational condition between the spool and valve port where the valve supplies no control flow at zero load pressure drop.

9. What do you mean by zero lap servo valve? a. It means that the edges of the spool lands are precisely made to line-up with the metering ports in the valve sleeve. 10. What are proportional control valves? a. They are infinite variable position valves; they also use a variable force direct current solenoid to control the output from the main spool. 11. What are servo valves? What is their purpose in a fluid power system? a. They are DC valves having infinitely variable positioning capability. b. They are used to control not only the direction of fluid flow but also the amount of flow. 12. Draw the graphic symbol of a four way servo valve. 13. Draw the graphic symbol of a proportional pressure relief valve. 14. What is fluidics? a. It is the technology which utilizes fluid flow phenomena in components and circuits to perform a wide variety of control functions. 15. State the Coanda effect. a. When a stream of fluid meets other stream, the effect is to change its direction of flow and effect is the fluid sticks to the wall. 16. What is a bistable flip-flop? a. It provides controlled assurance as to which of the two output ports will deliver the power stream. It is normally used as a memory device. 17. What is a mono-stable device? a. It is required to perform monostable function which is analogous to spring return function. In this device, when the control signal is removed, the device will switch back to the favoured output. 18. Give the symbol and truth table for fluidic OR/ NOR gate. 19. Give the symbol and truth table for the fluidic AND / NAND gate. 20. Draw the equivalent electrical and pneumatic symbols of AND gate function. PART B (16 marks) 1. a) What is Coanda effect? Explain with a diagram (4) b) Design a circuit with air pilot control of a double acting cylinder (6) c) Explain with a circuit diagram how control of an air motor is achieved. A flow control valve is used to adjust the speed of the motor (6) 2. Explain the hydro mechanical servo system with suitable application (16) 3. Explain the application of PLC usage in fluid power control (16) 4. a) Explain with a block diagram, the components present in a PLC and give their functions. (8) b) What is cascade control? Explain giving suitable example circuit.(8) 5. List out the various operating problems associated with pumps and valves and the corresponding possible causes and suitable remedy for each problem. (16)